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Sample records for anticholinesterase poisoning annual

  1. Electrical stimulation for physiologic measurement of neuromuscular function and respiratory support during anticholinesterase poisoning. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yodlowski, E.H.

    1983-10-01

    During the first year of this research contract, animal experiments have been conducted in cats to determine appropriate methods to be used to evaluate the effectiveness of transesophageal electrophrenic stimulation (TEST). Healthy adult cats were used in these experiments. All animals were measured by means of a cannula inserted into the femoral artery. This cannula was also used to draw arterial blood samples for measurements of arterial pH, pCO2 and pO2. A tracheostomy was performed and an endotracheal tube was inserted into the airway. The data obtained from these experiments will serve as baseline for future experiments which will evaluate electrophrenic stimulation during organophosphate poisoning. The results also indicate that a maximum diaphragm contractile force is not necessary to maintain normal air exchange. The results also indicate that in making measurements of ventilation and respiratory effort, maximum inspiratory force and diaphragm contractile force should not be made simultaneously.

  2. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  3. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  4. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  5. Anticholinesterase Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milatovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinesterase compounds, organophosphates (OPs and carbamates (CMs are commonly used for a variety of purposes in agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. They exert their toxicity in mammalian system primarily by virtue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition at the synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading into the signs of hypercholinergic preponderance. However, the mechanism(s involved in brain/muscle damage appear to be linked with alteration in antioxidant and the scavenging system leading to free radical-mediated injury. OPs and CMs cause excessive formation of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes, in vivo biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and of citrulline, a marker of NO/NOS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation. In addition, during the course of these excitatory processes and inhibition of AChE, a high rate of ATP consumption, coupled with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, compromise the cell's ability to maintain its energy levels and excessive amounts of ROS and RNS may be generated. Pretreatment with N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, in combination with atropine sulfate, provides significant protection against inhibition of AChE, increases of ROS/RNS, and depletion of high-energy phosphates induced by DFP/carbofuran. Similar antioxidative effects are observed with a spin trapping agent, phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN or chain breaking antioxidant vitamin E. This review describes the mechanisms involved in anticholinesterase-induced oxidative/nitrosative injury in target organs of OPs/CMs, and protection by various agents.

  6. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  7. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  8. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  18. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  3. Non-accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning-an unusual cause of profound unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng

    2010-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticide, and organophosphate intoxication can induce symptoms such as miosis, urination, diarrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, excitation of central nervous system, salivation, and consciousness disturbance (MUDDLES). Although accidental poisoning of children with drugs and chemicals is a common cause for consciousness disturbance in children, the possibility of deliberate poisoning is rarely considered. We report on a healthy 5-year 6-month-old boy with recurrent organophosphate intoxication. Reports of chlorpyrifos intoxication in children are quite rare. This case report demonstrates decision-making process and how to disclose deliberate chlorpyrifos poisoning of the toddler by the stepmother, another example of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. PMID:19763618

  4. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  5. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  6. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  7. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  8. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  9. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  10. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  11. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  12. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous form of mercury. It forms when bacteria react with mercury in water, soil, or plants. It has been used to preserve grain that ...

  13. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  14. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kok

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an atropin

  15. Is plasma β-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The β-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma β-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on β-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p 0.05). The plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p 0.05). Thus, plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma β-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning

  16. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  17. A marine sponge associated strain of Bacillus subtilis and other marine bacteria can produce anticholinesterase compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sony; Sree, Ayinampudi; Sethi, Dipti Priya; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh; Kakollu, Sudha; Chowdhury, Lipsa; Dash, Soumya Suchismita

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors or anticholinesterases reduce the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. The inhibitors have a significant pharmacological role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s etc. Although plants have been a significant source of these compounds, there are very few sporadic reports of microorganisms producing such inhibitors. Anticholinesterase activity in bacteria...

  18. Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antibacterial Activities of Jurinea consanguinea DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Öztürk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antibacterial activities of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Jurinea consanguinea DC. (Asteraceae. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these crude extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The methanol extract which possessed almost the same effect with the chloroform extract in b -carotene-linoleic acid system exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity than a standard compound, BHT, at 100 and 200 m g/mL concentrations. The petroleum ether extract showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the tested extracts. The methanol extract exhibited higher butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity than galantamine at all concentrations (94% inhibition at 200 m g/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the disc diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed moderate activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  19. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:26407107

  20. Lanolin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  2. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee poisoning is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for ... Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive ...

  3. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  4. Depilatory poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  5. Aftershave poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  6. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredient is: Calcium oxalate ... with a cold, wet cloth. Wash off any plant sap from the skin and eyes. ... weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  7. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  8. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  9. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G;

    2016-01-01

    function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...... or the duration of toxicity in high-risk exposures. There is disagreement in the literature regarding factors that define patients most likely to benefit from treatments that enhance lithium elimination, including specific plasma lithium concentration thresholds. In the case of extracorporeal treatments...

  10. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  11. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  12. Alkaloid profiling and anticholinesterase activity of South American Lycopodiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Eduardo Luis; Ortega, María Gabriela; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio; Apel, Miriam Anders; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Cabrera, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The alkaloid extracts of four Huperzia and one Lycopodiella species, from Brazilian habitats, were tested for their in vitro anticholinesterase activities. IC(50) values showed a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition for H. reflexa (0.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL), followed by H. quadrifariata (2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL), H. acerosa (5.5 ± 0.9 μg/mL), H. heterocarpon (25.6 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and L. cernua (42.6 ± 1.5 μg/mL). A lower inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was observed for all species with the exception of H. heterocarpon (8.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL), whose alkaloid extract presented a selectivity for pseudocholinesterase. Moreover, the chemical study of the bioactive extracts performed by GC-MS, revealed the presence of a number of Lycopodium alkaloids belonging to the lycopodane, flabellidane and cernuane groups. Surprisingly, the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors huperzines A and B were not detected in the extracts, suggesting that other alkaloids may be responsible for such an effect. PMID:22117191

  13. The Effects of Anticholinesterase Drugs on Bethanechol-İnduced Contractile Responses in Rat Ileum Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, anticholinesterase drugs are valuable as therapeutic agents when cholinergic activity decreased in cases such as glokom, myastenia gravis and postoperative period which induces atony in bladder and intestinal smooth muscles. In these conditions anticholinesterases are expected to increase the levels of acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, thus they can exhibit both muscarinic and nicotinic effects indirectly rather than constituting a direct effect on muscarinic receptors. But recently, it has been shown that anticholinesterase drugs may exhibit a dose-dependent antimuscarinic effect by interacting with muscarinic receptors directly. According to these results, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of anticholinesterases on bethanechol-induced contractile responses at ileum smooth muscle preparations. Our results show that none of the three anticholinesterases did cause any potentialization on contractile responses for bethanechol at their first three concentrations (p > 0,05; paired samples t test. But at their highest concentration such as 1000 M, neostigmine, edrophonium and piridostigmine attenuated the bethanechol induced contractile responses (p 0,05; paired samples t test. These results suggest that anticholinesterases do not have dual effects on bethanechol induced contractile responses in rat ileum smooth muscle preparations. Larger doses of anticholinesterases may evoke antimuscarinic effects on ileum smooth muscle contractions.

  14. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ciguatera poisoning, the poisonous ingredient is ciguatoxin. This is a poison made in small amounts by certain algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae ...

  17. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  18. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine in fish and crustacean species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Monserrat

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic characteristic (Km of cholinesterase from the crab Chasmagnathus granulata, the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the fish Odontesthes bonaeriensis were compared and correlated with the anticholinesterasic effect of eserine (physostigmine. For the crustaceans, the estimated Km values were about 5-8 times higher than that estimated for the fish (0.04 mM. In the crab and the shrimp, the concentration of eserine which inhibited 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50 was estimated as 5.33x10-4 and 4.33x10-4 mM, respectively. In both cases, it was significantly higher (P As caraterísticas cinéticas (Km de colinesterases do caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata, o camarão Farfantepenaeus paulensis e o peixe Odontesthes bonaeriensis foram comparadas e correlacionadas com os efeitos anticolinesterásicos da eserina (fisostigmina. Nos crustáceos, o valores estimados de Km foram aproximadamente 5-8 vezes maiores do que aquele estimado para a espécie de peixe (0.04 mM. No caranguejo e camarão, a concentração de eserina que inibiu 50% da atividade colinesterásica (CI50 foi estimada em 5.33x10-4 e 4.33x10-4 mM, respectivamente. Estes valores foram significativamente maiores (P < 0.05 que aquele estimado para as larvas de peixes (7.43x10-5 mM. Um valor de Km mais elevado poderia refletir uma menor afinidade da colinesterase pelo seu substrato natural, acetilcolina, ou análogos tais como inseticidas carbamatos e fosforados. Se a CI50 para eserina é considerada como um índice da susceptibilidade da enzima a inibição por inseticidas, logo a colinesterase de larvas de peixes poderiam ser uma ferramenta mais útil no monitoramento de inseticidas do que aquelas das espécies de crustáceos.

  19. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  20. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  2. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  3. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  4. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  5. Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...

  6. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  7. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  8. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  9. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  10. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vicinity. Keep your children informed, too. Remove any poisonous plants. Never eat wild plants, mushrooms, roots, or berries unless you very familiar with them. Teach children about the dangers ... substances are poisonous if taken in large doses. If you are ...

  11. [Poisoning in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritzi, K

    1986-01-01

    For clinical interests it is advisable to subdivide cases of swine poisoning in such as caused by food, drugs and environmental poisonings. This division gives pointers to aetiologic connections and special measures necessary for the clearing of the processes. With food poisoning mycotoxicoses play an evermore important role, whereas poisonings by trace elements are on the decrease. Sodium chloride poisoning often results primarily from insufficient water supply. With environmental poisonings carbon monoxide and cyanamide intoxication are presented. Poisonings caused by drugs are mainly the result of an overdose, of segregation in food or of non-licensed drugs. A relatively unknown swine poisoning by a drug against coccidiosis--licensed for poultry--is described. PMID:2943054

  12. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  13. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  14. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  15. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  16. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  17. An outbreak of suspected solanine poisoning in schoolboys: Examinations of criteria of solanine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M; Thompson, J C

    1979-04-01

    Seventy eight schoolboys became ill after eating potato at lunch on the second day of the autumn term. Seventeen of the boys required admission to hospital. The gastrointestinal, circulatory, neurological and dermatological findings and the results of laboratory investigations were in keeping with solanine poisoning. The illness affected the junior boys and all the monitors but no other senior boys or staff. This pattern was compatible with the consumption of a relatively small number of toxic potatoes believed to have come from a bag (A) left in the stores since the summer term. The amount of solanine in potato waste recovered after the meal was excessive as assessed by its anticholinesterase activity. The amount of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the flesh and peel of potatoes from a bag (B) known to have been left from the previous term was high. The anomalously narrow margin between the solanidine alkaloid content reported for normal and toxic potatoes might perhaps result from an excessive synthesis by the latter of additional, related steroids, such as sapogenins and saponins, which, by promoting gastrointestinal absorption or other means, might enhance the toxicity of solanidine alkaloid. PMID:504549

  18. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of Tripleurospermum disciforme and Dracocephalum multicaule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mandegary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, owing to medicinal plants as a candidate to obtain promising new medicinal agents, there is a renewed interest in the use of these natural sources for drug development. Objective: In the present study, we aimed to assess the anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and neuropotective effects of Tripleurospermum disciforme and Dracocephalum multicaule extracts. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of the plants was prepared by maceration method. Anticholinesterase effect of different concentrations of the plants was studied by colorimetric method and antioxidant activity was evaluated using diphenypicrylhydrazil (DPPH assay. Protective effect of the extracts against amyloid β (Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results: Both T. disciforme and D. multicaule extracts could inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE in a dose-dependent manner. The highest inhibition occurred at 5 μg/ml (71.18 ± 4.9 and 79.06 ± 3.1% inhibition respectively by T. disciforme and D. multicaule in comparison to tacrine (86.37 ± 3.24%. The greatest DPPH inhibition of T. disciforme and D. multicaule was shown at 800 μg/ml (89.04 ± 3.9 and 78.5 ± 3.7%, respectively. None of tested extracts induced protection against βA toxicity in PC12 cell. Conclusion: Although the results indicated anticholinesterase and antioxidant of the T. disciforme and D. multicaule, further specific studies and scientific validity are needed.

  19. Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Dalai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. Materials and Methods: In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Results: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. Conclusion: These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer′s disease.

