WorldWideScience

Sample records for antichloris viridis druce

  1. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L) DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-01-01

    The Prosopis cineraria (L) Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthan)for the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan). Prosopis cineraria(L.) Druce is a tree endemic to h...

  2. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  3. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical

  4. [Transcriptome analysis of Dunaliella viridis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaiqi; Gong, Yifu; Hang, Yuqing; Liu, Hao; Wang, Heyu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes for Dunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) databases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81,593 transcripts were found, and 77,117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16,569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classification annotated 76,436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30,678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26,428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was annotated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foundation of metabolic pathway research for Dunaliella viridis. PMID:26266786

  5. Nutraceutical Properties of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce Pods: A Component of “Panchkuta”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Malik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called “Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish - The Panchkuta. In the present work, we have attempted to study different characteristics of the pods, to understand its health benefits. Sangri pods were studied for various phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, flavanols and total phenolics. As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient area so antioxidant potential of pods has also been investigated. Acetone and methanol extracts of Sangri pods are the most potent bioactive extracts. Nutritional analysis shows it as a good source of proteins and minerals like calcium, sodium and potassium. This study demonstrates that P. cineraria pods may be employed as nutraceutical food with rich nutrition, disease prevention and health promoting effects.

  6. Secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Datta (Priya); S. Arora (Shilpa); A. Jain (Ashok); J. Chander (Jagdish); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStreptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of

  7. Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Traditional method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the generation of tissue culture had limited success for Setaria viridis, an emerging C4 monocot model. Here we present an efficient in planta method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis using spike dip. Pre-anthesis developing spikes were dipped into a solution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter to standardize and optimize conditions for transient as well as stable transformations. A transformation efficiency of 0.8 ± 0.1% was obtained after dipping of 5-day-old S3 spikes for 20 min in Agrobacterium cultures containing S. viridis spike-dip medium supplemented with 0.025% Silwet L-77 and 200 μm acetosyringone. Reproducibility of this method was demonstrated by generating stable transgenic lines expressing β-glucuronidase plus (GUSplus), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter genes driven by either CaMV35S or intron-interrupted maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoters from three S. viridis genotypes. Expression of these reporter genes in transient assays as well as in T1 stable transformed plants was monitored using histochemical, fluorometric GUS activity and fluorescence microscopy. Molecular analysis of transgenic lines revealed stable integration of transgenes into the genome, and inherited transgenes expressed in the subsequent generations. This approach provides opportunities for the high-throughput transformation and potentially facilitates translational research in a monocot model plant. PMID:26932666

  8. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis...

  9. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J.SAVIOLA; David CHISZAR; Stephen P.MACKESSY

    2012-01-01

    Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake.Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake) takes different prey at different life stages,and neonates typically prey on ectotherms,while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms.We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed,and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age.To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred,we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate,20 subadult,and 20 adult (average SVL=280.9,552,789.5 mm,respectively) wild-caught C.v.viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard,Sceloporus undulatus,and house gecko,Hemidactylusfrenatus),two endotherms (deer mouse,Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse,Mus musculus),and water controls were used.Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey,S.undulatus,than to all other chemical cues; however,the response to this lizard's chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes.Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S.undulatus and P.maniculatus than to all other treatments,and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P.maniculatus than to all other chemical cues.In addition,all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M.musculus and H.frenatus).This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C.v.viridis diet.Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition,we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid snakes.

  10. Accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium on the development of mangrove plant Kandelia candel (L. Druce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Shakila Islam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed for investigating accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium (Cr on the development of the mangrove seedling Kandelia candel (L. Druce. Seedlings treated with increasing concentrations of CrCl3 solution (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg L-1, respectively were grown in a basic nutrient solution for three months. The five month old seedlings were harvested for the experiment. This study showed that Cr treatment significantly decreased growth of K. candel in terms of seedling height, leaf number and total biomass. At the highest 3 mg L-1 Cr exposure, there was a 34.47% decrease in final seedling height, 68.95% decrease in leaf number and a 60.65% decrease in total biomass. The present study demonstrates that Cr accumulation ability of K. candel seedlings increased with the increase of treatment strength up to certain level. The concentrations of Cr in root, hypocotyl, stem and leaf ranged from 22.87 to 1.43 mg kg-1, 1.30 to 0.68 mg kg-1, 2.42 to 0.91 mg kg-1, and 1.74 to 0.74 mg kg-1, respectively. When comparing Cr concentration in different plant parts with respect to their controls, the results showed that treated plant root bioaccumulated high amounts of Cr. Almost 80% of Cr was accumulated mainly in roots. The distribution pattern of Cr in K. candel was Root > Stem > Leaf > Hypocotyl. Our findings indicated that the high concentration of Cr supply may interfere with several metabolic processes of seedlings, causing toxicity to plants as exhibited by chlorosis, necrosis, and finally, plant death.

  11. Population dynamics and diapause response of the springtail pest Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M K; Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The springtail, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), is an important agricultural pest across southern Australia. We investigated the seasonal abundance patterns and summer diapause response of S. viridis in southeastern Australia by using field and shadehouse (a greenhouse that offers seedlings shade) experiments. Seasonal activity patterns of S. viridis were largely consistent with previous studies, with the pest active from autumn to spring. In addition, the timing and pattern of the summer-diapausing egg stage was established, with multiple generations probably producing diapause eggs. A strong relationship between soil moisture and temperature with autumn emergence also was observed. These results suggest that S. viridis autumn pest pressure can be predicted and indicate that late-season spraying strategies currently used for a sympatric agricultural pest are unlikely to be as effective against S. viridis. PMID:21510194

  12. Diversity in plants and other Collembola ameliorate impacts of Sminthurus viridis on plant community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary M.

    2006-05-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of herbivory by Sminthurus viridis in structuring botanical composition in developing grasslands, and how these effects may be modified by diversity in collembolan and plant species. Differential susceptibility to S. viridis feeding was demonstrated in 23 dicotyledonous and three monocotyledonous plants assayed as seedlings at the first true leaf stage. The composition of seedling communities developing from natural and artificially constructed soil seed banks varied with the level of S. viridis infestation, with plant species least susceptible to herbivory making the greatest contribution to plant biomass. The combined effect of herbivory by S. viridis and Bourletiella hortensis on Trifolium repens biomass was shown to be less than the effect of S. viridis alone, indicating competitive interference. The adverse effects of herbivory by S. viridis on T. repens biomass was reduced by increased diversity of plants growing in association with the legume, and the presence of four non-herbivorous arthropleonan Collembola. S. viridis was shown to reduce seedling numbers, species diversity and biomass in communities developing from the soil seed bank, but the presence of non-herbivorous arthropleonan species reduced the effect of S. viridis. The experiments demonstrate the potential for herbivory by S. viridis to significantly alter species composition in developing grassland communities. However, interactions with collembolan and plant species profoundly modified S. viridis herbivory impacts, either by reducing feeding intensity or enhancing plant growth. These results highlight the fact that data from simple, synthetic systems may be poor predictors of herbivory impacts under field conditions where more complex species interactions occur.

  13. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  14. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1-2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and ??15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants. ?? 2005 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  15. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Oxidative damage and antioxidant properties have been studied in Perna viridis subjected to short-term exposure to Hg along with temperature (72 h) and long-term temperature exposures (14 days) as pollution biomarkers. The elevated thiobarbituric...

