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Sample records for anticholinergic drugs scopolamine

  1. Anticholinergic syndrome following an unintentional overdose of scopolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela E Corallo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carmela E Corallo1, Ann Whitfield2, Adeline Wu21Department of Pharmacy, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Intensive Care Unit, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (hyoscine is an antimuscarinic drug which is primarily used in the prophylaxis and treatment of motion sickness and as a premedication to dry bronchial and salivary secretions. In acute overdosage, the main clinical problem is central nervous system (CNS depression. In Australia, tablets containing scopolamine hydrobromide 0.3 mg are available over the counter in packs of ten. The recommended dose for adults is one to two tablets as a single dose, repeated four to six hours later, if required. The maximum dose stated on the pack is four tablets over a 24-hour period with a caution regarding drowsiness and blurred vision. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms of anticholinergic syndrome secondary to an unintentional overdose of scopolamine. Whilst at work, the patient noticed that he had forgotten his prescribed medication, domperidone, at home; a friend gave him some travel sickness medication which contained scopolamine for relief of nausea. On a previous occasion, he had experienced a similar, less severe reaction with another anticholinergic agent, loperamide. This report highlights the need to consider nonprescription products, ie, over the counter medications, herbal/nutritional supplements as causes of anticholinergic syndrome when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of this diagnosis.Keywords: domperidone, scopolamine, nonprescription drugs, toxicity, anticholinergic syndrome

  2. [Effect of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive impairment in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Álvarez, Jorge; Zea Sevilla, María Ascensión; Agüera Ortiz, Luis; Fernández Blázquez, Miguel Ángel; Valentí Soler, Meritxell; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even in people with cognitive impairment. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed (anticholinergic effects, anticholinergic and dementia) to define the effects of anticholinergic drugs in the elderly. We emphasized the search in patterns of use, the combined use with AChEIs, the measurement of the Serum Anticholinergic Activity, and the short-term and long-term cognitive effects. The conclusions are that the use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even more so than the medical prescription of AChEIs in Alzheimer's disease. The use of anticholinergic drugs may result in cognitive impairment. In long-term use it may generate a worsening of cognitive functions. It can lead to a wrong diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, and they can also initiate signs of dementia. Greater cognitive effects appear when there is a previous deficit, but cognitive effects from anticholinergic drugs disappear in severe dementia. The presence of ApoEɛ4 increases the vulnerability for cognitive impairment when these drugs are employed. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparison of Intranasal and Oral Scopolamine for Motion Sickness Prevention in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-18

    G., Ho, T., Lee, S., Manaretto, J., & Tsai, C. (2003). Transdermal scopolamine drug delivery systems for motion sickness. Retrieved August 14, 2007...earlier studies, the current study was able to utilize a precise drug delivery system to achieve tight control on the amount of scopolamine administered...widely used medication, and perhaps the most extensively researched, is the anticholinergic drug scopolamine. Scopolamine, in oral and transdermal form

  4. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical

  5. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Academic medical center. Data on clinical characteristics, full medication exposure, SAA, and 4

  6. Therapy against organophosphate poisoning: The importance of anticholinergic drugs with antiglutamatergic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, Ben Avi; Raveh, Lily

    2008-01-01

    Potent cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., soman, sarin), induce a wide range of deleterious effects including convulsions, behavioral impairments and ultimately, death. Due to the likelihood of various scenarios of military or terrorist attacks by these and other chemical weapons, research has to be aimed at finding optimal therapies. Early accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts was suggested to trigger an array of toxic events including an excessive release of glutamate, culminating in the activation of its receptors. Stimulation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) subtype of these receptors was associated with the neuronal injury that initiates organophosphate-induced brain damage. The notion of a stepwise mechanism yielded treatments based on a combination of an immediate administration of enzyme reactivators and anticholinergic drugs. This strategy dramatically increased survival rates but did not abolish convulsions and failed to prevent the ensuing cognitive dysfunction. Efforts to improve this paradigm by adding anticonvulsants or antiglutamatergic drugs with anti-epileptic characteristics produced dubious results. Under these conditions, benactyzine and caramiphen, agents with anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, provided improved protection when introduced as adjunct agents to oximes, reversible cholinesterase inhibitors and/or specific antimuscarinic drugs such as atropine. In contrast, the specific antimuscarinic drug scopolamine failed to block soman-induced changes in glutamatergic and behavioral parameters even when given prophylactically. These findings along with a large number of additional reports led towards the conclusion that the therapeutic advantage of drugs such as benactyzine and caramiphen could derive from their ability to modulate central cholinergic and glutamate neurotransmission

  7. Anticholinergic drugs and negative outcomes in the older population: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence.

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    Collamati, Agnese; Martone, Anna Maria; Poscia, Andrea; Brandi, Vincenzo; Celi, Michela; Marzetti, Emanuele; Cherubini, Antonio; Landi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The use of medication with anticholinergic properties is widespread among older subjects. Many drugs of common use such as antispasmodics, bronchodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, anti-hypertensive drugs, antiparkinson agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and psychotropic drugs have been demonstrated to have an anticholinergic activity. The most frequent adverse effects are dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia and neurologic impairment such as confusion, agitation and coma. A growing evidence from experimental studies and clinical observations suggests that drugs with anticholinergic properties can cause physical and mental impairment in the elderly population. However, the morbidity and management issues associated with unwanted anticholinergic activity are underestimated and frequently overlooked. Moreover, their possible relation with specific negative outcome in the elderly population is still not firmly established. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the relationship between the use of drugs with anticholinergic activity and negative outcomes in older persons. We searched PubMed and Cochrane combining the search terms "anticholinergic", "delirium", "cognitive impairment", "falls", "mortality" and "discontinuation". Medicines with anticholinergic properties may increase the risks of functional and cognitive decline, morbidity, institutionalization and mortality in older people. However, such evidences are still not conclusive probably due to possible confounding factors. In particular, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of discontinuation of drug with anticholinergic properties. Overall, minimizing anticholinergic burden should always be encouraged in clinical practice to improve short-term memory, confusion and delirium, quality of life and daily functioning.

  8. Position of anticholinergic drugs in the treatment of childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković-Anđelković Anđelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinergic drugs block muscarinic effect of acetylcholine on the receptors of postjunctional membranes and so inhibit the answer of the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve. The loss of M2 muscarinic receptors function occurs in asthmatics and it contributes to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and it is not a chronic feature of asthma, instead it characterizes asthma exacerbation. The loss of M2 muscarinic receptor function in children and adults happens during antigen bronchoprovocation or during exposition of asthmatics to ozone. After inhalation, ipratropium bromide (IB can be found in a small quantity in circulation and it links less readily to muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscles as related to its absorption after intravenous application. In the stepwise approach of asthma inhaled anticholinergics is recommended if the symptoms of the disease cannot be adequately controlled by a regular inhalation of antiinflammatory drugs with β2-agonist and oral steroids. The improvement of the airway inspiratory capacity is more elevated than the improvement of FEV1 after inhalation of IB. IB has similar effect as salbutamol and it is recommended to control a stable chronic obstructive disease. During our numerous investigations and up-to-date experience in the usage of 5-7 μg/kg/body mass of IB repeated every 4-6 hours in combination with salbutamol, we did not notice adverse effects of the drug in infants. IB is recommended for hospital treatment of children. .

  9. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on 123I-IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Hitoshi, Seiji; Takeda, Koichi; Sakuta, Manabu

    1992-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs may be responsible for mental deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was thus performed to examine effects of anticholinergic drugs on the brain by using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine SPECT. The purpose of the study was twofold: (I) to compare regional cerebral uptake of tracer during treatment with anticholinergic drugs and one month after the discontinuation of the drugs in 7 PD patients given them for 6 months or more; and (II) to compare tracer uptake in 11 PD patients administered anticholinergic drugs and 25 PD patients not administered them. Each 16 regions in the bilateral cerebral cortexes and each one region in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum were assigned as regions of interest (ROI). The count ratio of each ROI in the cerebrum to ROI in the cerebellum was designated as regional cerebral uptake ratio (rCUR). A mean rCUR was lower during administration of anticholinergic drugs in all ROIs, except for two in Group I and one in Group II, than during the period not administered the drugs. The administration of anticholinergic drugs was sigificantly associated with decreased rCUR in 10 ROIs in Group I, and in 15 ROIs in Group II. The rCUR in the occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamus was independent of the administration of anticholinergic drugs. These results suggest that anticholinergic drugs may inhibit the cortical cholinergic system in PD patients. (N.K.)

  10. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

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    Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Hitoshi, Seiji; Takeda, Koichi; Sakuta, Manabu [Japan Red Cross Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    Anticholinergic drugs may be responsible for mental deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was thus performed to examine effects of anticholinergic drugs on the brain by using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine SPECT. The purpose of the study was twofold: (I) to compare regional cerebral uptake of tracer during treatment with anticholinergic drugs and one month after the discontinuation of the drugs in 7 PD patients given them for 6 months or more; and (II) to compare tracer uptake in 11 PD patients administered anticholinergic drugs and 25 PD patients not administered them. Each 16 regions in the bilateral cerebral cortexes and each one region in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum were assigned as regions of interest (ROI). The count ratio of each ROI in the cerebrum to ROI in the cerebellum was designated as regional cerebral uptake ratio (rCUR). A mean rCUR was lower during administration of anticholinergic drugs in all ROIs, except for two in Group I and one in Group II, than during the period not administered the drugs. The administration of anticholinergic drugs was sigificantly associated with decreased rCUR in 10 ROIs in Group I, and in 15 ROIs in Group II. The rCUR in the occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamus was independent of the administration of anticholinergic drugs. These results suggest that anticholinergic drugs may inhibit the cortical cholinergic system in PD patients. (N.K.).

  11. Drugs with anticholinergic side-effects in primary care | Yayla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timed up and go test (TUGT) and standardized mini.mental test (SMMT) were also performed. Results: Medical records of 563 individuals were screened to detect anticholinergic medication. Twenty.eight patients were using anticholinergic medication. Mean duration of anticholinergic medication usage was 3.17 years.

  12. [Quetiapine and anticholinergic drugs induced ischaemic colitis: A case study].

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    Cuny, P; Houot, M; Ginisty, S; Horowicz, S; Plassart, F; Mentec, H; Eftekhari, P

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to underline the need for systematic monitoring of patients treated with anticholinergic antipsychotic drugs. We present the clinical history of a 34-year-old adult, treated with quetiapine in combination with other drugs with anticholinergic effects. A 34-year-old male adult had been suffering from bipolar disorder since 2001. He was treated with risperidone, but he was not compliant due to adverse effects, including decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. On June 5th 2012, it was decided to administrate 600mg per day of quetiapine in combination with tropatepine consequent to an episode of agitation and aggressiveness. On June 14th 2012, while the patient was receiving diazepam and valproic acid, loxapine oral solution was introduced. On June 23th, the patient started mentioning digestive disorders, such as diffuse abdominal pain with constipation but continued to pass gaz. On June 25th, at 6:30 am, he declared abdominal pain, which worsened at 8:15 am despite administration of analgesics, followed by malaise and onset of vomiting. His laboratory tests showed leukocytosis 11.2G/L with neutrophils 7.7G/L. The abdomen's radiograph without preparation showed small bowel and colonic air-fluid levels. The result of the CT scan confirmed an occlusive syndrome affecting the whole small gut and colon. At 1 pm, the patient's condition worsened. He received an intramuscular injection of 100mg of loxapine and an opioid treatment, including tramadol and morphine. At 2:30 pm, the clinical condition further deteriorated with an onset of generalized abdominal contracture, the absence of abdominal breathing, sweating, tachycardia at 104 beats per minute, and hypothermia of 34.5°C. He was transferred to an intensive care unit. Laboratory tests showed metabolic acidosis, elevated liver enzymes and acute renal failure. He received volume expansion and was treated by renal replacement therapy and antibiotics. He was intubated and transferred to the

  13. Effects of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive function in older Australians: results from the AIBL study.

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    Sittironnarit, Gobhathai; Ames, David; Bush, Ashley I; Faux, Noel; Flicker, Leon; Foster, Jonathan; Hilmer, Sarah; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rowe, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A

    2011-01-01

    The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Anticholinergic drug use is associated with episodic memory decline in older adults without dementia.

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    Papenberg, Goran; Bäckman, Lars; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J; Fastbom, Johan; Johnell, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    Anticholinergic drug use is common in older adults and has been related to increased dementia risk. This suggests that users of these drugs may experience accelerated cognitive decline. So far, however, longitudinal data on this topic are absent and the available evidence is inconclusive with respect to effects on specific cognitive domains due to suboptimal control of confounding variables. We investigated whether anticholinergic medication use is associated with cognitive decline over 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (aged 60-90; n = 1473) without dementia. We found that users (n = 29) declined more on episodic memory over 6 years compared to nonusers (n = 1418). These results were independent of age, sex, education, overall drug intake, physical activity, depression, cardiovascular risk burden, and cardiovascular disease. By contrast, anticholinergic drug use was unrelated to performance in processing speed, semantic memory, short-term memory, verbal fluency, and global cognition (the Mini-Mental-State Examination). Our results suggest that effects of anticholinergics may be particularly detrimental to episodic memory in older adults, which supports the assertion that the cholinergic system plays an important role in episodic memory formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drugs with anticholinergic side‑effects in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... retention or hesitancy, visual impairment, falls, confusion, drowsiness ... updated in 2012; as drugs, which may cause dementia and cognitive ... Two questions were asked to determine physicians' attention ... Even if selective.

  16. Relationship between anticholinergic drug use and one-year outcome among elderly people hospitalised in medical wards via emergency department: the SAFES cohort study.

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    Narbey, D; Jolly, D; Mahmoudi, R; Trenque, T; Blanchard, F; Novella, J-L; Dramé, M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between anticholinergic drug use and one-year outcome of elderly patients hospitalised via the emergency department. Prospective, multicentre, cohort study of patients aged 75 years and older. Comprehensive geriatric evaluation was performed. We included in this analysis all patients for whom data on drug use was available. Anticholinergic drugs were coded using the online database "Thesorimed". One-year mortality and nursing home admission were analysed using a Cox model, with matching on the propensity to use anticholinergic drugs. In total, 1176 subjects were included in this analysis, average age 85±6 years, 65% women. Overall, 144 (12%) were taking at least one anticholinergic drug. Mortality and nursing home admission at one year were respectively 29% and 30% in the anticholinergic group, and 34% and 33% respectively in subjects not taking anticholinergic drugs. No significant relationship was observed between anticholinergic drug use and the main endpoints. Although we did not observed any statistically significant relationship between use of anticholinergic drugs and one-year outcome in elderly patients, the long-term use of anticholinergic drugs can have deleterious effects on memory and functional capacity, and therefore requires prescriptions to be reviewed regularly.

  17. Long-term exposure to anticholinergic and sedative drugs and cognitive and physical function in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; Hilmer, S.; Gnjidic, D.; Van Campen, J.; Teichert, M.; Van Der Meer, H.; Schaap, L.; Huisman, M.; Denig, P.; Lamoth, C.; Taxis, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anticholinergic and sedative drugs from various therapeutic classes are frequently prescribed to older people. These drugs are known to impair cognitive and physical function in the short-term. However, long-term exposure to these drugs remains less examined. Methods: Data from the

  18. Pavlovian conditioning between co-administered drugs: elicitation of an apomorphine-induced antiparkinsonian response by scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, R J

    1991-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral 6-OHDA substantia nigra lesions were given combined scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg IP) and apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg SC) treatments. In this animal model, scopolamine, when administered separately, induces ipsilateral rotation and apomorphine, contralateral rotation. When these drugs are co-administered at 0.5 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg dose levels, respectively, animals rotate in the contralateral direction, creating the opportunity for the stimulus effect of scopolamine to become associated with the response effect of apomorphine. In tests with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg), animals that previously had scopolamine and apomorphine co-administered rotated contralaterally in the test chamber, thereby behaving as if they had received apomorphine. Thus, scopolamine exhibited a functionally acquired conditioned stimulus (CS) property by eliciting the apomorphine response of contralateral rotation as a conditioned response. This acquired CS property was extinguished with separate scopolamine trials and reacquired following one scopolamine-apomorphine co-administration trial.

  19. Neutral and emotional episodic memory: global impairment after lorazepam or scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs have repeatedly been shown to impair episodic memory for emotionally neutral material in humans. However, their effect on memory for emotionally laden stimuli has been relatively neglected. We sought to investigate the effects of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, and the anticholinergic, scopolamine, on incidental episodic memory for neutral and emotional components of a narrative memory task in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled independent group design was used with 48 healthy volunteers to examine the effects of these drugs on emotional and neutral episodic memory. As expected, the emotional memory advantage was retained for recall and recognition memory under placebo conditions. However, lorazepam and scopolamine produced anterograde recognition memory impairments on both the neutral and emotional components of the narrative, although floor effects were obtained for recall memory. Furthermore, compared with placebo, recognition memory for both central (gist) and peripheral (detail) aspects of neutral and emotional elements of the narrative was poorer after either drug. Benzodiazepine-induced GABAergic enhancement or scopolamine-induced cholinergic hypofunction results in a loss of the enhancing effect of emotional arousal on memory. Furthermore, lorazepam- and scopolamine-induced memory impairment for both gist (which is amygdala dependent) and detail raises the possibility that their effects on emotional memory do not depend only on the amygdala. We discuss the results with reference to potential clinical/forensic implications of processing emotional memories under conditions of globally impaired episodic memory.

  20. Short-term and long-term effects of diazepam on the memory for discrimination and generalization of scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasola-Castro, C; Weissmann-Sánchez, L; Calixto-González, E; Aguayo-Del Castillo, A; Velázquez-Martínez, D N

    2017-10-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed and misused psychopharmaceutical drugs. Although they are well-tolerated, they are also capable of producing amnestic effects similar to those observed after pharmacological or organic cholinergic dysfunction. To date, the effect of benzodiazepine diazepam on the memory for discrimination of anticholinergic drugs has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate and long-term effects of diazepam on a drug discrimination task with scopolamine. Male Wistar rats were trained to discriminate between scopolamine and saline administration using a two-lever discrimination task. Once discrimination was acquired, the subjects were divided into three independent groups, (1) control, (2) diazepam, and (3) diazepam chronic administration (10 days). Subsequently, generalization curves for scopolamine were obtained. Additionally, the diazepam and control groups were revaluated after 90 days without having been given any other treatment. The results showed that diazepam produced a significant reduction in the generalization gradient for scopolamine, indicating an impairment of discrimination. The negative effect of diazepam persisted even 90 days after drug had been administered. Meanwhile, the previous administration of diazepam for 10 days totally abated the generalization curve and the general performance of the subjects. The results suggest that diazepam affects memory for the stimulus discrimination of anticholinergic drugs and does so persistently, which could be an important consideration during the treatment of amnesic patients with benzodiazepines.

  1. Postoperative Anticholinergic Poisoning: Concealed Complications of a Commonly Used Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Chi; Farrell, Natalija; Haronian, Thomas; Hack, Jason

    2017-10-01

    Scopolamine is a potent anticholinergic compound used commonly for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Scopolamine can cause atypical anticholinergic syndromes due to its prominent central antimuscarinic effects. A 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED) 20 h after hospital discharge for a right-knee meniscectomy, with altered mental status (AMS) and dystonic extremity movements that began 12 h after her procedure. Her vital signs were normal and physical examination revealed mydriasis, visual hallucinations, hyperreflexia, and dystonic movements. Laboratory data, lumbar puncture, and computed tomography were unrevealing. The sustained AMS prompted a re-evaluation that revealed urinary overflow with 500 mL of retained urine discovered on ultrasound and a scopolamine patch hidden behind her ear. Her mental status improved shortly after patch removal and physostigmine, with complete resolution after 24 h with discharge diagnosis of scopolamine-induced anticholinergic toxicity. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although therapeutically dosed scopolamine transdermal patches rarely cause complications, incomplete toxidromes can be insidiously common in polypharmacy settings. Providers should thoroughly evaluate the skin of intoxicated patients for additional adherent medications that may result in a delay in ED diagnosis and curative therapies. Our case, as well as rare case reports of therapeutic scopolamine-induced anticholinergic toxicity, demonstrates that peripheral anticholinergic effects, such as tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, and hyperpyrexia are often not present, and incremental doses of physostigmine may be required to reverse scopolamine's long duration of action. This further complicates identification of the anticholinergic toxidrome and diagnosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Delirium due to Scopolamine Patch in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Guang Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The scopolamine patch is usually used to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting associated with anesthesia and/or surgery. It is also commonly used for the prevention of motion sickness. Transdermal scopolamine patches have been used for decades and there are few reports in the literature of toxic psychosis associated with the product. Most documented cases of acute psychosis following administration of scopolamine or other anticholinergic agents have been from the adult population. Here we present a 4-year-old boy with deteriorated cognitive function and changed mental status acutely. Besides flushing skin and psychotic behaviors including bizarre actions, hallucinations, aggressive behavior, hyperactivity, and incoherent speech were also noticed. Symptoms and signs were resolved after removal of scopolamine patch and conservative management. This case is possibly one of the youngest patients to exhibit such toxic effects. We hope to relay information about common agents with anticholinergic effects to clinical practitioners and remind that drug-induced psychosis should be considered in children with acute changes in behavior.

  3. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on attention span and short-term memory skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A; Halpern, Leslie F

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown cognitive problems in adults treated with anticholinergics. It is unclear if children are also susceptible to anticholinergic adverse effects. This study evaluates the effects of long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine on short-term memory and attention in children with urgency and urge incontinence. Children with urgency or urge incontinence were recruited to take part in a prospective, randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial using long-acting oxybutynin or tolterodine. Patients underwent a baseline test of their memory/recall ability and attention span using a standardized developmental/neuropsychological assessment tool. They were then randomized to either medication or placebo with retesting in 2 weeks, at which time they were crossed. They were retested after the second 2 weeks. Fourteen children (9 boys and 5 girls), ranging in age from 5 to 11 (M = 7.7) participated in the study. Attention and memory scores increased over time in all children, however, the analyses showed no significant negative effects of anticholinergic medications on attention or memory. Indeed, though not statistically significant, trends were for improvement in test scores in both areas. Our results in a double blinded cross-over trial suggest that long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine do not have a deleterious effect on children's attention and memory. Other cognitive functions may be affected. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  4. Is There Any Benefit Adding Anticholinergics to Drug Regime of Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mortazavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the efficacy and safety of combined therapy with anticholinergics and alpha blockers in comparison with alpha blockers monotherapy among patients with BPH. Methods: We conducted a single blinded RCT and 80 patients with BPH who referred to Ali-ebn-abitaleb, Zahedan were included. One group received 0.4 mg/d Tamsulosin in addition to Tolterodine and the other group received the same doses of Tamsulosin in addition to placebo. Both groups were evaluated before and 6 months after treatment with special attention to clinical symptoms, life quality improvement and treatment satisfaction. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Results: There is no significant difference between these two groups of patients’ demographics and basic indices such as PVR, PSA and the volume of prostate. IPSS was significantly improved among patients who received Toltrodine (p=0.0008 whereas both groups showed same score before treatment. Conclusion: It seems that combined therapy with anticholinergics and alpha blockers is a safe and efficient regimen among patients with BPH, either as primary or alternative treatment after the failure of conventional treatments.

  5. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice

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    Manish Kumar Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  7. The Association between Anticholinergic Drug Use and Rehabilitation Outcome in Post-Acute Hip Fractured Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Avital; Angel, Corina; Brill, Shai; Nissan, Ran

    2018-04-01

    Anticholinergic (AC) drugs are associated with significant impairment in cognitive and physical function which may affect rehabilitation in older people. We aimed to evaluate whether AC burden is associated with rehabilitation achievement in post-acute hip-fractured patients. A retrospective cohort study carried out in a post-acute geriatric rehabilitation center on 1019 hip-fractured patients admitted from January 2011 to October 2015. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB) was used to quantify the AC burden. Main outcome measures included the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument, motor FIM (mFIM), Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS) on the mFIM, and length of stay (LOS). The study population was divided into two groups: individuals with low admission AC burden (ACB ≤ 1) and those with high admission AC burden (ACB ≥ 2). The relationship between the admission AC burden and clinical, demographic and comorbidity variables was assessed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi square tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the association between admission AC burden and discharge FIM score after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and chronic diseases. Patients with a high admission AC burden had a significantly higher rate of high education, a significantly lower rate reside at home, they waited a longer period of time from surgery to rehabilitation, were less independent pre-fracture, and presented with a higher rate of vascular disorders and depression compared with patients with a lower admission AC burden. These patients also exhibited a significantly lower FIM score on admission and at discharge, a lower FIM score change, and a lower achievement on the MRFS compared with patients with a lower admission AC burden. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that admission AC burden was significantly associated with the discharge FIM score after adjustment for confounding variables. High admission

  8. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  9. The scopolamine-reversal paradigm in rats and monkeys: the importance of computer-assisted operant-conditioning memory tasks for screening drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccafusco, Jerry J; Terry, Alvin V; Webster, Scott J; Martin, Daniel; Hohnadel, Elizabeth J; Bouchard, Kristy A; Warner, Samantha E

    2008-08-01

    The scopolamine-reversal model is enjoying a resurgence of interest in clinical studies as a reversible pharmacological model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive impairment associated with scopolamine is similar to that in AD. The scopolamine model is not simply a cholinergic model, as it can be reversed by drugs that are noncholinergic cognition-enhancing agents. The objective of the study was to determine relevance of computer-assisted operant-conditioning tasks in the scopolamine-reversal model in rats and monkeys. Rats were evaluated for their acquisition of a spatial reference memory task in the Morris water maze. A separate cohort was proficient in performance of an automated delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT). Rhesus monkeys were proficient in the performance of an automated delayed matching-to-sample task (DMTS). The AD drug donepezil was evaluated for its ability to reverse the decrements in accuracy induced by scopolamine administration in all three tasks. In the DSDT and DMTS tasks, the effects of donepezil were delay (retention interval)-dependent, affecting primarily short delay trials. Donepezil produced significant but partial reversals of the scopolamine-induced impairment in task accuracies after 2 mg/kg in the water maze, after 1 mg/kg in the DSDT, and after 50 microg/kg in the DMTS task. The two operant-conditioning tasks (DSDT and DMTS) provided data most in keeping with those reported in clinical studies with these drugs. The model applied to nonhuman primates provides an excellent transitional model for new cognition-enhancing drugs before clinical trials.

  10. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi; Sato, Yoshitomo

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ) were measured using the steady-state 15 O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean±SD, 51.8±3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean±SD, 28.8±15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD±11.3) to 25.7 (SD±11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa's dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO 2 decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO 2 significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson's disease. (author)

  11. Use of Anticholinergic Drugs and its Relationship With Psychological Well-Being and Mortality in Long-Term Care Facilities in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Ulla Liisa; Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2017-12-26

    To assess the burden of drugs with anticholinergic properties (DAPs) and associated factors in long-term care facilities and to explore how psychological well-being and mortality are associated with the use of DAPs. Cross-sectional study and 1-year follow-up of all-cause mortality. All 4449 older people (>65 years of age) living in nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Helsinki in 2011 were recruited. After refusals and excluding residents with severe dementia, 2432 participants remained. Data on demographics, drug use, and medical history were collected by trained nurses using a structured assessment. Psychological well-being (PWB) of participants was assessed by 6 questions resulting in a validated PWB score (range 0-1). Mortality data were retrieved from central registers. The total number of anticholinergic drugs was determined according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale. Of the participants, 51% used at least 1 DAP. DAP users were younger and had better cognition than nonusers. There was a linear relationship between the number of DAPs used and poorer PWB. A similar trend was present between the number of DAPs and poorer PWB both among those with and without depression and among those with and without functional dependency. No difference in mortality existed between DAP users and nonusers. Despite DAP users being younger and having better cognition, they had poorer PWB. Clinicians should carefully consider the potential benefits and harm when prescribing DAPs to older people. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Opioids, antiepileptic and anticholinergic drugs and the risk of fractures in patients 65 years of age and older: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2013-05-01

    in men, the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines or two or more antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of fracture(s). Potential associations between the concomitant use of drugs with central nervous system effects and fracture risk have not been studied. the purpose was to describe the gender-specific risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over associated with the use of an opioid, antiepileptic or anticholinergic drug individually; or, their concomitant use with each other; or the concomitant use of one of these with a psychotropic drug. this study was part of a prospective, population-based study performed in Lieto, Finland. Information about fractures in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) was confirmed with radiology reports. at 3 years of follow-up, the concomitant use of an opioid with an antipsychotic was associated with an increased risk of fractures in men. During the 6-year follow-up, the concomitant use of an opioid with a benzodiazepine was also related to the risk of fractures for males. No significant associations were found for females. the concomitant use of an opioid with an antipsychotic, or with a benzodiazepine may increase the risk of fractures in men aged 65 years and older.

  13. Effects of Scopolamine and Melatonin Cotreatment on Cognition, Neuronal Damage, and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kang, Il Jun; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hong, Seongkweon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Young Joo

    2018-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that melatonin plays important roles in memory improvement and promotes neurogenesis in experimental animals. We examined effects of melatonin on cognitive deficits, neuronal damage, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and neuronal maturation in the mouse dentate gyrus after cotreatment of scopolamine (anticholinergic agent) and melatonin. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 and/or 4 weeks to 8-week-old mice. Scopolamine treatment induced significant cognitive deficits 2 and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, however, cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly improved spatial learning and short-term memory impairments. Two and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, neurons were not damaged/dead in the dentate gyrus, in addition, no neuronal damage/death was shown after cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin. Ki67 (a marker for cell proliferation)- and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast differentiation)-positive cells were significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus 2 and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, however, cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly increased Ki67- and doublecortin-positive cells compared with scopolamine-treated group. However, double immunofluorescence for NeuN/BrdU, which indicates newly-generated mature neurons, did not show double-labeled cells (adult neurogenesis) in the dentate gyrus 2 and 4 weeks after cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin. Our results suggest that melatonin treatment recovers scopolamine-induced spatial learning and short-term memory impairments and restores or increases scopolamine-induced decrease of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, but does not lead to adult neurogenesis (maturation of neurons) in the mouse dentate gyrus following scopolamine treatment.