  20. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  1. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  2. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  3. Anticholinesterase Therapy Worsening Head Drop and Limb Weakness Due to a Novel DOK7 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowska, Dominika; Ringel, Steven P; Winder, Thomas L; Liu, Jie; Liewluck, Teerin

    2015-12-01

    Dok-7 myasthenia is an autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome due to DOK7 mutations. Anticholinesterase therapy is ineffective and may worsen the weakness in patients with Dok-7 myasthenia or few other forms of congenital myasthenic syndromes. We describe a 31-year-old man previously diagnosed with seronegative myasthenia gravis. Repetitive stimulation of the right spinal accessory nerve showed 51% decrement. Needle electromyography revealed myopathic changes in clinically affected muscles. Muscle biopsy was normal. The patient was referred to us for worsening weakness after taking pyridostigmine. We searched for DOK7 mutations and identified compound heterozygous mutations of a common c.1124_1127dupTGCC mutation and a novel splice site mutation, c.772+2_+4delinsCCGGGCAGGCGGGCA. Discontinuation of pyridostigmine improved weakness. He further regained strength with oral albuterol therapy and decrement was reduced to 25%. Worsening of symptoms with anticholinesterase therapy in patients with "seronegative myasthenia gravis" should prompt clinicians to consider a possibility of congenital myasthenic syndromes to avoid unnecessary use of immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with Dok-7 myasthenia respond well to oral albuterol treatment. PMID:26583494

  4. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae, endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%, β-caryophyllene (15.29%, linalool (8.12% and β-elemene (4.26%. The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s diseases. The essential oil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essential oil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0% and modarate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7% inhibitory activity.

  7. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs

  8. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  9. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs. PMID:25714885

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  11. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause ... given through a vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous ...

  12. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  15. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  16. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  17. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  18. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  20. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  1. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  2. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... King St., Suite 510 Alexandria, VA 22314 Online http://www.aapcc.org/ Email not for emergency use. ... Poison Center" in the memo line. Donate online: http://bit.ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http:// ...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  4. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  5. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  6. Window cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  7. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  8. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 146. Freedman DO. Protection of ...

  9. Wart remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  10. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Luigi Milella

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  15. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  16. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  17. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  20. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  1. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  2. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often ... oils most often enter the skin rapidly. POISON IVY This is one of the most frequent causes ...

  3. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  5. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  6. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  7. Poisoning by Herbs and Plants: Rapid Toxidromic Classification and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers has continued to report approximately 50,000 telephone calls or 8% of incoming calls annually related to plant exposures, mostly in children. Although the frequency of plant ingestions in children is related to the presence of popular species in households, adolescents may experiment with hallucinogenic plants; and trekkers and foragers may misidentify poisonous plants as edible. Since plant exposures have continued at a constant rate, the objectives of this review were (1) to review the epidemiology of plant poisonings; and (2) to propose a rapid toxidromic classification system for highly toxic plant ingestions for field use by first responders in comparison to current classification systems. Internet search engines were queried to identify and select peer-reviewed articles on plant poisonings using the key words in order to classify plant poisonings into four specific toxidromes: cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal-hepatotoxic. A simple toxidromic classification system of plant poisonings may permit rapid diagnoses of highly toxic versus less toxic and nontoxic plant ingestions both in households and outdoors; direct earlier management of potentially serious poisonings; and reduce costly inpatient evaluations for inconsequential plant ingestions. The current textbook classification schemes for plant poisonings were complex in comparison to the rapid classification system; and were based on chemical nomenclatures and pharmacological effects, and not on clearly presenting toxidromes. Validation of the rapid toxidromic classification system as compared to existing chemical classification systems for plant poisonings will require future adoption and implementation of the toxidromic system by its intended users. PMID:26948561

  8. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. PMID:26434143

  9. Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Zeb, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris germanica var; florentina. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential of plant samples were investigated by Ellman's assay. Antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g, respectively. In AChE inhibition assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp and Ig.Cf fractions exhibited highest activity with IC50 values of < 0.1, 5.64 and 19 μg/mL, respectively. In BChE inhibitory assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp, Ig.Cf and Ig.Cr were most active with IC50 of < 0.1, < 0.1, 31 and 78 μg/mL, respectively. In DPPH assay, Ig.Fl and Ig.Cf exhibited highest inhibition of free radicals, 80.52% (IC50 = 9 μg/mL) and 78.30% (IC50 = 8 μg/mL), respectively. In ABTS assay Ig.Cr, Ig.Cf, Ig.Fl and Ig.Sp exhibited IC50 values of < 0.1, 2, 2 and 3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26166432

  10. Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Four Serratula Species from Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsen Tel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratula L. (Astareceae rich in ecdysteroid, phytoecdysteroids and flavonoids some have various biological activities including antibacterial and antitumor. The fatty acid profiles of four Serratula species were investigated by using GC and GC–MS techniques. Palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were found to be the main fatty acids. The unsaturation percentage was between 27.24-50.47%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using four complementary tests; namely, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating assays. The methanol extract of S. lasiocephala showed the highest activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH• scavenging and CUPRAC assays, while the hexane extract of S. radiata exhibited the best metal chelating activity. In addition, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The in vitro anticholinesterase activity of extracts were tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the key enzymes taking place in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Besides, the extracts were tested in vitro against tyrosinase enzyme which is associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Except the hexane extracts of S. radiata and S. lasiocephala, the extracts showed moderate inhibition against AChE and BChE, while the only hexane extract of S. erucifolia and methanol extract of S. radiata exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  11. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time. PMID:19928761

  12. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  13. Effects of certain muscarinic antagonists on the actions of anticholinesterases on cat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, R W; French, M C; Webb, S N

    1979-04-01

    1. The effects of some muscarinic antagonists, namely, N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidylmethyl-cyclopentylphenyl glycollate (PMCG), N-methyl-4-piperidyl-phenylcyclohexyl glycollate (PPCG, racemate and R and S enantiomers) and 4'-N-methyl-piperidyl-1-phenyl-cyclopentane carboxylate (G3063) on organophosphate (sarin, soman)- and carbamate (neostigmine)-induced twitch augmentation have been studied in cat soleus muscle. 2. The results of a preliminary study comparing the potency of sarin and soman in inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase activity of muscle in relation to the effect on the maximal twitch response indicated that there is not a simple relationship between degree of enzyme inhibition by these drugs and alteration of muscle function. 3. The muscarinic antagonists studied were capable of preventing or reversing sarin-, soman- or neostigmine-induced twitch augmentation. Doses sufficient to give complete protection from the effects of the anticholinesterase agents had little or no effect on the twitch response of normal muscle. 4. The protective action of these muscarinic antagonists is dose-dependent but independent of known antagonist actions at muscarinic receptors. 5. The effects of some local anaesthetics (lignocaine, prilocaine, cinchocaine, procaine) and other membrane stabilizers (quinine, ketamine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine) were compared with those of the muscarinic antagonists in an attempt to elucidate the mode of action of these acetylcholine antagonists. The evidence is insufficient to exclude the involvement of a membrane stabilizing action. PMID:435681

  14. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  16. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ... forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to concentrated cold wave lotion will cause much more damage than over-the-counter lotion.

  17. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  19. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  20. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (industrial poisoning

  1. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  2. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  3. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  4. STUDY OF FATAL POISONING IN A DISTRICT HOSPITAL OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is an emerging problem worldwide. According to WHO, 3 million acute poisoning cases with 2,20,000 deaths occur annually. Of these, 90% of fatal poisoning occurs in developing countries mainly among agricultural workers. It is estimated that more than 50,000 people die every year from toxic exposure in India. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the current trend of poisoning in a District of West Bengal. 2. To know the burden of pesticide poisoning in society. MATERIAL AND METHODS A hospital based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in a district hospital of West Bengal. Ethical clearance was taken from Ethics Committee. All the registered cases of poisoning in a district hospital during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected from medico-legal register and respective case sheets using pre-structured and validated questionnaire containing demographic and medico-legal aspects of poisoning for the period of 2 years (March 2014-March 2016. Data was analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics were reported as mean (SD for continuous variables and frequency (percentage for categorical variables. RESULT Total 7280 patients reported to casualty department over two years; 5.21% were reported to be the poisoning cases. Out of total 380 poisoning cases, 84 (22.10% patients died. Maximum poisoning cases were from rural area falling mainly in the age group of 21-30 and above 50 years. Organ phosphorus poisoning was noted in 46.42% of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS Based on the study findings, we could understand the trend of poisoning in the study area. It is very important to identify these changing trends in the study area, as it will be helpful for policy makers to equip health care institutions which can lead to better management of cases and reduction in the mortality related to poisoning

  5. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  8. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  9. Treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, E M; Freedman, F.

    1981-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic that is frequently used in Canada, and the occurrence of overdoses with this drug seems to be increasing. The most serious complication of acetaminophen overdose is hepatic failure. Because of pathophysiologic effects of acetaminophen poisoning and the mechanisms of its toxic effects are now better understood, a rational approach to treatment is possible. Several precursors of glutathione, acetylcysteine in particular, are effective in preventing liver damage if ...

  10. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  11. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  12. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  13. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  14. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  16. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  17. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF CHOLINESTERASES AND [3H]OXOTREMORINE-M BINDING IN HEART AND BRAIN OF ADULT AND AGING RATS TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ANTICHOLINESTERASES

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey N.

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides elicit toxicity via acetylcholinesterase inhibition, allowing acetylcholine accumulation and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Some OP insecticides bind to additional macromolecules including butyrylcholinesterase and cholinergic receptors. While neurotoxicity from OP anticholinesterases has been extensively studied, effects on cardiac function have received less attention. We compared the in vitro sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylch...

  18. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  19. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common means of self-poisoning in Europe and North America, often taken as an impulsive act of self-harm in young people. Mortality from paracetamol overdose is now about 0.4%, although without treatment, severe liver damage occurs in at least half of people with blood paracetamol levels above the UK standard treatment line.In adults, ingestion of less than 125 mg/kg is unlikely to lead to hepatotoxicity; even higher doses may be tolerated by children witho...

  20. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  1. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  2. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  3. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  4. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  5. Spatial and climatic patterns of the relative abundance of poisonous vs. non-poisonous plants across the Northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianshuang; Yang, Pengwan; Zhang, Xianzhou; Shen, Zhenxi; Yu, Chengqun

    2015-08-01

    It is the most serious challenge to promote degraded grassland recovery currently facing the developing Tibetan Autonomous Region. We conducted field surveys of 75 grazing sites between 2009 and 2012 across the Northern Tibetan Plateau and described the spatial and climatic patterns of the occurrence of poisonous plants. Our results showed lower ratios of species richness (SprRatio), coverage (CovRatio), and biomass (BioRatio) of non-poisonous vs. poisonous plants in the semi-arid alpine steppe zone, where the growing season precipitation (GSP) is between 250 and 350 mm; however, this result is in contrast to the relatively wetter meadow (GSP >350 mm) and much drier desert-steppe (GSP poisonous to poisonous species. The wide confidence bands at GSP <250 mm indicated that precipitation is not an effective indicator for predicting compositional changes in desert-steppe communities. When mean annual livestock grazing pressure was incorporated into the optimal GAMs, the model performance improved: the Akaike information criterion (AIC) decreased by 1.20 for SprRatio and 3.09 for BioRatio, and the deviance explained (R (2)) increased by 6.0% for SprRatio and 3.6% for BioRatio. Therefore, more detailed information on grazing disturbance (timing, frequency, and density) should be collected to disentangle the relative contribution of climate change and grazing activities to changes in community assembly and ecological functions of alpine grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26148691

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in...

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (˙NO and superoxide (O2˙− scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI. ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  9. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  10. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  11. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  12. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  13. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  14. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...

  15. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  16. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  17. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  18. Cost/benefit analysis of eliminating poison control in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the economics of power generation determines, to a large extent,a utility's choice of reactor systems, the cost of electricity from a spectral shift control (SSC) reactor is a crucial measure of the SSC reactor's competitiveness. Thus, a preliminary cost analysis is an important part of our overall assessment. The economic comparisons in this work focus on the cost differences between a standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the breeder/moderator controlled/burner light water reactor (BMB-LWR) design concept. The BMB-LWR is a typical large current design PWR with a minimum of changes. The BMB-LWR does not use any poison for reactivity control in the cycle length range of interest (1 to 2 yr) and uses soluble poison only for refueling purposes, to provide a sufficient additional negative reactivity margin to supplement the water displacement system. However, the water displacement system is very similar to the control rod system from a mechanical design point of view, differing mainly in the characteristics of the in-core control pins. Mixing both poison and displacer pins in the same core introduces added complexity, but not necessarily at a large cost impact; e.g., the advanced PWR has substantial water displacement control components, whereas the BMB-LWR primarily increases the displacer-to-poison ratio. The annual credits and penalties of replacing the standard PWR with the BMB-LWR concept are covered in the analysis

  19. Determinants of lethality from suicidal pesticide poisoning in metropolitan HsinChu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J J; Wang, J D; Wu, Y K

    1998-12-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a global health problem, especially in developing countries. Although Taiwan has quickly industrialized during the last several decades, pesticide use is still prevalent in the agricultural sector. We reviewed 187 consecutive hospitalized cases of the Provincial HsinChu Hospital from January 1989 through December 1995 to explore the determinants of acute pesticide poisoning in Metropolitan HsinChu. The annual incidence rate of acute pesticide poisoning was 3.2/100,000 with an overall fatality rate of 23% which was more severe than the rates found in developed countries. The major agents involved were organophosphates, and the major cause of poisoning was suicide. Alcohol abuse, history of major medical illnesses, and history of suicide were significantly associated with suicidal poisoning; quarrel was the immediate risk factor. Causes of poisoning (suicide vs non-suicide) and selection of the pesticides were major determinants of lethality. More stringent legislation and enforcement regarding the sale and distribution of extremely toxic pesticides are needed to reduce fatalities due to acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9830692

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  1. Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Piantadosi, Claude A; Thom, Stephen R; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice. PMID:23087025

  2. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. PMID:27258847

  3. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...