  16. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes...

  17. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated using tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing potential, scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  18. Comparative Studies on Uptake Pathway of Cadmium by Perna viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were designed to expose the filter-feeding bivalve Perna viridis to different Cd-contaminated water environments in order to compare the different pathways through which Cd is accumulated. Results show that mussels can accumulate Cd through seawater, food, sediment and suspended particle pathways in a short period of time. Mussels uptake of Cd through the seawater pathway reaches the highest concentration approximately 3 and 9 times larger than through the algae and sediment pathways respectively after 7 d. This indicates that the Cd-accumulation through seawater is most efficient. Results also indicate that the uptake directly through contaminated algae, particles or sediments ingested by mussels is less important when compared with the uptake of Cd by mussels through the seawater pathway. Metal uptake pathways and mechanisms of bioaccumulation by marine bivalve are also discussed in this paper.

  19. SALT EFFECTS ON SWARMERS OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    1. Dunaliella viridis Teodoresco thrives equally well in solutions of NaCl 1 to 4 mol and pH 6 to 9. 2. The organism is sensitive to calcium and magnesium, especially in acid medium. 3. Calcium and magnesium are antagonistic. In a molar solution of NaCl the antagonistic relation Mg:Ca is 4 to 5. In a 4 molar solution of NaCl the proportion becomes many times as great (20:1). 4. Although the strains used in this investigation did not occur in sea water concentrates, the increase in the antagonistic ratio Mg:Ca in which they can live closely paralleled the changes in this ratio which take place when sea water evaporates. 5. The other organisms which occurred in the cultures each show a specific relation to Ca and Mg. 6. The size of the cells of Dunaliella does not decrease with increasing NaCl content. PMID:19872621

  20. IDENTIFICATION CHALLENGES IN EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PLANT MATERIAL OF PSYCHOTRIA VIRIDIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Łozak, Anna; Bachliński, Robert; Duszyński, Anna; Sakowska, Joanna; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2015-01-01

    Psychoria viridis (chacruna) is a hallucinogenic plant with psychoactive properties associated with the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). This species is primarily known as an ingredient of the beverage Ayahuasca, but dry leaves are also smoked by recreational users. The plant is controlled in Poland and France and its proper identification poses many challenges due to the fact that genus Psychotria is relatively large and there are other species that are easily confused with chacruna. The aim of the present work was to develop an effective authentication procedure for the dried and shredded leaves of P. viridis, to be used in comparison of chemical and botanical characteristics of its commercial products. Dried leaves of P. viridis originating from Brazil, Peru and Hawaii were purchased from Internet providers. For DMT identification, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been elaborated, validated and applied. In order to clarify the existing differences among samples, chemometric methods have been used. Botanical features and the gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms have been analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Our studies revealed significant variety among plant material marketed as P. viridis. Grouping of samples based on their micromorphology features and GC-MS results did not correspond well with the presence of DMT. Based on our results an indisputable identification of dried specimens as P. viridis is very problematic. It is necessary to postulate changes in legislation regarding regulation of P. viridis and replace it with DMT as controlled substance.

  1. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  2. Priming of prosopis cineraria (L. druce and acacia tortilis (forssk seeds with fulvic acid extracted from compost to improve germination and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting of waste plant materials and its use in agriculture and landscape sites is an environmental friendly way of reducing waste material and conserving the environment. In this perspectives a survey has been performed at the Dubai based International Center for Biosaline Agriculture to compost the plants based waste material (lawn cuttings-grass to compost. The material was inoculated with a consortium of microbes leading to form stable and mature compost with high organic matter (38%. In order to conduct seed germination tests, Fulvic acid was extracted from the compost. A pot experiment was conducted over a period of 30 days in the green house to study the effect of Fulvic acid on the seed germination, and plant growth of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce (Ghaff and Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne. Seeds of both trees were treated with Fulvic acid at 0.5% and 1% and water treatment was used as control. Generally seed germination and biomass were increased at both rates of fulvic acid. However, a pronounced increase was found in seed germination when fulvic acid was used at 1.0% (Prosopis cineraria 27%; Acacia tortilis 20% increase over control. Similarly biomass (shoot and root of A. tortilis and P. cineraria was increase 34% and 94% respectively.

  3. Morphological Analysis on Chromosome of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce%关玉竹染色体形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 赵鑫; 李艳辉; 刘宇; 李鑫龙; 宁伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the karyomorphology of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce.from Changbai mountain.Methods Conventional pressed slice method was employed.Results The chromosomal number of S.chinensis was 2n = 20,the karyotype belonged to "2B" and was formulated as K(2n) = 2X = 2st + 8sm + 10m,the asymmetry index was K%=61.71%.Conclusion Detailed analysis was consequently displayed on symmetrical degree,chromosomal type and compositions of P.odoratum.The chromosomal morphostructure of P.odoratum was reported for the first time.%目的 对长白山地区分布的关玉竹体细胞染色体计数,对其进行核形态学研究.方法 采用常规压片法.结果 关玉竹的染色体数目为2n = 20,核型公式为K(2n) = 2X = 2sm(2SAT) + 8sm + 10m,属"2B"类型,核型不对称系数为61.71%.结论 基于观察结果分析了关玉竹染色体对称程度、类型及染色体组成.关玉竹染色体的随体结构为首次报道.

  4. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Ong; K. Yusoff; C. K. Yap; S. G. Tan

    2009-08-01

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, Parit Jawa, Pantai Lido and Kampung Pasir Puteh in Johore, and Kuala Pontian and Nenasi in Pahang state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, with an average of 3.1. Heterozygote deficiencies were observed across all the 10 populations. Characterization of the populations revealed that local populations of P. viridis in peninsular Malaysia were genetically similar enough to be used as a biomonitoring agent for heavy metal contamination in the Straits of Malacca. Cluster analysis grouped the P. viridis populations according to their geographical distributions with the exception of Parit Jawa. The analysis also revealed that P. viridis from the northern parts of peninsular Malaysia were found to be the most distant populations among the populations of mussels investigated and P. viridis from the eastern part of peninsular Malaysia were closer to the central and southern populations than to the northern populations.

  5. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  6. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45 ± 3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ≈85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub. PMID:26261405

  7. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  8. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  10. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    . The shells of P. viridis were opened by cutting the posterior abductor muscles. The mussels were allowed to rest in FSW. A known concentration (100 ppm) of test solution was allowed to drip on the foot gently without stimulating the foot Correspondence to...

  11. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Sub-lethal effects of mercury exposure (1/10 th of LC sub(50), i.e. 0.045 mg l sup(-1)) for 5, 10 and 15 d was investigated on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis. In addition to this an in vitro...