  14. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Satoko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi; Sato, Yoshitomo [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean{+-}SD, 51.8{+-}3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean{+-}SD, 28.8{+-}15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson`s Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD{+-}11.3) to 25.7 (SD{+-}11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa`s dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease. (author)

  15. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  16. Anticholinergic burden and cognitive function in a large German cohort of hospitalized geriatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pfistermeister

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest an association between use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly patients and cognitive impairment. However, there are still limited data on the association of anticholinergic drug use and cognitive impairment as well as contribution of individual drugs to anticholinergic load using large, well-documented patient cohorts treated in geriatric units from Europe.We investigated 797,440 prescriptions to 89,579 hospitalized patients treated in geriatric units within the GiB-DAT database. Data of all patients discharged between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015 was included. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB scale was used to classify anticholinergic drugs as definite (score 2 or 3 and possible anticholinergics (score 1. Cognitive function was determined using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the standardized scale for dementia (4D+S.In two multivariable logistic regression models age, sex, number of drugs and ACB total scores were identified as variables independently associated with cognitive impairment as measured by MMSE (odds ratio per ACB unit 1.114, 95% CI 1.099-1.130 or the diagnosis dementia (odds ratio 1.159 per ACB unit, 95% CI 1.144-1.173, both p < 0.0001. High anticholinergic load was associated with patients with severe cognitive impairment (p < 0.05 for all pairwise comparisons. ACB score 3 anticholinergic drugs contributed 77.9% to the cumulative amount of ACB points in patients with an anticholinergic load of 3 and higher.Using a cross-sectional study design, a significant positive association between anticholinergic drug load and cognitive impairment in European patients treated in specialised geriatric units was found. The most frequently used definitve anticholinergic drugs were quetiapine, amitriptyline and carbamazepine.

  17. An Anti-Nicotinic Cognitive Challenge Model using Mecamylamine in Comparison with the Anti-Muscarinic Cognitive Challenge using Scopolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baakman, A. C.; Alvarez-jimenez, R.; Rissmann, R.; Klaassen, E. S.; Stevens, J.; Goulooze, S. C.; Burger, J.; Swart, E. L.; Van Gerven, J. M. A.; Groeneveld, G. J.

    Aims The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove

  18. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  19. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  20. Risk of hospitalization associated with anticholinergic medication for patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Fukatsu, Takahide; Kanemoto, Kosuke

    2018-01-01

    With the ageing of the general population, demand has grown for measures to prevent hospitalization for dementia, which can exacerbate problems associated with activities of daily living in elderly individuals. Anticholinergic medication has been shown to cause falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in aged patients. However, the risk of hospitalization associated with the administration of anticholinergics is unclear. We analyzed the records of 61 outpatients (26 men, 35 women; mean age: 78 ± 7 years; mean follow-up period: 420 days) diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease: n = 45; dementia with Lewy bodies: n = 3; undifferentiated n = 13) and prescribed anti-dementia drugs between May 2013 and December 2014. Medication history was noted, and the patients were divided into two groups according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale: with risk (n = 13) and without risk (n = 48). Outcome was judged based on an end-point of hospitalization or death. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. Eight patients with anticholinergic risk and 12 without anticholinergic risk reached the end-point (P dementia. The Anticholinergic Risk Scale findings were shown to be a strong predictor of hospitalization for patients with dementia. We should evaluate the anticholinergic burden before initiating anti-dementia therapy. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Benefits and limits of anticholinergic use in schizophrenia: focusing on its effect on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shin; Miyamoto, Seiya; Miyake, Nobumi; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    All currently available antipsychotic drugs are the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists and are capable of producing extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). Anticholinergic drugs are primarily used to treat EPS or prevent EPS induced by antipsychotics in the treatment of psychosis and schizophrenia. However, they can cause a variety of distressing peripheral side-effects (e.g. dry mouth, urinary disturbances, and constipation) and central adverse effects (e.g. cognitive impairment, worsening of tardive dyskinesia, and delirium). Disturbances in cognitive abilities are cardinal features of schizophrenia from its earliest phases and account for much of the functional disability associated with the illness. It is likely that long-term concomitant administration of anticholinergics exacerbates the underlying cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia and subsequently affects patients' quality of life. Thus, current treatment guidelines for schizophrenia generally do not recommend the prophylactic and long-term use of anticholinergics. However, the high use of long-term anticholinergic drugs with antipsychotics has been identified as an important issue in the treatment of schizophrenia in several countries. To assess the benefits and limits of anticholinergic use in psychosis and schizophrenia, this article will provide a brief review of the pharmacology and clinical profiles of anticholinergic drugs and will focus on their effects on cognitive function in schizophrenia, particularly during the course of the early phase of the illness. In addition, we will address the effects of discontinuation of anticholinergics on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia and provide a strategy for adjunctive anticholinergic use in patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Geometry optimization of antimuscarinic, anticholinergic and antispasmodic aprophen hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Aprophen hydrochloride extensively used as anticholinergic, antimuscarinnin and antispasmodic agent. Structure based drug designed is based on the firm understanding of molecular recognition between active site group and interacting molecules ,it is strategy that become as integral part of modem drug discovery. The aim of present study is find out the minimum potential energy for aprophen hydrochloride. The potential energy of the molecule in molecular mechanics calculated by using force field concept. Potential energy effect the inter action of drug molecule with receptor these properties could be use to synthesize new drug candidates with improve pharmacological and therapeutic activity. (author)

  3. An anti-nicotinic cognitive challenge model using mecamylamine in comparison with the anti-muscarinic cognitive challenge using scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baakman, Anne Catrien; Alvarez-Jimenez, Ricardo; Rissmann, Robert; Klaassen, Erica S; Stevens, Jasper; Goulooze, Sebastiaan C; den Burger, Jeroen C G; Swart, Eleonora L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Groeneveld, Geert Jan

    2017-08-01

    The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove pharmacology of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. This study aims to characterize a nicotinic anticholinergic challenge model using mecamylamine and to compare it to the scopolamine model. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over trial, 12 healthy male subjects received oral mecamylamine 10 and 20 mg, intravenous scopolamine 0.5 mg and placebo. Pharmacokinetics were analysed using non-compartmental analysis. Pharmacodynamic effects were measured with a multidimensional test battery that includes neurophysiological, subjective, (visuo)motor and cognitive measurements. All treatments were safe and well tolerated. Mecamylamine had a t max of 2.5 h and a C max of 64.5 ng ml -1 for the 20 mg dose. Mecamylamine had a dose-dependent effect decreasing the adaptive tracking performance and VAS alertness, and increasing the finger tapping and visual verbal learning task performance time and errors. Scopolamine significantly affected almost all pharmacodynamic tests. This study demonstrated that mecamylamine causes nicotinic receptor specific temporary decline in cognitive functioning. Compared with the scopolamine model, pharmacodynamic effects were less pronounced at the dose levels tested; however, mecamylamine caused less sedation. The cognitive effects of scopolamine might at least partly be caused by sedation. Whether the mecamylamine model can be used for proof-of-pharmacology of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists remains to be established. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Caffeine attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W; Hogervorst, E; Leboux, R; Verhey, F; van Praag, H; Jolles, J

    1995-11-01

    Caffeine consumption can be beneficial for cognitive functioning. Although caffeine is widely recognized as a mild CNS stimulant drug, the most important consequence of its adenosine antagonism is cholinergic stimulation, which might lead to improvement of higher cognitive functions, particularly memory. In this study, the scopolamine model of amnesia was used to test the cholinergic effects of caffeine, administered as three cups of coffee. Subjects were 16 healthy volunteers who received 250 mg caffeine and 2 mg nicotine separately, in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over design. Compared to placebo, nicotine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of storage in short-term memory and attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of speed of short-term memory scanning. Nicotine also attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of reaction time in a response competition task. Caffeine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of free recall from short- and long-term memory, quality and speed of retrieval from long-term memory in a word learning task, and other cognitive and non-cognitive measures, such as perceptual sensitivity in visual search, reading speed, and rate of finger-tapping. On the basis of these results it was concluded that caffeine possesses cholinergic cognition enhancing properties. Caffeine could be used as a control drug in studies using the scopolamine paradigm and possibly also in other experimental studies of cognitive enhancers, as the effects of a newly developed cognition enhancing drug should at least be superior to the effects of three cups of coffee.

  5. [Interest of scopolamine as a treatment of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, A; Mouchabac, S; Peretti, C S

    2016-12-01

    The number of patients with depression in the world is 350 millions according to estimates. The search for new treatments, particularly in forms of resistant depression, is necessary given the growing number of patients experiencing treatment failure and resistance. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic antimuscarinic molecule, is one of the treatments under evaluation. It falls within the assumptions of cholinergic disruption of the pathophysiology of depression, at different levels (genetic, receptorial [muscarinic and glutamate receptors], hormonal, synaptic…). In 2006, a pilot study made to evaluate the role of the cholinergic system in cognitive symptoms of depression found unexpected results regarding the antidepressant effect of scopolamine in depressive patients. Since that time other studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefits of treatment with intravenous injections of scopolamine. Our main objective was to evaluate the interest of scopolamine as an antidepressant treatment in depressed populations. We conducted a literature review with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of treatment with scopolamine in uni- and bipolar patients with depressive symptoms. The protocol consisted of two injection blocks (each block consisting of three injections spaced fifteen minutes apart within three to five days) of active ingredient or placebo crossover. The selected patients were between 18 and 45years and had the DSM-IV major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder criteria. Regarding the methods of measurement, the primary endpoint was the reduction in scores of the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) with a total response defined by a decrease of more than 50 % of the score and remission corresponding to a MADRS score<10. Seven sessions of evaluations were performed. The published results are promising in terms of efficiency with rapid antidepressant effect, a total response rate ranging from 59-64% and a remission rate of between 37 and 55

  6. Impact of Gender on Pharmocokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Lei, Wu.; S-L Chow, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS), which is commonly experienced by astronauts during space missions. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND guidelines. Since information is lacking on the effect of gender on the PK of Scopolamine, we examined gender differences in PK parameters of INSCOP at three dose levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg. Methods: Plasma scopolamine concentrations as a function of time data were collected from twelve normal healthy human subjects (6 male/6 female) who participated in a fully randomized double blind crossover study. The PK parameters were derived using WinNonlin. Covariate analysis of PK profiles was performed using NONMEN and statistically compared using a likelihood ratio test on the difference of objective function value (OFV). Statistical significance for covariate analysis was set at Pgender-dependent pharmacokinetics of scopolamine at the high dose level of 0.4 mg. Clearance of the parent compound was significantly faster and the volume of distribution was significantly higher in males than in females, As a result, including gender as a covariate to the pharmacokinetic model of scopolamine offers the best fit for PK modeling of the drug at dose of 0.4 mg or higher.

  7. The Effect of Transdermal Scopolamine for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Antor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70%-80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 hours after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for postoperative nausea and vomiting, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a nonselective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4. Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 hours. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long

  8. The anticholinergic impregnation scale: Towards the elaboration of a scale adapted to prescriptions in French psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briet, Jeanne; Javelot, Hervé; Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Lameira, Catherine; D'Athis, Philippe; Corneloup, Marie; Vailleau, Jean-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Some drugs have anticholinergic activity and can cause peripheral or central side effects. Several scales exist to evaluate the potential anticholinergic effect of prescribed drugs but: (i) they are validated in the elderly and mainly assess the cognitive side effect of treatments; (ii) they do not concern some of the drugs frequently used in clinical psychiatry in France. The aim of our study is to develop a new scale, the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS), with drugs used in France and based on an assessment of the drugs used against peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects. We assigned a score, ranging from 1 to 3, to a list of 128 drugs with a consensus approach obtained via literature data and expert opinions. We collected data from 7278 prescriptions in 34 French psychiatric facilities: age, sex, atropinic drugs, laxatives and treatments of xerophthalmia and xerostomia, in order to evaluate the association between AIS score and the prescription of drugs aiming to reduce peripheral anticholinergic side effects. The most frequently prescribed drugs were cyamemazine (n=1429; 20%) and tropatepine (n=1403; 19%), two drugs marketed almost exclusively in France and with a score of 3. The frequency of patients with a high AIS score, greater than 5, was significantly higher in patients who received laxatives and treatments of xerostomia. AIS score represents the first validated solution to evaluate anticholinergic load in psychiatry settings in France. The anticholinergic problem remains underevaluated in mental health settings. In order to rule out the confounding factor of mental disease, assessment of peripheral side effects can be considered more objective than the evaluation of cognitive function in psychiatric patients. Building scales appropriate for each state also appear essential to obtain an useful and effective tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS

  9. Effects of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine on human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedtje, John F., Jr.; Oman, Charles M.; Letz, Richard; Baker, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two drugs used to prevent symptoms of motion sickness in the operational environment were examined in this study of human performance as measured by computer-based tests of cognitive and psychomotor skills. Each subject was exposed repetitively to five tests: symbol-digit substitution, simple reaction time, pattern recognition, digit span memory, and pattern memory. Although there have been previous reports of decreases in human performance in similar testing with higher dosages of scopolamine or dextroamphetamine, no significant decrements were observed with the operational-level combined dose used in this study (0.4 mg oral scopolamine and 5.0 mg oral dextroamphetamine.) The controversy over the use of combination drug therapy in this environnment is discussed along with the indications for further research based on the findings.

  10. Effects of (-)-S-2,8-dimethyl-3-methylene-1-oxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane L-tartrate monohydrate (YM796), a novel muscarinic agonist, on disturbance of passive avoidance learning behavior in drug-treated and senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Yamaguchi, T; Ozawa, Y; Ohyama, M; Yamamoto, M

    1995-11-01

    Effects of YM796 (-)-S-2,8-dimethyl-3-methylene-1-oxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane L-tartrate monohydrate; a novel muscarinic agonist, were observed on disturbance of passive avoidance learning behavior in drug- (protein synthesis inhibitor and anticholinergic drugs) treated and senescence-accelerated mice in comparison with those of a muscarinic agonist (AF102B) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (E2020 (1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone-2-yl) methyl] piperidene hydrochloride), NIK247 [9-amino-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta(b)-quinoline monohydrate hydrochloride], THA (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) and physostigmine). All tested drugs administered before training significantly prolonged the shortened latency of step-through induced by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (150 mg/kg s.c.). This shortened latency was also significantly prolonged when YM796 was administered immediately after training, but not when administered before the test trial. The ameliorating effect of YM796 on the impairment in learning behavior by cycloheximide was significantly suppressed by pirenzepine (0.1 micrograms/mouse i.c.v.). When administered before training, all test drugs prolonged the shortened latency of step-through induced by treatment with the anticholinergic drugs [scopolamine (1 mg/kg s.c.) and hemicholinium-3 (0.3 microgram/mouse i.c.v.)], suggesting that they ameliorated the impairment of learning behavior. This shortened latency in scopolamine-treated mice was also significantly prolonged by YM796, AF102B, E2020, NIK247 and physostigmine when administered immediately after training, but not when administered before the test trial. The pharmacological actions of YM796 administered immediately after training and before the test trial in hemicholinium-3-treated mice were similar to those in scopolamine-treated mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Anticholinergic load negatively correlates with recovery of cognitive activities of daily living for geriatric patients after stroke in the convalescent stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E; Hirai, T; Seki, T; Hidaka, S; Hamamoto, T

    2018-05-16

    Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Anticholinergic load was assessed by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and functional recovery was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The primary outcome was cognitive FIM (FIM-C) gain, but we also assessed the interaction of other putative factors identified from univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for confounding factors. We included 418 participants (171 males, 247 females) with a median age of 78 years (interquartile range, 72-84 years). Multiple regression analysis revealed that ARS change, length of stay, and epilepsy were independently and negatively correlated with cognitive FIM gain. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the "Comprehension" and "Memory" items of the cognitive FIM gain were independently and negatively associated with anticholinergic load. A causal relationship cannot be established, but increased ARS scores during hospitalization may predict limited cognitive functional improvement in geriatric patients after stroke. Alternatively, cognitive impairment may lead to increased use of anticholinergic drugs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In geriatric patients, delirium symptoms are related to the anticholinergic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Moustafa; Zmudka, Jadwiga; Hannat, Sanaa; Liabeuf, Sophie; Serot, Jean-Marie; Jouanny, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Anticholinergic drugs are widely prescribed for elderly patients and could induce several neuropsychological disorders, especially delirium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anticholinergic burden and delirium symptoms. A total of 102 patients aged over 75 years (86.3 ± 5.8 years, 53 women and 49 men) hospitalized in a geriatric medicine department were included in this prospective study. Anticholinergic burden was assessed by classifying drug use into three levels (low, medium or high). An overall, weighted score was established. Delirium symptoms were measured with the Confusion Assessment Method on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 15 and 21. Covariates studied were comorbidities (Charlson), health status, activities of daily living, nutrition (albumin), cognition, length of stay and mortality. A total of 51.6% of the patients were taking anticholinergic drugs at home (2.13 ± 1.34). Length of stay was 14.5 ± 9.9 days. Prevalence of delirium symptoms ranged on days between 34.8 and 60%. Anticholinergic burden was correlated with the appearance of delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were associated with greater mortality (16.1 and 3.7 % in patients with and without delirium symptoms; P = 0.049), a longer hospital stay (18.09 ± 11.34 vs 11.75 ± 7.80 days, P = 0.001), greater dependence on discharge (activities of daily living score: 1.57 ± 1.56 vs 3.41 ± 1.45, P delirium symptoms and mortality. Prevention of delirium symptoms requires its reduction. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) was evaluated using data collected in Phase II IND protocols. We reported earlier statistically significant gender differences in PK parameters of INSCOP at a dose level of 0.4 mg. To identify covariates that influence PK parameters of INSCOP, we examined population covariates of INSCOP PK model for 0.4 mg dose. Methods: Plasma scopolamine concentrations versus time data were collected from 20 normal healthy human subjects (11 male/9 female) after a 0.4 mg dose. Phoenix NLME was employed for PK analysis of these data using gender, body weight and age as covariates for model selection. Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL). Statistical significance for base model building and individual covariate analysis was set at P less than 0.05{delta(-2LL)=3.84}. Results: A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order elimination best described INSCOP concentration ]time profiles. Inclusion of gender, body weight and age as covariates individually significantly reduced -2LL by the cut-off value of 3.84(P less than 0.05) when tested against the base model. After the forward stepwise selection and backward elimination steps, gender was selected to add to the final model which had significant influence on absorption rate constant (ka) and the volume of distribution (V) of INSCOP. Conclusion: A population pharmacokinetic model for INSCOP has been identified and gender was a significant contributing covariate for the final model. The volume of distribution and Ka were significantly higher in males than in females which confirm gender-dependent pharmacokinetics of scopolamine after administration of a 0.4 mg dose.

  15. Bronchodilator treatment of stable COPD: long-acting anticholinergics

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    W. Vincken

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Since airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is to some extent reversible, bronchodilators play an important role in the maintenance treatment of COPD the more they reduce hyperinflation and, as a result, improve dyspnoea and exercise capacity. Since parasympathetic activity is the dominant reversible component of airflow obstruction in COPD, inhaled short-acting anticholinergic agents (SAAC, in particular ipratropium, became an efficient and safe first-line treatment, especially when combined with a short-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Even better results were obtained when combining the SAAC ipratropium to a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA, once they became available. Recently, tiotropium bromide, the first of a new class of selective and long-acting anticholinergic agents was introduced for once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD patients. Several large long-term randomised clinical trials comparing tiotropium to placebo as well as to the SAAC ipratropium and the LABA salmeterol, have confirmed the long-acting and superior bronchodilator effect of tiotropium without any evidence of drug tolerance developing. These studies also have clearly demonstrated that tiotropium positively affects several other important health outcomes, such as dyspnoea sensation, exercise capacity, utilisation of rescue bronchodilators, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations and hospitalisations because of exacerbations. The improvement in these real-life outcomes appears related to the reduction in both static and dynamic hyperinflation. In all these studies, tiotropium was well tolerated and safe; the only relevant side-effect encountered being dry mouth, usually mild and often transitory. Finally, it has been shown that the combination of tiotropium with a LABA affords superior bronchodilatation than both agents alone, indicating that both classes of long-acting bronchodilators should be

  16. Moringa oleifera Seed Extract Alleviates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Juan Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg for 1 or 6 days. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. MSE pretreatment significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and enhanced cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by scopolamine, but these decreases were reversed by MSE treatment. These results suggest that MSE-induced ameliorative cognitive effects are mediated by enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmission system and neurogenesis via activation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MSE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its mechanism might be modulation of cholinergic activity via the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways.

  17. Inhaled anticholinergic use and all-cause mortality among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmera M

    2013-06-01

    , multivariate analyses controlling for risk factors did not suggest an increased likelihood of all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.67. Conclusion: Use of inhaled anticholinergics among elderly individuals with COPD is potentially safe in terms of all-cause mortality when we adjust for baseline risk factors. Keywords: geriatrics, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled anticholinergics, mortality, drug safety

  18. A Modified LC/MS/MS Method with Enhanced Sensitivity for the Determination of Scopolamine in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuwei; Vaksman, Zalman; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Intranasal scopolamine is a choice drug for the treatment of motion sickness during space flight because of its quick onset of action, short half-life and favorable sideeffects profile. The dose administered usually ranges between 0.1 and 0.4 mg. Such small doses make it difficult to detect concentrations of scopolamine in biological fluids using existing sensitive LC/MS/MS method, especially when the biological sample volumes are limited. To measure scopolamine in human plasma to facilitate pharmacokinetic evaluation of the drug, we developed a sensitive LC/MS/MS method using 96 well micro elution plates for solid phase extraction (SPE) of scopolamine in human plasma. Human plasma (100-250 micro L) were loaded onto Waters Oasis HLB 96 well micro elution plate and eluted with 50 L of organic solvent without evaporation and reconstitution. HPLC separation of the eluted sample was performed using an Agilent Zorbax SB-CN column (50 x 2.1 mm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 3 minutes. The mobile phase for separation was 80:20 (v/v) methanol: ammonium acetate (30 mM) in water. Concentrations of scopolamine were determined using a Micromass Quattro Micro(TM) mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI). ESI mass spectra were acquired in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring for the determination of scopolamine m/z = 304.2 right arrow 138.1 and internal standard hyoscyamine m/z = 290.2 right arrow 124.1. The method is rapid, reproducible, specific and has the following parameters: scopolamine and the IS are eluted at about 1.1 and 1.7 min respectively. The linear range is 25-10000 pg/mL for scopolamine in human plasma with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 and CV less than 0.5%. The intra-day and inter-day CVs are less than 15% for quality control samples with concentrations of 75,300, and 750 pg/mL of scopolamine in human plasma. SPE using 96 well micro elution plates allows rapid sample preparation and enhanced sensitivity for the LC

  19. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinski, Ronald W.; Siegel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB) that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or without

  20. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Glinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS, have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or

  1. Blood-brain barrier permeation and efflux exclusion of anticholinergics used in the treatment of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Michael B; Staskin, David R; Kay, Gary G; Sandage, Bobby W; Oefelein, Michael G; Tsao, Jack W

    2012-04-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition, particularly in the elderly. Anticholinergic agents are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of OAB; however, many anticholinergics can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may cause central nervous system (CNS) effects, including cognitive deficits, which can be especially detrimental in older patients. Many anticholinergics have the potential to cause adverse CNS effects due to muscarinic (M(1)) receptor binding in the brain. Of note, permeability of the BBB increases with age and can also be affected by trauma, stress, and some diseases and medications. Passive crossing of a molecule across the BBB into the brain is dependent upon its physicochemical properties. Molecular characteristics that hinder passive BBB penetration include a large molecular size, positive or negative ionic charge at physiological pH, and a hydrophilic structure. Active transport across the BBB is dependent upon protein-mediated transporter systems, such as that of permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp), which occurs only for P-gp substrates, such as trospium chloride, darifenacin and fesoterodine. Reliance on active transport can be problematic since genetic polymorphisms of P-gp exist, and many commonly used drugs and even some foods are P-gp inhibitors or are substrates themselves and, due to competition, can reduce the amount of the drug that is actively transported out of the CNS. Therefore, for drugs that are preferred not to cross into the CNS, such as potent anticholinergics intended for the bladder, it is optimal to have minimal passive crossing of the BBB, although it may also be beneficial for the drug to be a substrate for an active efflux transport system. Anticholinergics demonstrate different propensities to cross the BBB. Darifenacin, fesoterodine and trospium chloride are substrates for P-gp and, therefore, are actively transported away from the brain. In addition, trospium chloride has not been detected in cerebrospinal

  2. Donepezil- and scopolamine-induced rCMRglu changes assessed by PET in conscious rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Makoto; Fujikawa, Akihiko; Noda, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Nishimura, Shintaro; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2009-01-01

    [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a useful tool for measuring the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu), which is an index of neuronal activity. Donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor (AChEI), has been recommended as a treatment option for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to characterize the effects of donepezil on rCMRglu using FDG-PET in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of administration of donepezil (500 μg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.)), the non-selective muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist scopolamine (30 μg/kg, i.m.), and the coadministration of both drugs on the rCMRglu of conscious young rhesus monkeys. Donepezil increased the rCMRglu in all regions of interest except in the thalamus. Scopolamine treatment also increased the rCMRglu in all regions of interest except the cerebellum and thalamus. However, these effects disappeared with coadministration of the drugs. This PET study showed that administration of donepezil or scopolamine alone increased the rCMRglu in conscious rhesus monkeys. We also found that the donepezil-induced increase was abolished by simultaneous administration of scopolamine, suggesting that muscarinic ACh receptor function plays an important role in the effect of donepezil. (author)

  3. Scopolamine poisoning from homemade 'moon flower' wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Meloan, C E; Pickell, J A; Oehme, F W

    1991-01-01

    LH, a 76-year-old Caucasian male, ingested 3 teaspoons (15 mL) of a homemade wine over a 1-h period and became ill. Approximately 1.5 h later, he was taken to the emergency room of a local hospital with symptoms of respiratory distress and weakness. The plant used in making the wine was Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens), which reportedly contains varying amounts of scopolamine and atropine. A sample of the wine was collected and analyzed for these two compounds by reversed-phase HPLC chromatography using 97% methanol-3% deionized water. The filtered wine contained an estimated 29 mg scopolamine/mL, which produced a total ingested dose of 435 mg. No atropine was detected. The scopolamine was confirmed by TLC. An oral dose of 50 mg of atropine sulfate in humans has been reported fatal, but there is no reported fatal dose for scopolamine. The alcohol content and 3.8 pH of the homemade wine may have increased the extraction of this compound from the plant material, and the wine fermentation process may have concentrated the original extract.

  4. Synergistic effects of galantamine and memantine in attenuating scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Perrine; Capurro, Valeria; Cavalli, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Reggiani, Angelo; Bertorelli, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a possible drug efficacy enhancement obtained by combining inactive doses of galantamine and memantine in the scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice. We evaluated the effects of the two drugs, either alone or in combination, using the spontaneous alternation and object recognition tasks. In both tests, combination of low doses of galantamine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and memantine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), which were sub-active per se, rescued the memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The results suggest that combinations of galantamine and memantine might provide a more effective treatment of memory impairments in cognitive disorders than either drug used alone.

  5. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  6. Racial differences in anticholinergic use among community-dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Maria; Hanlon, Joseph T; Perera, Subashan; Thorpe, Joshua M; Marcum, Zachary A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined racial differences in potentially inappropriate medication use. The objective of this study was to examine racial disparities in using prescription and/or nonprescription anticholinergics, a type of potentially inappropriate medication, over time. Longitudinal. Data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (years 1, 5, and 10). Three thousand fifty-five community-dwelling older adults, both blacks and whites, at year 1. Highly anticholinergic medication use per the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Blacks represented 41.4% of the participants at year 1. At year 1, 13.4% of blacks used an anticholinergic medication compared with 17.8% of whites, and this difference persisted over the ensuing 10-year period. Diphenhydramine was the most common anticholinergic medication reported at baseline and year 5, and meclizine at year 10, for both races. Controlling for demographics, health status, and access to care factors, blacks were 24% to 45% less likely to use any anticholinergics compared with whites over the years considered (all P blacks than whites over a 10-year period, and the difference was unexplained by demographics, health status, and access to care.

  7. Gabapentin for overactive bladder and nocturia after anticholinergic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong T. Kim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We reviewed our experience with the use of gabapentin to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB and nocturia in patients who have failed conventional anticholinergic therapy. METHODS: Thirty-one patients referred to us with refractory (OAB and/or nocturia were treated with oral gabapentin. All the patients had tried or remained on antimuscarinic drugs during treatment. Twenty-four of 31 complained of bothersome symptoms during day and night and the other seven had primary complaints of nocturia. Initial gabapentin doses ranged from 100-300 mg at bedtime. Dose was slowly titrated up to 3,000 mg based on patients' symptomatology and tolerability. RESULTS:The mean age was 51 years old (range 27-78. There were 13 men and 18 women. The median steady state dose chosen by the patient after initial titration was 600 mg/day. Fourteen of 31 patients reported subjective improvement of their frequency and 8 have been on the medication for over 12 months with persistent efficacy. For the 14 improved patients, mean frequency/24 hours decreased from 14.1 ± 2.2 to10.0 + 2.1. Three patients with primary nocturia reported improvement from a mean of 4.0 ± 1.3 to 1.0 ± 0.3 episodes/night. Six patients stopped taking the drug within one month due to side effects mostly described as drowsiness or lethargy. CONCLUSION: Fourteen of 31 patients with refractory (OAB and nocturia improved with oral gabapentin. Gabapentin was generally well tolerated and can be considered in selective patients when conventional modalities have failed.