  5. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  6. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  7. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  8. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  9. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Çapan Konca; Zelal Kahramaner; Mehmet Boşnak; Halil Kocamaz

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a poisonous plant for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of its poisoning is supportive care. A 6-year-old girl who admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock was presented wi...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person. A......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...

  11. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  12. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  13. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  14. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  15. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  16. Most common poisonings and their management--data from Tbilisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobidze, T S; Gerzmava, O Kh; Areshidze, T Kh; Tsintsadze, M A; Dikhamindzhiia, O B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological aid and efficiency of preventive measures and methods in treatment of acute exogenous intoxications in hospitals in Tbilisi in 1990-2005. Structure of poisoning accidents in Tbilisi, its trends in last decade is analyzed and explained. The data were obtained in Georgian National Center for Disease Control and Medical statistics in Tbilisi. The study revealed that total number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning in Tbilisi exceeded the number of hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarction. In 1992-1994 Georgia was in severe social-economic crisis: the cases of acute poisoning increased and the number of hospitalizations had been reduced with concomitant longer hospital stay (in 1992--10.7 hospital days; in 1993-1994--13.7 hospital days), and higher mortality (in 1992--4%; in 1993--5.5%; 1994--5.2%). Low hospitalization rates in 1992-1994 should be explained by late patient referral to hospitals. Longer hospital stay was available due to free hospital care at that time. In 1995 with termination of free medical care number of hospitalized patients with acute intoxication raised annually; hospital stay shortened and mortality rate decreased. In 2003 mortality was reduced by 0.74% in Tbilisi. The prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication incidence was noticed. Therefore hospital stay decreases. High prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication was explained by the growth of alcohol consumption; lack of quality control of beverage production resulting in huge amount of unconditioned and counterfeit substances in the market, etc. As to poisonings due to medical substances 42% of cases were intoxications with anticonvulsants, sedative and psychotropic preparations; 17% with cardiovascular drugs; and 10% with narcotic substances. It was found, that poisoning incidence and their outcome significantly depend on social-economical conditions in Georgia. Measures to improve toxicology care in the

  17. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing keff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR keff markedly. The PWR keff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  18. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior...

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  1. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  2. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  3. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  4. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  5. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  6. The Cooking Effect on Two Edible Mushrooms in Anatolia: Fatty Acid Composition, Total Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking practices on the fatty acid and bioactivity of edible mushrooms; namely, Lactarius delicious and Ramaria flava, naturally growing in Anatolia were investigated. Each mushroom species was divided into two parts and one of the parts was baked. Both baked and unbaked materials were extracted with hexane and methanol, successively. The fatty acid contents of baked and unbaked extracts of both species were carried out by GC and GC-MS analytical techniques. In the unbaked extracts palmitic acid (9.7-14.43%, stearic acid (41.41-6.68%, oleic acid (25.94-47.12% and linoleic acid (22.85-9.78% were identified as major fatty acids, respectively. In the baked extracts, however, palmitic acid (7.92-19.12%, stearic acid (49.94-6.23%, oleic acid (18.07-45.13% and linoleic acid (23.36-9.25% were identified as major fatty acids, as well. The antioxidative effect of the extracts of baked and unbaked mushroom species was also determined by using four complimentary assays. In addition, the extracts and the major fatty acids were also evaluated for anticholinesterase activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s disease. The baked methanol extract of R. flava showed the highest activity in DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging and BChE assays, while the unbaked hexane extract of R. flava exhibited the best lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In conclusion, baking proved to have influence in nutritional values and bioactivity properties of L. delicious and R. flava. The nutrient concentration and bioactivities of L. delicious were decreased when baked; however, baked R. flava proved to have higher nutrient concentrations and higher bioactivities than unbaked samples.

  7. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is < 15 mg/L (83 μmol/L) (1D). Following the cessation of ECTR, patients should be closely monitored. Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred method of ECTR (1C). If intermittent...

  9. Drugs prescribed for self poisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, L F; Highley, M S

    1985-01-01

    Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs increased progressively with age and most patients took the same drugs in overdosage as they had been p...

  10. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  11. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  12. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  13. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  14. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  15. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  16. The Antimuscarinic Effects of Anticholinesterase Drugs on Electrical Field Stimulation-Induced Contractile Responses in Rat Gastric Fundus and Ileum Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasympathetic component of autonomic nervous system is known as involving in majority of intestinal smooth muscle contractions and motility. Acetylcholine can be released from parasympathetic nerve terminals by an excitation which is formed by a physiological or an electrical stimulation in order to elicit smooth muscle contractions. Anticholinesterase drugs are expected to increase the levels of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses via inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. In recent studies, it has been shown that anticholinesterase drugs may cause an antimuscarinic effect on the contrary of their usual effects such as amplifying of cholinergic transmission. In this study, we investigated the antimuscarinic effects of neostigmine, edrophonium and piridostigmine on gastric fundus and ileum smooth muscle preparations isolated from Wistar albino rats. The contactions were induced by using electrical field stimulation (EFS which is a direct stimulation technique. Both neostigmine and piridostigmine increased the E max values of contractile responses for EFS at their first three concentrations; but only the changes in gastric fundus strips has found significant as statistically. At their highest concentration such as 1000 M, both neostigmine and piridostigmine attenuated the EFS induced smooth muscle contractions and caused an antimuscarinic effect (p  0,05; paired samples Student’s t test. In contrast, edrophonium had no effect on EFS induced smooth muscle contractions, at none of its four concentrations as statistically. Our results suggest that larger doses of neostigmine and piridostigmine, but not edrophonium, may evoke antimuscarinic effects on intestinal smooth muscle contractions.

  17. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  18. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  19. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  20. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  1. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  2. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  3. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  4. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  5. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  7. Are Iranians aware of carbon monoxide poisoning: symptoms and its prevention strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is still a health problem all over the world. Informing users about symptoms and suggesting annual inspection of CO producing devices will result in CO poisoning reduction. The goal of this study was to evaluate awareness about CO poisoning symptoms and its prevention ways in Iranian population. In this study, a total of 700 patients' family members attended Imam Khomeni hospital were asked to enroll in the study. A structured questionnaire was used including demographic characteristics, devices which were used at home, awareness of CO poisoning symptoms, awareness of CO detectors, the last time that tubal patency of devices are checked, if it is helpful to open the window to fix gas leak and if surveying devices by an expert at the beginning of the cold season is recommended. A total of 635 participants completed questionnaires. The most used device was gas water heater followed by gas heater. Five hundred and nine reported that they are aware of CO poisoning symptoms (80.1%, 398 (62.6% stated that it is possible to detect CO leak and 566 (89.1% told CO detectors would be helpful for reduction of mortality from CO poisoning. Fifty percent of participants had not checked their devices since they have bought their devices. Five hundred and thirty-six (84.4% reported that opening window could help CO leak, and 596 (93.8% agreed that an expert checked their fuel-burning devices at the beginning of the winter. Iranian people are not aware of all CO poisoning symptoms. Developing a national strategy for CO surveillance and people education will be helpful.

  8. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  9. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  10. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  11. PARAQUAT POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat {PQ}, a herbicide available as 20% solution can cause lethal effects due to production of free radicals formed by the cyclic oxidation - reduction reactions of the compound with tissues resulting in multiorgan failure. Symptoms of PQ ingestion are usually do se - dependent, and intoxication can be categorized to mild, moderate, and fulminant. Most common symptoms being vomiting (100% followed by oral ulceration (59%, dysphagia (53% and dyspnea (41%. Diagnosis of PQ poisoning is usually made based on circumst antial evidences. PQ levels can be estimated and is of prognostic significance. Almost always PQ causes morbidty and mortality except in few cases where dose is inadequate. Here we present a case of 25 year old patient with PQ poisoning which resulted in o ral mucosal and upper gastrointestinal ulcerations which subsequently healed with antioxidants, antibiotics and local ap p lications of povidine iodine. As there were no respiratory symptoms cyclophosphamide or steroids was not used. Patient was discharged a fter 1 month of hospital admission with all parameters within normal limits. . In spite of advances in medical care, prompt treatment, and supportive care, mortality still remains high mainly due to multiorgan failure .

  12. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  13. Educational Needs of Nurses in Intensive Care Unit for Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadpour B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poisoned patients are at risk of impaired ventilation in many situations. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the impact of educational workshops on nurses' knowledge, confidence, and attitude in taking care of poisoned patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 60 nursing staff in the intensive care unit (ICU for poisoned patients in Imam Reza (p hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Data was gathered by a researcher-designed questionnaire. Studied scales included perceived importance and novelty of educational meeting, matching with professional and educational needs, illustration of practical and knowledge weaknesses and strength and finally satisfaction in holding regular workshops annually. Two, half day workshops were held and various items were taught with various methods. The knowledge of participants was assessed by pretests and post-tests consisting of 12 items related to workshop topics. The impact of these educational meetings was evaluated and the results were analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: According to the results, workshops improved awareness of nurses about their weakness and strength points, professional knowledge and their interest and attention; likewise all participants had the same opinion about a strong need to hold similar workshops more than once and preferably 2 to 3 times annually. Conclusion: It seems that short educational courses in small groups for reviewing the old data and recent findings in the context of critical care are useful in order to promote the knowledge and skills of ICU staff in taking care of poisoned patients

  14. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation

  15. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  16. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  17. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  18. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone was...... compared with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  19. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  20. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  1. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms...

  2. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  3. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  4. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the role of alcohol in injuries and deaths. Doctors, nurses, and other providers can Screen all adult patients ... lifethreatening signs of alcohol poisoning. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider if you think ...

  6. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  7. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  8. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158490.html More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods: Study Parents of young kids should not ... are getting their hands and mouths on colorful detergent pods, with serious and sometimes fatal consequences, a ...

  9. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning English 鉛毒 - 無形的禍害 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Lead Exposure during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding English Raug Lead thaum Cev Xeeb ...

  10. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  11. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  12. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver sl...

  13. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  14. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  15. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  17. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  18. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  19. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  20. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  1. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkova-Saeva J.; Atanasov P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves), Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley), Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides...

  2. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Ma; Ronghui Gu; Li Tang; Ze-E Chen; Rong Di; Chunlin Long

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constit...

  3. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  4. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Bavunoğlu; Musa Balta; Eda Tanrıkulu; Zeynep Türkmen; İbrahim İkizceli

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. To...

  5. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  6. An unusual presentation of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    TURMEN, Suha; ERYİĞİT, Umut; SAHİN, Aynur; MENTESE, Seda; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a substance possessing high toxicity even in small quantities. It may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, blindness and death. Methanol poisoning generally takes place as result of oral ingestion, but may rarely occur through inhalation or transdermally. Persons may be exposed to methanol because of illegal alcohol beverage producers or alternative medicine providers. A 55-year-old male with methanol poisoning as a result of rubbing a self-prepared mixture of methylated spirit and a...

  7. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  8. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  9. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  10. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  11. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  12. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  13. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  14. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  15. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin. PMID:24466710

  16. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  17. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  18. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  19. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  20. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  1. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  2. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  3. Animal poisonings in Belgium: a review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...

  4. Acute poisoning in northern Vietnam: epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Tran Hung

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is a major health problem in northern Vietnam. The aims of these studies were to improve prevention, differential diagnosis and treatment of this threat to the public. A hospital-based retrospective study of poisoning emergencies admitted to the first Poison Control Center (PCC) in Vietnam during the years 1999 and 2003 (Paper I) revealed that a vast majority of the poisoning emergencies occurred at home. Pesticides, hypnotic pharmaceuticals and heroin were among t...

  5. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Davut Akın; Yekta Tüzün; Timuçin Çil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majori...