  12. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo;

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  13. Characterization of duplicated Dunaliella viridis SPT1 genes provides insights into early gene divergence after duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhenwei; Meng, Xiangzong; Sun, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2008-10-15

    The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene from unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis, DvSPT1, shares similarity with members of Pi transporter family. Sequencing analysis of D. viridis BAC clone containing the DvSPT1 gene revealed two inverted duplicated copies of this gene (DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 respectively). The duplication covered most of both genes except for their 3' downstream region. The duplicated genomic sequences exhibited 97.9% identity with a synonymous divergence of Ks=0.0126 in the coding region. This data indicated very recent gene duplication in D. viridis genome, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate sequence and expression divergence of duplicated genes at an early stage. Scattered point mutations and length polymorphism of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were predominant among the sequence divergence soon after gene duplication. Due to sequence divergence in the 5' regulatory regions and a swap of the entire 3' downstream regions (3'-UTR), DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 showed expression divergence in response to extra-cellular NaCl concentration changes. According to their expression patterns, the two diverged gene copies would provide better adaptation to a broader range of extra-cellular NaCl concentration. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis indicated that there might be a large phosphate transporter gene family in D. viridis. PMID:18662752

  14. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  15. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    The growth indices of the Mussels, Perna viridis and Perna indica collected from the south west coast of India were examined using statistical methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) separated 2...

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  17. Thermal Constraints for Range Expansion of the Invasive Green Mussel, Perna viridis, in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    URIAN, ALYSON G.; Hatle, John D.; GILG, MATTHEW R.

    2010-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis ...

  18. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo); ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve ten...

  19. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  20. Water chemistry influences the toxicity of silver to the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, Kannappan

    2010-08-01

    The study determined the influence and relative importance of water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness) on the acute toxicity of silver to the green mussel Perna viridis. A preliminary bioassay revealed that 4 mg L(-1) of silver caused 50% mortality (LC50) in 96 h for mussels placed in seawater with pH 8.5, hardness 1,872 mg L(-1), and alkalinity 172 mg L(-1). Mortality of mussels increased with decreasing pH and increasing hardness and alkalinity variables. In contrast the mortality decreased with increasing pH and decreasing hardness and alkalinity values. The water chemistry also affected the concentration of silver in experimental seawater and bioaccumulation of silver in mussels. The results revealed that the chemical properties of seawater must be considered while conducting toxicity tests with metals like silver. The possible explanations for the influence of water chemistry on silver toxicity to P. viridis are discussed.

  1. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    of Odense Fjord. There was a positive interaction between M. viridis and the native A. marina. Otherwise the introduction of M. viridis was synchronous with a decrease of several macroinvertebrates species, especially N. diversicolor. The latter is still the dominant species in Odense Fjord, but its density...... has decreased by >60% in areas colonised by M. viridis. We do not expect that N. diversicolor disappears completely in this estuary, but it will probably be displaced to refuge areas where M. viridis cannot survive. Decrease in the population size of a key native species such as N. diversicolor might...

  2. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  3. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  4. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  5. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) Sumita Sharma 1* , Tanu 2 and Anil Chatterji 3 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 2 Banasthali Universiti, Rajasthan 3 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu...

  6. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  7. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  8. Observations on white and yellow venoms from an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Ownby, C L

    1987-01-01

    Biochemical differences in white and yellow venoms produced in the separate venom glands of an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) were investigated. Compared to the yellow venom, the white venom contained fewer low molecular weight components and was considerably less toxic. Although the exact LD50 was not determined, the white venom did not produce toxic effects in mice when injected i.v. at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg. The i.v. LD50 of the yellow venom was approximately 1.6 mg/kg. Both white and yellow venoms had hemorrhagic activity, but the white venom caused less intradermal hemorrhage in mice. No L-amino acid oxidase activity was measured in the white venom and protease and phospholipase A2 activities of the white venom were much less than in the yellow venom. The white and yellow venoms both produced myonecrosis at 1, 3 and 24 hr after i.m. injection into mice, however, there were some qualitative differences in the myonecrosis produced. When the venom samples were reacted against Wyeth's polyvalent (Crotalidae) antivenom using immunodiffusion, three precipitin bands formed against the yellow venom, whereas only one formed against the white venom. When reacted against an antiserum to myotoxin alpha from C. viridis viridis venom, both the white and yellow venoms produced one precipitin band each.

  9. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  10. Has Aeshna viridis EVERSMANN, 1836 (Odonata: Aeshnidae really disappeared from southern Poland (East-Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczyński Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 50-100 years ago the southern boundary of the distribution area of Aeshna viridis ran through southern Poland. However, no records of this species from this area have been reported since then. The species is therefore considered as having retreated northwards. The present research disclosed three new sites of A. viridis on the edge of or just beyond its historical distribution area: one in south-western Poland (Trestno: 51°04’N, 17º08’E and two in the south-east of the country (Krasiczyn: 49º46’N, 22º38’E, Bolestraszyce: 49º49’N, 22º51’E. All the sites were anthropogenic. This demonstrates the survival of a number of populations and the formation of new ones in water bodies formed de novo or to which Stratiotes aloides was introduced artificially. This suggests that the conservation of A. viridis is possible in this region.

  11. Effects of abiotic stress on physiological plasticity and water use of Setaria viridis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Prasenjit; Sade, Nir; Arzani, Ahmad; Rubio Wilhelmi, Maria Del Mar; Coe, Kevin M; Li, Bosheng; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The emerging model Setaria viridis with its C4 photosynthesis and adaptation to hot and dry locations is a promising system to investigate water use and abiotic stress tolerance. We investigated the physiological plasticity of six S. viridis natural accessions that originated from different regions of the world under normal conditions and conditions of water-deficit stress and high temperatures. Accessions Zha-1, A10.1 and Ula-1 showed significantly higher leaf water potential (Ψleaf), photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) rates compared to Ast-1, Aba-1 and Sha-1 when grown under stress conditions. Expression analysis of genes associated with C4 photosynthesis, aquaporins, ABA biosynthesis and signaling including genes involved in stress revealed an increased sensitivity of Ast-1, Aba-1 and Sha-1 to stresses. Correlation analysis of gene expression data with physiological and biochemical changes characterized A10.1 and Ast-1 as two extreme tolerant and sensitive accessions originated from United States and Azerbaijan under water-deficit and heat stress, respectively. Although preliminary, our study demonstrated the plasticity of S. viridis accessions under stress, and allows the identification of tolerant and sensitive accessions that could be use to study the mechanisms associated with stress tolerance and to characterize of the regulatory networks involved in C4 grasses. PMID:27593471

  12. Symbiosis in the green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). Association in statu nascendi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Anna; Jankowska, Władysława; Kot, Marta; Gołas, Aniela; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis lives in symbiotic association with microorganisms. The ultrastructural and molecular analyses have shown that in the body of the C. viridis two types of bacteriocyte endosymbionts are present. An amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that large, pleomorphic bacteria display a high similarity (94-100%) to the endosymbiont 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (phylum Bacteroidetes), whereas long, rod-shaped microorganisms are closely related to the γ-proteobacterial symbiont Sodalis (97-99% similarity). Both endosymbionts may be harbored in their own bacteriocytes as well as may co-reside in the same bacteriocytes. The ultrastructural observations have revealed that the Sodalis-like bacteria harboring the same bacteriocytes as bacterium Sulcia may invade the cells of the latter. Bacteria Sulcia and Sodalis-like endosymbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. However, Sodalis-like endosymbionts do not invade the ovaries individually, but only inside Sulcia cells. Apart from bacteriocyte endosymbionts, in the body of C. viridis small, rod-shaped bacteria have been detected, and have been identified as being closely related to γ-proteobacterial microorganism Pectobacterium (98-99% similarity). The latter are present in the sheath cells of the bacteriomes containing bacterium Sulcia as well as in fat body cells.