  8. Antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of Lavandula officinalis aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract in scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Batool; Kiasalari, Zahra; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen; Ansari, Fariba

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite some evidence, it is difficult to confirm Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Vill (Lamiaceae) as an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug. The effects of L. officinalis extract were studied in scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour. Male NMRI rats were divided into control, scopolamine alone-treated group received scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily and 30 min prior to performing behavioural testing on test day, for 12 continuous days and extract pretreated groups received aerial parts hydro alcoholic extract (i.p.) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), 30 min before each scopolamine injection. Memory impairment was assessed by Y-maze task, while, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were used to measure anxiolytic and antidepressive-like activity. Spontaneous alternation percentage in Y maze is reduced by scopolamine (36.42 ± 2.60) (p ≤ 0.001), whereas lavender (200 and 400 mg/kg) enhanced it (83.12 ± 5.20 and 95 ± 11.08, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). Also, lavender pretreatment in 200 and 400 mg/kg enhanced time spent on the open arms (15.4 ± 3.37 and 32.1 ± 3.46, respectively) (p ≤ 0.001). On the contrary, while immobility time was enhanced by scopolamine (296 ± 4.70), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg lavender reduced it (193.88 ± 22.42, 73.3 ± 8.25 and 35.2 ± 4.22, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.001). Lavender extracts improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment and also reduced anxiety and depression-like behaviour in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Frequency and correlates of anticholinergic use among patients with schizophrenia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, S G; Correll, C U; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2017-01-01

    Anticholinergic medications are used to treat extrapyramidal adverse effects induced by antipsychotics. Anticholinergics are associated with adverse effects: constipation, dry mouth and worsening of cognitive function. Anticholinergics have potential for abuse and are not recommended for long term...... Region. Long-term use of anticholinergics was predicted by older age, age at debut of schizophrenia, receiving early retirement pension, typical antipsychotic use, antipsychotic polypharmacy, typical + atypical antipsychotics, antidepressant treatment, high doses of antipsychotics measured in defined...

  10. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

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    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  11. Transdermal delivery of scopolamine by natural submicron injectors: in-vivo study in pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Shaoul

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts, comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with T(max of 30 minutes and C(max 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  12. Anticholinergic versus botulinum toxin A comparison trial for the treatment of bothersome urge urinary incontinence: ABC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Anthony G; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E; Nygaard, Ingrid; Paraiso, Marie Fidela; Menefee, Shawn A; Schaffer, Joseph; Wei, John; Chai, Toby; Janz, Nancy; Spino, Cathie; Meikle, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This trial compares the change in urgency urinary incontinence episodes over 6 months, tolerability and cost effectiveness between women receiving daily anticholinergic therapy plus a single intra-detrusor injection of saline versus a single intra-detrusor injection of 100 U of botulinum toxin A plus daily oral placebo tablets. We present the rationale and design of a randomized-controlled trial, Anticholinergic versus Botulinum Toxin, Comparison Trial for the Treatment of Bothersome Urge Urinary Incontinence: ABC trial, conducted by the NICHD-funded Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. We discuss the innovative nature of this trial and the challenges related to choice of patient population, maintaining masking, cost effectiveness, ethical considerations, measuring adherence, and placebo development and testing. Enrollment began in April, 2010. 242 participants will be randomized and primary outcome data analysis is anticipated to begin in mid 2012. Several challenges in the trial design are discussed. Randomization to placebo intra-detrusor injections may limit recruitment, potentially impacting generalizability. Other challenges included the heavy marketing of drugs for overactive bladder which could impact recruitment of drug-naïve women. In addition, anticholinergic medications often cause dry mouth, making masking difficult. Finally, adverse reporting of transient urinary retention is challenging as there is no standardized definition; yet this is the most common adverse event following intra-detrusor botulinum toxin injection. The ABC trial will help women with urgency urinary incontinence balance efficacy, side effects and cost of anticholinergic medication versus botulinum toxin intra-detrusor injection. The results have the potential to fundamentally change the therapeutic approach to this condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Scopolamine provocation-based pharmacological MRI model for testing procognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Nikolett; Laszy, Judit; Gyertyán, István; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Deli, Levente; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2015-04-01

    There is a huge unmet need to understand and treat pathological cognitive impairment. The development of disease modifying cognitive enhancers is hindered by the lack of correct pathomechanism and suitable animal models. Most animal models to study cognition and pathology do not fulfil either the predictive validity, face validity or construct validity criteria, and also outcome measures greatly differ from those of human trials. Fortunately, some pharmacological agents such as scopolamine evoke similar effects on cognition and cerebral circulation in rodents and humans and functional MRI enables us to compare cognitive agents directly in different species. In this paper we report the validation of a scopolamine based rodent pharmacological MRI provocation model. The effects of deemed procognitive agents (donepezil, vinpocetine, piracetam, alpha 7 selective cholinergic compounds EVP-6124, PNU-120596) were compared on the blood-oxygen-level dependent responses and also linked to rodent cognitive models. These drugs revealed significant effect on scopolamine induced blood-oxygen-level dependent change except for piracetam. In the water labyrinth test only PNU-120596 did not show a significant effect. This provocational model is suitable for testing procognitive compounds. These functional MR imaging experiments can be paralleled with human studies, which may help reduce the number of false cognitive clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

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    Javor Kac

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different areas of Slovenia between April and September 2004.Results: Results were compared and possible correlations between the alkaloid content and species, plant parts, growth conditions, and time of harvest were suggested. Atropine and scopolamine contents were assessed in deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna L., thorn apple (Datura stramonium L., scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq. and angel trumpet. The common name angel trumpet is used for Datura inoxia Mill. as well as for different Brugmansia Pers. species. The most intriguing results were the variable alkaloid content in various Brugmansia species and generally great differences in alkaloid content among various plants and their plant parts.Conclusions: All investigated plants have noticeable atropine and/or scopolamine content. The content is variable between various plants and their plant parts and therefore special care should be taken in cases of possible intoxication. It was shown that smaller or greater amounts of ingested drug can cause the same level of intoxication due to the variability in alkaloid content.

  15. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

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    Emma Bestaven

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. Methods: Seven subjects were evaluated on four different tasks before and after a subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (0.2 mg: a one-minute balance test, a subjective visual vertical test, a pointing task and a galvanic vestibular stimulation with EMG recordings. Results: The results showed that the reaction time and the movement duration were not modified after the injection of scopolamine. However, there was an increase in the center of pressure displacement during the balance test, a decrease in EMG muscle response after galvanic vestibular stimulation and an alteration in the perception of verticality. Discussion: These results confirm that low doses of scopolamine such as those prescribed to avoid motion sickness have no effect on attentional processes, but that it is essential to consider the responsiveness of each subject. However, scopolamine did affect postural control and the perception of verticality. In conclusion, the use of scopolamine to prevent motion sickness must be considered carefully because it could increase imbalances in situations when individuals are already at risk of falling (e.g., sailing, parabolic flight.

  16. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-05-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. p-Coumaric acid enhances long-term potentiation and recovers scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Lee, Seok; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Maeng, Sungho; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-10-21

    Due to the improvement of medical level, life expectancy increased. But the increased incidence of cognitive disorders is an emerging social problem. Current drugs for dementia treatment can only delay the progress rather than cure. p-Coumaric acid is a phenylpropanoic acid derived from aromatic amino acids and known as a precursor for flavonoids such as resveratrol and naringenin. It was shown to reduce oxidative stress, inhibit genotoxicity and exert neuroprotection. Based on these findings, we evaluated whether p-coumaric acid can protect scopolamine induced learning and memory impairment by measuring LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice and cognitive behaviors in rats. p-Coumaric acid dose-dependently increased the total activity of fEPSP after high frequency stimulation and attenuated scopolamine-induced blockade of fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 area. In addition, while scopolamine shortened the step-through latency in the passive avoidance test and prolonged the latency as well as reduced the latency in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test, co-treatment of p-coumaric acid improved avoidance memory and long-term retention of spatial memory in behavioral tests. Since p-coumaric acid improved electrophysiological and cognitive functional deterioration by scopolamine, it may have regulatory effects on central cholinergic synapses and is expected to improve cognitive problems caused by abnormality of the cholinergic nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relevance of dosage in adherence to treatment with long-acting anticholinergics in patients with COPD

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    Izquierdo JL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Izquierdo,1 José Manuel Paredero,2 Raul Piedra3 1Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Primary Care, Guadalajara Integrated Care Management, Guadalajara, Spain Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of adherence for two standard regimens for administrating anticholinergic drugs (12 and 24 hours in patients with chronic obstruction of the airflow and to establish whether the use of a once-daily dose improves the level of treatment adherence.Methods: We used long-acting anticholinergics (LAMAs as a study variable, and included the entire health area of Castile-La Mancha, numbering 2,100,998 inhabitants, as the study population. We analyzed a total of 16,446 patients who had been prescribed a LAMA between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013. The follow-up period, based on a centralized system of electronic prescription management, was extended until December 2014.Results: During 2013, the medication collected was 7.4%–10.7% higher than indicated by labeling. This was very similar for all LAMAs, irrespective of the patient’s sex, the molecule, the device, and the drug dosage. We did not observe seasonal variations in the consumption of LAMAs, nor did we detect differences between prescription drugs for once-daily (every 24 hours versus twice-daily (every 12 hours administration, between the different molecules, or between different types of inhalers for the same molecule. The results were similar in 2014.Conclusion: The principal conclusion of this study is that, in an area with a centralized management system of pharmacological prescriptions, adherence to treatment with LAMAs is very high, irrespective of the molecules or inhalation device. We did not find that patients who used twice-daily medication had a lower adherence. Keywords: COPD, treatment, adherence, LABAs, LAMAs, PDC, asthma

  19. Anticholinergic Medication Burden and 5-Year Risk of Hospitalization and Death in Nursing Home Elderly Residents With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrano, Davide L; La Carpia, Domenico; Grande, Giulia; Casucci, Paola; Bacelli, Tiziana; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2016-11-01

    To assess the association of the anticholinergic medication burden with hospitalization and mortality in nursing home elderly patients and to investigate the role of coronary artery disease (CAD). Longitudinal (5-year) retrospective observational study. Nursing homes in Italy. A total of 3761 nursing home older residents. A comprehensive clinical and functional assessment was carried out through the interRAI long-term care facility instrument. The anticholinergic burden was assessed through the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale. Occurrence of hospitalization/all-cause mortality was the primary composite outcome. First hospitalization and all-cause mortality were the secondary outcomes of the study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and subdistribution HRs were obtained through Cox and competing risk (death as competing event for hospitalization) models. Within the sample (mean age 83 ± 7 years; 72% females) the incidence rate of the primary outcome was 10/100 person-year. After adjusting for potential confounders and compared with participants with an ACB of 0, those with an ACB of 1 [HR 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.90] and ABC of 2+ (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79) presented an increased risk of developing the primary outcome. After stratification, the risk for the primary outcome increased along with the anticholinergic burden, only for participants affected by CAD (HR 1.53; 95% CI 0.94-2.50 and HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68 for the ACB of 1 and ACB of 2+ groups). An ACB score of 2+ was marginally associated with first hospitalization, considering death as a competing risk, only for those with CAD (subdistribution HR 3.47; 95% CI 0.99-12.3). Anticholinergic medication burden is associated to hospitalization and all-cause mortality in institutionalized older adults. CAD increases such risk. The effectiveness and safety profile of complex drug regimens should be reconsidered in this population. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long

  20. Nootropic and Neuroprotective Effects of Dichrocephala integrifolia on Scopolamine Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Nadège E. Kouémou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease the most common form of dementia in the elderly is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 44 millions of people worldwide. The first treatments against Alzheimer’s disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; however, these medications are associated with many side effects. Dichrocephala integrifolia is a traditional herb widely used by indigenous population of Cameroon to treat and prevent Alzheimer’s disease and for memory improvement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the decoction prepared from leaves of D. integrifolia, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Seven groups of six animals were used. The first two groups received distilled water for the distilled water and scopolamine groups. The four test groups received one of the four doses of the decoction of the plant (35, 87.5, 175 or 350 mg/kg p.o. and the positive control group received tacrine (10 mg/kg, a cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, during 10 consecutive days. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a cholinergic receptor blocker, administered 30 min after treatments, was used to induce memory impairment to all groups except the distilled water group on day 10 of drug treatment. The behavioral paradigms used to evaluate the effects of the treatment were the elevated plus maze for learning and memory, Y maze for spatial short-term memory, the novel object recognition for recognition memory and Morris water maze for the evaluation of spatial long-term memory. After behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed and brains of a subset were used for the assessment of some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and for the evaluation of the acetylcholinesterase activity. From the remaining subset brains, histopathological analysis was performed. The results of this study showed that, D. integrifolia at the doses of 87.5 and 350 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.01 improved spatial short

  1. Intra- and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Patrick P J; von Holst, Christoph; Nivarlet, Noan; van Egmond, Hans P

    2014-01-01

    Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by plants of, inter alia, the genera Datura (thorn apple) and Atropa (deadly nightshade). The most relevant TAs are (-)-L-hyoscyamine and (-)-L-scopolamine, which act as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and can induce a variety of distinct toxic syndromes in mammals (anti-cholinergic poisoning). The European Union has regulated the presence of seeds of Datura sp. in animal feeds, specifying that the content should not exceed 1000 mg kg(-1) (Directive 2002/32/EC). For materials that have not been ground, visual screening methods are often used to comply with these regulations, but these cannot be used for ground materials and compound feeds. Immunological assays, preferably in dipstick format, can be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitor feedstuffs in an HACCP setting in control laboratories. So far no reports have been published on immunoassays that are capable of detecting both hyoscyamine and scopolamine with equal sensitivity and that can be used, preferably in dipstick format, for application as a fast screening tool in feed analysis. This study presents the results obtained for the in-house and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed. The target level was set at 800 µg kg(-1) for the sum of both alkaloids. By using a representative set of compound feeds during validation and a robust study design, a reliable impression of the relevant characteristics of the assay could be obtained. The dipstick test displayed similar sensitivity towards the two alkaloids and it could be concluded that the test has a very low probability of producing a false-positive result at blank level or a false-negative result at target level. The assay can be used for monitoring of TAs in feedstuffs, but has also potential as a quick screening tool in food- or feed-related poisonings.

  2. Multi-development-HPTLC method for quantitation of hyoscyamine, scopolamine and their biosynthetic precursors in selected solanaceae plants grown in natural conditions and as in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremicz, Zbigniew; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Kisiel, Mariusz; Zárate, Rafael; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Migas, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Hyoscyamine and scopolamine, anti-cholinergic agents widely used in medicine, are typically obtained from plants grown under natural conditions. Since field cultivation entails certain difficulties (changeable weather, pests, etc.), attempts have been made to develop a plant in vitro culture system as an alternative source for the production of these compounds. During experiments to locate the limiting steps in the biotechnological procedure, it is important to monitor not only the levels of the final products but also the changes in the concentration of their precursors. To develop a HPTLC method for the separation and quantitation of the main tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine, their respective direct precursors littorine and anisodamine, and cuscohygrine, a product of a parallel biosynthetic pathway that shares a common precursor (N-methyl-∆(1) -pyrrolium cation) with tropane alkaloids. Using alkaloid extracts from Atropa baetica hairy roots, different TLC chromatographic systems and developing procedures were investigated. Full separation of all compounds was obtained on HPTLC Si60 F254 plates preconditioned with mobile phase vapours (chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonia ratios of 75:15:10:1.8, v/v/v/v). The chromatograms were developed twice (at distances of 4.0 and 3.0 cm) in a Camag twin trough chamber and visualised with Dragendorff's reagent. Densitometric detection (λ = 190 and 520 nm) was used for quantitative analyses of the different plant samples. This method can be recommended for quantitation of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, anisodamine, littorine and cuscohygrine in different plant material (field grown vs. in vitro cultures). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Mai T.; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C.; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M.; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in ...

  4. Anticholinergic Toxic Syndrome Caused by Atropa Belladonna Fruit (Deadly Nightshade): A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Abdullah; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Yıldız, İsa; Korkmaz, Tanzer; Bilgi, Murat; Akkaya, Akcan; Koçoğlu, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna poisoning may lead to anticholinergic syndrome. Ingestion of high amounts of the plant may cause lethargy, coma, and even a serious clinical picture leading to death. In this case report, we aimed to present a case with anticholinergic syndrome that developed after ingestion of the fruit called “Deadly Nightshade” in our country. PMID:27366377

  5. 78 FR 52939 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS... Application 11/137,114, filed May 25, 2005, titled ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety... ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No. E-175-2004/0-EP-03]; 3. German Patent...

  6. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

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    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  7. Anxiolytic effects of environmental enrichment attenuate sex-related anxiogenic effects of scopolamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Otto, Maria T

    2013-01-10

    In groups of four same-sexed animals, PVG/c hooded rats were housed for 4.5 months in standard or enriched cages containing several objects that could be explored and manipulated. On separate occasions, each rat then experienced two consecutive daily trials in an open field, a light-dark box or a Y maze with arm inserts that enabled an acquisition trial comprising one black and one white arm to be changed for a retention trial consisting of two black arms. Before their trials in the open field and light-dark box, and following each acquisition trial in the Y maze, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg scopolamine or isotonic saline. In the open field, enrichment led to higher levels of ambulation, walking, rearing and occupancy of the center of the apparatus and shorter emergence latencies from the dark into the light compartment of the light-dark box accompanied by more entries of this compartment. Enrichment also increased entries of and time spent in the changed (or novel) Y-maze arm only for male rats treated with scopolamine. The drug decreased rearing and increased grooming in the open field as well as increasing emergence latencies and decreasing entries of and the time spent on the light compartment of the light-dark box. The main results were interpreted as enrichment having attenuated anxiogenic effects of the behavioral testing and the action of scopolamine for male (but not female) rats in their choices of the novel arm in the Y maze. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the pharmacodynamics of intranasal, intravenous and oral scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1990-01-01

    Space motion sickness is an important issue in the space medical sciences program. One of the objectives of the ongoing clinical experimental protocol Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine in Normal Subjects is to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of scopolamine using salivary flow rate and pH profiles and cognitive performance tests as pharmacodynamic parameters. Normal volunteers collected saliva and performed the NTI Multiresource Performance Battery tests at designed time intervals to establish control saliva flow rates, salivary pH profiles, and the characteristics of the learning curve for the performance program under normal conditions. In the clinical part of the study, saliva samples and performance test scores are collected from healthy nonsmoking subjects after receiving a single 0.4 mg dose of either intranasal, intravenous, or oral scopolamine.

  9. A comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced neuroinflammation in albino Wistar rats was studied. Male albino rats were administered with scopolamine to induce memory impairment. The standard nootropic agent, piracetam (200 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], perindopril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], enalapril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], and ramipril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.] were administered in different group of animals for 5 days. On 5 th day, scopolamine (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p. was administered after 60 min of the last dose of test drug. Memory function was evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM test and pole climbing test (PCT. Biochemical estimations like glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain were estimated after completion of behavior study. All three test groups shows improvement in learning and memory in comparison to control group. Perindopril treated group showed a more effective significant decrease in escape latency time and transfer latency time compared to enalapril and ramipril treated group on day 4 in MWM test and PCT, respectively. Perindopril shows a significant reduction in MDA level and acetylcholinesterase activity and a significant rise in GSH level compared to enalapril and ramipril. The finding of this study indicates that Perindopril is more effective in memory retention compared to enalapril and ramipril.

  10. Ebselen inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase globular isoform G4 in vitro and attenuates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Franciele; Pesarico, Ana P; Brüning, César A; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2018-02-05

    There is a well-known relationship between the cholinergic system and learning, memory, and other common cognitive processes. The process for researching and developing new drugs has lead researchers to repurpose older ones. This study investigated the effects of ebselen on the activity of acethylcholinesterase (AChE) isoforms in vitro and in an amnesia model induced by scopolamine in Swiss mice. In vitro, ebselen at concentrations equal or higher than 10 μM inhibited the activity of cortical and hippocampal G4/AChE, but not G1/AChE isoform. Treatment of mice with ebselen (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was effective against impairment of spatial recognition memory in both Y-maze and novel object recognition tests induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Ebselen (50 mg/kg) inhibited hippocampal AChE activity in mice. The present study demonstrates that ebselen inhibited the G4/AChE isoform in vitro and elicited an anti-amnesic effect in a mouse model induced by scopolamine. These findings reveal ebselen as a potential compound in terms of opening up valid therapeutic avenues for the treatment of memory impairment diseases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Canagliflozin prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats: Comparison with galantamine hydrobromide action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Nadia M S; Ali, Elham H A; Hassan, Mohamed Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Canagliflozin (CAN) is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a little information about its effect on the cholinergic system that proposed mechanism for memory improvement occurring by SGLT2 drugs. This study aimed to estimate the effect of CAN as compared to galantamine (GAL) treatments for two weeks on scopolamine hydrobromide (SCO)-induced memory dysfunction in experimental rats. Animals divided into six groups; control (CON), CAN, GAL, SCO, SCO + CAN and SCO + GAL. Results indicated significant decrease in body weights of the CAN groups as compared to control values. Moreover, in the SCO + CAN and SCO + GAL the number of arm entry and number of correct alternation in Y maze task increased and showed improvement in the water maze task, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities decreased significantly, while monoamines levels significantly increased compared with the SCO group values. Results also recorded acetylcholine M1 receptor (M1 mAChR) in SCO + CAN or SCO + GAL groups in comparison with the SCO group. The study suggested that canagliflozin might improve memory dysfunction induced by scopolamine hydrobromide via cholinergic and monoamines system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  13. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  14. Anticholinergic Exposure and Risk of Pneumonia in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampela, Pasi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Taipale, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Risk of pneumonia is increased in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some studies, anticholinergic drugs (AC) have been associated with an increased pneumonia risk. We analyzed the risk of pneumonia associated with ACs in persons with AD. We performed a nested case-control study using register-based data from a Finnish nationwide MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011. Cases were identified based on pneumonia diagnoses (n = 12,442) from hospital discharge and causes of death registers. Up to two controls without pneumonia were matched based on time since AD diagnoses, age, and gender for each case; AC use was measured using Anticholinergic Drug Scale. Use of AC was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.43). However, there was no increased pneumonia risk in persons using level 3 ACs. Incident use was associated with higher risk of pneumonia (OR 2.68, 95% CI 2.15-3.34) than prevalent use (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.40-1.57). Among persons using cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), risk of pneumonia was increased in persons using also ACs (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.41-1.66). ACs were associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in persons with AD, especially at the time of initiation of these drugs. AC use was associated with increased pneumonia risk also in persons using AChEIs. This risk should be carefully considered when treating AD patients.

  15. Dry eye findings worsen with anticholinergic therapy in patients with urge incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen Tunay, Zuhal; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Ergintürk Acar, Damla; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Ersoy, Ebru

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral anticholinergic (OAC) drugs on tear secretion in women with overactive bladder over a 3-month follow-up period. In this prospective study, 108 women with a diagnosis of overactive bladder were evaluated. All patients were examined ophthalmologically at baseline (day 0), and after 1 month (day 30) and 3 months (day 90) of OAC treatment. Tear film break-up time (BUT) and Schirmer 1 test results were recorded. The subjective complaints of the patients including dry mouth, and burning, dryness and foreign body sensation in the eyes, were also recorded. The chi-squared test or the paired sample t test as appropriate, was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the patients was 51.8 ± 9.2 years (30 - 69 years). The most frequent subjective complaints were dry mouth and dry eyes and both complaints were significant on both day 30 and day 90. Both tear film BUT and Schirmer 1 test results were significantly lower on day 30 and day 90. Dry eye measurement values worsened with prolongation of OAC treatment (p = 0.037 and p = 0.012 for BUT, and p = 0.046 and p = 0.035 for Schirmer 1 test, on day 30 and day 90, respectively). OAC treatment in women with overactive bladder significantly and progressively affects tear secretion.

  16. [New methods of patient selection for improved anticholinergic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Schwalenberg, T; Schlichting, N; Schulze, M; Horn, L-C; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2007-09-01

    M3-specific inhibitors are currently preferred for anticholinergic therapy of OAB. However, not all of the patients profit from this regimen. This might reflect a heterogeneity of the patient group. The aim of this work is to define subgroups of patients with specific alterations of receptor expression and to profile the receptor expression individually. These receptor profiles might be used for the development of evidence-based "tailored" therapies. Detrusor probes from bladder carcinoma patients (BCa, n=9 F, n=7 male) and interstitial cystitis patients (IC, n=9 female) were examined using confocal immunofluorescence and PCR. M2, M3, P2X1-3, and H1-3 mRNAs were demonstrated in detrusor tissue. As revealed by immunofluorescence, the M2 receptor expression was significantly higher in female compared to male BCa tissues. In addition, the M2 receptor was further upregulated in IC vs BCa in female detrusor. IC patients showed specific alterations of their receptor profile. Individual receptor profiles might be used to optimize medicinal therapies.

  17. Post-training scopolamine treatment induced maladaptive behavior in open field habituation task in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Popović

    Full Text Available The effects of scopolamine on memory consolidation are controversial and depend on several factors (i.e. site of administration, time of administration and testing, dose, cognitive task, experimental protocol, specie, strain, etc.. Generally, the range dose of systemic administered scopolamine, used in memory consolidation studies, has varied from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg. However, according to the literature, the most frequently used doses of scopolamine efficient on memory consolidation, are 1 and 30 mg/kg, low and high doses, respectively. In open field habituation studies only lower doses of scopolamine were used to test memory consolidation. Therefore, in the present study we compared the effects of low (1 mg/kg and high (30 mg/kg scopolamine dose, on the open field habituation task, in male Wistar rats. Scopolamine was administered immediately after the acquisition task and animals were retested 48 h later on. On the retested day, the ambulation and rearing in the open field decreased in the same manner in all tested groups. In saline- and 1 mg/kg scopolamine-treated animals, the time spent in grooming significantly decreased in the habituation task, while the same parameter significantly increased in animals treated with 30 mg/kg of scopolamine. The defecation rate significantly decreased (control group, maintained (1 mg/kg of scopolamine treated animals or significantly increased (30 mg/kg of scopolamine treated group on retention test. In conclusion, the present data suggest that post-training scopolamine administration does not affect locomotion neither exploration in the habituation to a novel environment, but increases defecation and grooming, two behaviours associated with fearful and stressful situations.

  18. Efficacy of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel for Motion Sickness Treatment in Aviation Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-13

    Baseline 15 25 80 115 145 190 M ea n B lo o d P re ss u re (m m H g ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Systolic BP P Systolic BPIN Diastolic BPP Diastolic...scopolamine when compared to placebo, p < .05. BPP = Blood Pressure, Placebo, BPIN = Blood Pressure, Intranasal Scopolamine 31 Time (min) Baseline 15 25 80

  19. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Rabiei; Shiva; Mokhtari; Samira; Asgharzade; Mostafa; Gholami; Samira; Rahnama; Mahmoud; Rafieian-kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm.Methods: A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow:control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine + T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine and T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups:received T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days.Results: Administration of T. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test.Conclusions: T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Cognitive enhancing of pineapple extract and juice in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtazi-borojeni, Amir Abbas; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Rabbani, Mohammed; Ghannadi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing of pineapple juice and ethanolic extract in scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice. The ethanolic extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) was prepared by maceration method and its juice was obtained by a homogenizer. Object recognition task was used to evaluate the mice memory. Exploration time in the first and second trial was recorded. The differences in exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in the second trial were taken as a memory index. Animals were randomly assigned into 15 groups of 6 each including: control group (normal saline + vehicle), positive control group (scopolamine + rivastigmine), seven experimental groups (received scopolamine alone or scopolamine + ethanolic extract of pineapple in different doses), six other experimental groups were treated by ethanolic extract or juice of pineapple in different doses. Scopolamine (100 μL, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and pineapple juice or extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 40 and 30 min before starting the second trial in the experimental groups. Object discrimination was impaired after scopolamine administration. Results showed that juice and ethanolic extract of pineapple significantly restored object recognition ability in mice treated with scopolamine. These finding suggested that pineapple had a protective role against scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its ability in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:28626484

  1. Restricted sedation and absence of cognitive impairments after administration of intranasal scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Aurélie P; Pattyn, Nathalie; Putcha, Lakshmi; Hoag, Stephen W; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Hallgren, Emma; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Wuyts, Floris L

    2015-12-01

    Space motion sickness in astronauts during spaceflight causes significant discomfort, which might impede their functionality. Pharmacological treatment has been mainly restricted to promethazine. Transdermal and oral scopolamine have also been used in space; however, their use was reduced due to unpredictable effectiveness and side effects. Recently, intranasal scopolamine administration has gained much interest, since this route ensures fast and reliable absorption with a decreased incidence of undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intranasal scopolamine on cognitive performance and to determine its side effects. This double-blind, placebo controlled, repeated measures study evaluated vigilant attention, short-term memory, implicit memory and working memory. Side effects were reported on a 22-item questionnaire and sleepiness was assessed by the Karolinska, Stanford and Epworth Sleepiness Scales. Scopolamine had no effect on cognitive function. Only the Karolinska score was significantly increased for scopolamine compared to placebo. Participants reported a dry mouth and dizziness after receiving scopolamine. Results show that intranasal scopolamine did not impair cognitive performance. Intranasal scopolamine might be a good alternative to promethazine for the alleviation of space motion sickness, since the agent has minimal sedative effects and does not hamper cognitive performance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Comparison in dissolution behavior of ethical and over-the counter scopolamine butylbromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ichie; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Marketing authorization holders do not disclose any information on the pharmaceutical properties of over-the-counter drugs (OTC). When a drug is switched from a prescription drug to OTC, pharmacists can acquire that information from the corresponding ethical drug (ED) through the package insert, interview form, and so on. However, the pharmaceutical equivalence between ED and OTC is unclear. In this study, we examined the drug dissolution behavior of both ED and OTCs containing scopolamine butylbromide. Dissolution tests were performed by the paddle method using Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP) XV test fluids at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8 and water based on the guidelines for bioequivalence studies of generic products. The dissolution profiles of OTCs differed significantly from ED showing a similarity factor (f2) value ranging from 8.9 to 42.9. Time until 85% dissolution ranged from 23 to 95 min and from 17 to 174 min at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8, respectively. Then JP XV disintegration tests were conducted to investigate differences in the disintegration process. The disintegration time of preparations showing delayed dissolution was prolonged compared to that of others, suggesting that the disintegration of the tablet or capsule is one of the important factors affecting the drug dissolution. These differences in the disintegration and drug dissolution might cause differences in the bioavailability of the drug. For patient safety, more detailed product information of OTCs should be supplied by the manufacturer, and not be assumed from that of corresponding ED.