  6. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  7. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carolyn B; Meyer, Joseph S; Francisco, Alex B; Holder, Jennifer; Verdonck, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides) on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix), common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and red kite (Milvus milvus). We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species) and poisons (4-46% of mortality) reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe), stable for buzzard (in Germany), and increasing for red kite (in Wales). Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%). The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently feed on

  8. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  9. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  10. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hurley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:378-381.

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement......BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  12. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  13. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  16. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-6222 Filed 3-18-10...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings...

  17. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  18. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  19. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  20. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  1. Phytochemical profile and ABTS cation radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and anticholinesterase activities of endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical compositions and biological activities of an endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis. Methods: Essential oil and fatty acid composition were determined by GC/MS analysis. ABTS cation radical decolourisation and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were carried out to indicate the antioxidant activity. The anticholinesterase potential of the extracts were determined by Ellman method. Results: The major compounds in the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic (36.0% and linoleic acids (14.3%. The major components of essential oil were 1-hexacosanol (26.7%, germacrene-D (9.3% and caryophyllene oxide (9.3%. The water extract indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, at 100 µg/ mL. The acetone extract showed 71.58 and 44.71% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The water and acetone extracts of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica can be investigated in terms of both phytochemical and biological aspects to find natural active compounds.

  2. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  3. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    K L Ong; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  4. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  5. Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo J; Lessing, Dries; Rösemann, Magda; van Wilpe, Erna; Williams, June H

    2014-09-01

    Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as "cocklebur," rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS. PMID:25012081

  6. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  7. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  8. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  9. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  10. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  12. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  13. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  14. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, A; M. Lotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients afte...

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Díaz Mesa; Eddy Pereira Valdés; Alba Enseñat Álvarez; Carlos Alberto Rodríguez Armada

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc). It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes), and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance). It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most impo...

  16. Meningism following Salmonella virchow food poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six patients were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella virchow infection during an outbreak of food poisoning in Essex in 1984. Out of 12 patients with evidence of bloodstream invasion, one third presented primarily with meningism and attention is drawn to this unusual clinical picture.

  17. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  19. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  20. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  1. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  2. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  3. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  4. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Bavunoğlu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. Toxicologic analysis was made and atropine treatment begun in the emergency room, and the patient was followed up for 10 days at the intensive care unit (ICU without intubation. After the muscarinic symptoms improved, atropine treatment was terminated. The patient was discharged from the ICU and followed up in the service because of continual hypoxia. At the service follow-up, intermediated syndrome manifested as paralysis and respiratory distress. Hence the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was begun at the ICU. After the treatment, she was discharged without any sequel. In unintentional organophosphate poisoning cases, diagnosis and the treatment can be delayed because it is rare in large cities, so that the patient and their relatives are not aware of the poisoning.

  5. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  6. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  7. Arrow poisons in south Asia. Part 1. Arrow poisons in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G; Mazars, G

    1984-10-01

    The use of arrow poisons in ancient India is discussed. While it is possible that Mesolithic hunting communities may have applied poison to their arrows, passages in the Rg Veda and Atharva Veda indicate its use in warfare. The meaning of the word -ala, used in the Rg Veda to denote the poison smeared on the arrowheads, is examined; but the available evidence, while almost certainly excluding a mineral (arsenical) source, does not allow a conclusion to be drawn between an animal and/or plant origin. Certain hymns in the Atharva Veda point to aconite tubers as one source. Later Sanskrit (and Buddhist) literature shows that poisoned arrows continued to be used and that a second source of poison was (putrefying) snakes--a source confirmed by an account in the classical literature of Alexander the Great's campaign in western India. Detailed descriptions of the symptoms and methods of treatment of wounds caused by poisoned arrows are to be found in the Sanskrit medical literature. PMID:6394907

  8. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

  11. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. PMID:25558876

  12. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  13. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  14. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  15. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  16. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  17. A Clinical Study of aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Gupta,Annil Mahajan,Ajay Gupta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thc present prospectiYe study 01'56 cases ofAlwniniwn Phosphide (ALP poisoning in Gov!. MedicalCollcge Hospital Jammu. found out the prevalence of Deliberate self-poisoning self (DSP andaccidental ingestion in young population in age group of 16-30 years. Male-female ratio ",as 1.03: 1.00;ha' ing marital discord and family quarrels as prominent predisposing factors. The majority of patientshad gastrointestinal (GIT symptoms (73.2%, cardiac arrthymias (62.5% and shock (53.3%. Thccommoncst clectrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities were tachycardia (96%, atrial fibrillation(58% and venticular-ectopic (VE beats (59%. The management was supportive in the fonn ofstomach wash, intra"enous (IN fluids. dopamine, hydrocortisone, sodabicarbonate and assisted"entilation in intensiYe care unit (lCU setting

  18. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  19. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  20. A literature study on lacquer poison

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Min, Lee; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Sung-Mo, Choi; Tae-Hee, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, ...

  1. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  2. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  3. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  4. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  5. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  6. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi GA; Astaraki P; Mohtashami AZ; Ahadi M

    2015-01-01

    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and des...

  7. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Čanović Predrag; Nešić Ljiljana; Gajović Olgica; Mijailović Željko

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes). Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30) patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent v...

  8. Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Stud...

  9. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  10. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION POISONING PATIENTS IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Yeşil; Haldun Akoğlu; Özge Onur; Özlem Güneysel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Purpose of this study was to determine the clinical properties and demographics of the patients admitting to the emergency department with intoxication.Patient and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with poisoning patients admitted to our ED 1st of June 2005 and 31st of December 2006. Data regarding the age, sex, reason for the intoxication, and presence of psychiatric evaluation were obtained from the patient files.Results: 147 intoxication was admitted to ED. Mean time...

  11. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  12. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  13. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  14. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  15. [Poisoning by spiders of Loxosceles genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Lloveras, Susana C; Orduna, Tomás A

    2002-01-01

    Despite the great number of spiders in the world, only a small group of them is capable of producing death in humans. In Argentina, there are only three of the four genera of spiders considered of high risk to humans: Latrodectus is present in rural areas, Phoneutria is restricted to small regions while Loxosceles is distributed throughout the country. Accidents by Loxosceles represent around 4% of the total number produced by venomous animals in Argentina. The bite is accidental and may produce considerable local necrosis with scar formation and ulcers of slow and difficult healing that may require surgical repair. Some bitten people may suffer from intravascular hemolysis, disseminated coagulation and acute renal insufficiency leading to death. Despite the great number of studies performed on Loxosceles venoms, at present, the physiopathological course of poisoning is not clear and there is not common criteria for its treatment. In this review, biological and epidemiological data of this spider are described as well as the venom composition and the possible participation of its components in the poisoning. These data provide biological and biochemical tools to understand the course of poisoning and to have better criteria for the treatment and prevention of these accidents and their complications. PMID:11965857

  16. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  17. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  18. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  19. Use of erbium as burnable poison for VVER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems related to use of Erbium as burnable poison for VVER are discussed. Comparison is made between neutronics characteristics of Uranium-Gadolinium and Uranium-Erbium fuel cycles. The study shows that use of Erbium as burnable poison allows decreasing the peaking factor in the core. Meanwhile residual Erbium at the end of the fuel cycle makes it necessary to increase fuel enrichment. There is made the conclusion of prospects of using Erbium as burnable poison for VVER. (orig.)

  20. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  1. Ivory poachers and poison : drivers of Africa's declining vulture populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ogada, Darcy; Botha, André; Shaw, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Four species of African vultures have been recategorized as Critically Endangered, and two as Endangered, on the IUCN Red List. Their declining status is attributed partly to the impacts of widespread poisoning. Prior to 2012 poisoning of vultures was mostly associated with illegal predator control by livestock farmers, in which vultures were typically unintended victims. More recently, ivory poachers have been using poisons to kill elephants Loxodonta africana or to contaminate their carcass...

  2. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  3. Successful treatment of polymedicamentous poisoning with metoprolol, diltiazem and cilazapril

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Milan R.; Miletić Goran M.; Radovanović Mirjana S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive effects is an urgent condition in medicine which is associated with high mortality rate regardless of modern therapeutic methods. Accidental or intentional poisoning whit these drugs produces heart activity depression and cardiovascular collapse as consequences. Current therapy for severe poisoning caused by beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers includes both unspecific and specific antidote therapy whit glucagon, as well as a...

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  5. Poison Pills : A management-shareholder benefits comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xin; Alija, Teuta; Ochoche, Owoicho

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem: The problem of this thesis involves the controversy that the implementation of poison pills generates. The conflict amongst various stakeholders that are affected directly or indirectly by the implementation of the poison pill also contributes significantly to the problem of this thesis. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and compare the benefits of the poison pill adoption on shareholder and management interests. We also seek to evaluate arguments for and...

  6. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Nore Anne K; Bjornaas Mari A; Hovda Knut E; Heyerdahl Fridtjof; Figueiredo Jose CP; Ekeberg Oivind; Jacobsen Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. ...

  7. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  9. Accidental plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncić, N; Visković, I; Perić, R; Dirlić, A; Vitezić, D; Cuculić, D

    2001-12-01

    Colchicine poisoning is a rare but serious and potentially fatal event, which results from food poisoning or overdose with drugs containing colchicine, with no currently available antidote. We report two cases of plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, in which the patients had identical initial symptoms but developed extremely different clinical courses. One patient recovered after only moderate gastroenteritis and liver injury, whereas the other died of rapid progressive multiple organ failure 52 h after the plant ingestion. We recommend that all patients suspected of colchicine intoxication due to its unpredictable outcome should be managed according to the principles of intensive care, irrespective of the actual degree of poisoning. PMID:11740853

  10. Development of poison injection code-COPJET for high pressure liquid poison injection in pressure tube type heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting poison jet length with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for poison jet length prediction of advanced vertical pressure type reactor. (author)

  11. Common plant toxicology: a comparison of national and southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Dan D

    2011-07-15

    Data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Cincinnati-based Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. Approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4.3 million annual calls to the AAPCC centers involved plants, with a higher fraction (4.5%) for pediatric exposures. Nearly 70% of plant exposures occurred in children under six. Only 8% of cases required treatment in a health-care facility, and only 0.1% (in 2008) were considered severe outcomes. The most prominent groups of plants involved in exposures are those containing oxalates, and the most common symptom is gastroenteritis. The top 12 identified plants (in descending order) nationally were Spathiphyllum species (peace lilly), Philodendron species (philodendron), Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinssettia), Ilex species (holly), Phytolacca americana (pokeweed), Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), Capsicum (pepper), Ficus (rubber tree, weeping fig), Crassula argentea (jade plant), Diffenbachia (dumb cane), Epipremnum areum (pothos) and Schlumbergera bridesii (Christmas cactus). Broad overlaps between the DPIC and the AAPCC incidence data were noted, with essentially the same plant species in each dataset. The nature of the various toxins, the symptomatology and potential treatments are discussed for the highest ranking plant species. PMID:21034756

  12. Common plant toxicology: A comparison of national and Southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Cincinnati-based Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. Approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4.3 million annual calls to the AAPCC centers involved plants, with a higher fraction (4.5%) for pediatric exposures. Nearly 70% of plant exposures occurred in children under six. Only 8% of cases required treatment in a health-care facility, and only 0.1% (in 2008) were considered severe outcomes. The most prominent groups of plants involved in exposures are those containing oxalates, and the most common symptom is gastroenteritis. The top 12 identified plants (in descending order) nationally were Spathiphyllum species (peace lilly), Philodendron species (philodendron), Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinssettia), Ilex species (holly), Phytolacca americana (pokeweed), Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), Capsicum (pepper), Ficus (rubber tree, weeping fig), Crassula argentea (jade plant), Diffenbachia (dumb cane), Epipremnum areum (pothos) and Schlumbergera bridesii (Christmas cactus). Broad overlaps between the DPIC and the AAPCC incidence data were noted, with essentially the same plant species in each dataset. The nature of the various toxins, the symptomatology and potential treatments are discussed for the highest ranking plant species.

  13. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  14. The Good and the Bad of Poisonous Plants: an Introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D. Welch; Panter, Kip E.; Gardner, Dale R.; Stegelmeier, Bryan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, ...

  15. A tale of two systems: poisoning management in Iran and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Mehrpour; Nasim Zamani; Jeffrey Brent; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-01-01

    Poisoning morbidity and mortality is high in the developing world. Systems for care of poisoned patients differ markedly between countries. In this paper a comparison of two very different systems for the care of poisoned patients, is presented. Specifically, the role of poison centers and poison treatment centers in the US and Iran are contrasted. A systematic literature search was undertaken utilizing the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and the keywords “poison centers”, “treatment” “Ira...