  13. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Soundarya; Sauer, Marie-Laure; Howard, Brian; Dvora, Mia; Dums, Jacob; Backman, Patrick; Sederoff, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0) into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:25992838

  14. Isolation and characterization of a sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyun; Gao, Xiaoshu; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Qingqi; Song, Rentao; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene, DvSPT1, was isolated from a cDNA library using a probe derived from a subtracted cDNA library of Dunaliella viridis. Sequencing analyses revealed a cDNA sequence of 2649 bp long and encoded an open-reading frame consisting of 672 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of DvSPT1 exhibited 31.2% identity to that of TcPHO from Tetraselmis chui. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and PHO4 from Neurospora crassa. Northern blot analysis indicated that the DvSPT1 expression was induced upon NaCl hyperosmotic stress or phosphate depletion. Functional characterization in yeast Na+ export pump mutant G19 suggested that DvSPT1 encoded a Na+ transporter protein. The gene sequence of GDvSPT1 (7922 bp) was isolated from a genomic library of D. viridis. Southern blot analysis indicated that there exist at least two homologous genes in D. viridis. PMID:16359638

  15. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlecar, X. N.; Jena, K. B.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2008-03-01

    Investigations on seasonal variation in oxidative stress biomarkers were carried out on the natural population of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from Bambolim beach area of Goa. Oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis exhibits seasonal variation. Secondly, various components of antioxidant capacity such as oxidative stress markers, levels of antioxidant enzymes and small antioxidant molecules vary differently in tissues with respect to different seasons. Although the oxidative stress status of gills and digestive gland of P. viridis expressed in terms of LPX and H 2O 2 was the lowest in February, its level was maximal in gills and digestive gland during May and November, respectively. While activities of SOD and GPX of tissues of P. viridis were found to be low in August, activities of CAT and GR were recorded to be low in February. GST activity in gills although remained high in February, in digestive gland elevated values were recorded in August and November. A seasonal variation in the levels of small antioxidant molecules was also noticed. Among non enzymatic antioxidants ASA content of tissues was maximal in May and August in comparison to February and November, but GSH remained high in November. It therefore appears that environmental factors may play a crucial role in regulating the oxidative stress capacity of tissues of P. viridis.

  16. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  17. Density regulation in toad populations (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) by differential winter survival of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsch, Ulrich; Schäfer, Alena M

    2016-01-01

    The size of amphibian populations varies considerably between years, so that systematic trends in dynamics are difficult to detect. Informed conservation management of presumably declining populations requires the identification of the most sensitive life stage. In temperate-zone anurans there is growing evidence that juveniles hibernating for the first time suffer from substantial winter losses. In two syntopic toads (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) we monitored survival of such juveniles during four consecutive winters in the natural habitat and in four temperature treatments (3°, 5 °C, 10°/15 °C or 20 °C, natural light-dark cycle) in temperature-controlled chambers during winter. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) winter mortality of juvenile toads which hibernate for the first time in their life is an important component of population dynamics, and that (2) mortality rates differed between the two species. Parameters quantified were size-dependent winter mortality and body condition of pre- and post-hibernating juveniles. Field data provided evidence for the important role of winter mortality of first-hibernators in population dynamics. Choice of hibernacula differed in E. calamita between small and medium-sized individuals and also between the two species suggesting distinct mortality risks. The inability of small E. calamita to reach frost-proof hibernacula by burrowing, and the exposure of small B. viridis to predators are the most probable causes of size-assortative winter mortality. In conclusion, E. calamita juveniles may benefit from rising average winter temperatures in the future by decreased risk of freezing to death, whereas predator-caused winter mortality of B. viridis juveniles will also depend on the effects of climate warming on predator phenology.

  18. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  19. A theoretical study of electronic excited states of photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The electronic singlet vertical excited states of photosynthetic reaction center (PSRC) in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis were investigated by ZINDO and INDO/S methods. The effects of the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein on the electronic excitations were examined. The calculation results showed that the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein play an important role in reasonably assigning the experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of PSRC in Rps. virids. By comparing the theoretically computed excited states with the experimental absorption and CD spectra, satisfactory assignments of the experimental spectroscopic peaks were achieved.

  20. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  1. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  2. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  3. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  4. Urea transport across urinary bladder and salt acclimation in toad (Bufo viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpun, S; Katz, U

    1990-04-01

    The fluxes of urea across the urinary bladder of the toad Bufo viridis have been studied under conditions of acclimation to tap water or 500 mosM NaCl solution. The [14C]urea fluxes were measured simultaneously with [3H]inulin to test for nonspecific leakage. The fluxes are quite high (Ktrans = 75 x 10(-7) cm/s at 5 mmol/l urea) and are similar in either the mucosal-to-serosal or the opposite direction. "Summer" rates were five to six times higher than the "winter" rates. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), theophylline, and forskolin increased the fluxes to variable degrees (two to five times), similar in the two acclimation conditions. Phloretin inhibited the urea fluxes by nearly 50%. 1,3-Dimethylurea and thiourea, but not acetamide, competed with the urea fluxes effectively. The fluxes of urea were not affected by the osmotic water flow, although both responded to ADH. It is concluded that urea transport across the urinary bladder of B. viridis is by facilitated diffusion through a specific pathway independent of water flux. The inhibitory effect of the structural analogues on the urea flux was affected by salt acclimation, whereas most other characteristics did not differ significantly at 5 mmol/l external urea under the two conditions of acclimation. PMID:2331031

  5. New insights into the structure of the reaction centre from Blastochloris viridis: evolution in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Aleksander W; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Reksodipuro, Adhie D P; Gardiner, Alastair T; Fujii, Ritsuko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2012-02-15

    Newly determined crystal structures of the photosynthetic RC (reaction centre) from two substrains of the non-sulfur purple bacterium Blastochloris viridis strain DSM 133, together with analysis of their gene sequences, has revealed intraspecies evolutionary changes over a period of 14 years. Over 100 point mutations were identified between these two substrains in the four genes encoding the protein subunits of the RC, of which approximately one-fifth resulted in a total of 16 amino acid changes. The most interesting difference was in the M subunit where the change from a leucine residue to glycine in the carotenoid-binding pocket allowed NS5 (1,2-dihydroneurosporene) to adopt a more sterically favoured conformation, similar to the carotenoid conformation found in other related RCs. The results of the present study, together with a high rate of mutations in laboratory bacterial cultures described recently, suggest that bacteria evolve faster than has been generally recognized. The possibility that amino acid changes occur within protein sequences, without exhibiting any immediately observable phenotype, should be taken into account in studies that involve long-term continuous growth of pure bacterial cultures. The Blc. viridis RC is often studied with sophisticated biophysical techniques and changes such as those described here may well affect their outcome. In other words, there is a danger that laboratory-to-laboratory variation could well be due to different groups not realising that they are actually working with slightly different proteins. A way around this problem is suggested.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xiangzong; Luo, Saifan; Li, Qiyun; Dong, Hongyun; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-04-01