  3. Influence of Light, Temperature, and Macronutrients on Growth and Scopolamine Biosynthesis in Duboisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike; Rothauer, Andreas; Hagels, Hansjörg; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Scopolamine is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor in the organic synthesis of different classes of important active substances and is extracted in large scale from field grown Duboisia plants. Previous research revealed that plant growth as well as production of scopolamine and its derivatives varies strongly depending on abiotic factors. However, only a small amount of systematic research has been done on the influence of environmental conditions on scopolamine and biomass production, so far. In order to extend knowledge in this field, plants of three different genotypes (wild type Duboisia myoporoides and hybrids of D. myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii ) were grown in climate chambers under controlled conditions in order to systematically analyse the influence of temperature (20, 24, 28 °C), light (50-300 µmol/m 2  × s, 12, 18, 24 h per day) and macronutrients (nitrogen, calcium, potassium) on growth and scopolamine biosynthesis. The data indicate that light intensity and daily exposure to light have a major impact on scopolamine production and plant development, whereas temperature only shows a minor influence. Nitrogen (N) positively affects biomass production with increasing levels up to 4 mM, but is negatively correlated with scopolamine content. Calcium (Ca) shows a negative influence on scopolamine biosynthesis at increased levels above 1 mM as well. Potassium (K) neither affects biomass nor scopolamine production within the tested concentration range (0.05-4 mM). All in all, it can be concluded that light intensity and nitrogen supply are especially important regulating variables that can be applied in a targeted manner for influencing scopolamine and biomass production. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  5. Safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat versus HandiHaler in patients naive to treatment with inhaled anticholinergics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Robert; Calverley, Peter Ma; Dahl, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were naive to anticholinergics before the TIOtropium Safety and Performance In Respimat (TIOSPIR) trial may reflect patients seen in practice, in particular in primary care. In addition, investigating safety...... in these patients avoids the potential bias in patients who previously received anticholinergics and may be tolerant of their effects. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients naive to anticholinergic therapy who were treated with tiotropium Respimat 2.5 or 5 μg had different safety and efficacy...... the Respimat and HandiHaler groups. Rates of exacerbations in the subgroup of patients with moderate disease were similar across the Respimat and HandiHaler groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tiotropium Respimat and HandiHaler have similar safety and efficacy profiles in patients who are naive to anticholinergic therapy....

  6. Time course of scopolamine effect on memory consolidation and forgetting in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miroljub; Giménez de Béjar, Verónica; Popović, Natalija; Caballero-Bleda, María

    2015-02-01

    The effect of scopolamine on the consolidation and forgetting of emotional memory has not been completely elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time course of scopolamine effect on consolidation and forgetting of passive avoidance response. In a first experiment of the present study, we tested the effect of scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p., immediately after acquisition), on 24h and 48h retention performance of the step-through passive avoidance task, in adult male Wistar rats. On the 24h retested trial, the latency of the passive avoidance response was significantly lower, while on the 48h retested trial it was significantly higher in scopolamine than in the saline-treated group. In a second experiment, we assessed the 24h time course of scopolamine (1mg/kg) effect on memory consolidation in passive avoidance task. We found that scopolamine administration only within the first six and half hours after acquisition improved memory consolidation in 48h retention performance. Finally, a third experiment was performed on the saline- and scopolamine-treated rats (given immediately after acquisition) that on the 48h retention test did not step through into the dark compartment during the cut-off time. These animals were retested weekly for up to first three months, and after that, every three months until the end of experiment (i.e., 15 months after acquisition). The passive avoidance response in the saline treated group lasted up to 6 weeks after acquisition, while in the scopolamine treated group 50% of animals conserved the initial level of passive avoidance response until the experiment end point. In conclusion, the present data suggest that (1) improving or impairment effect of scopolamine given in post-training periods depends on delay of retention trial, (2) memory consolidation process could be modify by scopolamine within first six and half hours after training and (3) scopolamine could delay forgetting of emotional memory. Copyright

  7. Drug: D03223 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03223 Crude ... Drug Belladonna leaf (USP) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02046], Atropine [CP...D:C01479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] ... Atropa belladonna [TAX:33113] ... Same as:... E00229 ATC code: A03BA04 Chemical group: DG00054 ... Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna leaf ... PubChem: 17397376 ...

  8. Drug: D03069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03069 Crude ... Drug Belladonna (USP); Belladonna extract (JP17) Hyoscyamine [CPD...:C02046], Atropine [CPD:C01479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] ... Atropa belladonna... [TAX:33113] ... Same as: E00008 ATC code: A03BA04 Chemical group: DG00054 ... Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladon

  9. Beneficial Effects of Gagam-Palmultang on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From text mining of Dongeuibogam, the 7 herbs in Palmultang can be considered effective candidates for memory enhancement. We sought to determine whether Gagam-Palmultang, comprising these 7 herbs, ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, by focusing on the central cholinergic system and memory-related signaling molecules. Behavioral tests were performed after inducing memory impairment by scopolamine administration. The cholinergic system activity and memory-related molecules were examined in the hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. Gagam-Palmultang ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze test, producing a significant improvement in the mean time required to find the hidden platform. Treatment with Gagam-Palmultang reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and expression in the hippocampus induced by scopolamine. The diminished phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF expressions caused by scopolamine administration were attenuated by treatment with Gagam-Palmultang. This treatment also promoted neuronal cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Gagam-Palmultang has beneficial effects against scopolamine-induced memory impairments, which are exerted via modulation of the cholinergic system as well as the PI3K and ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway. Therefore, this multiherb formula may be a useful therapeutic agent for diseases associated with memory impairments.

  10. [Serum anticholinergic activity: relationship with clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and proposal of new biological marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Koji; Konishi, Kimiko; Hachisu, Mitsugu

    2011-06-01

    We reviewed the importance of measuring serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since Tune and Coyle reported a simple method for assessing SAA using radioreceptor-binding assay, SAA is assumed to be the cumulative activity of parent medications and their metabolites and its relationship with delirium and cognitive functions has been debated. However, we evaluated the SAA in AD patients and SAA was correlated with prescription of antipsychotic medications, cognitive dysfunctions, severity of AD and psychotic symptoms, especially, with delusion and diurnal rhythm disturbance. From these results, we should not only pay attention to avoiding the prescription of medications with anticholinergic activity but also we speculated that AA appeared endogenously in AD and accelerated AD pathology. Moreover, there might be the possibility that SAA has predictive value for assessing the progressiveness of AD and as a biological marker for AD.

  11. Mini Review: Anticholinergic Activity as a Behavioral Pathology of Lewy Body Disease and Proposal of the Concept of “Anticholinergic Spectrum Disorders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between anticholinergic activity (AA and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we rereview our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of AA in AD. Briefly, because acetylcholine (ACh regulates not only cognitive function but also the inflammatory system, when ACh downregulation reaches a critical level, inflammation increases, triggering the appearance of cytokines with AA. Moreover, based on a case report of a patient with mild AD and slightly deteriorated ACh, we also speculate that AA can appear endogenously in Lewy body disease due to the dual action of the downregulation of ACh and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Based on these hypotheses, we consider AA to be a behavioral pathology of Lewy body disease. We also propose the concept of “anticholinergic spectrum disorders,” which encompass a variety of conditions, including AD, Lewy body disease, and delirium. Finally, we suggest the prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors to patients in this spectrum of disorders to abolish AA by upregulating ACh.

  12. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-15

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased mental slowing associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele after trihexyphenidyl oral anticholinergic challenge in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Nunzio; Belzer, Ken; Hernando, Raymundo; De La Pena, Corazon; Sidtis, John J

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between APOE epsilon4 and subjective effects of trihexyphenidyl on measures reflecting sedation and confusion and to investigate the relationship between trihexyphenidyl-induced subjective effects and objective memory performance. This study comprised 24 cognitively intact, health elderly adults (12 APOE epsilon4 carriers) at an outpatient geriatric psychiatry research clinic. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, crossover experimental design. All participants received 1.0 mg or 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl or placebo administered in counterbalanced sequences over a period of three consecutive weeks. Bond and Lader's visual analog scales and alternate versions of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test were administered in a repeated measures design at baseline, 1, 2.5, and 5 hours postdrug administration. A 2.0-mg oral dose of trihexyphenidyl resulted in increased subjective ratings of mental slowness in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. Drug effects as determined by difference scores between 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl and placebo on ratings of mental slowness significantly correlated with total and delayed recall on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. However, no significant effects were found with other visual analog scales reflecting subjective sedation and clear-headedness. The epsilon4 allele in healthy elderly was associated with increased subjective mental slowing after trihexyphenidyl anticholinergic challenge.

  14. Scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced damage and lethality in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Nitisha; Joshi, Jayadev; Ghosh, Subhajit; Dimri, Manali; Prem Kumar, Indracanti; Sehgal, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    In view of the strategic importance radiation countermeasures hold, the present study was undertaken to screen a collection of small molecule clinical compounds for possible radioprotective action using zebrafish as a model system. Preliminary screening in developing zebrafish embryos (24 hour post fertilization, (hpf)) using damage manifestations and survival as end point identified scopolamine methylbromide (SMB), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, as a potential radiomitigator. It was found to be optimal (60% survival advantage after 6 th post irradiation day) at a dose of 80 μM when added 3 h post 20 Gy exposure. Mechanistic studies suggested that SMB though exhibited no significant antioxidant potential, but was found to limit radiation induced apoptosis (pre G1 population) quantified through flow cytometry (6 and 5% reduction after 8 or 24 h after treatments) and annexin V staining (8% reduction). Further, quantitative analysis, using caspase 3 assay, revealed a 2.46 fold increase in apoptosis in irradiated group and treatment of irradiated zebrafish embryos with SMB led to a significant reduction in global apoptosis (1.7 fold; p<0.05) when compared to irradiated group. In silico studies based on structural and functional similarity with known radioprotectors suggested similarities with atropine, a known anti-inflammatory agent with muscarinic antagonism and radioprotective potential. In view of this SMB was tested, in silico, for possible anti-inflammatory action. Molecular docking studies revealed that SMB interacts (B.E-8.0 Kcal/mole) with cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2). In lieu of this, anti-inflammation activity was assessed through ChIN (chemically induced inflammation) method in 3 dpf (days post fertilization) embryos and SMB was found to significantly inhibit inflammation at all doses studied from 20-200 μM at 3 and 6 hpi (hours post inflammation). Overall the result suggests that scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced injury and lethality in

  15. Determination of Scopolamine in Human Saliva Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuwei; Vaksman, Zalman; Boyd, Jason; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Scopolamine is the preferred treatment for motion sickness during space flight because of its quick onset of action, short half-life and favorable side-effect profile. The dose administered depends on the mode of administration and usually ranges between 0.1 and 0.8 mg. Such small doses make it difficult to detect concentrations of scopolamine in biological fluids by using conventional HPLC methods. To measure scopolamine in saliva and thereby to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of scopolamine, we developed an LC/MS/MS method using off-line solid phase extraction. Method: Samples (0.5mL) were loaded onto Waters Oasis HLB co-polymer cartridges (10 mg, 1 mL) and eluted with 0.5 mL methanol without evaporation and reconstitution. HPLC separation of the eluted sample was performed using an Agilent Zorbax SB-CN column (50 x 2.1 mm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 4 minutes. The mobile phase for separation was 90:10 (v/v) methanol: ammonium acetate (2 mM) in water, pH 5.0 +/- 0.1. Concentrations of scopolamine were determined using a Micromass Quattro Micro(TM) mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI). ESI mass spectra were acquired in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring for the determination of scopolamine m/z = 304.2 yields 138.1 and internal standard (IS) hyoscyamine m/z = 290.2 yields 124.1. Results: The method is rapid, reproducible, specific and has the following parameters: scopolamine and the IS are eluted at 1.7 and 3.2 min respectively. The linear range is 50-5000 pg/mL for scopolamine in saliva with correlation coefficients > 0.99 with a CV < 0.5 %. The intra-day and inter-day CVs are < 15 % for quality control samples with concentrations of 75, 300, 750 and 3000 pg/mL of scopolamine in human saliva. Conclusion: Solid phase extraction allows more rapid sample preparation and greater precision than liquid extraction. Furthermore, we increased the sensitivity and specificity by adjusting the LC mobile phase and using an MS

  16. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  17. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  19. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation prevents memory impairment, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Eyup; Aydin, Emel; Ungureanu, Eugen; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-12-01

    Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0.7mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before the behavioral testing. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. As expected, the scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease the percentage of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze test, increase the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. However, dual scopolamine and Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil-treated rats showed significant improvement of memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. These results suggest that Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation can prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Einfluss von abiotischen Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese in Duboisia myoporoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duboisia ist eine in Australien beheimatete Pflanze aus der Familie der Nachtschattengewächse, die Tropanalkaloide als sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe enthält, deren quantitativ und ökonomisch bedeutsamstes Scopolamin ist. Um neue Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich des Einflusses abiotischer Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese zu gewinnen, wurden Pflanzen der Art Duboisia myoporoides in Hydrokultur in Klimakammern unter streng kontrollierten Bedingungen angebaut (kalibrierte Einstellungen für Beleuchtungsdauer, Lichtintensität und Temperatur. Wichtige Messgrößen stellten dabei Biomasse und Alkaloidgehalt dar, letzterer gemessen mittels UHPLC und LC-MS.

  1. D-cycloserine in prelimbic cortex reverses scopolamine-induced deficits in olfactory memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Portero-Tresserra

    Full Text Available A significant interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and muscarinic receptors has been suggested in the modulation of learning and memory processes. The present study further investigates this issue and explores whether d-cycloserine (DCS, a partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptors that has been regarded as a cognitive enhancer, would reverse scopolamine (SCOP-induced amnesia in two olfactory learning tasks when administered into the prelimbic cortex (PLC. Thus, in experiment 1, DCS (10 µg/site was infused prior to acquisition of odor discrimination (ODT and social transmission of food preference (STFP, which have been previously characterized as paradigms sensitive to PLC muscarinic blockade. Immediately after learning such tasks, SCOP was injected (20 µg/site and the effects of both drugs (alone and combined were tested in 24-h retention tests. To assess whether DCS effects may depend on the difficulty of the task, in the STFP the rats expressed their food preference either in a standard two-choice test (experiment 1 or a more challenging three-choice test (experiment 2. The results showed that bilateral intra-PLC infusions of SCOP markedly disrupted the ODT and STFP memory tests. Additionally, infusions of DCS alone into the PLC enhanced ODT but not STFP retention. However, the DCS treatment reversed SCOP-induced memory deficits in both tasks, and this effect seemed more apparent in ODT and 3-choice STFP. Such results support the interaction between the glutamatergic and the cholinergic systems in the PLC in such a way that positive modulation of the NMDA receptor/channel, through activation of the glycine binding site, may compensate dysfunction of muscarinic neurotransmission involved in stimulus-reward and relational learning tasks.

  2. Involvement of nitric oxide in granisetron improving effect on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Zakeri, Marjan; Norouzi, Abbas; Rastegar, Hossein; Mirazi, Naser; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-01-06

    Granisetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, widely used as an antiemetic drug following chemotherapy, has been found to improve learning and memory. In this study, effects of granisetron on spatial recognition memory and fear memory and the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) have been determined in a Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Granisetron (3, 10mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered to scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice prior to acquisition, consolidation and retrieval phases, either in the presence or in the absence of a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, l-NAME (3, 10mg/kg, intraperitoneally); a specific inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (100mg/kg); and a NO precursor, l-arginine (750 mg/kg). It is demonstrated that granisetron improved memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, but it was ineffective on consolidation and retrieval phases of memory. The beneficial effect of granisetron (10mg/kg) on memory acquisition was significantly reversed by l-NAME (10mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (100mg/kg); however, l-arginine (750 mg/kg) did not potentiate the effect of sub-effective dose of granisetron (3mg/kg) in memory acquisition phase. It is concluded that nitric oxide is probably involved in improvement of memory acquisition by granisetron in both spatial recognition memory and fear memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Cognitive Neuroscience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. D-cycloserine in prelimbic cortex reverses scopolamine-induced deficits in olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Tresserra, Marta; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Vale-Martínez, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A significant interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic receptors has been suggested in the modulation of learning and memory processes. The present study further investigates this issue and explores whether d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptors that has been regarded as a cognitive enhancer, would reverse scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesia in two olfactory learning tasks when administered into the prelimbic cortex (PLC). Thus, in experiment 1, DCS (10 µg/site) was infused prior to acquisition of odor discrimination (ODT) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), which have been previously characterized as paradigms sensitive to PLC muscarinic blockade. Immediately after learning such tasks, SCOP was injected (20 µg/site) and the effects of both drugs (alone and combined) were tested in 24-h retention tests. To assess whether DCS effects may depend on the difficulty of the task, in the STFP the rats expressed their food preference either in a standard two-choice test (experiment 1) or a more challenging three-choice test (experiment 2). The results showed that bilateral intra-PLC infusions of SCOP markedly disrupted the ODT and STFP memory tests. Additionally, infusions of DCS alone into the PLC enhanced ODT but not STFP retention. However, the DCS treatment reversed SCOP-induced memory deficits in both tasks, and this effect seemed more apparent in ODT and 3-choice STFP. Such results support the interaction between the glutamatergic and the cholinergic systems in the PLC in such a way that positive modulation of the NMDA receptor/channel, through activation of the glycine binding site, may compensate dysfunction of muscarinic neurotransmission involved in stimulus-reward and relational learning tasks.

  4. Comparison of reversal and adverse effects of sugammadex and combination of -Anticholinergic-Anticholinesterase agents in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Özgün

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to compare clinical effects of sugammadex versus combination of anticholinergic-anticholinesterase agents for reversing of nondepolarizing neuromuscular block in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 pediatric patients whom should be performed general anesthesia in the supine position were enrolled to this randomized double-blinded clinical trial. Fentanyl 1 μg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg were used in induction and sevofluran, 50% O 2 -50% N 2 O in maintenance of anesthesia. Neuromuscular conductions were assessed by train of four (TOF-Watch SX (Organon, Schering-Plough, Ireland acceleromyograph. Patients were intubated at the moment of TOF 0. At the end of the operation emergence of T2 point was replied by 2 mg/kg sugammadex administration in group 1 and 0.06 mg/kg neostigmine +0.02 mg/kg atropine in group 2. At the moment of T0.9 inhalation, gases were ceased, and patients were extubated. Hemodynamic alterations, access to T0.9, extubation time, recovery parameters, drug consumptions and adverse effects were recorded. Results: Train of four scores showed a lesser increase in group 2 than group 1 from 15 th s to 30 th min during post reverse period (from 6.9 ± 6.4 to 91.7 ± 7.2 in group 2 vs. from 35.4 ± 21.4 to 99.5 ± 1.0 in group 1 (p < 0.0004. Group 1 patients exhibited much more complete muscle strength rates than group 2 (P < 0.001. T0.9 and extubation times were significantly longer in group 2 than group 1 (P < 0.001. Comparison of adverse effects yielded no difference. Conclusion: Sugammadex can be considered as a safe agent in order to reverse neuromuscular block in pediatric patients.

  5. A systematic review of the cardiovascular risk of inhaled anticholinergics in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Hilleman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Hilleman,1 Mark A Malesker,1 Lee E Morrow,2 Dan Schuller21Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USAAbstract: The long-term use of inhaled anticholinergic agents has recently been suggested to be associated with an excess risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV outcomes in patients with COPD. We identified 15 published studies that reported on the association between long-term inhaled anticholinergic use and adverse CV outcomes. Only 3 of the studies were adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs. The first RCT that suggested that anticholinergic agents increased the risk of adverse CV outcomes was the Lung Health Study (LHS. Smokers randomized to inhaled ipratropium had a significantly increased risk of CV death than smokers receiving placebo. The LHS results have been questioned as the statistical tests used in the study were not adjusted for multiple tests and endpoints, a convincing dose-effect relationship between ipratropium use and the adverse CV outcomes was not established, and most of the CV deaths in the ipratropium group occurred in patients who were non-compliant to ipratropium. The Investigating New Standards for Prophylaxis in Reducing Exacerbations (INSPIRE was a RCT that compared the combination of salmeterol plus fluticasone against tiotropium in patients with COPD. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in the salmeterol plus fluticasone group (3% compared to the tiotropium group (6%. Fatal CV events occurred in 1% of the salmeterol plus fluticasone group compared to 3% in the tiotropium group. The INSPIRE trial was not designed to be a mortality trial, lacked adequate adjudication of fatal outcomes, and lacked a full intention-to-treat analysis of the data. The Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function

  6. Oxiracetam prevented the scopolamine but not the diazepam induced memory deficits in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 2 (2002), s. 395-399 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * oxiracetam * scopolamine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  7. Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Bunadri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, in rats. Memory impairment was induced by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Cognitive functions were assessed using radial arm maze, an active avoidance paradigm. Oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde, catalase and superoxide dismutase were assessed and acetylcholinesterase activity was estimated. More working and reference memory errors in the radial arm maze test and fewer avoidances in the active avoidance test were observed with scopolamine in the 1 mg/kg i.p.-treated animals. This phenomenon is a clear indication of memory impairment. Oral administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg inhibited the occurrence of higher working, reference memory errors and prevented the incidence of less avoidances. Resveratrol appeared to have exerted memory-enhancing effects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and prevented the rise in malondialdehyde levels and loss of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, showing antioxidant potential. Based on the above results of behavioral and biochemical studies, it can be concluded that resveratrol protected against scopolamine-induced loss of cognition. The results also indicate that resveratrol is an antioxidant and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and it is likely that resveratrol’s protective effect is related to its antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory effects.

  8. Drug: D02247 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. Drug: D00782 [KEGG MEDICUS

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  10. Drug: D00787 [KEGG MEDICUS

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  11. Drug: D01231 [KEGG MEDICUS

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  12. Drug: D03276 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Drug: D02246 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Therapeu

  14. Pretreatment Differences in BOLD Response to Emotional Faces Correlate with Antidepressant Response to Scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Szczepanik, Joanna; Khanna, Ashish; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-03-28

    Faster acting antidepressants and biomarkers that predict treatment response are needed to facilitate the development of more effective treatments for patients with major depressive disorders. Here, we evaluate implicitly and explicitly processed emotional faces using neuroimaging to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response to the antimuscarinic, scopolamine. Healthy participants (n=15) and unmedicated-depressed major depressive disorder patients (n=16) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover infusion study using scopolamine (4 μg/kg). Before and following scopolamine, blood oxygen-level dependent signal was measured using functional MRI during a selective attention task. Two stimuli comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Participants attended to one stimulus component and performed a matching task. Face emotion was modulated (happy/sad) creating implicit (attend-houses) and explicit (attend-faces) emotion processing conditions. The pretreatment difference in blood oxygen-level dependent response to happy and sad faces under implicit and explicit conditions (emotion processing biases) within a-priori regions of interest was correlated with subsequent treatment response in major depressive disorder. Correlations were observed exclusively during implicit emotion processing in the regions of interest, which included the subgenual anterior cingulate (Pemotional faces prior to treatment reflect the potential to respond to scopolamine. These findings replicate earlier results, highlighting the potential for pretreatment neural activity in the middle occipital cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate to inform us about the potential to respond clinically to scopolamine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Aqueous extracts from asparagus stems prevent memory impairments in scopolamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zifang; Qi, Ce; Huang, Yunxiang; Ma, Shufeng; Wang, Xinguo; Le, Guowei; Sun, Jin

    2017-04-19

    Aqueous extracts from Asparagus officinalis L. stems (AEAS) are rich in polysaccharides, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and steroidal saponin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AEAS on learning, memory, and acetylcholinesterase-related activity in a scopolamine-induced model of amnesia. Sixty ICR mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) including the control group (CT), scopolamine group (SC), donepezil group (DON), low, medium, and high dose groups of AEAS (LS, MS, HS; 1.6 mL kg -1 , 8 mL kg -1 , 16 mL kg -1 ). The results showed that 8 mL kg -1 of AEAS used in this study significantly reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice in the novel object recognition test (P < 0.05) and the Y-maze test (P < 0.05), and also improved the latency to escape in the Morris water maze test (P < 0.05). Moreover, it significantly increased acetylcholine and inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus, which was directly related to the reduction in learning and memory impairments. It also reversed scopolamine-induced reduction in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA expression. AEAS protected against scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In conclusion, AEAS protected learning and memory function in mice by enhancing the activity of the cholinergic nervous system, and increasing BDNF and CREB expression. This suggests that AEAS has the potential to prevent cognitive impairments in age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasushi; Inoue, Tatsuro; Kawaminami, Satoshi; Fujita, Miho

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801). Effect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test. Scallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolamine-induced short-term memory impairment and partially reduced scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze test. Scallop shell extract suppressed scopolamine-induced elevation of acetylcholine esterase activity in the cerebral cortex. Treatment with scallop shell extract reversed the increase in locomotor activity induced by scopolamine. Scallop shell extract also suppressed the increase in locomotor activity induced by MK801. Our results provide initial evidence that scallop shell extract reduces scopolamine-induced memory impairment and suppresses MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Melatonin attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment via protecting against demyelination through BDNF-TrkB signaling in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Song, Minah; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Kang, Il Jun; Yan, Bing Chun; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon

    2018-04-01

    Animal models of scopolamine-induced amnesia are widely used to study underlying mechanisms and treatment of cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have identified that melatonin improves cognitive dysfunction in animal models. In this study, using a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia, we assessed spatial and short-term memory functions for 4 weeks, investigated the expression of myelin-basic protein (MBP) in the dentate gyrus, and examined whether melatonin and scopolamine cotreatment could keep cognitive function and MBP expression. In addition, to study functions of melatonin for keeping cognitive function and MBP expression, we examined expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomycin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the mouse dentate gyrus. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally treated for 2 and 4 weeks. Two and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, mice showed significant cognitive impairment; however, melatonin and scopolamine cotreatment recovered cognitive impairment. Two and 4 weeks of scopolamine treatment, the density of MBP immunoreactive myelinated nerve fibers was significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus; however, scopolamine and melatonin cotreatment significantly increased the scopolamine-induced reduction of MBP expression in the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly increased the scopolamine-induced decrease of BDNF and TrKB immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin treatment exerts anti-amnesic effect and restores the scopolamine-induced reduction of MBP expression through increasing BDNF and TrkB expressions in the mouse dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Tamsulosin, Tolterodine and drug-combination on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the role of alpha-blocker (Tamsulosin) monotherapy, anticholinergic (Tolterodine) monotherapy or combination of both drugs versus analgesics in improving post-ureteroscopy (URS) lower urinary tract symptoms related to double-J ureteral stent. Patients and methods: Between January 2009 and ...

  19. Effect of scopolamine on central DAT and D2 receptor in morphine dependent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Shizhen; Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhenping; Zhou Xiang; Fang Ping; Wang Bocheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of scopolamine (Sco) on central dopamine transporter (DAT) and D 2 receptor in morphine (Mor) dependent rats. Methods: Chronic Mor exposure was induced by repeated Mor (20 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , i.p.) treatment for 8 d. Conditioned place preference test was used to evaluate the drug seeking behavior. Biodistribution of the imaging agents 125 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (β-CIT) and 125 I-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl] benzamide (IBZM) were used to evaluate the central DAT and D 2 receptor during chronic Mor exposure. Results: For the Mor plus pretreating with Sco (Mor+Sco) rats, the time for the rats entering C2 from C1 was (1.72 ± 0.69) min in the first day, with little difference from the control and Mor group (P>0.05), and (1.12 ± 0.33) min for the 8th day, still longer than that of the Mor group (t=5.171, P 125 I-β- CIT %ID/g in striatum (ST) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) for Mor + Sco group were 3.307 ± 0.189 and 1.577 ± 0.401 respectively, higher than those of the control group (2.431 ± 0.104, 1.441 ± 0.043, t was 4.151 and 5.416 respectively, P 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST, NAC, hippocampus (HIP) and frontal cortex (FC) for Mor + Sco group were 0.589 ± 0.081, 0.683 ± 0.046, 0.175 ± 0.039 and 0.257 ± 0.034 lower than that of the control rats (0.735 ± 0.096, 0.709 ± 0.098, 0.281 ± 0.038, 0.289 ± 0.020, t was 7.841, 6.170, 5.446 and 4.337 respectively, P 2 receptor induced by Mor to some extent

  20. The Effects of Loranthus parasiticus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Jin Bae Weon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to evaluate cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect of Loranthus parasiticus. Cognitive enhancing effect of Loranthus parasiticus was investigated on scopolamine-induced amnesia model in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. We also examined the neuroprotective effect on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells by MTT assay. These results of Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test indicated that 10 and 50 mg/kg of Loranthus parasiticus reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Loranthus parasiticus also protected against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. As a result of in vitro test for elucidating possible mechanism, Loranthus parasiticus inhibited AChE activity, ROS production, and Ca2+ accumulation. Loranthus parasiticus showed memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect and these effects may be related to inhibition of AChE activity, ROS level, and Ca2+ influx.