  16. Practice Trends in the Use of Extracorporeal Treatments for Poisoning in Four Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Mowry, James B; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Yarema, Mark; Thompson, Margaret; Murphy, Nancy; Thompson, John; Purssell, Roy; Hoffman, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    poisonings in four countries. A retrospective study of national poison center databases from the United States, Denmark, United Kingdom, and five regional databases within Canada was performed. All cases of patients receiving an ECTR were included. ECTR cases were totalled annually and reported as annual...... rates per 100,000 exposures with stratification per types of ECTR and toxins. The data collection varied by countries. United States, 1985-2014; United Kingdom, 2011-2013; Denmark, 2005-2014, and regions of Canada as follows: Alberta, 1991-2015; Saskatchewan, 2001-2015; Nova Scotia-PEI, 2006......-2015; Quebec, 2008-2014; Ontario-Manitoba, 2009-2015; British Columbia, 2012-2015. During the study period, the total number ofECTRs and rates per 100,000 exposures, respectively, were: United States, 40,258 and 65.7; United Kingdom, 343 and 232.6; Denmark, 616 and 305.5; Canada, 2709 and 177.5; case rates...

  17. An updated checklist of poisonous ifshes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya

    2015-01-01

    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i) Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii) Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii) Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eelAnguilla anguillaand European congerConger congermight also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  18. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  19. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

  20. Of Poisons and Antidotes in Polypropylene Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Busico, Vincenzo; Budzelaar, Peter H M; Vittoria, Antonio; Cipullo, Roberta

    2016-07-18

    Quenched-flow studies of MgCl2 -supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts were combined for the first time with (13) C NMR fingerprinting of the nascent polymer and conclusively proved that, depending on the catalyst formulation, propene polymerization can be slowed down significantly by the occurrence of the few regiodefects (2,1 monomer insertions), changing active sites into dormant sites. Catalysts modified with ethylbenzoate show little dormancy. The more industrially relevant phthalate based catalysts, instead, are highly dormant and require the presence of H2 to counteract the deleterious effect of this self-poisoning on productivity and stereoselectivity. PMID:27243600

  1. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  2. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  3. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  4. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  5. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  6. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S;

    2012-01-01

    documents were submitted to the workgroup with a list of statements for vote (general statement, indications, timing, ECTR choice). A modified Delphi method with two voting rounds was used, between which deliberation was required. Each statement was voted on a Likert scale (1-9) to establish the strength of...... ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order to...

  7. Severity rating scales for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, W R

    1993-06-01

    Severity of ciguatera fish poisoning is often quite variable. Two symptom check list rating scales were developed for quantifying illness severity and for selectively monitoring response to therapy in patients with chronic toxicity. Content validity was ascertained, and internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by means of the Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.9475). It was concluded that these instruments were valid and reliable, and that they conveniently and accurately recorded illness severity and treatment efficacy. They should prove useful in clinical settings and epidemiologic investigations. PMID:8342175

  8. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-6990 Filed 3-20-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  9. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific characteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poisoning Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data

  10. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-7057... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  11. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...

  12. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.; Crawford, R

    1996-01-01

    Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

  13. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çiftçi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

  14. Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applica

  15. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study...

  16. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  17. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  18. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  19. ANALYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING, AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high. The present study was aimed to know the pattern and outcome of the OP poisoning. METHODOLOGY: A record based retrospective study from January 2013 - December 2013 was Conducted in a tertiary care hospital and data regarding age, gender, domicile, type of poison, manner of poisoning, seasonal trends, marital status, motive behind poisoning , socio - economic status and outcome was collected in a pre - structured Performa. All data were documented, analyzed and interpreted as per the laid down protocol. RESULTS : out of total 1575 cases of OP compound poisoning, 71.73% (1130 were male, 28.27% (445 were female, 34.6% were in the age group 21 - 30 years, 70.95% were of low socio - economic status, Occupation wise agricultural workers were on top of the list (70.07%, The commonest (93.78% motive behind poisoning was suicidal in both males and females, Financial problem was one of the commonest (51.22% reasons of poisoning. The mortality rate in our study was 13.47%. CONCLUSION : Y oung and adult males of Low socio - economic class, rural, both literate and illiterate agriculturists commonly abuse this substance to commit suicide

  20. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific char acteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poison ing Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data.

  1. Symmetrical Femoral Neuropathy and Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hua Kuo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although carbon monoxide (CO is a common cause of morbidity due to poisoning,peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning has rarely been reported. Furthermore, rhabdomyolysiscaused of CO poisoning is also uncommon. The report focuses on a patient withsymmetrical femoral neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with CO poisoning.A 32-year-old male was admitted to hospital in a deep coma following CO poisoning.On admission, rhabdomylosis was also identified (total creatinine phosphokinase, 19662IU/L; CK-MB, 272 IU/L. After receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the patient regained consciousness;however, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were still weak in accordanceto the manual muscle test. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performedand did not reveal any abnormal lesions. Nerve conduction examination and electromyographyresults indicated symmetrical femoral neuropathy. After taking the rehabilitation programfor peripheral and central nervous system lesions, the patient achieved functionalimprovement in ambulation, endurance and balance.

  2. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to...... occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  3. Selected case histories and epidemiologic examples of human mercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstner, H.B.; Huff, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical aspects of mercury poisoning are described for elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. Critical targets of poisoning by elemental mercury are the lungs and the central nervous system. A case of acute pulmonary injury and a case of chronic brain injury are described. The effects of inorganic mercury compounds are chiefly injuries to the alimentary canal and kidneys. Two cases of acute intoxication from these compounds are described. An epidemiologic study on Africans suffering from the nephrotic syndrome showed that aminomercuric chloride was the causative agent. Organic mercury compounds are discussed with regard to the following: individual cases of the methylmercury syndrome in adults; individual cases of prenatal methylmercury intoxication; epidemic outbreaks of methylmercury poisoning; epidemiology of methylmercury poisoning through dressed seed grain; and epidemic outbreaks of poisonings by organomercurials other than methylmercury. (HLW)

  4. An analysis of poisoning deaths in Manipal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Virendra; Bastia, Binay Kumar; Arun, Mohanram

    2004-08-01

    To determine the various factors involved in poisoning deaths, a 10-y retrospective review of 335 cases were carried out. There was an increasing trend in number of poisoning deaths from 1993-94 to 1999-2000, followed by a decline trend the last 2 y (2001-02). Ninety-one percent of the deaths were due to self-poisoning, with 77.6% of the fatalities due to insecticide consumption. Most cases occurred during winter and in the victim's rural home. Amongst all the poisoning deaths, 249 were males and 86 were females, most in the of 20-29 y age group. Suggestions have been made for the prevention of insecticide poisoning. PMID:15303397

  5. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut Akın

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majority of the patients (75% were in 15-25 years of ages. 85% of acute poisonings were self-inflicted. Medical drugs overdose were the major cause (62.5% of intoxication followed by agricultural chemicals (35%. The most frequently involved medicinal drugs were psychiatric drugs (20% and paracetamol (17.5%. There was a high rate of suicides attemp in groups of young singles, females, crowded families, patients with low education status, and patient living in cities.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  7. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi GA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. Keywords: N-acetylcysteine, overdose, acetaminophen poisoning, medication error

  8. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  9. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K Boorugu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [ 3 H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca 2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca 2+ influx and induction of internal Ca 2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  10. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  11. Lead poisoning and brain cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

  12. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  13. Methadone Related Poisoning on the Rise in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Soltaninejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iran, methadone has been used for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT as well as analgesic treatment in pain clinics. Recently, there are some reports regarding accidental and intentional methadone poisonings and deaths. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of methadone poisonings and deaths during a 10-year period in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study over 2000 to 2010. Patients with a documented methadone poisoning who were admitted in Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center in Tehran, Iran were identified and included in the study. The data including patients’ age, gender, ingested dose, co-ingestants, intention of ingestion and outcome were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: During the study period, 1426 cases of methadone poisoning were recorded, of which, 1041 cases (73% were men. Thirty-six cases (2.5% died. Mean age of the patients was 29.9 ± 17 years. In 476 cases, the intention of poisoning could not be determined, and in the remaining, the intention was misuse (n = 273, 28.7%, suicide (n = 254, 26.7%, accidental (n = 245, 25.8% and abuse (n = 178, 18.8%. Mean of the ingested dose of methadone was 120.6 ± 306.8 mg. The incidence of acute methadone poisoning per one million population of Tehran was 0.43 in 2000 that rose to 37.62 in 2010. Conclusion: The results indicate that methadone poisoning and deaths have increased in Tehran. MMT clinics should be strictly run according to the national guideline to prevent methadone poisoning. With regard to high frequency of poly-drug use in methadone poisoning, it seems important to warn health care providers against prescription of other drugs with methadone. 

  14. Experience with soluble neutron poisons for criticality control at ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble neutron poisons assure criticality control in two of the headend fuel reprocessing systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Soluble poisons have been used successfully since 1964 and will be employed in the projected new headend processes. The use of soluble poisons (1) greatly increases the process output (2) allows versatility in the size of fuel assemblies processed and (3) allows the practical reprocessing of some fuels. The safety limit for all fluids entering the U-Zr alloy dissolver is 3.6 g/liter boron. To allow for possible deviations in the measurement systems and drift between analytical sampling periods, the standard practice is to use 3.85 g/liter boron as the lower limit. This dissolver has had 4000 successful hours of operation using soluble poisons. The electrolytic dissolution process depends on soluble gadolinium for criticality safety. This system is used to process high enriched uranium clad in stainless steel. Electrolytic dissolution takes advantage of the anodic corrosion that occurs when a large electrical current is passed through the fuel elements in a corrosive environment. Three control methods are used on each headend system. First, the poison is mixed according to standard operating procedures and the measurements are affirmed by the operator's supervisor. Second, the poisoned solution is stirred, sampled, analyzed, and the analysis reported while still in the mix tank. Finally, a Nuclear Poison Detection System (NPDS) must show an acceptable poison concentration before the solution can be transferred. The major disadvantage of using soluble poisons is the need for very sophisticated control systems and procedures, which require extensive checkout. The need for a poisoned primary heating and cooling system means a secondary system is needed as well. Experience has shown, however, that production enhancement more than makes up for the problems

  15. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  16. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  17. PROFILE OF POISONING CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karikalan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poisoning is an important public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Knowledge of general pattern of poisoning in a particular region will help in early diagnosis and treatment of cases, thus decreasing the rate of mortality and morbidity. Information available in our locality with regard to acute poisoning is limited. The present study was carried out with the objective to investigate the pattern of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all acute poisoning cases admitted to the emergency department of Karpagam Faculty of Medical Sciences and Research from April 2003 to March 2004 was done to study the pattern of poisoning. Data regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, religion, locality, route of exposure, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, name of poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization and outcome were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: All reported cases were found to be suicidal poisoning. Majority of cases were in the age group of 11 – 20 years. Females (112 cases, 70% outnumbered males (48 cases, 30%. Students attempted to commit suicide much commoner than others followed by house wives and daily wage laborers. The commonest poison consumed was cow dung powder. The mortality rate was higher among those consumed rat killer poison (37.5%. CONCLUSION: This study adds information to the existing data which may help to develop prevention strategies. Health education to adolescents at school and college level about poisoning, regular counseling program for all high school children either by an in house trained faculty or a child psychologist and early detection of risk taking behavior in adolescents may to some extent prevent deliberate self-harm in teenagers. Ban on cow dung powder sales in grocery shops should be followed by district

  18. Estonian Experience on Establishment of a Modern National Poison Information Centre: One-year Profile of Phone Calls in 2012

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    Mare Oder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initiating a National Poisoning Information Centre (PIC in Estonia took about 12 years of challenging work on research, training and attracting governmental support and funding. In this study we described the establishment process and the profile of phone calls in the first year which the PIC started to be available full time (24h/day 7days/week.  Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study. Relevant documents from 2000-2012 were reviewed. The documents were categorized into 5 main issues against establishment of PIC. Data of all inquiries related to toxic agent exposures regarding patient’s demographic, intention of poisoning and type of toxic substances in 2012 were collected. The data were reported with frequency and percentage. Results: During establishment process, 386 documents including governmental regulations and contracts, memorandums from meetings, professional e-mails, newspaper articles, interviews, annual reports and program sheets of other poison centres and conference presentations were collected. Funding was provided form PHARE and BTox projects (2000-2003, and government of Estonia (2004-2012. Educational programs were held to train specialists in clinical toxicology and poisoning information to direct the PIC. The active phase of establishment started in 2004; however, the services of PIC became available at the beginning of 2008. In 2012, total number of calls was 1118. 20% of calls were related to general questions about pharmaceuticals and non-toxic agents. 894 calls were related to acute poisoning cases. Most of them (87.9% were due to accidental poisoning. The most common types of substances responsible for poisoning were pharmaceutical products (30.2%, household products (29.5% and plant toxins (11.1%. Conclusion: To establish a stable PIC, it is crucial to have a wide range data backbone, clear support and direct funding from the government, assistance from collaborative PICs, active international