    Dunaliella is a group of green algae with exceptional stress tolerance capability, and is considered as an important model organism for stress tolerance study. Here we cloned a TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) gene from Dunaliella viridis and designated it as DvTPS (D. viridis trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase).The DvTPS cDNA contained an ORF of 2793 bp encoding 930 aa. DvTPS had both TPS and TPP domain and belonged to the Group II TPS/TPP fusion gene family. Southern blots showed it has a single copy in the genome. Genome sequence analysis revealed that it has 18 exons and 17 introns. DvTPS had a constitutive high expression level under various NaCl culture conditions, however, could be induced by salt shock. Promoter analysis indicated there were ten STREs (stress response element) in its promoter region, giving a possible explanation of its inducible expression pattern upon salt shock. Yeast functional complementation analysis showed that DvTPS had neither TPS nor TPP activity. However, DvTPS could improve the salt tolerance of yeast salt sensitive mutant G19. Our results indicated that despite DvTPS showed significant similarity with TPS/TPP, its real biological function is still remained to be revealed. PMID:20878239

  7. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  8. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  9. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  10. Genetic structure and long-distance dispersal in populations of the wingless pest springtail, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M K; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-02-01

    The lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) (L.) is a major pest of broadacre agriculture across southern Australia. Few molecular studies have been conducted on S. viridis and none have examined its population genetics, despite the importance for developing effective control strategies. Here, we characterize the genetic structure of Australian populations using three allozyme and eight microsatellite loci, as well as sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene. We found that S. viridis in Australia are diploid, sexually reproducing and exhibit significant population structure as a result of limited gene flow. Despite significant differentiation between populations, there was very low cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence variation, indicating the presence of a single species in Australia. The observed structure only marginally complied with an 'isolation by distance' model with human-mediated long-distance dispersal likely occurring. Allozymes and microsatellites gave very similar FST estimates, although differences found for novel alternative estimates of differentiation suggest that the allozymes did not capture the full extent of the population structure. These results highlight that control strategies may need to vary for locally adapted S. viridis populations and strategies aimed at limiting the spread of any future pesticide resistance will need to manage the effects of human-mediated dispersal. PMID:21219669

  11. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Investigations on the effect of oils on the oxidative stress and antioxidant molecules in gills of Perna viridis were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. For this purpose water accommodate fraction of diesel oil at 0.5 arid 5% were...

  12. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification. PMID:25739995

  13. Functional complementation of a nitrate reductase defective mutant of a green alga Dunaliella viridis by introducing the nitrate reductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Gao, Xiaoshu; Li, Qiyun; Zhang, Qingqi; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-08-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes NAD (P) H dependent reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Transformation systems have been established in several species of green algae by nitrate reductase gene functional complementation. In this report, an endogenous NR cDNA (3.4 kb) and a genomic fragment (14.6 kb) containing the NR gene (DvNIA1) were isolated from the D. viridis cDNA and genomic libraries respectively. Southern blot and Northern blot analyses showed that this gene exists as a single copy in D. viridis and is induced by nitrate. To obtain a NR defective mutant as a recipient strain, D. viridis cells were treated with a chemical mutagen and then cultured on a chlorate-containing plate to enrich chlorate tolerant mutants. Southern analysis showed that one isolate, B14, had a deletion in the DvNIA1 gene region. Using electroporation conditions determined in this laboratory, plasmid pDVNR containing the intact DvNIA1 gene has been electroporated into the defective mutant B14. Strains retaining a nitrate assimilation phenotype were obtained from nitrate plates after spreading the electroporated cells. In some individual strains, transcription of the introduced gene was detected. NR activity in these strains was slightly higher than that in the defective B14 cell, but excretion of nitrite into culture media was almost as high as that of the wild-type cell. Possible episomal presence of the introduced DNA in D. viridis is discussed. PMID:16797881

  14. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  15. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  16. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  17. Ein Fund von Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. im Thüringer Muschelkalk-Hügelland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ein überraschender Fund von B. viridis gelang dem Autor am 14. Januar 2007 in der Umgebung von Jena. In Deutschland wird Buxbaumia viridis als "stark gefährdet" eingestuft; aktuelle Vorkommen beschränken sind auf Baden-Württemberg und Bayern. In Thüringen wurde die Art zuletzt 1975 südwestlich von Suhl nachgewiesen. Der Fundort bei Jena liegt im Muschelkalk-Hügelland im Naturraum der Ilm-Saale-Platte.

  18. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of Azya luteipes Mulsant fed on Coccus viridis (Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nais

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of nursery seedlings of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae. The main predators of this species are beetles of the family Coccinellidae, especially Azya luteipes Mulsant. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of A. luteipes feeding on C. viridis on coffee plants were examined under laboratory conditions. Tests were conducted in room temperature at 28 ± 2 ºC. A. luteipes oviposits on the underside of the scale's body, laying two to four eggs per insect. The eggs have a subelliptical form and a white-clear color, and the incubation period is 8.3 ± 1.2 days. The number of eggs laid per female per day varies between eight and ten. A. luteipes undergoes four larval instars with durations of 2.0 ± 0, 3.2 ± 0.5, 3.6 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0 days for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, respectively. The average durations of the prepupal and pupal stages were 2.0 ± 0 and 10.9 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The viability of the larvae during each instar was 91.9, 89.3, 90.2 and 96.4 %, respectively, and the viabilities of prepupae and pupae were 99.1 and 98.2 %. The average duration of the egg-adult cycle was 34.3 ± 2.6 days, and the sex ratio was 0.52 %. Females presented a gray-colored head, while males presented a yellow head.

  19. Photosynthetic performance of Setaria viridis to soil drought and rewatering alternations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Yong Luo; Xue Yong Zhao; RuiLian Zhou; YingXin Huang; XiaoAn Zuo

    2009-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte (a plant that grows in sand or sandy soil) to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for desertifieation control and restoration of degraded vegetation in semi-arid sandy land in northern China. Responses of the photo-synthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual (Setaria viridis) were measured through three cycles of soil drying and rewatering. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 95 percent, 91 percent, and 61 percent at end of three drought periods; the stomatal conductance (gs) decreased by 72 percent, 73 percent, and 53 percent; the transpiration rate (Tr) decreased by 70 percent, 69 percent, and 37 percent; and water-use efficiency (WUE) decreased by 83 percent, 69 percent,and 38 percent. At the same time, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv'/FM') decreased by 70 percent, 12 percent,and 10 percent, while the electron transport per cross-section (ET0'/CS'0) decreased by 80 percent, 45 percent, and 13 percent. The intercellular CO2 (Ci) increased by 1.77, 1.02, and 0.66 times, and the dissipation per cross-section (DI0'/CS0') increased by 98 percent, 28 percent, and 22 percent. These results indicated that S. viridis was subjected to photoinhibition and some nonstomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, the above photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values after three or four days of rewatering. The capability to recover from drought may contribute to the plant's use of water as efficiently as possible. Furthermore, during the subsequent drought spells, suppression of Pn, gs, Tr, Fv'/FM', and ET0'/CS0' decreased or slowed down following the drying and rewatering alternations, especially in the third drought spell.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a vacuolar H+₋pyrophosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-06-01