  1. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Javor Kac; Uroš Klančar; Aleš Mlinarič; Aleš Krbavčič

    2006-01-01

    Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different area...

  2. Effects of Different Coumarin- 3-Carboxamide Agents on Scopolamine Induced Learning and Memory Deficit in Mice

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    Samaneh Ghanei Nasab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that three new synthetic coumarins-3-carboxamides including 3-fluorobenzilchloride, 4-fluorobenzilchloride and 2-hidroxy-3 metoxybenzaldehyde, have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. This study was performed to estimate ameliorating effect of these new coumarin-3-carboxamides on memory impairments induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, induced prolongation in mice. Methods: 30 male mice were divided into five groups, 6 mice in each group. Three experiment groups received coumarins-3- carboxamides (10 mg/kg body weight 30 min before scopalamin injection and two other groups considered as normal (saline-treated groups and finally one negative control (scopalamin only group. The experiment groups were treated with coumarins of 3-fluorobenzilchloride, 4-fluorobenzilchloride and 2-hidroxy-3 metoxybenzaldehyde. The passive avoidance test was performed in an automatic conventional shuttle box set-up. The stepped down latency and number of errors was recorded. Results: With reference to saline-treated group, scopolamine-treated mice demonstrated impairment of learning and memory as a reduction of latency and an increased numbers of errors in step-down testp < 0.01. Treated mice receiving these coumarins at the dose of 10 mg/kg showed an increase in the number of avoidances on the memory tests compared to the scopolamine group (p < 0.01. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated some therapeutic effects of coumarin-3-carboxamides on learning and memory deficit induced by scopolamine. Further investigation is needed to explore whether coumarin-3-carboxamides could be beneficial for memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease in which cholinergic deficit is one of the hallmarks. 

  3. Polygalasaponin XXXII, a triterpenoid saponin from Polygalae Radix, attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Xue, Wei; Chu, Shi-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Chuang-Jun; Jiang, Yi-Na; Luo, Lin-Ming; Luo, Piao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that the extract of a Chinese herb Polygalae Radix exerts cognition-enhancing actions in rats and humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacological profiles of active compounds extracted from Polygalae Radix. Two fractions P3 and P6 and two compounds PTM-15 and polygalasaponin XXXII (PGS32) were prepared. Neuroprotective effects were evaluated in primary cortical neurons exposed to high concentration glutamate, serum deficiency or H2O2. Anti-dementia actions were assessed in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice using step-through avoidance tests and channel water maze tests. After conducting the channel water maze tests, TrkB phosphorylation in mouse hippocampus was detected using Western blotting. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in the dentate gyrus in adult rats; PGS32 (5 μL 400 μmol/L) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle 20 min after high frequency stimulation (HFS). Compared to the fraction P6, the fraction P3 showed more prominent neuroprotective effects in vitro and cognition-enhancing effects in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. One active compound PGS32 in the fraction P3 exerted potent cognition-enhancing action: oral administration of PGS32 (0.125 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 19 days abolished scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Furthermore, PGS32 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of TrkB in the hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular injection of PGS32 significantly enhanced HFS-induced LTP in the dentate gyrus of rats. PGS32 attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice, suggesting that it has a potential for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and dementia.

  4. Scopolamine Reduces Electrophysiological Indices of Distractor Suppression: Evidence from a Contingent Capture Task

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    Inga Laube

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited resources for the in-depth processing of external stimuli make it necessary to select only relevant information from our surroundings and to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Attentional mechanisms facilitate this selection via top-down modulation of stimulus representations in the brain. Previous research has indicated that acetylcholine (ACh modulates this influence of attention on stimulus processing. However, the role of muscarinic receptors as well as the specific mechanism of cholinergic modulation remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of ACh on feature-based, top-down control of stimulus processing via muscarinic receptors by using a contingent capture paradigm which specifically tests attentional shifts toward uninformative cue stimuli which display one of the target defining features In a double-blind, placebo controlled study we measured the impact of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine on behavioral and electrophysiological measures of contingent attentional capture. The results demonstrated all the signs of functional contingent capture, i.e., attentional shifts toward cued locations reflected in increased amplitudes of N1 and N2Pc components, under placebo conditions. However, scopolamine did not affect behavioral or electrophysiological measures of contingent capture. Instead, scopolamine reduced the amplitude of the distractor-evoked Pd component which has recently been associated with active suppression of irrelevant distractor information. The findings suggest a general cholinergic modulation of top-down control during distractor processing.

  5. Short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation does not increase cardiovascular events in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Emmy; van Dijk, Wouter D; Heijdra, Yvonne; Lenders, Jacques W M; van Weel, Chris; Akkermans, Reinier; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that bronchodilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the smoke-related risk to develop cardiovascular disease, and aimed to study the effect of short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation and smoking on cardiovascular events. We performed a secondary analysis on data from the Lung Health Study, a large randomized clinical trial of smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction, 35-60 years old, without cardiovascular comorbidity. We used Cox proportional survival analysis, controlling for several confounders, to study the effect on 5-year risk of fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Secondary outcome encompassed fatal and non-fatal coronary events. Of 2745 participants, 23 (0.8%) died of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and sixty-two participants were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event, and 94 participants due to a coronary event. Survival analysis revealed no effect between smoking and short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation on fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events, hazard ratio = 1.12 (0.58-2.19), nor on coronary events, hazard ratio = 1.46 (0.60-3.56). Our study results show that short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation had no detrimental effect on cardiovascular disease in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Influence of age on cognition and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats measured in the radial maze paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Dorothea; Fleck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The influence of age on (1) cognition and (2) scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced memory impairment in female rats was measured in the radial maze paradigm (RAM). (1) First training trials were done with 3 and 12 months old rats. Rats were trained to find all eight food baits in the RAM without errors and within 1 min. Both 3- and 12-month old rats need about 15 trials for the first-time learning of the RAM task. After intervals of 3 6 months, respectively, initially young rats were re-trained with an age of 6 and 12 months. Surprisingly, re-trained rats successfully completed the maze runs already after one re-training trial. Thus the phenomenon of preserved spatial memory was approved for female rats. (2) Memory impairment by scopolamine in the RAM was tested for the time in rats with an age of 3 months. first rats with thesame After a control run,the rats received an i.p. injection of either scopolamine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/100 g b. wt.) or saline vehicle. The effect of scopolamine on working memory was measured 20 min after administration. Training procedure and scopolamine administration were repeated at an age of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the same manner. The cognition impairment after scopolamine (number of errors: control: <1; scopolamine: 5-6) remains constant between 3 and 24 months of age. The only significant difference was the increase in run time in rats older than 18 months caused by degenerative changes developing with age.

  7. Piracetam prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment and decrease of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisco, Patricia C; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Rosa, Michelle M; Girardi, Bruna A; Gutierres, Jessié M; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Salla, Ana P S; Pimentel, Víctor C; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela B R; Mello, Carlos F; Rubin, Maribel A

    2013-08-01

    Piracetam improves cognitive function in animals and in human beings, but its mechanism of action is still not completely known. In the present study, we investigated whether enzymes involved in extracellular adenine nucleotide metabolism, adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are affected by piracetam in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of animals subjected to scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Piracetam (0.02 μmol/5 μL, intracerebroventricular, 60 min pre-training) prevented memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, immediately post-training) in the inhibitory avoidance learning and in the object recognition task. Scopolamine reduced the activity of NTPDase in hippocampus (53 % for ATP and 53 % for ADP hydrolysis) and cerebral cortex (28 % for ATP hydrolysis). Scopolamine also decreased the activity of 5'-nucleotidase (43 %) and ADA (91 %) in hippocampus. The same effect was observed in the cerebral cortex for 5'-nucleotidase (38 %) and ADA (68 %) activities. Piracetam fully prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment and decrease of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In vitro experiments show that piracetam and scopolamine did not alter enzymatic activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes. Moreover, piracetam prevented scopolamine-induced increase of TBARS levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These results suggest that piracetam-induced improvement of memory is associated with protection against oxidative stress and maintenance of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities, and suggest the purinergic system as a putative target of piracetam.

  8. [Anticholinergic syndrome caused by contaminated herbal tea; acting swiftly to identify the source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold. After a short stay in Intensive Care, the symptoms diminished and the patients could be released from hospital. The herbs were found to be contaminated with atropine, most probably derived from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Analyses of the contaminated product indicated that the patients were exposed to 20-200 mg atropine, while a dose of 2 mg is already considered mildly toxic. Consultation of the Dutch National Poisons Information Center resulted in rapid detection of the contamination; close collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the manufacturer of the product allowed rapid identification of the source of contamination and facilitated the prevention of an epidemic.

  9. Differential effect of an anticholinergic antidepressant on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered critical to the consolidation of procedural memory - the memory of skills and habits. Many antidepressants strongly suppress REM sleep, however, and procedural memory consolidation has been shown to be impaired in depressed patients on antidepressant therapy. As a result, it is important to determine whether antidepressive therapy can lead to amnestic impairment. We thus investigated the effects of the anticholinergic antidepressant amitriptyline on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-five healthy men (mean age: 26.8 ± 5.6 y). 75 mg amitriptyline versus placebo. To test memory consolidation, a visual discrimination task, a finger-tapping task, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were performed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Our findings show that amitriptyline profoundly suppressed REM sleep and impaired perceptual skill learning, but not motor skill or declarative learning. Our study is the first to demonstrate that an antidepressant can affect procedural memory consolidation in healthy subjects. Moreover, considering the results of a recent study, in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were shown not to impair procedural memory consolidation, our findings suggest that procedural memory consolidation is not facilitated by the characteristics of REM sleep captured by visual sleep scoring, but rather by the high cholinergic tone associated with REM sleep. Our study contributes to the understanding of potentially undesirable behavioral effects of amitriptyline.

  10. Outcomes of different protocols of pelvic floor physical therapy and anti-cholinergics in women with wet over-active bladder: A 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuri, Joseph; Kafri, Rachel; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Stav, Kobi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the 4-year outcomes of three protocols of pelvic floor physical therapy and anticholinergic drug in women with wet over-active bladder (OAB). One hundred and sixty-four women were randomly allocated to one of four interventions: drug therapy (DT), bladder training (BT), pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), or combined pelvic floor rehabilitation (CPFR) that includes BT, PFMT, and behavioral advice. The active treatment in each group lasted 3 months. Of the 132 women who completed a 1-year follow-up, 120 women (90%) responded to our questionnaires and therefore were included in this study. Outcome measures were the number of voids per day, number of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes per week, completely dry rate and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL) at 4 years. After 4 years of follow-up, the outcome measures improved significantly and equally in all four groups. The median number of UUI episodes/week dropped by 3, 1, 2, and 2 in the DT, BT, PFMT, and CPFR groups, respectively (P = ns). The dry rates were 25%, 31%, 44%, 34% in the DT, BT, PFMT, and CPFR groups, respectively (P = ns). I-QOL scores improved significantly in all four groups. Women who suffer from wet-OAB may experience the same degree of long-term improvement following various pelvic floor physical therapy protocols as they would from drug therapy. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:755-758, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Hajihosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root (Beta vulgaris leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: Control (C, scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S, scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50, scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100 and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200. Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were also measured. Results: Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased this time (p

  12. Promoting scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic Atropa belladonna plants with pmt and h6h overexpression under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qiaozhuo; Qiang, Wei; Guo, Jianjun; Lan, Xiaozhong; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2016-09-01

    Atropa belladonna is one of the most important plant sources for producing pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, in which putrescine N-methyltransferase (EC. 2.1.1.53) from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPMT) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (EC. 1.14.11.14) from Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) were overexpressed, were established to investigate TA biosynthesis and distribution in ripe fruits, leaves, stems, primary roots and secondary roots under field conditions. Both NtPMT and HnH6H were detected at the transcriptional level in transgenic plants, whereas they were not detected in wild-type plants. The transgenes did not influence the root-specific expression patterns of endogenous TA biosynthetic genes in A. belladonna. All four endogenous TA biosynthetic genes (AbPMT, AbTRI, AbCYP80F1 and AbH6H) had the highest/exclusive expression levels in secondary roots, suggesting that TAs were mainly synthesized in secondary roots. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna showed an impressive scopolamine-rich chemotype that greatly improved the pharmaceutical value of A. belladonna. The higher efficiency of hyoscyamine conversion was found in aerial than in underground parts. In aerial parts of transgenic plants, hyoscyamine was totally converted to downstream alkaloids, especially scopolamine. Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were detected in underground parts, but scopolamine and anisodamine were more abundant than hyoscyamine. The exclusively higher levels of anisodamine in roots suggested that it might be difficult for its translocation from root to aerial organs. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, which produces scopolamine at very high levels (2.94-5.13 mg g(-1)) in field conditions, can provide more valuable plant materials for scopolamine production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Paulo Henrique; Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Souza, Diogo O; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2010-12-25

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with positive effects on cognition. Recent studies have suggested the participation of the cholinergic system in the effects of caffeine on wakefulness. However, there are few studies assessing the contribution of cholinergic system in the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine. In the present study, the effects of a dose and schedule of administration of caffeine that improved memory recognition were investigated on scopolamine-induced impairment of memory in adult mice. Inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks were used to assess learning and memory. Caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during 4 consecutive days, and the treatment was interrupted 24h before scopolamine administration (2mg/kg, i.p.). Scopolamine was administered prior to or immediately after training. Short-term and long-term memory was evaluated in both tasks. In the novel object recognition task, pre treatment with caffeine prevented the disruption of short- and long-term memory by scopolamine. In the inhibitory avoidance task, caffeine prevented short- but not long-term memory disruption by pre training administration of scopolamine. Caffeine prevented short- and long-term memory disruption by post training administration of scopolamine. Both treatments did not affect locomotor activity of the animals. These findings suggest that acute treatment with caffeine followed by its withdrawal may be effective against cholinergic-induced disruption of memory assessed in an aversive and non-aversive task. Finally, our results revealed that the cholinergic system is involved in the positive effects of caffeine on cognitive functions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinergic and cytotoxic effects of Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Siau Hui; Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian

    2017-12-01

    Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC 50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC 50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC 50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol. The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

  15. Understanding older adults' medication decision making and behavior: A study on over-the-counter (OTC) anticholinergic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Srinivas, Preethi; Campbell, Noll L; Clark, Daniel O; Bodke, Kunal S; Hong, Youngbok; Boustani, Malaz A; Ferguson, Denisha; Callahan, Christopher M

    2018-03-06

    Older adults purchase and use over-the-counter (OTC) medications with potentially significant adverse effects. Some OTC medications, such as those with anticholinergic effects, are relatively contraindicated for use by older adults due to evidence of impaired cognition and other adverse effects. To inform the design of future OTC medication safety interventions for older adults, this study investigated consumers' decision making and behavior related to OTC medication purchasing and use, with a focus on OTC anticholinergic medications. The study had a cross-sectional design with multiple methods. A total of 84 adults participated in qualitative research interviews (n = 24), in-store shopper observations (n = 39), and laboratory-based simulated OTC shopping tasks (n = 21). Simulated shopping participants also rank-ordered eight factors on their importance for OTC decision making. Findings revealed that many participants had concerns about medication adverse effects, generally, but were not aware of age-related risk associated with the use of anticholinergic medications. Analyses produced a map of the workflow of OTC-related behavior and decision making as well as related barriers such as difficulty locating medications or comparing them to an alternative. Participants reported effectiveness, adverse effects or health risks, and price as most important to their OTC medication purchase and use decisions. A persona analysis identified two types of consumers: the habit follower, who frequently purchased OTC medications and considered them safe; and the deliberator, who was more likely to weigh their options and consider alternatives to OTC medications. A conceptual model of OTC medication purchase and use is presented. Drawing on study findings and behavioral theories, the model depicts dual processes for OTC medication decision making - habit-based and deliberation-based - as well as the antecedents and consequences of decision making. This model suggests

  16. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-10-25

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognitive performance of aged and scopolamine treated young mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance and elevated plus maze task. Aged or scopolamine treated mice showed poor retention of memory in step-down type passive avoidance and in elevated plus maze task. Chronic administration (21 days) of Punica granatum extract and vitamin C significantly (p Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. COGNITIVE-ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF MORINDA LUCIDA (RUBIACEAE) AND PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM (FABACEAE) IN SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED AMNESIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Elufioye Taiwo; Halimah A, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive disorders associated with aging have been successfully managed by African traditional medical practitioners using various plants. This study evaluated the cognitive enhancing potentials of Morinda lucida (L) Rubiaceae and Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) ex. K Heyne in scopolamine induced amnesic animals. The anti-amnesic activity of the ethyl acetate extracts of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum at doses of 4 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg were assessed in scopolamine induced amnesic mice using Morris water maze test model. Effect of the extracts on the histology of the hippocampus was also evaluated. The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum ameliorated scopolamine induced memory deficit in the animals under study. There was no effect of the extract on the histology of the hippocampus. However, there was an increase in the density of cells in the hippocampus of treated group as compared to the untreated. Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum showed considerable enhancement of cognition in scopolamine induced amnesic mice.

  18. RAISED GLUCOSE-LEVELS ENHANCE SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED ACETYLCHOLINE OVERFLOW FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DURKIN, TP; MESSIER, C; DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Behavioural studies in both humans and animals have shown that an acute rise in circulating glucose levels at or around the time of training enhances subsequent retention performance and can also afford protection from the amnesia produced by posttraining injections of scopolamine. In an attempt to

  19. The Effects of Inhaled Pimpinella peregrina Essential Oil on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment, Anxiety, and Depression in Laboratory Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Emel; Hritcu, Lucian; Dogan, Gulden; Hayta, Sukru; Bagci, Eyup

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we identified the effects of inhaled Pimpinella peregrina essential oil (1 and 3 %, for 21 continuous days) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety, and depression in laboratory rats. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by means of the elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. The scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of the spontaneous alternation percentage in Y-maze test, increase of the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, along with decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. Inhalation of the P. peregrina essential oil significantly improved memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. Our results suggest that the P. peregrina essential oil inhalation ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, studies on the P. peregrina essential oil may open a new therapeutic window for the prevention of neurological abnormalities closely related to Alzheimer's disease.

  20. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  1. A simple square-wave voltammetric method for the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceuticals using a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Birkheur Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple procedure is described for the determination of scopolamine by square-wave voltammetry using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that the oxidation of scopolamine is irreversible at a peak potential of 1.59 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl in a 0.50 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution. Under optimized conditions, the analytical curve obtained was linear (r = 0.9996 for the scopolamine concentration range of 1.0 to 110 µmol L-1, with a detection limit of 0.84 µmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample preparation.

  2. Effects of ginseol k-g3, an Rg3-enriched fraction, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and learning deficit in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike dela Peña

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The effects of ginseol k-g3 in ameliorating scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests indicate its specific influence on reference or long-term memory. The mechanism underlying the reversal of scopolamine-induced amnesia by ginseol k-g3 is not yet known, but is not related to anticholinesterase-like activity.

  3. Drug: D04087 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04087.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC

  4. Drug: D01871 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson ...agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA03 Chemical g

  5. Drug: D07804 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA0

  6. Drug: D08638 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antipark...inson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Same as: C07171 ATC code

  7. Drug: D00779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antipark...inson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Same as: C07941 ATC code

  8. Drug: D08653 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antipar...kinson agent ATC code: N04AA12 Chemical group: DG00858 ... Atropine [CPD:C01479] deri

  9. Drug: D08157 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA10 Chemical group: DG00857 ...

  10. Drug: D02599 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Other ... DG02029 ... M

  11. Drug: D08209 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA03 Chemical group: DG00853 ... CHR

  12. Drug: D08426 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA05 Chemical group: DG00855 ...

  13. Drug: D08395 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Chemical group: DG01272 ... CHRM [HSA:1128 1129

  14. Drug: D03711 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available psychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA08 Chem

  15. Drug: D08425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Same as: C07378 ATC code: N04AA04 Chemical g

  16. Drug: D07511 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent Same as: C06846 ATC code: N04AC

  17. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100U provides significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms in patients with urinary incontinence regardless of the number of anticholinergic therapies used or reason for inadequate management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Chapple, C; Herschorn, S; Joshi, M; Zhou, J; Nardo, C; Nitti, V W

    2014-10-01

    A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ≥ 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed. Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups. In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00910845, NCT00910520. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Different effects of scopolamine on learning, memory, and nitric oxide metabolite levels in hippocampal tissues of ovariectomized and Sham-operated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different effects of scopolamine on learning, memory, and nitric oxide (NO metabolites in hippocampal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX and sham-operated rats were investigated. The animals in the Sham-Scopolamine (Sham-Sco and OVX-Scopolamine (OVX-Sco Groups were treated with 2 mg/kg scopolamine before undergoing the Morris water maze, while the animals in the Sham and OVX Groups received saline. The time latency and path length were significantly higher in both the Sham-Sco and the OVX-Sco Groups, in comparison with the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001. Significantly lower NO metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Sco Group were observed, compared with the Sham Group (p<0.001, while there was no significant difference between the OVX-Sco and OVX Groups. The decreased NO level in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine. However, it seems that the effect of scopolamine on hippocampal NO differs between situations of presence and absence of ovarian hormones.

  19. Cognitive Ameliorating Effect of Acanthopanax koreanum Against Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Park, Ho Jae; Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Haneul; Kwon, Yubeen; Zhang, Jiabao; Jung, In Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae) is one of the most widely cultivated medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea, and the roots and stem bark of A. koreanum have been traditionally used as a tonic agent for general weakness. However, the use of A. koreanum for general weakness observed in the elderly, including those with declined cognitive function, has not been intensively investigated. This study was performed to investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of A. koreanum (EEAK) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. To evaluate the ameliorating effects of EEAK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment, mice were orally administered EEAK (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), and several behavioral tasks, including a passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and a novel object recognition task, were employed. Besides, western blot analysis was conducted to examine whether EEAK affected memory-associated signaling molecules, such as protein kinase B (Akt), Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and the novel object recognition task. The phosphorylation levels of both Akt and CaMKII were significantly increased by approximately two-fold compared with the control group because of the administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg) (p cognitive dysfunction induced by the cholinergic blockade, in part, via several memory-associated signaling molecules and may hold therapeutic potential against cognitive dysfunction, such as that presented in neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Time course of ocular surface and lacrimal gland changes in a new scopolamine-induced dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Sabrina; Maire, Marie-Annick; Pasquis, Bruno; Grégoire, Stéphane; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Acar, Niyazi; Bretillon, Lionel; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Joffre, Corinne

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an animal model of dry eye showing disturbance in several components of the lacrimal functional unit, and to describe the time course of the appearance of clinical signs and inflammatory markers. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female Lewis rats by a systemic and continuous delivery of scopolamine via osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously. We first determined the appropriate dose of scopolamine (6, 12.5, or 25 mg/day) for 28 days. In a second set of experiments, we determined markers after 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 17, or 28 days of a 12.5-mg/day dose. Clinical signs of corneal dryness were evaluated in vivo using fluorescein staining. MHC II expression and mucin Muc5AC production were detected on the conjunctival epithelium using immunostaining. The level of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma mRNA was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in conjunctiva and exorbital lacrimal gland (LG). Lipids were extracted from the exorbital LG for fatty acid analysis. Daily scopolamine doses of 12.5 mg and 25 mg applied for a 28-day period induced keratitis, a decrease in Muc5AC immunostaining density in the conjunctival epithelium, and modifications in the fatty acid composition of the exorbital LG. Animals treated with a 12.5-mg/day dose of scopolamine exhibited an increase in corneal fluorescein staining after 2, 10, and 28 days. All animals exhibited unilateral or bilateral keratitis after 17 days. In the conjunctival epithelium, a significant decrease in Muc5AC immunostaining density was observed at early and late time points, and MHC II expression tended to be increased after 1, 7, 10, and 28 days, without reaching statistical significance. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA were increased with scopolamine treatment in both conjunctiva and exorbital LG. Arachidonic acid and the Delta5 desaturase index were significantly increased in the exorbital LG of dry eye animals at each time point. This systemic and

  1. The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: Synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.K.; Wright, L.K.M.; Stone, M.F.; Schwartz, J.E.; Kelley, N.R.; Moffett, M.C.; Lee, R.B.; Lumley, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) receptors. However, seizure activity itself causes the endocytosis of GABA A receptors and diminishes the inhibitory effects of GABA, thereby reducing the efficacy of DZP. Treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist prevents this reduction in GABAergic inhibition. We examined the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist caramiphen edisylate (CED; 20 mg/kg, im) and DZP (10 mg/kg, sc), administered both separately and in combination, at 10, 20 or 30 min following seizure onset for attenuation of the deleterious effects associated with GD exposure (1.2 LD 50 ; 132 μg/kg, sc) in rats. Outcomes evaluated were seizure duration, neuropathology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, body weight, and temperature. We also examined the use of the reversible AChE inhibitor physostigmine (PHY; 0.2 mg/kg, im) as a therapy for GD exposure. We found that the combination of CED and DZP yielded a synergistic effect, shortening seizure durations and reducing neuropathology compared to DZP alone, when treatment was delayed 20–30 min after seizure onset. PHY reduced the number of animals that developed seizures, protected a fraction of AChE from GD inhibition, and attenuated post-exposure body weight and temperature loss independent of CED and/or DZP treatment. We conclude that: 1) CED and DZP treatment offers considerable protection against the effects of GD and 2) PHY is a potential therapeutic option following GD exposure, albeit with a limited window of opportunity. -- Highlights: ► Soman (GD) produced seizure activity resulting in neuropathology in rats. ► Tx: caramiphen (CED) and/or diazepam (DZP) @ 10, 20 or 30 min after seizure onset. ► CED/DZP showed superior anticonvulsant and neuroprotective capacity. ► Physostigmine (PHY) was examined as an adjunct post-exposure therapy. ► PHY attenuated GD-induced seizure development, but not seizure duration.

  2. The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: Synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, M.K.; Wright, L.K.M.; Stone, M.F.; Schwartz, J.E.; Kelley, N.R.; Moffett, M.C.; Lee, R.B.; Lumley, L.A., E-mail: lucille.a.lange@us.army.mil

    2012-03-15

    Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A}) receptors. However, seizure activity itself causes the endocytosis of GABA{sub A} receptors and diminishes the inhibitory effects of GABA, thereby reducing the efficacy of DZP. Treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist prevents this reduction in GABAergic inhibition. We examined the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist caramiphen edisylate (CED; 20 mg/kg, im) and DZP (10 mg/kg, sc), administered both separately and in combination, at 10, 20 or 30 min following seizure onset for attenuation of the deleterious effects associated with GD exposure (1.2 LD{sub 50}; 132 μg/kg, sc) in rats. Outcomes evaluated were seizure duration, neuropathology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, body weight, and temperature. We also examined the use of the reversible AChE inhibitor physostigmine (PHY; 0.2 mg/kg, im) as a therapy for GD exposure. We found that the combination of CED and DZP yielded a synergistic effect, shortening seizure durations and reducing neuropathology compared to DZP alone, when treatment was delayed 20–30 min after seizure onset. PHY reduced the number of animals that developed seizures, protected a fraction of AChE from GD inhibition, and attenuated post-exposure body weight and temperature loss independent of CED and/or DZP treatment. We conclude that: 1) CED and DZP treatment offers considerable protection against the effects of GD and 2) PHY is a potential therapeutic option following GD exposure, albeit with a limited window of opportunity. -- Highlights: ► Soman (GD) produced seizure activity resulting in neuropathology in rats. ► Tx: caramiphen (CED) and/or diazepam (DZP) @ 10, 20 or 30 min after seizure onset. ► CED/DZP showed superior anticonvulsant and neuroprotective capacity. ► Physostigmine (PHY) was examined as an adjunct post-exposure therapy. ► PHY attenuated GD-induced seizure development, but not seizure duration.

  3. The Anticholinergic and Antiglutamatergic Drug Caramiphen Reduces Seizure Duration in Soman-Exposed Rats: Synergism with the Benzodiazepine Diazepam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    progress to self-sustained seizures ( status epilepticus , SE) and result in extensive neuropathology as seen in rats (de Araujo Furtado et al., 2009, 2010...physostigmineOP organophosphorus BuChE butyrylcholinesterase ChE cholinesterase SE status epilepticus ATR atropine sulfate 2-PAM 2-pralidoxime NMDA N...L.C., Lichtenstein, S., Yourick, D.L., 2010. Spontaneous recurrent seizures after status epilepticus induced by soman in Sprague-Dawley rats

  4. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  5. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.

  6. Identification of drug combinations administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion that require analysis for compatibility and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Dickman, Andrew; Bickerstaff, Matthew; Jackson, Richard; Schneider, Jennifer; Mason, Stephen; Ellershaw, John

    2017-01-01

    Background A continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) delivered via syringe pump is a method of drug administration used to maintain symptom control when a patient is no longer able to tolerate oral medication. Several classes of drugs, such as opioids, antiemetics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are routinely administered by CSCI alone or in combinations. Previous studies attempting to identify the most-common CSCI combinations are now several years old and no longer ref...

  7. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain.

  8. Delirium with anticholinergic symptoms after a combination of paliperidone and olanzapine pamoate in a patient known to smoke cannabis: an unfortunate coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Anja; Rijavec, Nikolina; Tavčar, Rok

    2016-06-22

    We report a case of delirium with anticholinergic symptoms in a 19-year-old female patient with schizophrenia. On the day the symptoms emerged, the patient received olanzapine long-acting injection and a higher dose of paliperidone. We observed symptoms ranging from confusion to delirium as well as some anticholinergic symptoms. The delirium lasted 24 hours and was managed by intravenous fluid substitution and oral benzodiazepines. Olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone and cannabis are central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and their combination can increase the risks of CNS depression. In this case report, we review the symptoms of delirium in a case of antipsychotic overdose and provide general guidelines for managing these symptoms. We also review possible complications in combined use of cannabis, olanzapine and paliperidone. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Efficacy and safety of low-dose anticholinergics to treat men with lower urinary tract symptoms with overactive bladder: a retrospective study based on real life practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Kgi Park

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment of LUTS/OAB patients with an α-blocker plus tolterodine 2 mg is as effective as α-blocker plus tolterodine 4 mg, and the incidence of voiding difficulty was in the low-dose anticholinergic is lower. These results indicate that dose strength should be decided on a case-by-case basis to balance the efficacy and safety.