  19. Anticholinesterase activity and chemical profile of an active chromatographic fraction of ethanolic extract from Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) flowers; Atividade anticolinesterasica e perfil quimico de uma fracao cromatografica ativa do extrato etanolico das flores Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Santos, Pauline Sousa dos; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes de, E-mail: rivelilson@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Bioquimica e Farmacologia; Carvalho, Rusbene Bruno Fonseca de; Melo, Cassio Herbert Santos de [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Departamento de Quimica; David, Juceni Pereira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; David, Jorge Mauricio; Lima, Luciano Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    This work describes the isolation of an active flavonoid fraction and identification of isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-acetyl)- alactopyranoside from flowers of B. perennis, and also the evaluation of anticholinesterase (AChE) activity of ethanolic extract from flowers (EEF) and the active fraction. The chemical structure of the flavonoid was defined on the basis of spectroscopic {sup 1}H NMR, IR and UV data. EEF or flavonoid reduces AChE activity in vivo, while flavonoid also reduces AChE activity in vitro, showing a value of 1.49 {mu}M for 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}), suggesting potential use as an insecticide or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. (author)

  20. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  1. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

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    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  2. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

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    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  3. [Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, J H; Mout, H C; Kuijpers, E A

    1997-09-01

    The occurrence, the diagnosis, and the treatment of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in the Netherlands was evaluated by a survey among Dutch veterinarians carried out by the National Poisons Control Center (NPCC). The survey included information on 54 dogs, 32 being treated by veterinarians who consulted the NPCC and 22 that were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic for Companion Animals (UUCCA). The poisons that were suspected were brodifacoum (n = 19), bromadiolone (n = 14), difenacoum (n = 8), difethialone (n = 6) and chlorophacinone (n = 1). In 6 dogs the identity of the poison was unknown. Of 31 dogs with hemorrhages, 2 died shortly after presentation to practitioners and 2 died shortly after admission to the UUCCA. Signs of bleeding occurred especially in poisoning by brodifacoum (n = 16). In all but one of the dogs without hemorrhages, the intake of poison had taken place within 24 hours before presentation. The method of treatment varied, with the induction of vomiting and the use of vitamin K mentioned most. The choice of therapy was determined by the length of time after intake of the poison, the clinical signs and whether or not an anticoagulant toxicosis was suspected at the time of the initial examination. These findings provide the basis for discussion of several aspects of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:9534772

  4. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  5. A literature study on lacquer poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min, Lee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, hangover cure, and gastritis suppression. Even though urushiol and fIavonoids, the main ingredient of lacquer, has medical cure effects. but urushiol results in a dermatropic allergy. Sincc xylem of a Rhus vemiciflua stokes, however. does not induce the allergy but has medical efficacy, research on this topic is needed.

  6. Successful management of zinc phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Vahid; Agahi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Maryam; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn2P3) rodenticide, is generally misused intentionally for suicidal purpose in Iran. For many years, scientists believe that liberation of phosphine (PH3) on contact with acidic content of the stomach is responsible for clinical presentations. However, relatively long time interval between ingestion of Zn2P3 and presentation of its systemic toxicity, and progression of acute liver failure could not be explained by the current opinion. Hence, an innovative theory intended that phosphonium, as an intermediate product will create and pass through the stomach, which then will reduce to produce PH3in the luminal tract. Here, we present a case of massive Zn2P3 poisoning. In our case, we used repeated doses of castor oil to induce bowel movement with an aim of removing unabsorbed toxin, which was proved by radiography. Interestingly, the patient presents only mild symptoms of toxicity such as transient metabolic acidosis and hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27390464

  7. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  8. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  9. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  10. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  11. HAMCIND, Cell Burnup with Fission Products Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: HAMCIND is a cell burnup code based in a coupling between HAMMER-TECHNION and CINDER. The fission product poisoning is taken into account in an explicit fashion. 2 - Method of solution: The nonlinear coupled set of equations for the neutron transport and nuclide transmutation equations and nuclide transmutation equations in a unit cell is solved by HAMCIND in a quasi-static approach. The spectral transport equation is solved by HAMMER-TECHNION at the beginning of each time-step while the nuclide transmutation equations are solved by CINDER for every time-step. The HAMMER-TECHNION spectral calculations are performed taking into account the fission product contribution to the macroscopic cross sections (fast and thermal), in the inelastic scattering matrix and even in the thermal scattering matrices. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Restrictions and/or limitations for HAMCIND depend upon the local operating system

  12. Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunturu Krishna S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities.

  13. Two fast screening methods (GC-MS and TLC-ChEI assay for rapid evaluation of potential anticholinesterasic indole alkaloids in complex mixtures

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    Ivo J.C. Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacotherapyfor Alzheimer's disease (AD includes the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI. Recent investigations for novel AD therapeutic agents from plants suggested that Tabernaemontana genus is a promising source of novel anticholinesterasic indole alkaloids. In this work two fast screening techniques were combined in order to easily identify novel cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the less polar alkaloidic fractions obtained from the acid-base extraction of the stalk of T. laeta revealed thirteen monoindole alkaloids, four of them confirmed by co-injection with previously isolated alkaloids. The others were tentatively identified by mass fragmentation analysis. By gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and using isatin as internal standard, affinisine and voachalotine were determined as major compounds. These fractions and fourteen previously isolated alkaloids, obtained from root bark of T. laeta and T. hystrix were investigated for acetyl (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibitory activities by the modified Ellman's method in thin layer chromatography(TLC-ChEI. Results showed selective inhibition of the alkaloids heyneanine and Nb-methylvoachalotine for BuChE, and 19-epi-isovoacristine for AChE, whereas olivacine, affinisine, ibogamine, affinine, conodurine and hystrixnineinhibited both enzymes. In addition to confirming that monoterpenoid indole alkaloids can be novel therapeutic agents for AD, this is the first report of the ChEI activity of olivacine, a pyridocarbazole alkaloid.Dentre os tratamentos da doença de Alzheimer (DA está o uso de inibidores da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Pesquisas recentes visando a descoberta de novos agentes terapêuticos naturais para esta doença sugerem que o gênero Tabernaemontana é uma fonte promissora de alcalóides indólicos anticolinesterásicos. Neste trabalho, duas técnicas de análise em mistura foram

  14. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was...... individuals in the Danish population were registered in 2009. For all groups, except drugs of abuse, the data showed an increase in the actual number of exposures from 2008 to 2009. Pharmaceuticals represent one third of substance exposures, and analgesics constitute a third of these poisonings. A relative...

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING CASES IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Anand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning is one of the common causes of admission in emergency department of various hospitals. This is a common socio medical problem. Green revolution has increased the production of food grain but the wide spread use of organophosphorus compounds has increased incidence of its poisoning to the human kind by accidental or suicidal. Around one hundred fifty six patient admitted in Konaseema Institute of Medical Science and General Hospital with diagnosis of acute poisoning. The present study showed that majority of the patients was of young age with females outnumbering males

  16. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

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    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  17. Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

  18. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics and Management of Herbicide Poisoning in Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri, Harika; Pramoda, K.; Rohini, D.; Thunga, Girish; Vijaynarayana, K; Sreedharan, N.; Varma, Muralidhar; Pandit, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide poisoning is most common method of suicide in India and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Among different herbicidal poisonings the most predominantly found poisonings are paraquat and glyphosate. These compounds are highly toxic and their poisonings require proper management techniques. High fatality is seen in these cases which are mainly due to its inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Common symptoms of these poisonings includes gastrointestinal co...

  19. Group and insidious tetraethyl lead poisoning occurred in industry of plastic weaving: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Ying; Zhu, Wenjing; Ye, Mingxian

    2016-01-01

    Tetraethyl lead (TEL) poisoning has declined sharply with decreasing consumption of gasoil and other chemicals contained TEL. Here we reported group TEL poisoning in the plastic weaving factory. We investigated 16 cases with the typical nerves disorder which is similar to organotin poisoning, and the result suggested that the poisoning may cause by applied “white oil” contented TEL. Despite its rareness, our cases emphasize that clinicians should pay attention to the difference from the treatment of organic tin poisoning.

  20. PROFILE OF POISONING CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , TELANGANA , INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Poisoning with various substances is an important cause of death and disability worldwide . The types of poisons that are encountered in the emergency medicine departments encompass a wide range of substances . Apparently , geographic location , socio - demographic factors , ease of availability of poisons and many other cryptic factors contribute to the wide spectrum of substances that cause poisoning . Pesticides , drugs and chemicals are reported to be the most commo nly used poisons in India . Management of poisoning is quite challenging for the health care professionals globally . Factors such as the uncertainty in the identification of allegedly consumed poison , varied clinical features and the need for timely access to specific information for treatment , complicates poisoning management . This study was therefore conducted to explore the clinical features , management and outcomes of poisoning cases reporting to a tertiary care centre in south India . OBJECTIVE : To ident ify the spectrum of poisons and evaluate their clinical manifestations , medical management and clinical outcomes . METHODOLOGY : All cases of poisoning that were reported at a tertiary care hospital in South India for a period of 18 months from January 1 , 20 13 to June 30 , 2014 were included in this study . A data abstraction sheet was designed to document demographic details ( age and gender , poison consumed , duration of stay in the hospital , clinical features , treatment administered , need for life support and patient outcomes . RESULTS : A total of 145 poisoning cases were reported during the study period . Among them , 58 . 5% were males and 41 . 3% were females . Majority of victims were in the age group of 21 - 30 years . Intentional poisoning was observed in 86 . 2% , whereas the rest were accidental poisonings . Organophosphorus ( OP poisoning was the most common poisoning encountered in this study . It accounted for 25 . 5% of the total

  1. Analysis of current situation of poisoning caused by poisonous animals, poisinous plants, and poisonous mushrooms in China%我国有毒动物、有毒植物、毒蕈中毒现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仟; 谢立璟; 马沛滨; 孙承业

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of poisoning caused by poisonous animals,poisonous plants,and poisonous mushrooms in our country in order to understand the direction of work for controlling poisoning caused by poisonous organisms and to provide scientific basis for the research on key technique for controlling poisoning.Methods China Hospital Knowledge Database and Wanfang Database were searched,and published literature regarding poisoning cases or events caused by poisonous animals,poisonous plants,and poisonous mushrooms in 1994-2011 was collected.The data was analyzed using retrospective descriptive epidemiological methods.Results Three thousand four hundred and sixtythree articles consistent with the criteria were collected and a total of 94 700 poisonous patients were reported,of which 46 110 were produced by poisonous animals,37 172 produced by poisonous plants,and 11 418 produced by poisonous mushrooms.Poisoning mainly occurred in the south area which was abundant in various species and the case distribution was nearly consistent with that of the species.The spectrum of poison were relatively concentrated in several families,and in the number of poisoning cases caused by the top 5 poison categories,poisonous animals and poisonous plants accounted for 78.77% (36 321/46 110)and 84.03% (31 234/37 172) of total number of poisoning cases caused by the 2 kinds of poisonous organisms,respectively.The main categories of poisonous animals causing poisoning were toxic snakes,fish gall bladder,and puffer fish and main plants; the main categories of poisonous plants causing poisoning were Leguminosae and Ranunculaceae.Most poisonous mushrooms poisoning was due to unknown species which accounted for 77.09% (8802/11 418),and Amanitaceae and Boletaceae were the most common mushrooms in known poisonous mushroom poisoning.The main causes of poisoning were accidents (50.24%,41 291/82 185) and mistaken ingestion (42.19%,34 670/82 185) and the main route

  2. Minimal physical requirements for crystal growth self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D.

    2016-02-01

    Self-poisoning is a kinetic trap that can impair or prevent crystal growth in a wide variety of physical settings. Here we use dynamic mean-field theory and computer simulation to argue that poisoning is ubiquitous because its emergence requires only the notion that a molecule can bind in two (or more) ways to a crystal; that those ways are not energetically equivalent; and that the associated binding events occur with sufficiently unequal probability. If these conditions are met then the steady-state growth rate is in general a non-monotonic function of the thermodynamic driving force for crystal growth, which is the characteristic of poisoning. Our results also indicate that relatively small changes of system parameters could be used to induce recovery from poisoning.