    The halotolerant alga Dunaliella adapts to exceptionally high salinity and possesses efficient mechanisms for regulating intracellular Na(+). In plants, sequestration of Na(+) into the vacuole is driven by the electrochemical H(+) gradient generated by H(+) pumps, and this Na(+) sequestration is one mechanism that confers salt tolerance to plants. To investigate the role of vacuolar H(+) pumps in the salt tolerance of Dunaliella, we isolated the cDNA of the vacuolar proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H(+)-PPase) from Dunaliella viridis. The DvVP cDNA is 2,984 bp in length, codes for a polypeptide of 762 amino acids and has 15 transmembrane domains. The DvVP protein is highly similar to V-H(+)-PPases from other green algae and higher plant species, in terms of its amino acid sequence and its transmembrane model. A phylogenetic analysis of V-H(+)-PPases revealed the close relationship of Dunaliella to green algal species of Charophyceae and land plants. The heterologous expression of DvVP in the yeast mutant G19 (Δena1-4) suppressed Na(+) hypersensitivity, and a GFP-fusion of DvVP localized to the vacuole membranes in yeast, indicating that DvVP encodes a functional V-H(+)-PPase. A northern blot analysis showed a decrease in the transcript abundance of DvVP at higher salinity in D. viridis cells, which is in contrast to the salt-induced upregulation of V-H(+)-PPase in some plants, suggesting that the expression of DvVP under salt stress may be regulated by different mechanisms in Dunaliella. This study not only enriched our knowledge about the biological functions of V-H(+)-PPases in different organisms but also improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in Dunaliella. PMID:21086174

  1. Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity.

  2. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  3. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses. PMID:26305916

  4. The effects of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior and development of Coccus viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Fernandes, M E S; Queiroz, R B; Xavier, V M; Martinez, H E P

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemicals may modify the food quality, reduce a plant's palatability to insects, or defend against pests. This work aimed to study 1) relationships between the nitrogen and potassium levels given to plants in nutritive solutions and the foliar phytochemical concentrations, 2) the effect of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior of Coccus viridis, and 3) tolerance of C. arabica to losses. Deficient, normal, and excessive nitrogen and potassium fertilization treatments were used. Each treatment had two plants (one infested and one noninfested plant). The contents of phytochemicals in the infested plants' leaves and their dry matter of roots, stems, and leaves as well as the total contents in noninfested plants, were determined. The adults and nymphs of C. viridis were counted for 60 d in all treatments. It was verified that elevated nitrogen and potassium levels in the nutritional solutions led to increased of nymphs and adults of C. viridis to the coffee plants over time. Potassium and nitrogen had both direct and indirect effects on C. viridis. The direct effect was because of the increase of the nitrogen content in the leaves. The indirect effect instead was because of reductions in the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents in the leaves. This is the first study to show relationship nutrient levels of coffee phytochemicals in response to herbivory by scale insects. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid applied on coffee leaves stimulated the locomotory activity of the green scale, thus reducing their feeding compared with untreated leaves. The elevation of caffeine and chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves affect this generalist insect by stimulating the locomotion of crawlers.

  5. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark A.; Marlis R Douglas; Collyer, Michael L.; Michael E Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respective...

  6. A preliminary study for establishing Perna viridis (Mollusca:Bivalvia) as a biological monitor for pollution in Karachi coastal water

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra, Itrat; Naz, Huma; Naqvi, Iftikhar Imam

    1996-01-01

    Adverse effects of toxic substances on the environmental quality have become a subject of concern in recent years. Toxicity of heavy metals has never been in dispute and therefore their presence in our natural environment is undesirable. This study was undertaken to establish the capability of Perna viridis as a monitor for pollution in the Manora channel. Accumulation of Zinc, Copper, Iron and Manganese by marine mussels, sampled from Manora channel, was determined. Metal load varied markedl...

  7. Expression of the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10 is upregulated by salt stress in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobin; Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-08-15

    Green algae of the genus Dunaliella can adapt to hypersaline environments and are considered model organisms for salinity tolerance. In an EST analysis in Dunaliella viridis under salt stress, we isolated a salt-inducible cDNA coding for the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10, designated DvRPN10. The DvRPN10 cDNA is 1472 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. The DvRPN10 protein shares a high similarity to orthologs from other species. The function of DvRPN10 was confirmed by complementation of the yeast Deltarpn10 mutant. Q-PCR analysis of D. viridis cells grown in different salinities revealed that the transcript level of DvRPN10 increased in proportion to the external salinity within a range of 0.5-3 M NaCl, but decreased significantly at extremely high salinities (4-5 M NaCl). When a salinity shock of 1-3 M NaCl was applied to D. viridis cells, DvRPN10 mRNA levels remained steady during the first 36 h, and then gradually elevated to the level observed at 3 M NaCl. The gene structure of DvRPN10 was revealed by sequencing of a BAC clone containing this gene. Possible transcription factor binding sites related to stress tolerance were found in the promoter region of DvRPN10. The expression of DvRPN10 in response to the external salinity suggests that RPN10-mediated protein degradation plays a role in the salinity tolerance of D. viridis. PMID:20430475

  8. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa; Maria Luise Koening; Sílvio José de Macedo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40%) of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae) was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growt...

  9. Cell division in the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis depends on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Cossío, Belén R; Rivard, Christopher J; Berl, Tomás; Capasso, Juan M

    2007-01-01

    In mammalian cells, MAPKs are involved in both stress response (JNK and p38 pathways) and cell proliferation and differentiation [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] through protein kinase cascades. Exposure of Dunaliella viridis cell cultures to PD98059, a very specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, resulted in a total arrest of cell proliferation and a complete dephosphorylation of ERK. As shown by flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells, PD98059 stopped mitosis at the G(2) phase after the S phase has been completed. Multiple physiological parameters such as cell motility and reducing power generation (NADPH) clearly indicate that the treated cells are wholly viable. Exposure of D. viridis to environmental stresses that impair cell division, such as hyperosmotic shock, nitrogen starvation, or sublethal UV irradiation, caused a marked decrease in the phospho-ERK levels as detected by western blot. Two 400 bp polynucleotides from D. viridis with high homologies to published sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA bands of approximately 1.9 kb, consistent with the expected size of ERK proteins ( approximately 40 kDa). Sequence analysis showed that they contained several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) conserved domains, including II, III, VIb, VII, and the double phosphorylation motif. Interestingly, in D. viridis, this motif was T*DY* instead of the canonic T*EY*. Based on this finding, ERK plant sequences can be divided into two groups, one termed the T*DY* branch and the other termed the T*EY* branch. The molecular and functional data presented here suggest that ERK is a very ancient signalling pathway and that it was already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:17220513

  10. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan W. Davis; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. Here, we describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Usi...