  10. Nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of phloretin in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumatkar, Priya J; Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Tambe, Rufi M; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Phloretin (PHL), a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in the roots and leaves of apple tree. In vitro study on GT1-7 immortalized hypothalamic neurons exposed to amyloid beta (25-35), demonstrated that PHL significantly influenced membrane fluidity and potential. PHL also significantly decreased excitotoxicity by restoring the calcium homeostasis in the same. Thus, PHL proves to be a promising therapeutic moiety which should be further screened in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic roles of PHL in the subacute scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. In this study, mice were pretreated with PHL 2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and Donepezil (DON) 1mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14days. The last 7days of treatment regimen included daily injection of SCP 1.5mg/kg to induce cognitive deficits. Mice were subjected to behavioral analysis. Biochemical estimation of the brain homogenates for acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was carried out particularly in the hippocampus. PHL was found to significantly improve the performance of mice in Morris water maze test (Pnootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic activities in SCP induced memory impaired mice and hence, is a promising therapeutic moiety in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection against soman and sarin exposure by transdermal physostigmine and scopolamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshulam, Y.; Davidovici, R.; Levy, A.

    1993-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of physostigmine (physo), administered via sustained release (SR) methods, with and without scopolamine, against soman and sarin exposure in guinea-pigs. Transdermal physo pad (3 sq cm/kg; 60-80 ug/sq cm), containing a vehicle based on propionic acid, was applied onto the dorsal back of the animals, 24 hours before exposure to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors. At the time of exposure, physo concentrations in brain and plasma were 3.6 ng/g and 4.1 ng/ml respectively. Brain and whole blood ChE activity were inhibited to 70% and 57% of their original activity. Transdermal physo by itself protected up to 70% of the animals exposed to 1.5 LD(50) of soman or sarin (100% mortality was recorded in the control group). Combining transdermal physo with Scopoderm (by Ciba Geigy Inc.) provided full protection against 1.5 LD(50).

  12. Antioxidant hydrolysed peptides from Manchurian walnut (Juglansmandshurica Maxim.) attenuate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dayong; Zhao, Fanrui; Liu, Chunlei; Wang, Ji; Guo, Yong; Liu, Jingsheng; Min, Weihong

    2018-04-13

    Walnut protein, which is obtained as a by-product of oil expression, has not been used efficiently. Although walnuts are beneficial for cognitive functioning, the potential of their protein composition in strengthening learning and memory functions remains unknown. In this research, the inhibition of memory impairment by the Manchurian walnut hydrolyzed peptide (MWHP) was evaluated. Small-molecular-weight MWHP (<3 kDa) achieved the optimal antioxidative activity. Therefore, MWHP (<3 kDa) was subjected to the following mice trials to evaluate its attenuation effect on memory impairment. In the Morris water maze test, MWHP shortened the total path for searching the platform, reduced the escape latency, and increased the dwelling distance and time in the coverage zone. MWHP also prolonged the latency and diminished errors in the passive avoidance response tests. These behavioral tests demonstrated that MWHP could inhibit scopolamine-induced memory impairment. MWHP improved memory by reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis, regulating neurotransmitter functions, maintaining hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons, and increasing p-CaMK II levels in brain tissues. Experimental results proved that MWHP exhibits potential in improving memory and should be used to develop novel functional food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of microinjection of scopolamine into the neostriatum of rats on performance of a food conditioned reflex at different levels of fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonravov, D L; Shapovalova, K B; Dyubkacheva, T A

    1997-01-01

    Chronic experiments performed on 32 Sprague-Dawley rats using a movement-feeding operant reflex (Skinner box) model showed that microinjection of scopolamine into the neostriatum had effects on this reflex which depended on the stage of learning. In animals with weakly fixed reflexes (prior to reaching the stage of memory consolidation), bilateral microinjection of 0.3 microgram of scopolamine into the caudate nucleus completely inhibited the reflex for a prolonged period of time. When the operant habit was well fixed, bilateral microinjection of the same doses of scopolamine into the neostriatum had no effect on the reflex. These results suggest that the neostriatum cholinergic system is critically involved in forming the motor engram. The cholinergic system of the caudate nucleus either takes no part in realizing the well-fixed conditioned reflex movement response and/or other forebrain structures are involved in the reflex, compensating for the disturbance in neostriatal cholinergic function.

  14. Acute neurotoxicology of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, S J; Levine, M D

    2017-01-01

    Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion. Treatment focusses on supportive care as the most important intervention for all such patients, augmented by antidotal therapy when appropriate. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Standardized extract of Lactuca sativa Linn. and its fractions abrogates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice: A possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Kaur, Jagpreet; Choudhary, Sunayna

    2018-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine-induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the scopolamine-induced amnesia that was evident in all the behavioural and biochemical test parameters. LSEE (200 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-amnesic effect among various tested dose levels. The results exhibited that LS prophylaxis attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.

  16. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  17. Impact of Tamsulosin, Tolterodine and drug-combination on the outcomes of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to post-ureteroscopy ureteral stent: A prospective randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdelkader

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Combination of alpha blockers (Tamsulosin and Anticholinergics (Tolterodine seems to significantly improve post-URS lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to ureteral stents with lower need for analgesia and better quality of life. Adverse effect of used drugs mentioned as transient and tolerated by the patients without need for auxiliary medication.

  18. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity

    OpenAIRE

    HASEGAWA, Yasushi; INOUE, Tatsuro; KAWAMINAMI, Satoshi; FUJITA, Miho

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801).MethodsEffect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test.ResultsScallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolami...

  19. Development of novel tasks for studying view-invariant object recognition in rodents: Sensitivity to scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchnick, Krista A; Wideman, Cassidy E; Huff, Andrew E; Palmer, Daniel; McNaughton, Bruce L; Winters, Boyer D

    2018-05-15

    The capacity to recognize objects from different view-points or angles, referred to as view-invariance, is an essential process that humans engage in daily. Currently, the ability to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of this phenomenon is limited, as few ethologically valid view-invariant object recognition tasks exist for rodents. Here, we report two complementary, novel view-invariant object recognition tasks in which rodents physically interact with three-dimensional objects. Prior to experimentation, rats and mice were given extensive experience with a set of 'pre-exposure' objects. In a variant of the spontaneous object recognition task, novelty preference for pre-exposed or new objects was assessed at various angles of rotation (45°, 90° or 180°); unlike control rodents, for whom the objects were novel, rats and mice tested with pre-exposed objects did not discriminate between rotated and un-rotated objects in the choice phase, indicating substantial view-invariant object recognition. Secondly, using automated operant touchscreen chambers, rats were tested on pre-exposed or novel objects in a pairwise discrimination task, where the rewarded stimulus (S+) was rotated (180°) once rats had reached acquisition criterion; rats tested with pre-exposed objects re-acquired the pairwise discrimination following S+ rotation more effectively than those tested with new objects. Systemic scopolamine impaired performance on both tasks, suggesting involvement of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in view-invariant object processing. These tasks present novel means of studying the behavioral and neural bases of view-invariant object recognition in rodents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alteration of CNS dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in aged and scopolamine induced amnestic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhengping; Zhou Xiang; Fang Ping; Wang Bocheng; Zhang Manda

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of aging and scopolamine (Sco) induced amnesia on central dopamine transporter (DAT), D 2 receptor in rats. Methods: The 3 month old amnestic rat models were made by peritoneal injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist Sco (5 mg/kg) for 10 d. Passive avoidance task was carried out to evaluate the recent learning and memory of rats. The biodistribution of 125 I-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β(4-iodophenyl)-tropan ( 125 I-β-CIT) and 125 I-s-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrolidinyl) methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide (IBZM) in the brain was used to evaluate the DAT and D 2 receptor. Results: During 10 d passive avoidance task testing, no difference was found for the first day among 3 month control, 26 month old and Sco group rats, on the 10th day the entry number of aged and Sco group rats was (1.33 +- 0.82)/10 min, (3.00 +- 0.63)/10 min, respectively, higher than that of the control rats (t was 5.682 and 6.372, respectively, P 125 I-β-CIT binding were found in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HIP) and frontal cortex (FC) of the aged and Sco group rats (t was 4.151, 5.416, 4.871, 6.922, 7.331 and 3.990, respectively, P 125 I-IBZM binding in ST was found in both Sco and old rats (t was 6.021 and 3.227, respectively, P 2 receptor, was found in ST, HIP and cortex of the aged and Sco group suggesting a gradual degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in aged rats. The decreased levels of 125 I-β-CIT and 125 I-IBZM binding in cortex area might be responsible for the amnesia in he Sco group through the dopaminergic pathway of midbrain-frontal cortex

  1. Effect of Anticholinergic Medications on Falls, Fracture Risk, and Bone Mineral Density Over a 10-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Adachi, Jonathan D; Leslie, William D; Goltzman, David; Josse, Robert; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kreiger, Nancy; Kovacs, Christopher S; Anastassiades, Tassos P; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    Many medications used in older adults have strong anticholinergic (ACH) properties, which may increase the risk of falls and fractures. Use of these medications was identified in a population-based Canadian cohort. To identify the fall and fracture risk associated with ACH medication use. Data collection and analysis were conducted at baseline, year 5, and year 10. Cross-sectional analyses were performed to examine associations between ACH medication use and falls. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to examine time to first nontraumatic fracture. Finally, change in bone mineral density (BMD) over 10 years was compared in ACH medication users versus nonusers. Strongly ACH medications were used by 618 of 7753 participants (8.0%) at study baseline, 592 (9.5%) at year 5, and 334 (7.7%) at year 10. Unadjusted ACH medication use was associated with falls at baseline (odds ratio = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.14-1.98; P = 0.004), but the association was no longer significant after covariate adjustment. Similar results occurred at years 5 and 10. ACH medication use was associated with increased incident fracture risk before (hazard ratio = 1.22; CI = 1.13-1.32; P < 0.001) but not after covariate adjustment. Mean (SD) change in femoral neck BMD T-score over 10 years, in those using ACH medications at both years 0 and 5, was -0.60 (0.63) in ACH users versus -0.49 (0.45) in nonusers (P = 0.041), but this was not significant after covariate adjustment. ACH medications were not found to be independently associated with an increased risk of falling, fractures, or BMD loss. Rather, factors associated with ACH medication use explained the apparent associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effect of anticholinergics on the overactive bladder and bowel domain of the electronic personal assessment questionnaire (ePAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulchandani, S; Toozs-Hobson, P; Parsons, M; McCooty, S; Perkins, K; Latthe, P

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that OAB (overactive bladder) can occur alongside disorders of the colon, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Moreover, patients with constipation are more likely to develop OAB symptoms than those without. Anticholinergic medications (AcH) are commonly used for treating OAB, and can result in the unwanted side effects of constipation. We aimed to study the relationship of AcH, and their effects on quality of life using the electronic Personal Assessment Questionnaire (ePAQ) by assessing changes in the bowel and bladder domains, pre- and post-AcH treatment. Ninety patients completed the ePAQ pre- and post-AcH treatment from January 2011 to April 2014. Data were collected retrospectively and prospectively, and analysed using a paired t test. Effect size (ES) was calculated for OAB and bowel domains to quantify the effect on QoL. There was a significant improvement in the OAB (p = 0.0005) and bowel domains (p = 0.0005). In the bowel domains, the largest effect size was seen for IBS (0.5) followed by continence (0.4), evacuation (0.375) and a small ES was seen for constipation (0.2). There was a reduction in the "degree of bother" in OAB and bowel domains. Patients may benefit from the possible effects of AcH on their bowels, and assessment of all aspects of pelvic floor function is important before commencing AcH. This may help to counsel patients, with possibly improved compliance with therapy.

  3. Observational study of drug-drug interactions in oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most frequent interactions. A standard database was used. Method: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp® database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X. Results: A total of 1 850 drug-drug interactions were detected in 218 treatments. The prevalence of treatments with at least one clinically relevant interaction was 95%, being 94.5% for those at level C and 26.1% for levels D and X. The drugs most commonly involved in the interactions detected were opioid analgesics, antipsychotics (butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, pyrazolones, glucocorticoids and heparins, whereas interactions with antineoplastics were minimal, highlighting those related to paclitaxel and between metamizole and various antineoplastics. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions rate was very high, highlighting the high risk percentage of them related to level of risk X. Due to the frequency of onset and potential severity, highlighted the concomitant use of central nervous system depressants drugs with risk of respiratory depression, the risk of onset of anticholinergic symptoms when combining morphine or haloperidol with butylscopolamine, ipratropium bromide or dexchlorpheniramine and the multiple interactions involving metamizole.

  4. Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects of Mitragyna inermis Willd (Rubiaceae on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bougolla Pahaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis (M. inermis leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology. Leaf decoction of M. inermis was tested on learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Morris water maze, object recognition task, and elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress enzymes—catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, a product of lipid peroxidation—were quantified. In each test, mice 18 to 25 g were divided into groups of 5. Results. The extract reversed the effects of scopolamine in mice. The extract significantly increased discrimination index in the object recognition task test and inflexion ratio in the elevated plus maze test. The times spent in target quadrant in MWM increased while the transfer latency decreased in mice treated by M. inermis at the dose of 196.5 mg/kg. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased, whereas the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was significantly decreased after 8 consecutive days of treatment with M. inermis at the dose of 393 mg/kg. Conclusion. These results suggest that M. inermis leaf extract possess potential antiamnesic effects.

  5. The Protective Role of Selenium on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Aged Rats: The Involvement of TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Hasan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirci, Kadir; Övey, İshak Suat

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition of Ca 2+ entry into the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) through inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist drugs is the current standard of care in neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and peripheral pain. Oxidative stress activates Ca 2+ -permeable TRPM2 and TRPV1, and recent studies indicate that selenium (Se) is a potent TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel antagonist in the hippocampus and DRG. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of Se in primary hippocampal and DRG neuron cultures of aged rats when given alone or in combination with scopolamine (SCOP). Thirty-two aged (18-24 months old) rats were divided into four groups. The first and second groups received a placebo and SCOP (1 mg/kg/day), respectively. The third and fourth groups received intraperitoneal Se (1.5 mg/kg/ over day) and SCOP + Se, respectively. The hippocampal and DRG neurons also were stimulated in vitro with a TRPV1 channel agonist (capsaicin) and a TRPM2 channel agonist (cumene hydroperoxide). We found that Se was fully effective in reversing SCOP-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 current densities as well as errors in working memory and reference memory. In addition, Se completely reduced SCOP-induced oxidative toxicity by modulating lipid peroxidation, reducing glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. The Se and SCOP + Se treatments also decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, intracellular free Ca 2+ concentrations, apoptosis, and caspase 3, caspase 9, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the current study reports on the cellular level for SCOP and Se on the different endocytotoxic cascades for the first time. Notably, the research indicates that Se can result in remarkable neuroprotective and memory impairment effects in the hippocampal neurons of rats. Graphical abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of selenium (Se) in scopolamine (SCOP) induced

  6. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Gharavifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS following general anesthesia (GA is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  7. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavifard, Mohamad; Razavi, Majid; Ghandehari Motlagh, Mehdi; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) following general anesthesia (GA) is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  8. Intra- and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.P.J.; Holst, von C.; Nivarlet, N.; Egmond, van H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by plants of, inter alia, the genera Datura (thorn apple) and Atropa (deadly nightshade). The most relevant TAs are (-)-L-hyoscyamine and (-)-L-scopolamine, which act as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and can induce

  9. Anticholinergic, antihistaminic, and antiserotonergic activity of n-hexane extract of Zanthoxylum alatum seeds on isolated tissue preparations: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Beenita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Haloi, Prakash; Patowary, Pompy

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anticholinergic, antihistaminic, and antiserotonergic activity of the n-hexane extract of the seeds of Zanthoxylum alatum (ZAHE) on isolated ileum of rat and guinea pig and fundus of rat. ZAHE was prepared using soxhlet extraction and cumulative concentration response curves were constructed using various doses on the tissues for acetylcholine (ACh), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and histamine with or without n-hexane extract. Atropine, ketanserin, and pheniramine maleate were used as antagonists for ACh, serotonin, and histamine, respectively. ZAHE-induced concentration-dependent inhibition of isolated ileum and fundus in rat and ileum of guinea pig. The half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of ACh in the presence of atropine (10 -6 M; P pheniramine maleate (10 -6 M; P < 0.01) and ZAHE (300 μg/ml; P < 0.01 and 1000 μg/ml; P < 0.05) was also significantly higher than EC 50 of histamine alone. From the study, it was observed that ZAHE shows significant anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and antihistaminic activity. The study provides sufficient evidence that the seeds can be used in gastric disorders, cough, chest infection, etc., as per folklore claims.

  10. THE VALUE OF THE COMPOUND DRUGS FORMOTEROL AND IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF CHRONIC NONSPECIFIC LUNG DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Simonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex mechanism of development of bronchoobstructive bronchitis in chronic nonspecific lung diseases in children and its effective therapy with the compound bronchodilator berodual are discussed. Berodual comprises b2-adrenoreceptor agonist — fenoterol and anticholinergic drug — ipatropium bromide, that amplify bronchodilatory action of each other. Indications, contraindication and intake peculiarities are illustrated.Key words: chronic nonspecific lung diseases, bronchoob structive syndrome, bronchodilators, children.

  11. Protective effects of cultured and fermented ginseng extracts against scopolamine-induced memory loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Hee; Kim, Sung-June; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Beom-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed. HLJG0701-treated groups displayed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and increased acetylcholine level compared with the SPL-administered group (SPL-G) ( P memory loss by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and preventing acetylcholine deficiency.

  12. Scopolamine and amphetamine produce similar decision-making deficits on a rat gambling task via independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Malcolm, Emma; Shoaib, Mohammed; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-03-15

    Disorders characterized by disturbed cholinergic signaling, such as schizophrenia, exhibit impaired performance on measures of real-world cost/benefit decision-making. Whether the cholinergic system contributes to the choice deficits observed is currently unknown. We therefore determined the effects of broad-acting agonists and antagonists at the nicotinic and muscarinic receptor on decision making, as measured by the rodent gambling task (rGT). Given the anatomical and functional connectivity of the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, we also sought to modulate amphetamine's previously reported effect on rGT performance via the cholinergic system. Male rats were trained on the rGT, during which animals chose from four different options. The optimal strategy on the rGT is to favor options associated with smaller immediate rewards and less punishment/loss. Impulsive action was also measured by recording the number of premature responses made. Performance on the rGT was assessed following acute treatment with the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, nicotine, and the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. Similar to the effect produced by amphetamine, muscarinic receptor antagonism with scopolamine (0.1mg/kg) impaired decision making, albeit to a lesser degree. Prior muscarinic agonism with oxotremorine was unable to attenuate amphetamine's effects on rGT performance. Oxotremorine, nicotine, and mecamylamine did not affect the choice profile. We therefore conclude that modulation of the muscarinic, but not nicotinic, receptor system can affect decision making under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Such findings contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in disorders in which cholinergic signaling is compromised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Scopolamine disrupts place navigation in rats and humans: a translational validation of the Hidden Goal Task in the Morris water maze and a real maze for humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Marková, H.; Lobellová, Veronika; Gažová, I.; Pařízková, M.; Cerman, J.; Nekovářová, Tereza; Valeš, Karel; Klovrzová, S.; Harrison, J.; Windisch, M.; Vlček, Kamil; Svoboda, Jan; Hort, J.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 234, č. 4 (2017), s. 535-547 ISSN 0033-3158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial orientation * scopolamine * acetylcholinesterase inhibitor * human * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2016

  14. Protective effect of lavender oil on scopolamine induced cognitive deficits in mice and H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Wang, Kezhu; Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Gao, Li; Yan, Ming; Aibai, Silafu; Liu, Xinmin

    2016-12-04

    Lavender essential oil (LO), an aromatic liquid extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., has been traditionally used in the treatments of many nervous system diseases, and recently LO also reported to be effective for the Alzheimer's disease (AD). The improvement effect of lavender oil (LO) on the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice and H 2 O 2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells have been evaluated. The relevant mechanism was also researched from the perspective of antioxidant effect and cholinergic system modulation. Cognitive deficits were induced in C57BL/6J mice treated with scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) and were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-through passive avoidance tests. Then their hippocampus were removed for biochemical assays (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). In vitro, the cytotoxicity were induced by 4h exposure to H 2 O 2 in PC12 and evaluated by cell viability (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, nitric oxide (NO) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The results demonstrated that LO (100mg/kg) could improve the cognitive performance of scopolamine induced mice in behavioral tests. Meanwhile, it significantly decreased the AChE activity, MDA level, and increase SOD and GPX activities of the model. Moreover, LO (12μg/mL) protected PC12 cells from H 2 O 2 induced cytotoxicity by reducing LDH, NO release, intracellular ROS accumulation and MMP loss. It was suggested that LO could show neuroprotective effect in AD model in vivo (scopolamine-treated mice) and in vitro (H 2 O 2 induced PC12 cells) via modulating oxidative stress and AChE activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Transdermal scopolamine: an alternative to ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of postoperative and postdischarge emetic symptoms.

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    White, Paul F; Tang, Jun; Song, Dajun; Coleman, Jayne E; Wender, Ronald H; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Sloninsky, Alexander; Kapu, Rajani; Shah, Mary; Webb, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Given the controversy regarding the use of droperidol and the high cost of the 5-HT3 antagonists, a cost-effective alternative for routine use as a prophylactic antiemetic would be desirable. We designed two parallel, randomized, double-blind sham and placebo-controlled studies to compare the early and late antiemetic efficacy and adverse event profile of transdermal scopolamine (TDS) 1.5 mg, to ondansetron 4 mg IV, and droperidol 1.25 mg IV for antiemetic prophylaxis as part of a multimodal regimen in "at risk" surgical populations. A total of 150 patients undergoing major laparoscopic (n = 80) or plastic (n = 70) surgery procedures received either an active TDS patch (containing scopolamine 1.5 mg) or a similar appearing sham patch 60 min before entering the operating room. All patients received a standardized general anesthetic technique. A second study medication was administered in a 2-mL numbered syringe containing either saline (for the two active TDS groups), droperidol, 1.25 mg, or ondansetron, 4 mg (for the sham patch groups), and was administered IV near the end of the procedure. The occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting/retching, need for rescue antiemetics, and the complete response rates (i.e., absence of protracted nausea or repeated episodes of emesis requiring antiemetic rescue medication) was reported. In addition, complaints of visual disturbances, dry mouth, drowsiness, and restlessness were noted up to 72 h after surgery. There were no significant differences in any of the emetic outcomes or need for rescue antiemetics among the TDS, droperidol, and ondansetron groups in the first 72 h after surgery. The complete response rates varied from 41% to 51%, and did not significantly differ among the treatment groups. The overall incidence of dry mouth was significantly more frequent in the TDS groups than in the droperidol and ondansetron groups (21% vs 3%). Premedication with TDS was as effective as droperidol (1.25 mg) or ondansetron (4

  16. Twelve-week, prospective, open-label, randomized trial on the effects of an anticholinergic agent or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy to an alpha-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms

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    Shin YS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu Seob Shin,1 Li Tao Zhang,1 Chen Zhao,2 Young Gon Kim,1 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University and Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center of Medical Device of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea; 2Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The effects of an anticholinergic or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy to an ­alpha-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS according to a voiding diary in 3 days are unknown. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of an anticholinergic or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy for nocturia in men previously treated with an alpha-blocker for LUTS.Subjects and methods: Patients were randomly subdivided into two groups. All patients had a 4-week washout. Group A had alpha-blocker for 4 weeks, then an alpha-blocker plus an anticholinergic agent for 4 weeks, and, finally, 4 weeks of an alpha-blocker plus an antidiuretic agent. Group B had an alpha-blocker for 4 weeks, then an alpha-blocker plus an antidiuretic agent for 4 weeks, and, finally, 4 weeks of an alpha-blocker plus an anticholinergic agent. In both groups, patients were subdivided into nocturnal polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC, or nocturia by both causes subgroups. A 3-day voiding diary, total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS sub-scores, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, uroflowmetry, and post-void residual urine volume, were assessed at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks.Results: A total of 405 patients completed the study. During treatment, the changes from baseline in total IPSS and IPSS sub-scores were significantly decreased at 4 weeks and were maintained for 12 weeks. In the nocturnal polyuria subgroup of Groups A and B

  17. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08 Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice

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    Rakesh Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, we have investigated effects of the CDRI-08, a well characterized extract of Bacopa monnieri, on expression of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in various brain regions of the scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Our behavioral data reveal that scopolamine-treated amnesic mice exhibit significant decline in the spatial memory compared to the normal control mice. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting data revealed that the scopolamine treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our enzyme assay data revealed that scopolamine caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity in both the brain regions. Further, oral administration of the CDRI-08 to scopolamine-treated amnesic mice restored the spatial memory which was found to be associated with significant upregulation of the GluN2B subunit expression and decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus towards their levels in the normal control mice. Our study provides the evidence for the mechanism underlying role of the Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08 in restoring spatial memory in amnesic mice, which may have therapeutic implications.

  18. Cognitive Improving Effects by Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium crymbosum L.) Vinegar on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice Model.

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    Hong, Seong Min; Soe, Kyong Hee; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Young Min; Lim, Beong Ou

    2018-01-10

    The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed. The BV group showed significantly restored cognitive function in the behavioral tests. BV facilitated cholinergic activity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, BV was found to be rehabilitated in the cornu ammonis 1 neurons of hippocampus. In our study, we demonstrated that the memory protection conferred by BV was linked to activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/serine-threonine kinase (AKT) signaling.

  19. The novel dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) derivative BNN27 counteracts delay-dependent and scopolamine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats.

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    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Gravanis, Achille

    2017-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are involved in cognition. BNN27 is a novel 17C spiroepoxy-DHEA derivative, which devoid of steroidogenic activity. The neuroprotective effects of BNN27 have been recently reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of BNN27 on recognition memory in rats. For this purpose, the novel object task (NOT), a procedure assessing non-spatial recognition memory and the novel location task (NLT), a procedure evaluating spatial recognition memory were used. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg) antagonized delay-dependent deficits in the NOT in the normal rat, suggesting that this DHEA derivative affected acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. In addition, BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the scopolamine [0.2mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)]-induced non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits. These findings suggest that BNN27 may modulate different aspects of recognition memory, potentially interacting with the cholinergic system, relevant to cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameliorating effect of new constituents from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla on scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Suk-Chul; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2013-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents and their anti-amnesic effect from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla. The isolation of compounds was performed by chromatographic techniques and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis. Their ameliorating effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo using a Morris water-maze task and passive avoidance task system were evaluated. Activity-guided fractionation of the total extracts resulted in the isolation of four constituents, trans-anethole (1), p-anisaldehyde (2), estragole (3), and 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), which were found for the first time from this plant. Compound 1 exhibited a better memory enhancing effect than tacrine, a positive agent, at the same dose in the passive avoidance test and a similar property in the water-maze test, and its action may be mediated, in part, by the acetylcholine enhancing cholinergic nervous system. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative cost-effectiveness of a fluticasone-propionate/salmeterol combination versus anticholinergics as initial maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    An

    2010-12-01

    visits associated with an oral corticosteroid or antibiotic were also lower for FSC than for ipratropium and tiotropium (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: In this retrospective “real-world” observational sample of COPD patients, initiating treatment with FSC was associated with significantly better clinical and economic outcomes compared with short- and long-acting anticholinergic therapy. Consistent with the goal of preventing and reducing exacerbations advocated by global guidelines, the findings suggest that initiation of maintenance treatment with FSC may afford clinical benefits at a lower cost than anticholinergic treatment.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Advair®, tiotropium, ipratropium, utilization, costs

  2. Walnut supplementation reverses the scopolamine-induced memory impairment by restoration of cholinergic function via mitigating oxidative stress in rats: a potential therapeutic intervention for age related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Batool, Zehra; Ahmad, Saara; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2018-02-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative reactive species. The free radicals which are produced as a consequence of aerobic respiration can cause cumulative oxygen damage which may lead to age-related neurodegeneration. Scopolamine, the anti-muscarinic agent, induces amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. Studies suggest that antioxidants derived from plant products may provide protection against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the attenuation of scopolamine-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress by walnut supplementation in rats. Rats in test group were administrated with walnut suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and walnut-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine-treated groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg dissolved in saline) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and novel object recognition task (NOR) followed by estimation of regional acetylcholine levels and acetylcholinesterase activity. In the next phase, brain oxidative status was determined by assaying lipid peroxidation, and measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities. Results showed that scopolamine-treatment impaired memory function, caused cholinergic dysfunction, and induced oxidative stress in rats compared to that saline-treated controls. These impairments were significantly restored by pre-administration of walnut. This study demonstrates that antioxidant properties of walnut may provide augmented effects on cholinergic function by reducing oxidative stress and thus improving memory performance.