  3. Searching for the universal reactivator for treatment of pesticide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the present knowledge, none of the currently available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB-4 or HI-6) originally developed for the treatment of the nerve agent poisonings is able to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Among them, obidoxime seems to be the best candidate, however, its high toxicity disfavors its application in the high quantities. As byproduct of our searching for the new nerve agent reactivators, we found that oxime K027 seems to be very promising in the case of the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings. Its reactivation potency is similar or better than that of obidoxime, and moreover, its acute toxicity is lower. Thanks to these results, this oxime seems to be the best candidate for future use as universal reactivator for the treatment of poisonings caused by organophosphorus pesticides. This work was supported by the Czech Grant Agency - project No. 305/07/P162.(author)

  4. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel;

    2001-01-01

    . For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/ morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In...... Sweden and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not...... seen in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by...

  5. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  6. Acute methanol poisonings: Folates administration and visual sequelae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Nurieva, O.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Diblik, P.; Kuthan, P.; Pelclová, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-316. ISSN 1214-021X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Methanol poisoning * Treatment outcome * Folinic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2014

  7. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anybody ... right steps as Maria does everything wrong. Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  9. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  10. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  12. Analysis and Validation of Putative Substances Involved in Fatal Poisonings

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Christopher K.; Kashani, John; Ruck, Bruce; Marcus, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Each year, poison control centers throughout the United States respond to over 4 million calls for help in treating individuals exposed to toxic substances. Although most cases develop no or minimal clinical effects, a small proportion of patients who receive medical care for overdoses with poison center consultation expire. When such cases are investigated by a medical examiner, the postmortem toxicology results may show substances other than those considered in the consultation with the poi...

  13. Self poisoning in the home by mercury and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury poisoning can take place in the home. The metal may be present as a toy and the compounds as medicines or cosmetics. Unfortunately these materials are considered to be harmless and the victims do not connect the symptoms of poisoning (if recognised as such) with them. The tissue mercury levels are similar to those found in industrial exposure and as with them no relationship between symptoms and tissue concentrations can be found. (author)

  14. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  15. Pattern of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Rafique Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning with various substances is a global problem. It is one of the most important reasons for emergency admission in the hospital. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better is the outcome. Epidemiology of poisoning differs from region to region. This study was carried out to determine the pattern and severity of poisoning in a tertiary care hospital. Objective: To characterize the poisoning cases admitted in Enam Medical College Hospital. Materials and Methods: All cases admitted to the emergency department of Enam Medical College Hospital during the period of April to December, 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. We reviewed data obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: demographic characteristics, etiology and outcome of the acutely poisoned patients. Total 84 poisoning cases were found and they were included in the study. Results: The overall case fatality rate was 3.5%. More detailed data from 2010 reveals that two-thirds of the patients were 20-30 years old, 53% male and 47% female. Organophosphorus was the most common cause (73.9% followed by unknown poisoning (9.5%, sedative (5.9%, harpic (4.7%, aluminium phosphide (2.4%, savlon (1.2%, paracetamol (1.2% and amitryptiline (1.2%. 90.5% cases were suicidal and 9.5% were homicidal. Conclusion: This study provides important information on the characteristics of the poisoning in this region. Community education about the danger of the drugs and reduction of exposure to pesticides are recommended.

  16. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED).

  17. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  18. Intoxicación por gases Gas poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por gases en nuestro medio es un problema importante debido a su alta incidencia. En el caso concreto de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, es la principal causa de muerte por intoxicación involuntaria en nuestro medio, muchas veces coexistiendo con una intoxicación por cianuro. Ambas intoxicaciones pueden ser de carácter grave, basándose su diagnóstico en la mera sospecha del médico. Además, su importancia radica en que ambas intoxicaciones tienen un tratamiento concreto. La oxigenoterapia normo o hiperbárica es el tratamiento de elección de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono. En el caso de la intoxicación por cianuro, la hidroxocobalamina es hoy día el tratamiento de elección, ya que ha demostrado ser un eficaz antídoto.Poisoning by gases in our area is an important problem due to its high incidence. In the specific case of carbon monoxide poisoning, this is the main cause of death by poisoning in our environment, on many occasions coexisting with cyanide poisoning. Both poisonings can be severe, their diagnosis being based on the mere suspicions of the doctor. Besides, their importance lies in the fact that both poisonings have a very specific treatment. Normo or hyperbaric oxygenotherapy is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. In the case of cyanide poisoning, hydroxocobalamin is nowadays the treatment of choice, since it has proved itself to be an efficient antidote.

  19. Aldicarb poisoning of dogs and cats in Gauteng during 2003

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Verster; C.J. Botha; Naidoo, V.; O.L. Van Schalkwyk

    2004-01-01

    A survey of aldicarb poisoning in companion animals was conducted by posting questionnaires to all private practitioners in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The survey was designed to determine the percentage of aldicarb cases seen, treatment regimen, clinical signs observed, proposals for preventative actions and more effective treatments. Other questions included duration of treatment, survival rate, cost to clients, post mortem findings and reasons for poisonings

  20. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS : The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the rate and chara cteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to adult intensive care unit ( ICU in a tertiary care medical college hospital. We report clinical features , demographic data , laboratory results , mortality rate , and the results of our treatment in cases who ca me with the history of poisoning. METHODS: The study was done in patients admitted with history of poisoning under the department of medicine at RRMCH Hospital , Bengaluru from December 2013 to November 2014. This study includes 84 poisoning Patients who we re admitted to ICU care. Detailed history , clinical examination and laboratory inv est igations were done in all patients. Ventilator support and supportive treatment was instituted to required patients as p er our ICU criteria of intubation and Ventilation. Data was collected in structured format and analyzed. RESULTS: Majority of the cases were due to organophosphorus compound poisoning ( n=47 , 61% . Others had consumed drugs which included analgesics , carbomates , anti - hypertensive , spirit , benzodiazepines. A mongst these , 4 had consumed aluminum phosphide and all 4 of them died. In some history did not reveal the identity of the drugs. The most common indication for mechanical ventilation in these patients was respiratory failure due to OP poisoning. CONCLUSIO N: Pesticides were the main cause of poisoning ( 68.97% . The reasons being agriculture based economics , poverty due to poor agricultural yield and easy availability of pesticides. Patient education by conducting community based public awareness camps and l ectures might also help in bringing down the incidence of poisoning. The mortality could be decreased by enhanced ICU care , better medical management , appropriate supportive therapy and further restrictions on the highly toxic pesticides.

  1. Two Cases of Paraquat Poisoning from Kota, Rajasthan, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra Khosya; Sunil Gothwal

    2012-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-dipyridylium) is a broad spectrum liquid herbicide associated with both accidental and intentional ingestion, leading to severe and often fatal toxicity. Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, nonspecific clinical features, and lack of diagnostic tests. We report two cases of fatal paraquat poisoning from a tertiary care hospital, Kota, Rajasthan, Ind...

  2. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  3. Calculation qualification of gadolinium burnable poisons in water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis constitutes the qualification on the one end of Appolo-Neptune scheme for the gadolinium burnable poison in a pressurized water reactor, and on the other end of basis nuclear data on natural gadolinium. This study has permitted to reduce by a factor 3 the actual incertitude on the gadolinium poison comparatively at precisions cited in international benchmarks calculations

  4. The availability of toxicological analyses for poisoned patients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    The National Poisons Information Service and the Association of Clinical Biochemists in the United Kingdom published guidelines on laboratory analyses for poisoned patients in 2002. In 2003, U.S. guidelines were prepared by an expert panel of analytical toxicologists and emergency department (ED) physicians. Some professional associations in different countries quote these guidelines but there are no data to support adherence to these recommendations in the medical literature.

  5. Aldicarb poisoning of dogs and cats in Gauteng during 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of aldicarb poisoning in companion animals was conducted by posting questionnaires to all private practitioners in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The survey was designed to determine the percentage of aldicarb cases seen, treatment regimen, clinical signs observed, proposals for preventative actions and more effective treatments. Other questions included duration of treatment, survival rate, cost to clients, post mortem findings and reasons for poisonings

  6. Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    St-Onge, M.; Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C; Godwin, J; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R

    2014-01-01

    Context Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods Medline/Ovid, PubMed, ...

  7. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  8. Lantana camara POISONING IN MEHSANA BUFFALOES: A PROFILE OF PHOTOSENSITIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Harshad B. Patel, , , and; Modi, Chirag M.; Shailesh K. Mody; Patel, Hitesh B.; Sushant S. Parekar

    2012-01-01

    Lantana Camara is poisonous weed.Recently three clinical cases ofphotosensitization in milking Mehsana buffaloes were presented for treatment at Hathwara villege in Sabarkantha district of Gujarat state. History of case clearly indicated the possibility of Lantana Camara poisoning. Information given by the animal owners revealed that the Lantana Camara plants are present in surrounding of pasture,where animals were allowed to graze, which might have been consumed by animals during grazing. Cl...

  9. Poisonous plants : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Kellerman

    2009-01-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which - not surprisingly - includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history...

  10. CFD analysis of poison injection in AHWR calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work intends to give details of design and performance validation of SDS-2. The performance is evaluated on the basis of dispersion of poison in calandria in a given period of time. Location of injection tube and injection holes, size of jet hole and number of holes are some of the design parameters which greatly affect dispersion of poison in calandria. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) study for axial and radial injection of poison was carried out using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. CFD benchmarking was done using experiments performed by Johari (Johari et al. 1997) to identify suitable turbulence model for this problem. An experimental facility simulating poison injection in moderator in presence of calandria tubes was used to further validate the CFD model is shown in the paper. CFD analysis was carried out for axial as well as radial injection for AHWR geometry. CFD analysis using OpenFOAM has been carried out to study high pressure poison injection for single jet of Shut Down System - 2 (SDS- 2) of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) for various design options. CFD model used in analysis have been validated with experimental data available in literature as well as experiments performed for AHWR specific geometry. Various turbulence models are tested and their adequacy for such flow problems has been established. The CFD model is then used to simulate poison injection for two design options for AHWR and their performance is compared. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  12. Frequency of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Turkey in 2010

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    Suleyman Metin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In Turkey, studies about frequency of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning are rare. In this study, it is aimed to determine the frequency of the CO poisoning cases occurring all around the country. METHOD: This study was planned as a descriptive study covering Turkey in general as stage. In this study, the CO poisoning case records of Ministry of Health Treat Services General Directorate in 2010 have been examined. The distribution of cases among regions-provinces, mortality rates, types of CO sources, seasonal and monthly dispersions have been examined. RESULTS: According to the records, totally 10.154 cases of CO poisoning were detected in Turkey in 2010 and only 39 of them were ended with death. It is determined that the frequency of cases is 0,0137% (approximately 14 in every 100.000 and mortality rate is about 5 in every 10 million. Poisoning cases have been occurred mostly in Marmara Region (3.426 cases, 33,7%. When it is evaluated in regard to the population, cases are mostly seen in Kilis (0,1998%. As of mortality rates, Bursa has the most number of cases ending with death (18 cases. CONCLUSION: Compared to studies in other countries, according to our data, Turkey was faced with more frequent cases of CO poisoning. The number of cases has increased, especially during the winter months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 587-592

  13. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

  14. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  15. Rejuvenation processes applied to 'poisoned' anion exchangers in uranium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of 'poisons' from anion exchangers in uranium processing of Canadian radioactive ores is commonly called rejuvenation or regeneration. The cost of the ion exchange recovery of uranium is adversely affected by a decrease in the capacity and efficiency of the anion exchangers, due to their being 'poisoned' by silica, elemental sulphur, molybdenum and tetrathionates. These 'poisons' have a high affinity for the anion exchangers, are adsorbed in preference to the uranyl complex, and do not desorb with the reagents used normally in the uranyl desorption phase. The frequency of rejuvenation and the reagents required for rejuvenation are determined by the severity of the 'poisoning' accumulated by the exchanger in contact with the uranium leach liquor. Caustic soda (NaOH) at approximately equal to 18 cents/lb is commonly used to remove uranium anion exchangers of tetrathionate ((S406)/-/-) 'poisons'. A potential saving in operating cost would be of consequence if other reagents, e.g. sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at approximately equal to 3.6 cents/lb or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at approximately equal to 1.9 cents/lb, were effective in removing (S406)/-/-) from a 'poisoned' exchanger. A rejuvenation process for a test program was adopted after a perusal of the literature

  16. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these 'spread' the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  17. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

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    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  18. Molecular identification of poisonous mushrooms using nuclear ITS region and peptide toxins: a retrospective study on fatal cases in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Sikaphan, Sujitra; Leudang, Siriwan; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Naksuwankul, Khwanruan