  11. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  12. Photosynthetic performance of Setaria viridis to soil drought and rewatering alternations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte(a plant that grows in sand or sandy soil) to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for desertification control and restoration of degraded vegetation in semi-arid sandy land in northern China.Responses of the photo-synthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual(Setaria viridis) were measured through three cycles of soil drying and rewatering.Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate(Pn) decreased by 95 percent,91 percent,and 61 percent at end of three drought periods;the stomatal conductance(gs) decreased by 72 percent,73 percent,and 53 percent;the transpiration rate(Tr) decreased by 70 percent,69 percent,and 37 percent;and water-use efficiency(WUE) decreased by 83 percent,69 percent,and 38 percent.At the same time,the trapping probability with no dark adaptation(FV’/FM’) decreased by 70 percent,12 percent,and 10 percent,while the electron transport per cross-section(ET0’/CS’0) decreased by 80 percent,45 percent,and 13 percent.The intercellular CO2(Ci) increased by 1.77,1.02,and 0.66 times,and the dissipation per cross-section(DI0’/CS0’) increased by 98 percent,28 percent,and 22 percent.These results indicated that S.viridis was subjected to photoinhibition and some nonstomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought.However,the above photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values after three or four days of rewatering.The capability to recover from drought may contribute to the plant’s use of water as efficiently as possible.Furthermore,during the subsequent drought spells,suppression of Pn,gs,Tr,FV’/FM’,and ET0’/CS0’ decreased or slowed down following the drying and rewatering alternations,especially in the third drought spell.

  13. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  14. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  15. Sequencing and Analysis of a Genomic Fragment Provide an Insight into the Dunaliella viridis Genomic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming SUN; Yuan-Ping TANG; Xiang-Zong MENG; Wen-Wen ZHANG; Shan LI; Zhi-Rui DENG; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG

    2006-01-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)n type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features.

  16. Uptake,Deuration and Subcellular Distribution of Cadmium in Various Tissues of Perna Viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.YANG; S.T.CHIU; 等

    1995-01-01

    Green-lipped mussels(Perna viridis)were collected from a local mariculture site and placed in pre-cleaned sea water tanks containing 0,0.2,0.5and 1.3μg/ml CdCl2.The level of Cd in the gill,viscera and gonad was measured.The concentration of Cd in the 3 tissues increased linearly over 4 days' of exposure.The rate of uptake depends on the concentration of Cd in the water.In the 3 tissues studied,the maximum rate of uptake(Vmax)was highest in the gill(500μg/g dry weiht/day),followed by viscera(100μg/g dry weight/ day)and gonad(56.8μg/g dry weight/day).The majority of the Cd taken up was bound to a fraction of the heat-stable proteins similar to metallothioneins.The rate of Cd depuration from the tissues was poor.There was no change in Cd concentration over 8 days' depuration in clean water.

  17. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  18. SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PERNA VIRIDIS FROM GUAYACAN, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemus, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Biomonitoring is a tool to assess the presence of environmental pollutants, particularly heavy metals, due to their persistence and toxicity to the biotic component. The concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined in males and females of Perna viridis (μg·g-1dry weight, with the purpose of evaluating the environmental quality in Guayacán, state Sucre, Venezuela, during the months of November (2006, May and August (2007, and February (2008. November and August are both in the rainy season, with May and February part of the dry season. The metals in the samples were determined using AAS (Atomic Absortion Spectophotometric and the precision of the method was verified using the reference standard NIST Oyster Tissue 1566ª. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni showed significant differences in the months studied except for Ni in males that did not exhibit variation. The highest values in Zn and Ni occurred in the rainy season, while Cu and Cr were highest during the month of February, and Cd and Pb during the month of May, both months in the dry season. The females presented levels of Cu, Cd and Ni significantly higher than the males. The metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni presented values below the limits pointed out by FAO (Food and Agricultura Organization of the United Nations, FDA (Food and Drugs Administration and BZL (Federal Brazilian Legislation.

  19. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  20. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  1. Sequencing and analysis of a genomic fragment provide an insight into the Dunaliella viridis genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Yuan-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Zong; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Shan; Deng, Zhi-Rui; Xu, Zheng-Kai; Song, Ren-Tao

    2006-11-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)(n) type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features. PMID:17091199

  2. Effect of cadmium on cellular viability in two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty Beatriz C; Carruyo, Ingrid M; Montiel, Xiomara M; Morales, Carolina B; de Soto, Patricia Moreno

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of several concentrations of cadmium (0, 5, 10, and 20 microg/l) on cellular viability in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis, by measuring growth at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and pigment production at 10 days. Algae were obtained from the Nonvascular Plant Laboratory collection, in the Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela. Growth was measured by cellular counting, while pigment content was evaluated using conventional spectrophotometric techniques. Growth of both species decreased in the exposed cultures comparing with the control, but its behavior was similar, because in both control and exposed cultures, its was observed an adaptive phase in the first hours, as well as a growth phase after 72 h. Cadmium concentrations above 10 microg/l produced an adverse effect on pigment production, depending on the concentration and/or exhibition time. However, even though cadmium inhibited growth and pigment production, levels of both parameters indicated cellular viability, demonstrating the adaptability of the algae cultures when they were exposed to the metal. PMID:19172231

  3. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  4. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  5. A study on controlling Setaria viridis and Corchorus olitorius associated with Phaseolus vulgaris growth using natural extracts of Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rokiek Kowthar Gad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water extracts of Chenopodium album leaves and roots on the growth of grass weed (Setaria viridis and broad leaf weed (Corchorus olitorius grown with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris in greenhouse pots were studied in the National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. In this experiment fresh leaf and root extracts and their corresponding dry leaf and root extracts at different concentrations were used. There were significant inhibitions in the dry weights of S. viridis and C. olitorius by all extracts at the flowering stage of beans and at harvest. The inhibition effect of all C. album extracts on both weeds (dry weight/pot depended on the extracted plant organ (leaf or root, its fresh or dry form as well as its concentrations. The inhibition caused by the leaf extract was much higher on weed growth than that of root extract. A higher concentration of fresh leaf extract (25% had the highest significant inhibition effect. The results also indicated that C. olitorius was more sensitive to the extracts than S. viridis. On the other hand, the inhibition effect of the extracts on the growth of both weeds was accompanied by increased bean growth and yield/plant. The analysis of both leaf and root extracts of C. album revealed that the total content of polyphenols and flavonoids in the leaf extract was more than triple that of the root extract. The results suggested that the fresh leaf extract of C. album may be a possible tool for the development of weed control using natural herbicides.

  6. The cloning and characterization of two ammonium transporters in the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-10-01

    Ammonium (NH(4) (+)) transport is a key process in nitrogen metabolism. To elucidate the role of ammonium transporters in the nitrogen consumption of the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis, two ammonium transporter genes, DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2, were isolated from cDNA libraries of D. viridis. DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 share only 40% amino acid identity, indicating that they have highly divergent coding sequences. Functional complementation in a yeast mutant defective in ammonium uptake indicated that both DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 were functional ammonium transporters. Quantitative RT-PCR showed similar expression patterns, but different transcript abundance levels, for DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 under different nitrogen conditions. Both were induced at low nitrogen and inhibited at high nitrogen concentrations, especially when NH(4) (+) was the nitrogen source. At the transcriptional level, DvAMT1;1 was diurnally regulated, while DvAMT1;2 was not. In addition, under NaCl concentrations that ranged from 0.5 to 3 M, DvAMT1;1 was down-regulated at the higher salt conditions; conversely, DvAMT1;2 maintained a relatively low, but stable, transcript abundance. The observed differences in transcriptional regulation of DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 are indicative of their diverse physiological functions in D. viridis. PMID:21153924

  7. Calculated coupling of electron and proton transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, C R; Michel, H; Honig, B; Gunner, M R