  3. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  4. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt sz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt sz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The protection of hydrogen-rich saline on a rat dry eye model induced by scopolamine hydrobromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y Y; Hua, N; Ru, Y S; Zhao, S Z

    2017-05-11

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on dry eye rats induced by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine hydrobromide. Methods: Experiment research. Thirty female Wistar rats at about six weeks old were randomly divided into the normal group, dry eye group, HRS eyedrops group, normal saline eyedrops group (NS), HRS intraperitoneal injection group and NS intraperitoneal injection group, with 5 rats in each group. The dry eye was induced by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine hydrobromide in the latter five groups. The clinical signs of dry eye such as tear volume (SⅠt), tear break-up time (BUT) and corneal epithelial fluorescein staining scores were evaluated on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. On the 28th day, ten eyes in each group were enucleated and processed for paraffin sections for HE, PAS and immunohistochemistry stainings. Analysis of variance was used to test the data, and independent samples t -test was used for comparison between the two groups. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the difference among groups at different time points, one-way ANOVA was used to test the comparisons of the clinical signs at one time, and LSD was used to for comparison between two groups. Results: Before and after the experiment of the day 7, 14, 21, 28, the values of SIt in HRS eyedrops group and HRS intraperitoneal injection group were respectively:(3.625±1.157),(3.313±0.704),(3.250±0.535),(3.313±0.372), (3.375±0.582)mm and (3.500±1.019), (2.893±0.656), (3.321±0.668), (3.179±0.575), (3.214±0.871)mm. The values of BUT were respectively: (2.750±0.707), (2.688±0.594), (2.813±0.753), (3.000±0.756), (2.750±0.707)s and (3.000±0.679), (2.321±0.464), (2.750±0.753), (3.214±0.699), (2.679±0.608)s. The values of fluorescein staining score were respectively: (6.250±0.707), (8.875±0.641), (8.750±0.707), (9.250±0.463), (8.250±1.282) and (6.000±0.679), (9.143±1.027), (8.857±0.770), (9.143±0.949), (8.500±0.760). The difference

  6. Effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide on learning and memory in a scopolamine-induced mouse model of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhang; Jiguo Zhang; Lihua Wang; Dexiang Mao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Learning and memory processes are accompanied by complex neuropathological and biochemical changes. Free radicals play an important role in learning and memory damage. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) in comparison with vitamin E on inhibiting free radical damage, as well as improving the degree of cerebral ischemia and learning and memory in a scopolamine-induced mouse model of dementia.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTINGS: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College; Shandong Jewim Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.MATERIALS: A total of 105 healthy Kunming mice, comprising 90 males and 15 females that were clean grade, were provided by the Animal Center of Taishan Medical College. PSP (extracted and purified by Huangjing, Taishan) was provided by the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taishan Medical College (purity of 79.6% by using a phenol-concentrated sulphate acid method), and hydrogen bromine acid scopolamine injection solution (SCO) by Shanghai Hefeng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.METHODS: This study was performed at the Pharmacological Laboratory of Taishan Medical College from March to June 2007. ① A total of 75 healthy Kunming male mice of clean grade were randomly divided into a normal control group, positive control group, and low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups, with 15 mice in each group. Mice in both the low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups were intragastrically administered 0.5 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg PSP, respectively. Mice in the positive control group were intragastrically administered 0.5 g/kg vitamin E. In addition, mice in both the normal control group and model group were intragastrically administered the same volume of saline, respectively, once a day for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the final administration on day 6, mice in the positive control group, model group, low-dosage and high-dosage PSP groups were subcutaneously injected with 3.0 mg/kg SCO, while

  7. Efficacy of Anticholinergics for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Young and Middle-Aged Patients: A Single-Blinded, Prospective, Multi-Center Study

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    Doo Sang Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS exhibits variable lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LUTS and the efficacy of an anticholinergic agent in young and middle-aged CP/CPPS patients. Methods Ninety-six men with CP/CPPS were randomly assigned in a single-blind fashion and received either ciprofloxacin (group 1, 49 patients or ciprofloxacin and solifenacin (5 mg/day; group 2, 47 patients for 8 weeks. The National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 were used to grade the patients' symptoms and the quality of life impact at the start of the study, and at 4 and 8 weeks from the initiation of the study. Results There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 with respect to age, duration of disease, or sub-domains of the IPSS, NIH-CPSI, or IIEF-5 at baseline. Of these patients, 67.4% had LUTS. Statistically significant differences were determined via the NIH-CPSI for total score and the pain and urinary domain scores. Statistically significant differences were determined via the IPSS for total score and the storage domain score. The total score of the IIEF-5 increased, but the change was not significant. There was no statistically significant difference in residual urine. Conclusions Many CP/CPPS patients had LUTS. Solifenacin in CP/CPPS demonstrated improvements in the NIH-CPSI and the IPSS total score and storage score. Storage factors significantly improved via the NIH-CPSI and IPSS assessments in the solifenacin treatment group.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Initial Combination Treatment of an Alpha Blocker with an Anticholinergic Medication in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Updated Meta-Analysis.

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    Hyun Jung Kim

    Full Text Available There is still controversy as to whether initial combination treatment is superior to serial addition of anticholinergics after maintenance or induction of alpha blockers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS.The objective of this study was to determine the benefits and safety of initial combination treatment of an alpha blocker with anticholinergic medication in BPH/LUTS through a systematic review and meta-analysis.We conducted a meta-analysis of improvement in LUTS using International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax, post-voided residual volume (PVR, and quality of life (QoL.In total, 16 studies were included in our analysis, with a total sample size of 3,548 subjects (2,195 experimental subjects and 1,353 controls. The mean change in total IPSS improvement from baseline in the combination group versus the alpha blocker monotherapy group was -0.03 (95% CI: -0.14-0.08. The pooled overall SMD change of storage IPSS improvement from baseline was -0.28 (95% CI: -0.40 - -0.17. The pooled overall SMD changes of QoL, Qmax, and PVR were -0.29 (95% CI: -0.50 - -0.07, 0.00 (95% CI: -0.08-0.08, and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.23-0.89, respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of acute urinary retention (AUR events or PVR.Initial combination treatment of an alpha blocker with anticholinergic medication is efficacious for in BPH/ LUTS with improved measures such as storage symptoms and QoL without causing significant deterioration of voiding function.

  9. Atropa belladonna intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mainly symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. In severe cases, physostigmine can be used as an antidote. We report the case of 11 year old girl with Atropa belladonna poisoning which was administrated in a therapeutic purpose as a remedy to jaundice. The child presented essentially a central anti-cholinergic syndrome. She was admitted in the intensive care unit, the progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment.

  10. DRUGS – “WAY” OF LIFE

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    Anna Nowacka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the phenomenon of an increasing number of people abusing drugs in the 20th century. In addition to the natural types of narcotics there are many other semi-synthetic and fully synthetic substances made available to the market by chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The use of narcotics and psychoactive substances usually causes adverse and often irreversible health effects. In Department of Laboratory Diagnostics of the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health in Sosnowiec tests for presence of drugs are among routinely conducted analyses. The presence of drugs has been revealed in 898 cases between the years 2004 and 2008. On top of the list of the most frequently detected narcotics were: amphetamine, cannabis, opiates, methamphetamine and cocaine. At the same time the most popular psychoactive substances are atropine, scopolamine and psilocybin. Additionally, the laboratory analyses indicated in many cases the presence of derivatives of benzodiazepines, trycyclic antidepressants and alcohol. Regional Centre of Acute Intoxication in Sosnowiec, Poland, hospitalized 78 patients due to overdose of drugs, narcotics or psychoactive substances as a result of experimenting with such substances. Half of the hospitalized cases patients have tried to commit suicide; one of the attempts has led to death. According to patients’ history their problems with reaching out for the use of psychoactive substances and narcotics were mainly caused by socio-psychological disorders.

  11. Analogous β-Carboline Alkaloids Harmaline and Harmine Ameliorate Scopolamine-Induced Cognition Dysfunction by Attenuating Acetylcholinesterase Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yu-Wen; Qi, Sheng-Lan; Zhang, Yun-Peng; Deng, Gang; Ding, Wen-Zheng; Ma, Chao; Lin, Qi-Yan; Guan, Hui-Da; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2018-01-01

    The analogous β-carboline alkaloids, harmaline (HAL) and harmine (HAR), possess a variety of biological properties, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many others, and have great potential for treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, studies have showed that the two compounds have similar structures and in vitro AChE inhibitory activities but with significant difference in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to comparatively investigate the effects of HAL and HAR in memory deficits of scopolamine-induced mice. In the present study, mice were pretreated with HAL (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg), HAR (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and donepezil (5 mg/kg) by intragastrically for 7 days, and were daily intraperitoneal injected with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) to induce memory deficits and then subjected to behavioral evaluation by Morris water maze. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of HAL and HAR in improving learning and memory, the levels of various biochemical factors and protein expressions related to cholinergic function, oxidative stress, and inflammation were examined. The results showed that HAL and HAR could effectively ameliorate memory deficits in scopolamine-induced mice. Both of them exhibited an enhancement in cholinergic function by inhibiting AChE and inducing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities, and antioxidant defense via increasing the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reducing maleic diadehyde production, and anti-inflammatory effects through suppressing myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor α, and nitric oxide as well as modulation of critical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh), choline (Ch), L-tryptophan (L-Trp), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), γ-aminobutyric acid (γ-GABA), and L-glutamic acid (L-Glu). Furthermore, the regulations of HAL on cholinergic function, inflammation, and neurotransmitters were more

  12. Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Adolescent Patients: A Review with Emphasis on Combination of Fixed-Dose Ondansetron and Transdermal Scopolamine

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    Joseph V. Pergolizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a relatively common occurrence (20–30% that delays discharge and, if persistent, can lead to serious complications. The incidence of PONV is a function of patient characteristics, the type and duration of surgery, the type of anesthesia, and the choice of pre-, intra-, and postoperative pharmacotherapy. There are no completely effective antiemetic agents for this condition, but recommendations for treatment strategies are separately available for pediatric and adult patients. Left unclear is whether adolescents should be guided by the pediatric or the adult recommendations. We review the developmental physiology of the relevant physiological factors (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. We also review the clinical evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of ondansetron (4 mg, i.v. and transdermal scopolamine (1.5 mg.

  13. Melandrii Herba Extract Attenuates H2O2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells and Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Min Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the etiology of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that Melandrii Herba extract (ME attenuated oxidative-induced damage in cells. Mechanistically, ME exhibited protection from H2O2-induced neurotoxicity via caspase-3 inactivation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, and MAPK activation (ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and p38 MAPK in vitro. Moreover, our in vivo data showed that ME was able to attenuate scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. These results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that ME exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress, which suggests that ME is worthy of further investigation as a complementary, or even as an alternative, product for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...

  16. Effects of intra-hippocampal microinjection of vitamin B12 on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Amir; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Nemati, Shaghayegh

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B 12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Finally, locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Vitamin B 12 attenuated both phases of formalin-induced orofacial pain. Prior administration of naloxone and naloxonazine, but not naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, prevented this effect. Vitamin B 12 and physostigmine decreased latency time as well as traveled distance in Morris water maze. In addition, these chemicals improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The memory impairment induced by orofacial pain was improved by vitamin B 12 and physostigmine used alone. Naloxone prevented, whereas physostigmine enhanced the memory improving effect of vitamin B 12 in the pain-induced memory impairment. All the above-mentioned chemicals did not alter locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed that at the level of the dorsal hippocampus, vitamin B 12 modulated orofacial pain through a mu-opioid receptor mechanism. In addition, vitamin B 12 contributed to hippocampal cholinergic system in processing of memory. Moreover, cholinergic and opioid systems may be involved in improving effect of vitamin B 12 on pain-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.

  19. Anticholinerg syndroom door verontreinigde kruidenthee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman

  20. Behavioral Tolerance to Anticholinergic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-20

    Medicine , 47, 137-141. 7. Kurtz, P.J. (1977) Behavioral and biochemical effects of the carbamate insecticide, mobam. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior...tolerance to marihuana in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1, 73-76. 43 40. Olson, J. and Carder, B. (1974) Behavioral tolerance to... marihuana as a function of amount of prior training. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2, 243-247. 41. Sidman, M. (1960) Tactics of Scientific

  1. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  2. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used ...

  4. Trends in the Outpatient Utilization of Antipsychotic Drugs in the City of Zagreb in the Ten-Year Period as a Tool to Assess Drug Prescribing Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polić-Vižintin, Marina; Tripković, Ingrid; Štimac, Danijela; Šostar, Zvonimir; Orban, Mirjana

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to determine distribution and trends in the outpatient utilization of antipsychotics to evaluate the rationality of antipsychotic drug prescribing during the ten year period. The epidemiological method of descriptive and analytical observation was used. Data on drug utilization from Zagreb Municipal Pharmacy were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) using the World Health Organization Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical methodology. The ratio of typical versus atypical antipsychotics served as an indicator on assessing the rationality of the utilization. Data on the use of anticholinergics in the treatment of neuroleptic side effects were also included. Outpatient utilization of antipsychotics showed a declining pattern from 14.17 in 2001 to 8.42 DDD/TID in 2010. The utilization of atypical antipsychotics increased by 60% (from 3.68 to 5.89 DDD/TID), while the utilization of typical antipsychotics decreased by 76% (from 10.49 to 2.53 DDD/TID). The drugs showing the largest increase were olanzapine (from 1.21 to 2.78 DDD/TID) and quetiapine (from 0 to 0.68 DDD/TID). The typical/atypical antipsychotic ratio changed from 1:0.4 in 2001 to 1:2.3 in 2010. A 2.3-fold decrease was recorded in the utilization of anticholinergics (from 2.05 to 0.91 DDD/TID). Total consumption of neuroleptics significantly decreased. A decrease was also recorded in the utilization of anticholinergics. Study results pointed to two favorable features, i.e. low use of typical antipsychotics and the ratio of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Implementation of the new clinical guidelines for nervous system disorders and updating of the list of reimbursable drugs with the addition of new ones contributed to the observed improvement in the prescribing patterns during the study period. Using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology and rationality indicators in the assessment of trends in the outpatient utilization of

  5. The protective effect of fermented Curcuma longa L. on memory dysfunction in oxidative stress-induced C6 gliomal cells, proinflammatory-activated BV2 microglial cells, and scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Cheong-Su; Lim, Jong-Soon; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sam-Pin; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2017-07-17

    Curcuma longa L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of fermented C. longa (FCL) has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the effectiveness of FCL for the regulation of memory dysfunction was investigated in two brain cell lines (rat glioma C6 and murine microglia BV2) and scopolamine-treated mice. C. longa powder was fermented by 5% Lactobacillus plantarum K154 containing 2% (w/v) yeast extract at 30 °C for 72 h followed by sterilization at 121 °C for 15 min. The protective effects of fermented C. longa (FCL) on oxidative stress induced cell death were analyzed by MTT assay in C6 cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of FCL were investigated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as well as the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The step-through passive avoidance test, Morris water maze test, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were employed to determine the effects of FCL on scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. The contents of curcuminoids were analyzed through LC/MS. Pretreatment with FCL effectively prevented the cell death induced by oxidative stress in C6 cells. Moreover, FCL inhibited the production NO and PGE 2 via the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in BV2 cells. FCL significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and prevented scopolamine-induced AChE activity in the hippocampus. Additionally, FCL reversed the reduction of CREB and BDNF expression. The curcuminoids content in FCL was 1.44%. FCL pretreatment could alleviate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in C6 and BV2 cells, respectively. Thus, FCL might be a

  6. Drug Facts

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  7. Drug Allergy

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    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  8. Clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions among outpatients: A nationwide database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazbar, Janja; Locatelli, Igor; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja

    2018-06-01

    Adverse drug events due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a considerable public health burden, also in Slovenia. A better understanding of the most frequently occurring potential DDIs may enable safer pharmacotherapy and minimize drug-related problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of potential DDIs among outpatients in Slovenia. An analysis of potential DDIs was performed using health claims data on prescription drugs from a nationwide database. The Lexi-Interact Module was used as the reference source of interactions. The influence of patient-specific predictors on the risk of potential clinically relevant DDIs was evaluated using logistic regression model. The study population included 1,179,803 outpatients who received 15,811,979 prescriptions. The total number of potential DDI cases identified was 3,974,994, of which 15.6% were potentially clinically relevant. Altogether, 9.3% (N = 191,213) of the total population in Slovenia is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs, and the proportion is higher among women and the elderly. After adjustment for cofactors, higher number of medications and older age are associated with higher odds of clinically relevant potential DDIs. The burden of DDIs is highest with drug combinations that increase risk of bleeding, enhance CNS depression or anticholinergic effects or cause cardiovascular complications. The current study revealed that 1 in 10 individuals in the total Slovenian population is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs yearly. Taking into account the literature based conservative estimate that approximately 1% of potential DDIs result in negative health outcomes, roughly 1800 individuals in Slovenia experience an adverse health outcome each year as a result of clinically relevant potential interactions alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Different Compatibilities of Qing'e Formula on Scopolamine?induced Learning and Memory Impairment in the Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao‑Ping Zheng; Fang‑Di Hu; Li Yang; Yu‑Ling Ma; Bo‑Lu Sun; Chang‑Hong Wang; Zheng‑Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Qing'e formula (QEF) is a well?known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for treatment of bone disease for hundreds of years. Objective: The present study aims to observe the effects of different compatibilities of QEF on the scopolamine?induced learning and memory impairment in the mouse, and further to explore its action mechanisms and compatibility rationality. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory alterations in the mouse were evaluated using the step?down test and Morris water maze (MWM) test; the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain?derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus were measured using colorimetric method or immunohistochemistry. Results: The results showed that different compatibilities of QEF significantly prolonged latency in the step?down test, shortened escape latency in the navigation test, increased the percentage of residence time, and the percentage of swimming distance in the target quadrant in the probe trial session. In addition, our results also found that different compatibilities of QEF remarkably inhibited AChE activity and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus of mice. What's more, the group after being treated with whole recipe (QF) showed the highest level of improvement. Conclusions: These findings not only suggest that QEF may effectively ameliorate cognitive deficits through inhibiting AChE activity and increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus but also elucidate the rationality of QEF.

  10. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10−4 μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH’s protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH’s protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED. PMID:26685899

  11. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-12-21

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.

  12. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  13. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Ozarowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae, one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o. compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o. and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o. on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, and beta-secretase (BACE-1 mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus. However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.

  14. Memory-enhancing effect of a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract of the needles of Abies koreana on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanghyun; Bu, Youngmin; Jeong, Seungil; Lim, Jongpil; Kwon, Youngan; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Jinmo; Jeon, Sora; Eun, Jaesoon; Jeon, Hoon

    2006-08-01

    Abies koreana Wilson (A. koreana) is a shrub or broadly pyramidal evergreen tree endemic in the mountainous regions of South Korea. We obtained the essential oil (EO) from alpine needle leaves of A. koreana by the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 68 compounds were identified constituting 95.66% of the oil. The major components were elemol (11.17%), terpinen-4-ol (9.77%), sabinene (8.86%), 10(15)-cadien-4-ol (7.16%), alpha-terpineol (6.13%), alpha-pinene (6.07%) and gamma-terpinene (4.71%). To investigate the memory-enhancing effects, we conducted a passive avoidance test using a scopolamine (1 mg/kg, ip)-induced amnesia mouse model. A peritoneal injection of EO from A. koreana (100 mg/kg) showed a memory enhancing effect of 72.7% compared with the control. These results suggest that EO of A. koreana may be a useful therapeutic agent against such amnesia-inducing diseases as Alzheimer and vascular dementia.

  15. Drug Safety

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    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  16. Drug Abuse

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    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  17. Drug Facts

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  19. Club Drugs

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    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  20. Novel 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ameliorate scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and reference memory impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mayako; Okabe, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Yarimizu, Junko; Harada, Katsuya

    2015-03-01

    Despite the human 5-HT5A receptor being cloned in 1994, the biological function of this receptor has not been extensively characterized due to a lack of specific ligands. We recently reported that the selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist ASP5736 ameliorated cognitive impairment in several animal models of schizophrenia. Given that areas of the brain with high levels of 5-HT5A receptor expression, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, have important functions in cognition and memory, we evaluated the chemically diverse, potent and brain-penetrating 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ASP5736, AS2030680, and AS2674723 in rodent models of cognitive dysfunction associated with dementia. Each of these compounds exhibited a high affinity for recombinant 5-HT5A receptors that was comparable to that of the non-selective ligand of this receptor, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although each compound had a low affinity for other receptors, 5-HT5A was the only receptor for which all three compounds had a high affinity. Each of the three compounds ameliorated scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and improved reference memory impairment in aged rats at similar doses. Further, ASP5736 decreased the binding of LSD to 5-HT5A receptors in the olfactory bulb of rats in a dose-dependent manner and occupied 15%-50% of brain 5-HT5A receptors at behaviorally effective doses. These results indicate that the 5-HT5A receptor is involved in learning and memory and that treatment with 5-HT5A receptor antagonists might be broadly effective for cognitive impairment associated with not only schizophrenia but also dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activating antioxidant enzymes, hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis of Hyoscyamus niger L. plants with nano-sized titanium dioxide and bulk application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour GHORBANPOUR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Application of nanotechnology is now widely distributed overall the life, especially in agricultural systems. This study intended to indicate the impacts of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (NT and bulk (BT on antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT, and variations of two major tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine (HYO and scopolamine (SCO in Hyoscyamus niger L. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NT and BT (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg l-1. Alkaloids extracted were identified by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results showed that SOD activity increased with increasing titanium dioxide concentration in both nano-particles and bulk treated plants. However, the highest and the lowest POX activity were observed in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and control, respectively. Generally, all tested enzymes activities were higher in NT treated plants that those of BT except CAT activity at 80 mg l-1. The highest alkaloids content values, HYO: 0.286 g kg-1 and SCO: 0.126 g kg-1, were achieved in plants treated with NT at 80 and 20 mg l-1, respectively. The maximum and minimum plant biomass and subsequently total alkaloids yield were obtained in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and controls, respectively. Our results suggest that NT in appropriate level (40 mg l-1 may act as an elicitor for biochemical responses and tropane alkaloids biosynthesis in H. niger plants. 

  2. [Clinical audit on drug prescriptions for elderly patients hospitalized in a unit of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaraut, C; Caron, J; Bayonne, L; Moalic, Y

    2016-02-01

    The elderly are particularly vulnerable to the iatrogenic effects of drugs that are a major public health problem. In a geriatric care unit of a psychiatric hospital, the pharmacist, in close cooperation with the various health professionals, takes part in the optimization of drug therapy of these patients during cross-professional consultation meetings. From 2009 to 2011, an evaluation of professional practices was run through a targeted clinical audit on the theme of "prescription drugs at the age of 75 and over". The main objective of this study is to measure the differences between the practices and the guidelines for prescription drugs concerning the elderly, and then to analyze and amend these differences. The secondary objective is to gather data on the prescription drugs for the elderly in the particular context of a psychiatric unit. The evaluation was performed using two standards: the evaluation chart of prescriptions of the Professional College of French Geriatrics (CPGF) and the French National Authority for Health and the list of Laroche et al. In the first round, after analyzing the prescriptions of 105 patients, the gap between practice and accepted standards led to the definition of three areas of improvement on the associations of neuroleptics, on the use of anticholinergic drugs and on the prescription of benzodiazepines, the latter being subject of another communication. After reassessment, the prescriptions of 101 patients were thereafter analyzed in relation to the identified areas of improvement. Patient samples of both phases were statistically homogeneous. Between the two evaluations, the percentage of prescriptions with at least two neuroleptics remained stable, the decline was not significant (18.1% to 13.9%, P≥0.05). However, it was observed that the second suggested a "conditional" decline with dosages less than or equal to those recommended for the elderly dosages. The proportion of patients who did not take anticholinergic drugs

  3. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The first time ...

  4. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...

  7. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  9. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Saraswat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words 'anesthesia', 'pulmonary function', 'respiratory system' and 'anesthesia drugs and lungs' in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance.

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from drugs. But she's afraid ...

  12. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  13. Identification of drug combinations administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion that require analysis for compatibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Andrew; Bickerstaff, Matthew; Jackson, Richard; Schneider, Jennifer; Mason, Stephen; Ellershaw, John

    2017-03-23

    A continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) delivered via syringe pump is a method of drug administration used to maintain symptom control when a patient is no longer able to tolerate oral medication. Several classes of drugs, such as opioids, antiemetics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are routinely administered by CSCI alone or in combinations. Previous studies attempting to identify the most-common CSCI combinations are now several years old and no longer reflect current clinical practice. The aim of this work was to review current clinical practice and identify CSCI drug combinations requiring analysis for chemical compatibility and stability. UK pharmacy professionals involved in the delivery of care to palliative patients in hospitals and hospices were invited to enter CSCI combinations comprised of two or more drugs onto an electronic database over a 12-month period. In addition, a separate Delphi study with a panel of 15 expert healthcare professionals was completed to identify a maximum of five combinations of drugs used to treat more complex, but less commonly encountered symptoms unlikely to be identified by the national survey. A total of 57 individuals representing 33 separate palliative care services entered 1,945 drug combinations suitable for analysis, with 278 discrete combinations identified. The top 40 drug combinations represented nearly two-thirds of combinations recorded. A total of 23 different drugs were administered in combination and the median number of drugs in a combination was three. The Delphi study identified five combinations for the relief of complex or refractory symptoms. This study represents the first step towards developing authoritative national guidance on the administration of drugs by CSCI. Further work will ensure healthcare practitioners have the knowledge and confidence that a prescribed combination will be both safe and efficacious.

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  15. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different competition is going on: the National Football League (NFL) vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments ... Future survey highlights drug use trends among the Nation’s youth for marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes (e- ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  18. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of ... Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1- ...

  19. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs ... Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I ... The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the ...

  5. Orphan drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...

  6. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the computer will read the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos ... I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs ... adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? Does Drug Treatment Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  13. [Drug treatment of early-stage (de novo and "honeymoon") Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, P; Defebvre, L

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the management of motor symptoms during the early phases of Parkinson's disease, excluding that of any other clinical manifestation. We relied primarily upon recently published data and do not describe older publications relating to anticholinergic drugs or amantadine. The initial pharmacological treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is symptomatic and remains based upon dopaminergic drugs. However, the development of new drugs has broadened the range of strategic options and improved overall patient management. Announcing the diagnosis is a critical moment, as pointed out by patients' associations. Patients should be advised to maintain personal, professional, social and physical activities as long as possible. The potential benefit of early pharmacological treatment should be explained, focusing on the possible disease-modifying effect of drugs such as rasagiline. According to current guidelines, L-Dopa is preferred in patients above 65years of age, while those below 65 should be treated with dopamine agonists. Like monoamine oxidase inhibitors B (MAOI-B), synthetic dopamine agonists exhibit several advantages: easy-to-use treatment with a once-daily administration, delayed L-Dopa initiation, significant efficacy on motor symptoms (although lower than that of L-Dopa). MOAI can be prescribed in association with L-Dopa or dopamine agonists. Rasagiline also delays L-Dopa initiation, and consequently motor complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. WAr on DrugS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-12

    Apr 12, 2009 ... ABStrAct. Since drugs became both a public and social issue in Nigeria, fear about both the real and .... drugs as being morally reprehensible, and ..... tice system (see for instance, Shaw, 1995; ..... A cut throat business:.

  15. Extent and quality of drug use in community-dwelling people aged ≥75 years: A Swedish nationwide register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerin, Annica; Törnkvist, Lena; Nilsson, Gunnar; Johnell, Kristina; Fastbom, Johan

    2017-12-01

    It is important for district nurses and other health professionals in primary care to gain more insight into the patterns and quality of drug use in community-dwelling older people, particularly in 75-year-olds, who have been the target of preventive home visits. This study aimed to examine the extent and quality of drug use in community-dwelling older people and to compare drug use in 75-year-olds with that of older age groups. Data from 2013 on people aged ≥75 years were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Those living in the community (671,940/739,734 people aged ≥75 years) were included in the study. Quality of drug use was assessed by using a selection of indicators issued by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. The prevalence of polypharmacy and of many drug groups increased with age, as did several indicators of inappropriate drug use. However some drug groups, as well as inappropriate drugs, were prevalent in 75-year-olds and declined with age, for example diabetes drugs, drugs with major anticholinergic effects and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The substantial use of some drugs as early as 75 years of age confirms the value of including drug use as a topic in preventive home visits to 75-year-olds. The finding that polypharmacy and many measures of inappropriate drug use increased with age in community-dwelling older people also underscores the importance of district nurses' role in continuing to promote safe medication management at higher ages.

  16. [Orphan drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  17. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content Drugs Home Drugs Find information on FDA-approved HIV/ ... infection drugs and investigational HIV/AIDS drugs. Search Drugs Search drug Search Icon What's this? Close Popup ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  20. Antineoplastic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  1. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Results Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 View All NIDA Home ...

  2. Drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ping; Kong, De-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Given the high risk and lengthy procedure of traditional drug development, drug repurposing is gaining more and more attention. Although many types of drug information have been used to repurpose drugs, drug-drug interaction data, which imply possible physiological effects or targets of drugs, remain unexploited. In this work, similarity of drug interaction was employed to infer similarity of the physiological effects or targets for the drugs. We collected 10,835 drug-drug interactions concerning 1074 drugs, and for 700 of them, drug similarity scores based on drug interaction profiles were computed and rendered using a drug association network with 589 nodes (drugs) and 2375 edges (drug similarity scores). The 589 drugs were clustered into 98 groups with Markov Clustering Algorithm, most of which were significantly correlated with certain drug functions. This indicates that the network can be used to infer the physiological effects of drugs. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of this drug association network to predict drug targets. The results show that the method is effective for 317 of 561 drugs that have known targets. Comparison of this method with the structure-based approach shows that they are complementary. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. [Club drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

  4. Effects of drugs of abuse and cholinergic agents on delayed matching-to-sample responding in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, T J; Wenger, G R

    1993-04-01

    To study how drugs may disrupt short-term memory function, squirrel monkeys were trained to respond under a titrating delayed matching-to-sample schedule of reinforcement. Monkeys could respond on each of three keys in an operant chamber. At the start of each trial, the 30th response on the center key illuminated each of the side keys, one of which matched the stimulus presented on the center key (simultaneous matching). A response to the correct (matching) side key turned off all stimuli and initiated a delay, the length of which varied as a function of ongoing performance. After the delay, stimuli were randomly presented on two of the three keys. A response to the key which matched the color on the center key before the delay resulted in delivery of a food pellet (delayed matching). Incorrect simultaneous or delayed matching responses initiated a timeout. Under this procedure, diazepam and scopolamine decreased delayed matching accuracy at one or more doses that did not significantly decrease mean delay values, but only scopolamine decreased matching accuracy at a dose that did not significantly decrease response rates. Cocaine decreased mean delay values after the highest dose without affecting matching accuracy. Pentobarbital and methylscopolamine decreased matching accuracy and mean and maximum delay values after the highest doses. Nicotine and phencyclidine produced small decreases in delayed matching accuracy without affecting mean and maximum delay values. Caffeine, morphine, physostigmine and neostigmine did not alter matching performance even after doses that markedly decreased rates of responding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  7. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other ...