    2016-02-01

    Cases of mushroom poisoning in Thailand have increased annually. During 2008 to 2014, the cases reported to the National Institute of Health included 57 deaths; at least 15 died after ingestion of amanitas, the most common lethal wild mushrooms inhabited. Hence, the aims of this study were to identify mushroom samples from nine clinically reported cases during the 7-year study period based on nuclear ITS sequence data and diagnose lethal peptide toxins using a reversed phase LC-MS method. Nucleotide similarity was identified using BLAST search of the NCBI database and the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Clade characterization was performed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. Based on BLAST and BOLD reference databases our results yielded high nucleotide similarities of poisonous mushroom samples to A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. Detailed phylogenetic analyses showed that all mushroom samples fall into their current classification. Detection of the peptide toxins revealed the presence of amatoxins and phallotoxins in A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. In addition, toxic α-amanitin was identified in a new provisional species, Amanita sp.1, with the highest toxin quantity. Molecular identification confirmed that the mushrooms ingested by the patients were members of the lethal amanitas in the sections Amanita and Phalloideae. In Thailand, the presence of A. exitialis was reported here for the first time and all three poisonous mushroom species provided new and informative data for clinical studies. PMID:26763394

  19. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  20. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. PMID:25913360

  1. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  2. [Senecio jacobaea: deceiving beauty. Senecio jacobaea poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, J H; Geerts, A A J; Borgers, J W; Mars, M H; Muskens, J A M; van Wuijckhuise-Sjouke, L A

    2002-12-15

    In a cattle herd problems were noticed during 1.5 years, characterised by emaciation and loss of milk production with lower fat- and protein%, tenesmus, central nervous symptoms (aggression, circling and blindness), diarrhoea, eczema solare and death. Clinical, laboratory and post mortem examinations did not reveal a specific cause at first. An intoxication was suspected based on the clinical symptoms, the course of the disease in sick animals and severe liver cirrhosis found in a sudden death cow: The animals were fed grassilage derived from an air force base on which an overwhelming amount of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) was present. On subsequent microscopic examination of the livers of 11 slaughtered clinically healthy animals all of these showed fibrosis in varying extension. Cirrhosis and fibrosis of the liver and the clinical symptoms are all features of chronic pyrrolyzidine alkaloidosis. Tansy ragwort poisoning has not been diagnosed in the Netherlands for years. The rise in cases is due to more extensive use of land. PMID:12516386

  3. Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning

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    Vemuri Rama Tharaknath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide, clinical and "radiological evidence" (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes of "chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans." It also highlights the "latent period" between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea.

  4. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION POISONING PATIENTS IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

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    Onur Yeşil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Purpose of this study was to determine the clinical properties and demographics of the patients admitting to the emergency department with intoxication.Patient and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with poisoning patients admitted to our ED 1st of June 2005 and 31st of December 2006. Data regarding the age, sex, reason for the intoxication, and presence of psychiatric evaluation were obtained from the patient files.Results: 147 intoxication was admitted to ED. Mean time spent before admission to ED after exposure was 7,61 hours. 78 cases admitted at daytime, 69 cases at night. Agent exposed was drugs at 72 of cases whereas 63 was food and 12 was alcohol. 102 cases were treated in ED and 45 cases admitted to hospital. Psychiatric evaluation was performed on 65 patients.Conclusions: Demographics of the patients admitting to our ED resemble with the findings of other studies reported from Turkey. Intoxication seems to be the problem of young woman and drugs are the most frequent agents. Drug intoxicated cases are younger, report faster to ED and all of them were intended suicide. All of these intentional cases were admitted to a hospital and psychiatric evaluation has been made.

  5. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

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    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  6. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

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    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  7. [ACCIDENTAL POISONING WITH A PLANT COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE: REPORT OF TWO CASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajramović-Omeragić, Lejla; Čalkić, Lejla; Hadžić, Eldira; Aličkovič, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Colchicine poisonings are serious and highly fatal conditions that occur as a result of food poisoning from plants that contain this alkaloid or overdose with drug containing colchicine. The leaves of edible wild garlic because of their similarity are often replaced with highly poisonous leaves of autumn crocus, causing poisoning. Described are two cases of food poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, who had similar symptoms in the initial stage, but different clinical course and outcome. Signs of poisoning require early identification and intensive supportive therapy, which increases the chances of survival. PMID:26749951

  8. Lead and zinc poisoning and the interaction between Pb and Zn poisoning in the foal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, R.A.; MacDonald, E.; McSherry, B.J.; Brown, G.

    1972-10-01

    Groups of young growing horses were fed toxic amounts of lead only, zinc only and the same amounts of lead and zinc together. Those fed Pb only developed pharyngeal and laryngeal paralysis (roaring) whereas those fed Zn only and Pb and Zn together developed the same clinical syndrome which included swelling at the epiphyseal region of the long bones, stiffness and lameness. Anemia and decreased weight gains were most pronounced in animals fed Zn for the longest periods. Animals fed Pb only did not become anemic and weight loss did not occur until after there was an interference in swallowing. The clinical signs and tissue Pb values from animals fed toxic amounts of both Pb and Zn continuously, differed markedly from those present in animals fed comparable amounts of Pb only. The clinical signs were similar to those caused by Zn poisoning. The hepatic and renal tissue Pb values were approximately twice as high and the epiphyseal and cancellous bone sample results were one half as high as the comparable Pb values from animals fed toxic amounts of Pb only. It appeared that toxic amounts of Zn prevented the development of clinical signs of Pb poisoning in the young growing horse. 30 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

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    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  10. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GKSS (Society for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Shipbuilding and Nautics) gives in this annual report a comprehensive survey of the research and development efforts carried out and a survey on the organisation and its sociological position. More detailed and generally explicable presentations of selected spheres of research deal this year with solid combustible neutron poisons, water desalination systems, pollution at the Elbe-mouth, trace analysis with x-ray fluor essence, heat conduction in water and under-water systems. The research and development programme is, in comparison with previous years better understandable. The range of tasks, 'utilization of nuclear energy', especially covers projects on the field of reactor safety research which were comprised in one project and fully integrated in the reactor safety programme of the Fed. Ministry for Research and Technology. Furthermore, nuclear energy ship development and works concerning working material technology are being carried out, to a smaller extent. The project of a nuclear container ship which run over a period of 5 years, was finished in 1977. Profitability calculations show that nuclear trade ships can be used in a profitable way, when the oil price has increased three-fold. This might be the case in about 15-20 years. Further plans of the GKSS on the field of nuclear energy ship development take into account this result. The range of tasks 'utilization of the sea and the shores' was comprised in a frame programme and divided in the research, fields of environment technique, water desalination, resources, and sea technique. These works are, beside reactor safety research, the main range of works of the GKSS. (orig./HK)

  11. A Tale of two Systems: Poisoning Management in Iran and the United States

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    Omid Mehrpour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning morbidity and mortality is high in the developing world. Systems for care of poisoned patients differ markedly between countries. In this paper a comparison of two very different systems for the care of poisoned patients, is presented. Specifically, the role of poison centers and poison treatment centers in the US and Iran are contrasted. A systematic literature search was undertaken utilizing the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and the keywords “poison centers”, “treatment” “Iran” “United States of America” and 100 publications were identified. From these, relevant data were found in 23 publications. The information was double-checked and data were summarized herein.We find that the system of the care of poisoned patients relies heavily on certified poison centers in the US and that only a few hospitals have well developed medical toxicology services. In contrast, in Iran, the poison center system is somehow less developed and the care of poisoned patients is provided in centralized high volume hospital poison units.Although both the US and Iran have highly developed systems for the care of poisoned patients they are distinctly different. Comparative studies based on these systems could provide important data for developing countries with more rudimentary poison control and treatment facilities.

  12. [Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2012-08-01

    It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059

  13. Evaluation of childhood poisoning in Isparta region

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    Selim Dereci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the patients who presented with intoxication case to our Children Emergency Department of Süleyman Demirel University Medical Faculty Hospital, retrospectively. Methods: The patients, who were admitted to our children emergency service between the dates July 2013 and July 2014 were searched retrospectively. The age, sex, the admission time, the admission duration, the way of intoxication, symptoms, the items caused intoxication, the aim of taking the item and the hospital stay of the cases were evaluated. Results: For the study, the files of 82 patients aged from 1 to 18 years (mean 8,9±6,3 years were scanned; 50 (60.9% cases were female, 32 (39.1% were male. Intoxication cases constituted 3.6% of all cases admitted to the children’s emergency unit over one year period. A high proportion (51% of intoxication cases were between 1 and 5 years of age. Thirty of the thirty (100% patients that were intoxicated because of a suicide attempt were girls and all of them were over 12 years of age. The most common substance for intoxication was drugs (76%, followed by insecticides and herbal (6.5%. Amon the medication, cold relief drugs (14%, antidepressant (13% and paracetamol (12% drugs were most common. Conclusion: Poisoning shows a peak in two periods of childhood and adolescence in this study. We think that accidental ingestion in childhood can be prevented by parents’ education and simple precautions in general. In addition, we recommend that families should demonstrate appropriate approaches, especially with regards to the psychology of adolescent girls, and, if necessary, get help from a specialist.

  14. Lead poisoning and cystatin-C in children

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    Yuri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead pollution is a global problem both in developed and developing countries. Lead poisoning is associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI. Serum cystatin-C is a more precise test of GFR than serum creatinine level, as serum cystatin-C levels rise earlier than serum creatinine, when GFR decreases. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between lead poisoning and cystatin-C levels in children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-11 years with a history of lead poisoning from elementary schools in Talawaan District, North Minahasa Regency from July to October 2013. Cystatin-C and blood lead levels (BLL were measured in all subjects. Spearman’s rho test was used to analyze a potential correlation between BLL and cystatin-C level. Results This study included 41 children, comprising 21 boys and 20 girls. Their median age was 8.50 (range 6.8-10.7 years. Elevated levels of cystatin-C did not exceed normal values, however, we found a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C (r=0.419, P=0.006. Conclusion There is a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C level in children with lead poisoning. Regular monitoring of BLL, medical intervention, and an epidemiological study to help find the sources of contamination are needed for children with lead poisoning.

  15. Trends of Suicidal Poisoning In Ahmedabad (Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Prajapati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The suicide rate in India is 10.3. In the last three decades, the suicide rate has increased by 43% but the male female ratio has been stable at 1.4: 1. Majority (71% of suicide in India are by persons below the age of 44 years which imposes a huge social, emotional and economic burden. Several studies reveal that suicidal behaviours are much more prevalent than what is officially reported. (1 Poisoning, hanging and self immolation (particularly women were the methods to commit suicide. Physical and mental illness, disturbed interpersonal relationships and economic difficulties were the major reasons for suicide. The vulnerable population was found to be women, students, farmers etc. A social and public health response in addition to a mental health response is crucial to prevent suicidal behaviour in India.The present study was undertaken in the department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology of Smt NHL MMC at Ahmedabad (Gujarat to know the pattern of Suicidal poisoning. Total 130 cases of death due to Suicidal poisoning were selected for this Retrospective study, which were brought to us for postmortem examination during the span of two year (From May 2007 to April 2009. Our study revealed that most of the victims of fatal poisoning were Hindus, married males of middle socio-economic status who died due to self ingestion of some poison

  16. Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variable clinical picture characterizes mushroom poisoning. The Amatoxin, the main toxic component of these fungi, are responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms as well as hepatic and renal failure. As acute gastroenteritis is extremely common in our set up, so every patient presenting with these symptoms is treated as gastroenteritis of viral aetiology. The authors present the clinical picture of the phalloid syndrome, its treatment and immediate outcome. All children age less than 16 years admitted in Saidu Hospital Swat from January to December 2006 with mushroom poisoning were included in the study. Patients with doubtful history or with associated illness were not included. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture of the patient, history and the laboratory data. In addition to maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and treating sepsis, oral Silymarin and intravenous penicillin was started. Liver function tests, renal functions tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profile was done in all the patients. The severity of poisoning was graded according to hepatic transaminase elevations and prolongation of prothrombin time. Of the 18 patients, fifteen were above five years of age. Female were twice in number. Fifteen patients developed hepatic failure and three patients developed renal failure. Thirteen patients expired. To start timely management, Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with food poisoning particularly coming in groups. Delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality. (author)

  17. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  18. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding

  19. Topoisomerase II poisoning by indazole and imidazole complexes of ruthenium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y N Vashisht Gopal; Anand K Kondapi

    2001-06-01

    Trans-imidazolium (bis imidazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuIm) and trans-indazolium (bis indazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuInd) are ruthenium coordination complexes, which were first synthesized and exploited for their anticancer activity. These molecules constitute two of the few most effective anticancer ruthenium compounds. The clinical use of these compounds however was hindered due to toxic side effects on the human body. Our present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these compounds shows that they effectively poison the activity of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue for renewing further research on these compounds. This is because they could be effective lead candidates for the development of more potent and less toxic ruthenium containing topoisomerase II poisons. Specificity of action on this molecular target may reduce the toxic effects of these ruthenium-containing molecules and thus improve their therapeutic index.

  20. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattias Hagman; Thomas Pape; Rainer Schulte

    2005-01-01

    In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates) are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.