  9. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  10. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  11. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my ... is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  17. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...

  19. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  1. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as hearing colors Impulsive behavior Rapid shifts in emotions Permanent mental changes in perception Rapid heart rate ... Drug use can negatively affect academic performance and motivation to excel in school. Legal issues. Legal problems ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  3. Hyoscine butylbromide - a review on its parenteral use in acute abdominal spasm and as an aid in abdominal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, Guido N.

    2008-01-01

    Being a quaternary ammonium compound derived from scopolamine, the alkaloid hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) exerts anticholinergic effects without side effects related to the central nervous system because it does not pass the blood-brain barrier. Clinical experience with this antispasmodic dates back

  4. Self-reported motivation to smoke in schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.

  5. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  6. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products Home Drug Databases Drugs@FDA Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Download Drugs@FDA Express for free Search by Drug Name, Active Ingredient, or Application Number Enter at ...

  7. First evidence that drugs of abuse produce behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tavni; Yuvasheva, Ekaternia; Raffa, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization in mammals, including humans, is sensitive to factors such as administration route, testing environment, and pharmacokinetic confounds, unrelated to the drugs themselves, that are difficult to eliminate. Simpler animals less susceptible to these confounding influences may be advantageous substitutes for studying sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by determining if planarians display sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine and glutamate. Planarian hyperactivity was quantified as the number of C-like hyperkinesias during a 1-min drug exposure. Planarians exposed initially to cocaine (or glutamate) on day 1 were challenged with cocaine (or glutamate) after 2 or 6 days of abstinence. Acute cocaine or glutamate produced concentration-related hyperactivity. Cocaine or glutamate challenge after 2 and 6 days of abstinence enhanced the hyperactivity, indicating the substances produced planarian behavioral sensitization (pBS). Cross-sensitization experiments showed that cocaine produced greater hyperactivity in planarians previously exposed to glutamate than in glutamate-naïve planarians, and vice versa. Behavioral responses were pharmacologically selective because neither scopolamine nor caffeine produced pBS despite causing hyperactivity after initial administration, and acute GABA did not cause hyperactivity. Demonstration of pharmacologically-selective behavioral sensitization in planarians suggests these flatworms represent a sensitive in vivo model to study cocaine behavioral sensitization and to screen potential abuse-deterrent therapeutics. PMID:20512030

  8. Study Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  10. Drugs reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    tests (LFTs) to monitor hepatotoxicity (liver [hepatic] damage) is uncommon in many resource-poor ... cholesterol ester storage disease. ... The problem with many patients is that they are taking several drugs often ... Urine, saliva and other body fluids may be coloured orange-red: this can be very alarming to patients.

  11. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  12. Capping Drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preventing disease in human beings or in animals. In the process ... of requirement. In the process, they may cause toxic side effects. .... the liver to release the physiologically active drug. Similarly ... patients addicted to alcohol. However, it is a ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  14. Consumo de drogas psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Assis, SP Psychoactive drug use in school age adolescents, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Guimarães

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar o consumo das diferentes drogas psicoativas entre os estudantes da cidade de Assis, SP, e investigar as variáveis relacionadas com seu uso, foi aplicado um questionário que identificava dados sociodemográficos e padrão de uso não-médico de psicotrópicos em 20% dos estudantes das escolas públicas e privadas da cidade. Os maiores índices de consumo para o uso na vida foram os do álcool com 68,9% e o tabaco com 22,7%. As drogas mais utilizadas foram: solventes (10,0%; maconha (6,6%; ansiolíticos (3,8%; anfetamínicos (2,6%; cocaína (1,6% e anticolinérgicos (1,0%.To quantify psychoactive drug use and investigate use-related variables among students of Assis, Brazil, a questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic data and identify the pattern of non-medical use of psychoactive drugs in 20% of public and private school students. The largest consumption indexes for lifetime use were seen for alcohol (68.9% and tobacco (22.7%. Drugs most often used were: solvents (10.0%; marijuana (6.6%; benzodiazepines (3.8%; amphetamines (2.6%; cocaine (1.6%; and anticholinergics (1.0%.

  15. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  16. Drug Safety: Managing Multiple Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This series is produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project sup- ported by grants from the Engelberg Foundation and the National Library of Medicine of ... Consumer and Prescriber Education Grant Program which is funded ...

  17. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Indrati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and dual diagnosis.Key words: Legal, good drugs, illegal, bad drugs.

  18. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of Egr-1, c-Fos and c-Jun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Lv, Jingwei; Wang, Yan; Fan, Bei; Wang, Fengzhong; Liu, Xinmin

    2018-01-05

    20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved. In this study, mice were pretreated with PPD (20 and 40 μmol/kg) and donepezil (1.6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14 days. Then, open field test was used to assess the effect of PPD on the locomotor activity and mice were daily injected with SCOP (0.75 mg/kg) to induce cognitive deficits and then subjected to behavioral tests by object location recognition (OLR) experiment and Morris water maze (MWM) task. The cholinergic system function, oxidative stress biomarkers and protein expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in mouse hippocampus were examined. PPD was found to significantly improve the performance of amnesia mice in OLR and MWM tests. PPD regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting SCOP-induced elevation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, decline of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and decrease of acetylcholine (Ach) level. PPD suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lowering maleic diadehyde (MDA) level. Additionally, PPD significantly elevated the expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in hippocampus at protein level. Taken together, all these results suggested that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) may be a candidate compound for the prevention against memory loss in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Use of Emerging Drugs in Medellín, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Pérez, Guillermo A; Calderón Vallejo, Gustavo A; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira

    2013-09-01

    .5%; LYP, 44.5%, and LMP, 23.5%. Then there was smokable cocaine (Crack and Free-Base), with LP, 80%, LYP, 52.1%, and LYP=31.7%. The opiate derivatives (heroine, morphine, opium, codeine, dextromethorphan, meperidine, fentanyl) had an LP, 61.4%; LYP, 26.7% and LMP, 16%. The consumption statistics of the hallucinogens such as mushrooms, scopolamine and "yague", had an LP, 73.5%; LYP, 23.2% and LMP, 12.2%. Finally, use of inhalants such as popper and dichloromethane (Dick) had an LP, 87.9%; LYP, 37.6% and LMP, 21.6%. These results are an alert to the need to track the development of these so called emergent drugs due to the risks they pose for public health. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  2. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  4. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  5. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  6. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  7. [Assessment of anti-tremorogenic drugs--nicotine-induced tail-tremor model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemaru, K; Kawasaki, H; Gomita, Y

    1997-06-01

    The repeated administration of nicotine at small doses, which do not produce whole body tremor or convulsion, causes tremor only in the tail (tail-tremor) of rats. The tremor is accompanied by locomotor hyperactivity without rigidity and immobility of the whole body, suggesting that the nicotine-induced tail-tremor model is useful for studying the mechanism underlying tremor associated with movement. The tail-tremor induced by nicotine was suppressed by mecamylamine, a nicotinic antagonist, but not by atropine or scopolamine, muscalinic antagonists. Moreover, the tail-tremor was suppressed by the beta-blockers propranolol and pindolol, as well as the benzodiazepines diazepam and clonazepam. Tremor at rest is observed only in Parkinson's disease, which is improved with anti-muscalinic drugs. Essential tremor is one of the typical tremors connected with movement (postural and kinetic tremor) and is improved with beta-blocker. These findings and results suggest that nicotine-induced tail-tremor is useful for the study of essential tremor in animal models.

  8. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  9. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  10. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  11. Drugs Approved for Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.

  12. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approved drugs Drugs@FDA Information on FDA-approved brand name and generic drugs including labeling and regulatory history Drugs with Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) REMS is a risk management plan required by FDA for certain prescription drugs, ...

  13. Drugs and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelssering, G.; Aguiar, L.F.; Ribeiro, R.M.; Souza, A.Z. de

    1988-01-01

    Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.) [pt

  14. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  15. Drug Reactions - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Drug Interactions - HIV medicines, part 6 - English MP4 ...

  16. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  17. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  18. Potentially inappropriate medication: Association between the use of antidepressant drugs and the subsequent risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heser, Kathrin; Luck, Tobias; Röhr, Susanne; Wiese, Birgitt; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Oey, Anke; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Brettschneider, Christian; König, Hans-Helmut; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Wagner, Michael

    2018-01-15

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is associated with an increased risk for detrimental health outcomes in elderly patients. Some antidepressant drugs are considered as PIM, but previous research on the association between antidepressants and subsequent dementia has been inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated whether the intake of antidepressants, particularly of those considered as PIM according to the Priscus list, would predict incident dementia. We used data of a prospective cohort study of non-demented primary care patients (n = 3239, mean age = 79.62) to compute Cox proportional hazards models. The risk for subsequent dementia was estimated over eight follow-ups up to 12 years depending on antidepressant intake and covariates. The intake of antidepressants was associated with an increased risk for subsequent dementia (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16-2.02, p = .003; age-, sex-, education-adjusted). PIM antidepressants (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.06-2.10, p = .021), but not other antidepressants (HR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.66-1.66, p = .863), were associated with an increased risk for subsequent dementia (in age-, sex-, education-, and depressive symptoms adjusted models). Significant associations disappeared after global cognition at baseline was controlled for. Methodological limitations such as selection biases and self-reported drug assessments might have influenced the results. Only antidepressants considered as PIM were associated with an increased subsequent dementia risk. Anticholinergic effects might explain this relationship. The association disappeared after the statistical control for global cognition at baseline. Nonetheless, physicians should avoid the prescription of PIM antidepressants in elderly patients whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search ... who aren't yet born. Drug use can hurt the body and the brain, sometimes forever. Drug use can also lead to addiction, a long-lasting brain disease in which people ...

  20. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  1. DRUG POLICY AND DRUG ADDICTION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İLHAN, Mustafa Necmi

    2018-01-01

    The NationalStrategy Document on Drugs and Emergency Action Plan started with thecontributions of all the relevant institutions within the year of 2014 wasprepared and after that in accordance with the Prime Ministry Notice entitledFight Against Drugs published within this scope, the committees for FightAgainst Drugs were established (under the presidency of Deputy Prime Ministerand with the help of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Laborand Social Security, Ministry of Fam...

  2. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  3. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  4. Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  6. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  7. Co-morbidity and drug treatment in Alzheimer's disease. A cross sectional study of participants in the Dementia Study in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorsen Dag S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate medical treatment of co-morbidities in Alzheimer's disease (AD is an increasing concern in geriatric medicine. The objective of this study was to compare current drug use related to co-morbidity between individuals with a recent diagnosis of AD and a cognitively healthy control group in a population based clinical trial in Northern Norway. Methods Setting: Nine rural municipalities with 70 000 inhabitants in Northern Norway. Participants: Participants with and without AD recruited in general practice and by population based screening. 187 participants with a recent diagnosis of AD were recruited among community dwellers. Of 791 respondents without cognitive symptoms, 500 were randomly selected and invited to further clinical and cognitive testing. The final control group consisted of 200 cognitively healthy individuals from the same municipalities. Demographic characteristics, data on medical history and current medication were included, and a physical and cognitive examination was performed. The statistical analyses were carried out by independent sample t-test, chi-square, ANCOVA and logistic regression. Results A co-morbidity score was significantly higher in AD participants compared to controls. The mean number of drugs was higher for AD participants compared to controls (5.1 ± 3.6 and 2.9 ± 2.4 respectively, p Conclusions AD participants were treated with a significantly higher number of drugs as compared to cognitively healthy controls, even after adjustment for co-morbidity. An inappropriate use of anticholinergic and sedative drugs was identified, especially among nursing home residents with AD. The drug burden and the increased risk of adverse reactions among individuals suffering from AD need more attention from prescribing doctors.

  8. [Designer drugs in Jutland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E

    2001-04-16

    The aim of this investigation was to examine illegal tablets and capsules seized in Jutland, the western part of Denmark, during the period 1995-1999. The drugs are described according to technical appearance (colour, logo, score, diameter) and content of synthetic drugs. All illegal tablets and capsules received during the period 1995-1999 (109 cases containing 192 different samples) were examined. MDMA was the most common drug and was seen during the entire period. Amphetamine was the second most common drug and has been frequently detected during the the last two years. Drugs like MDE, MBDB, BDB, and 2-CB were rarely seen and they disappeared quickly from the illegal market. MDA appeared on the market at the end of 1999. Only 53% of the tablets contained MDMA as the sole drug. Eighty-one percent of the tablets/capsules contained only one synthetic drug, whereas 13% contained a mixture of two or more synthetic drugs. Six per cent of the samples did not contain a euphoric drug/designer drug. The content of MDMA, MDE, and amphetamine in the tablets varied greatly. MDMA is apparently the drug preferred by the users, but still only half of the tablets contained MDMA as the only drug. The rest of the tablets contained either another synthetic drug or a mixture of drugs. In conclusion, the increasing supply of various drugs with different and unpredictable effects and of miscellaneous quality brings about the risk of serious and complicated intoxications.

  9. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  11. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  12. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  13. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  14. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  15. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    induced by non-cytotoxic drugs is characterised by heterogeneous clinical picture and recovery is generally rapid. Although corticosteroids seem inefficient, we still recommend that severe symptomatic cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia are treated as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura due...

  16. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  17. Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)-Induced Seizures in a Patient with HIV Infection ... interaction not supported by existing literature, and it is possible that the background HIV infection may have a role to .... Foods and Drug Administration and Control.

  18. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  19. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  20. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  1. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  2. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  4. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  5. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  6. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  7. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  8. Drug development in neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    Personalized medicine is still in its infancy concerning drug development in neuropsychopharmacology. Adequate biomarkers with clinical relevance to drug response and/or tolerability and safety largely remain to be identified. Possibly, this kind of personalized medicine will first gain clinical relevance in the dementias. The clinical relevance of the genotyping of drug-metabolizing enzymes as suggested by drug licensing authorities for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of medicinal products needs to be proven in sound clinical trials.

  9. Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Gunnar F; Jiménez, Jennifer; Jiménez, Jessica A; Aschner, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. The FDA has recently reported that Hyland's baby teething tablets contain inconsistent amounts of Atropa belladonna that may have adverse effects on the nervous system and cause death in children, thus recalled the product in 2017. A greater understanding of the neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna and its modification of genetic polymorphisms in the nervous system is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, regulations, education of at-risk populations, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. This review offers an integrated view of the homeopathy and neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna in children, adults, and animal models as well as its implications to neurological disorders. Particular attention is dedicated to the pharmaco/toxicodynamics, pharmaco/toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, epidemiological cases, and animal studies associated with the effects of Atropa belladonna on the nervous system. Additionally, we discuss the influence of active tropane alkaloids in Atropa belladonna and other similar plants on FDA-approved therapeutic drugs for treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslewood, S.; Leung, E.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events are encouraged. (orig.)

  11. Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  12. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  13. Collegiate Drug Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.; Anderson, David S.

    A checklist to help colleges and universities reevaluate their policies and procedures regarding drug use among college students is presented. It is designed to supplement the "Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide." In this guide drugs other than alcohol are of concern, although alcohol is viewed by many as the "drug of choice" among college…

  14. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users ...

  15. Dynamics of Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)

  16. Drugs in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  18. Drug metabolism and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Hilary

    2005-06-01

    Older people are major consumers of drugs and because of this, as well as co-morbidity and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, are at risk of associated adverse drug reactions. While age does not alter drug absorption in a clinically significant way, and age-related changes in volume of drug distribution and protein binding are not of concern in chronic therapy, reduction in hepatic drug clearance is clinically important. Liver blood flow falls by about 35% between young adulthood and old age, and liver size by about 24-35% over the same period. First-pass metabolism of oral drugs avidly cleared by the liver and clearance of capacity-limited hepatically metabolized drugs fall in parallel with the fall in liver size, and clearance of drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio falls in parallel with the fall in hepatic blood flow. In normal ageing, in general, activity of the cytochrome P450 enzymes is preserved, although a decline in frail older people has been noted, as well as in association with liver disease, cancer, trauma, sepsis, critical illness and renal failure. As the contribution of age, co-morbidity and concurrent drug therapy to altered drug clearance is impossible to predict in an individual older patient, it is wise to start any drug at a low dose and increase this slowly, monitoring carefully for beneficial and adverse effects.

  19. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  20. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  1. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  2. [Drugs in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchev, N; Astrug, A; Tsankova, V; Nikolova, I

    2006-01-01

    The use of drugs in pregnancy is being discussed. The influence of different factors, both physiological and drug related (physicochemical characteristics, dose, duration of pharmacotherapy) on the processes of absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and excretion are reviewed. The up-to-date classification of the drugs in relation to their effects on the fetus is presented. Special emphasize is given to drugs (antibiotics, cardio-vascular, psychotropic etc.) used for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions in the course of pregnancy. Drugs used for symptoms like pain, high temperature and constipation are also reviewed. Recommendations for the use of safer drugs in pregnancy are given. Drugs with proven teratogenic effects are presented.

  3. Derrida and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Derrida, in the interview Rhetoric of Drugs (1993), following on from the explication of the notion of pharmakon (both poison and beneficial drug, at the same time), outlines a possible �theory� of drugs and addiction. It has several key features:\\ud � there are no drugs in nature: the definition of �drug� is an institutionalised one\\ud � the concept of drugs is non-scientific, non-positive\\ud � drugs are a parasitism �at once accidental and essential�; and are thus a topic ...

  4. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis ( ... Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA FAQs Contact Subscribe ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  3. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  4. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  5. Anti-stress and nootropic activity of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in rats based on indirect biochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, K V; Nagwar, Shrasti; Thyloor, Rama; Satyanarayana, Sreemantula

    2015-12-01

    Various stress hormones are responsible for bringing out stress-related changes and are implicated in learning and memory processes. The extensive clinical experience of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and direct renin inhibitor as antihypertensive agents provides anecdotal evidence of improvements in cognition. The neurochemical basis underlying the anti-stress and nootropic effects are unclear. This study was aimed to determine the effects of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination on the neuromediators of the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery as well as on cognitive function. Groups of rats were subjected to a forced swim stress for one hour after daily treatment with aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandellic acid (VMA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 6-β-hydroxycortisol (6-β-OH) cortisol and homovanillic acid (HVA) was determined in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. Nootropic activity was studied using cook's pole climbing apparatus and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity by Ellman's method. Administration of aliskiren (10 mg/kg), valsartan (20 mg/kg) and their combination at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg respectively reduced the urinary metabolite levels. Further, all drugs showed significant improvement in scopolamine-impaired performance and produced inhibition of the AChE enzyme. The present study provides scientific support for the anti-stress and nootropic activities of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troosters, T; Celli, B; Lystig, T

    2010-01-01

    -term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation...

  7. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  8. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  9. Therapeutic drug monitoring of atypical antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundmann Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder often associated with cognitive impairment and affective, mainly depressive, symptoms. Antipsychotic medication is the primary intervention for stabilization of acute psychotic episodes and prevention of recurrences and relapses in patients with schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, the older class of antipsychotic agents, are currently used much less frequently than newer atypical antipsychotics. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM of antipsychotic drugs is the specific method of clinical pharmacology, which involves measurement of drug serum concentrations followed by interpretation and good cooperation with the clinician. TDM is a powerful tool that allows tailor-made treatment for the specific needs of individual patients. It can help in monitoring adherence, dose adjustment, minimizing the risk of toxicity and in cost-effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The review provides complex knowledge indispensable to clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists and clinicians for interpretation of TDM results.

  10. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  11. Differential Effects of Systemic Cholinergic Receptor Blockade on Pavlovian Incentive Motivation and Goal-Directed Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-01-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing—used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value—we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  12. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  13. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  14. Drug procurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, V S

    2003-03-01

    A strong drug procurement and management system under the RNTCP is critical to programme success. Significant improvements in manufacturing, inspection, supply, storage and quality control practices and procedures have been achieved due to an intensive RNTCP network. Drugs used in RNTCP are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Patients of TB are categorised into I, II and III and each category has a different standarised treatment. Procurement, distribution system and quality assurance of drugs are narrated in brief in this article.

  15. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  16. Drug Trafficking in Haiti

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, DeEtta

    2002-01-01

    .... The thesis argues that Haiti's geographic location, political culture, illegal immigrants, entrepreneurial class and weak institutions have made it a major transshipment point for drugs to the United...

  17. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  18. Population and Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Feberová, Beata

    2008-01-01

    PEOPLE AND DRUGS II. Author: Križanová L. Tutor: Práznovcová L. Dept. of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic Background: It is necessary to rationalize the system of funding of health service. One of the ways how to achieve this aim is monitoring of drug prescription and patient's financial participation on the therapy. Aim of study: Observation and analysis of drug prescription aimed at the prescription of the drug...

  19. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  1. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  2. Projecting future drug expenditures--2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James M; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Doloresco, Fred; Martin, Patrick K; Blake, Sharon; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2009-02-01

    Drug expenditure trends in 2007 and 2008, projected drug expenditures for 2009, and factors likely to influence drug expenditures are discussed. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2009, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, drug safety concerns, generic drugs, Medicare Part D, and changes in the drug supply chain. The increasing availability of important generic drugs and drug safety concerns continue to moderate growth in drug expenditures. The drug supply chain remains dynamic and may influence drug expenditures, particularly in specialized therapeutic areas. Initial data suggest that the Medicare Part D benefit has influenced drug expenditures, but the ultimate impact of the benefit on drug expenditures remains unclear. From 2006 to 2007, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 4.0%, with total spending rising from $276 billion to $287 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics continue to grow more rapidly than in other settings, with a 9.9% increase from 2006 to 2007. Hospital drug expenditures increased at a moderate rate of only 1.6% from 2006 to 2007; through the first nine months of 2008, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 2.8% compared with the same period in 2007. In 2009, we project a 0-2% increase in drug expenditures in outpatient settings, a 1-3% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 1-3% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  3. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  4. Biperiden Dependence: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Espi Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinergic drugs are frequently used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapiramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptics. Abuse of anticholinergic agents has been reported in patients with psychotic disorders, on treatment with neuroleptics, and polysubstance use disorders. We are reporting the case of a patient who presented with hypoactive delirium as a consequence of biperiden dependence. The clinician must pay special attention to detect anticholinergic misuse in patients presenting with delirium of unknown cause.

  5. Ocular surface changes following oral anticholinergic use for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Tasci, Yasemin; Dolen, Ismail; Arslan, Umut

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate on Schirmer I test results, tear break-up time (TBUT) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores in overactive bladder (OAB) patients and to compare these results with those of healthy control subjects. The female OAB patients who were prescribed oral solifenacin succinate 5 mg/day (Group I, N = 80) and age-matched healthy female subjects (Group II, N = 40) were recruited for the study and underwent ophthalmological examination prior to oral treatment and after 4 weeks. They completed the OSDI questionnaire and underwent ocular surface tests including Schirmer I test and TBUT. The statistical analysis of the Schirmer I test and TBUT revealed no significant difference between the baseline and 4th week values in both groups (Group I, p = 0.506 and p = 0.070 consecutively) (Group II, p = 0.810 and p = 0.823 consecutively). OSDI scores were found to be significantly increased in group I (21.8 ± 4.2 vs 23.1 ± 4.6, p = 0.020) and remained unchanged in group II (20.5 ± 7.0 vs 20.7 ± 7.0, p = 0.805). Short-term solifenacin succinate treatment has no effect on the Schirmer I test results and TBUT, but ocular surface symptoms appeared to be exacerbated in respect with increased OSDI scores. However, the clinical significance needs to be further evaluated with larger studies.

  6. The central anticholinergic syndrome in the postoperative period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rupreht (Joze); B. Dworacek (B.)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractRésumé Le syndrome anticholinergique central (SAC) comporte des signes centraux (somnolence, confusion, amnésie, agitation, hallucination, dysarthrie, ataxie, délire, stupeur, coma) et des signes périphériques (sécheresse buccale et/ou cutanée, tachycardie, troubles visuels et

  7. In Vitro Anticholinergic and Antihistaminic Activities of Acorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was aimed at determining the effects of hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Acorus calamus leaves (ACHE, ACAE, ACME and ACAQE) on cholinergic and histaminic system using isolated frog rectus abdominis muscle and guinea pig ileum. A dose dependent potentiation of Ach ...

  8. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  9. [Drugs and light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    1997-06-30

    The number of drugs that are found to be photochemically unstable or able to induce phototoxic side-effects is steadily increasing. It can be difficult, however, to obtain relevant information on the photoreactivity of drugs or drug products from the commonly used handbooks. This is because of lack of standard methods of evaluation or a requirement for official specifications for a given product. The author points to the main problems connected with interactions between drugs and light in vitro and in vivo. The most obvious result of exposure to light is reduced potency of the drug because of photodecomposition. Adverse effects due to the formation of photodegradation products during storage and use have also been reported. The drug substance can further cause light-induced side-effects after administration to the patient, e.g. phototoxicity and photoallergy. More data on photoreactivity are needed in order to minimize the side-effects of frequently used drugs. The article includes a list of potential photosensitizing drug substances on the Norwegian market.

  10. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  11. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  12. Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, Helen H.

    This paper discusses the nature and extent of student drug use, its meaning and significance, society's response to it, and some of the problems resulting from efforts to control it. Drugs are any substance which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of the living organism. Abuse refers to any use of a non-medically approved…

  13. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  14. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drugs in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A

    2008-06-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.

  16. Dendrimers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh Chauhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers have come a long way in the last 25 years since their inception. Originally created as a wonder molecule of chemistry, dendrimer is now in the fourth class of polymers. Dr. Donald Tomalia first published his seminal work on Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers in 1985. Application of dendrimers as a drug delivery system started in late 1990s. Dendrimers for drug delivery are employed using two approaches: (i formulation and (ii nanoconstruct. In the formulation approach, drugs are physically entrapped in a dendrimer using non-covalent interactions, whereas drugs are covalently coupled on dendrimers in the nanoconstruct approach. We have demonstrated the utility of PAMAM dendrimers for enhancing solubility, stability and oral bioavailability of various drugs. Drug entrapment and drug release from dendrimers can be controlled by modifying dendrimer surfaces and generations. PAMAM dendrimers are also shown to increase transdermal permeation and specific drug targeting. Dendrimer platforms can be engineered to attach targeting ligands and imaging molecules to create a nanodevice. Dendrimer nanotechnology, due to its multifunctional ability, has the potential to create next generation nanodevices.

  17. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  18. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  19. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  20. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  1. [Drug-Drug Interactions with Consideration of Pharmacogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Shogo

    2018-01-01

     Elderly patients often suffer from a variety of diseases and therefore may be prescribed several kinds of drugs. Interactions between these drugs may cause problems in some patients. Guidelines for drug interactions were released on July 8, 2014 "Drug Interaction Guideline for Drug Development and Labeling Recommendations (Final Draft)". These guidelines include the theoretical basis for evaluating the mechanisms of drug interaction, the possible extent of drug interactions, and take into consideration special populations (e.g., infants, children, elderly patients, patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction, and subjects with minor deficient alleles for drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters). In this symposium article, I discuss this last special population: altered drug metabolism and drug interactions in subjects with minor alleles of genes encoding deficient drug metabolizing enzymes. I further discuss a drug label for eliglustat (Cerdelga) with instructions for patients with ultra-rapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizer phenotypes that arise from different CYP2D6 gene alleles.

  2. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  3. Metabonomics and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Pranov; Adams, Erwin; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites as an end product of metabolism possess a wealth of information about altered metabolic control and homeostasis that is dependent on numerous variables including age, sex, and environment. Studying significant changes in the metabolite patterns has been recognized as a tool to understand crucial aspects in drug development like drug efficacy and toxicity. The inclusion of metabonomics into the OMICS study platform brings us closer to define the phenotype and allows us to look at alternatives to improve the diagnosis of diseases. Advancements in the analytical strategies and statistical tools used to study metabonomics allow us to prevent drug failures at early stages of drug development and reduce financial losses during expensive phase II and III clinical trials. This chapter introduces metabonomics along with the instruments used in the study; in addition relevant examples of the usage of metabonomics in the drug development process are discussed along with an emphasis on future directions and the challenges it faces.

  4. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  5. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  6. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  7. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  8. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  14. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  15. Anticancer drugs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamada, Manabu; Kasai, Yasuyo; Miyauchi, Akito; Andoh, Kazumichi

    2016-09-01

    Although cancer diagnoses during pregnancy are rare, they have been increasing with the rise in maternal age and are now a topic of international concern. In some cases, the administration of chemotherapy is unavoidable, though there is a relative paucity of evidence regarding the administration of anticancer drugs during pregnancy. As more cases have gradually accumulated and further research has been conducted, we are beginning to elucidate the appropriate timing for the administration of chemotherapy, the regimens that can be administered with relative safety, various drug options and the effects of these drugs on both the mother and fetus. However, new challenges have arisen, such as the effects of novel anticancer drugs and the desire to bear children during chemotherapy. In this review, we outline the effects of administering cytotoxic anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs to pregnant women on both the mother and fetus, as well as the issues regarding patients who desire to bear children while being treated with anticancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, ... effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to ...

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    Full Text Available ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect ...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

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    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

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    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/ ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ...

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  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

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    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...