    1996-06-01

    Based on new Rhodopseudomonas (Rp.) viridis reaction center (RC) coordinates with a reliable structure of the secondary acceptor quinone (QB) site, a continuum dielectric model and finite difference technique have been used to identify clusters of electrostatically interacting ionizable residues. Twenty-three residues within a distance of 25 A from QB (QB cluster) have been shown to be strongly electrostatically coupled to QB, either directly or indirectly. An analogous cluster of 24 residues is found to interact with QA (QA cluster). Both clusters extend to the cytoplasmic surface in at least two directions. However, the QB cluster differs from the QA cluster in that it has a surplus of acidic residues, more strong electrostatic interactions, is less solvated, and experiences a strong positive electrostatic field arising from the polypeptide backbone. Consequently, upon reduction of QA or QB, it is the QB cluster, and not the QA cluster, which is responsible for substoichiometric proton uptake at neutral pH. The bulk of the changes in the QB cluster are calculated to be due to the protonation of a tightly coupled cluster of the three Glu residues (L212, H177, and M234) within the QB cluster. If the lifetime of the doubly reduced state QB2- is long enough, Asp M43 and Ser L223 are predicted to also become protonated. The calculated complex titration behavior of the strongly interacting residues of the QB cluster and the resulting electrostatic response to electron transfer may be a common feature in proton-transferring membrane protein complexes. PMID:8744288

  8. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  9. Cloning and characterization of two novel chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Meng, Xiangzong; Fan, Qianlan; Sun, Xiaoliang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2009-09-01

    Dunaliella, a unicellular green alga, has the unusual ability to survive dramatic osmotic stress by accumulating high concentrations of intracellular glycerol as a compatible solute. The chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) has been considered to be the key enzyme that produces glycerol for osmoregulation in Dunaliella. In this study, we cloned the two most prominent GPDH cDNAs (DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2) from Dunaliella viridis, which encode two polypeptides of 695 and 701 amino acids, respectively. Unlike higher plant GPDHs, both proteins contained extra phosphoserine phosphatase (SerB) domains at their N-termini in addition to C-terminal GPDH domains. Such bi-domain GPDHs represent a novel type of GPDH and are found exclusively in the chlorophyte lineage. Transient expression of EGFP fusion proteins in tobacco leaf cells demonstrated that both DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 are localized in the chloroplast. Overexpression of DvGPDH1 or DvGPDH2 could complement a yeast GPDH mutant (gpd1Delta), but not a yeast SerB mutant (ser2Delta). In vitro assays with purified DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 also showed apparent GPDH activity for both, but no SerB activity was detected. Surprisingly, unlike chloroplastic GPDHs from plants, DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 could utilize both NADH and NADPH as coenzymes and exhibited significantly higher GPDH activities when NADH was used as the coenzyme. Q-PCR analysis revealed that both genes exhibited transient transcriptional induction of gene expression upon hypersalinity shock, followed by a negative feedback of gene expression. These results shed light on the regulation of glycerol synthesis during salt stress in Dunaliella. PMID:19551475

  10. Structural and spectropotentiometric analysis of Blastochloris viridis heterodimer mutant reaction center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarenko, Nina S.; Li, Liang; Marino, Antony R.; Tereshko, Valentina; Ostafin, Agnes; Popova, Julia A.; Bylina, Edward J.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Norris, Jr., James R.; (UC); (Utah)

    2010-07-22

    Heterodimer mutant reaction centers (RCs) of Blastochloris viridis were crystallized using microfluidic technology. In this mutant, a leucine residue replaced the histidine residue which had acted as a fifth ligand to the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) of the primary electron donor dimer M site (HisM200). With the loss of the histidine-coordinated Mg, one bacteriochlorophyll of the special pair was converted into a bacteriopheophytin (BPhe), and the primary donor became a heterodimer supermolecule. The crystals had dimensions 400 x 100 x 100 {micro}m, belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and were isomorphous to the ones reported earlier for the wild type (WT) strain. The structure was solved to a 2.5 {angstrom} resolution limit. Electron-density maps confirmed the replacement of the histidine residue and the absence of Mg. Structural changes in the heterodimer mutant RC relative to the WT included the absence of the water molecule that is typically positioned between the M side of the primary donor and the accessory BChl, a slight shift in the position of amino acids surrounding the site of the mutation, and the rotation of the M194 phenylalanine. The cytochrome subunit was anchored similarly as in the WT and had no detectable changes in its overall position. The highly conserved tyrosine L162, located between the primary donor and the highest potential heme C{sub 380}, revealed only a minor deviation of its hydroxyl group. Concomitantly to modification of the BChl molecule, the redox potential of the heterodimer primary donor increased relative to that of the WT organism (772 mV vs. 517 mV). The availability of this heterodimer mutant and its crystal structure provides opportunities for investigating changes in light-induced electron transfer that reflect differences in redox cascades.

  11. Influence of rearing water temperature on inducedgonadal development and spawning behaviour of tropical green mussel,Perna viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parathattil Rathan Sreedevi; Venkatachalam Uthayakumar; Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar; Venkatachalam Ramasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To standardize the technique of induced breeding and spawning of green mussel Perna viridis(P. viridis), in captivity.Methods:InExperiment-A, the temperature was increased at a rate of2℃/5 days interval.InExperiment-B, a rise of3℃/5 days was practiced, whereas inExperimentC andD, respectively4 and5℃ was increased in5 days interval. The temperature was maintained constant at20℃ in theControl.Results:The increase in temperature showed a progressive effect on the gonadal development of mussels.The gonads ripped at30 to32℃ in all the experimental tanks, irrespective of the difference in temperature hike.Complete spawning inP. viridiswas achieved by gradually raising the temperature from 20 to35℃ at a rate of3 or4℃/5 days.Conclusion:According to the present study temperature induced spawning method is very simple and cost effective and can accelerate the production of mussel seeds in hatchery units and further stock improvement through genetic manipulation.

  12. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  13. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution.

  14. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. PMID:27591516

  15. Leaf oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures Reflect Drought Resistance and Water Use Efficiency in the C4 Grass, Setaria viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, P.; Cousins, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Low water availability is a major constraint in crop production, especially as agriculture is pushed to marginal lands. Therefore, improving drought resistance such as increasing water use efficiency (WUE) through plant breeding is needed to expand the range of soil water availability adequate for food production. With the goal of finding the genomic basis for WUE in C4 grasses, Setaria viridis makes an ideal model species because of its small size, short lifespan, and sequenced genome. Also it is part of the panicoid grass clade, which is one of the most important clades for food and biofuel production. In plant breeding programs, large numbers of genotypes must be quickly screened for drought resistance traits, but there is no well-defined method of screening for WUE in C4 grasses. However, bulk leaf oxygen (Δ18OBL) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic signatures have shown potential as recorders of transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), and combined with biomass production potentially serve as a measure of WUE. Values of Δ18OBL record differences in transpiration rate because leaf water becomes more enriched as transpiration rate decreases, and leaf tissue records the isotopic composition of leaf water in which it is synthesized. Additionally, in C4 plants δ13C values decrease as gs decreases but the change in δ13C in response to gs may not be adequate to tease apart differences in WUE. In this study, we grew S. viridis plants under well-watered and water-limited conditions to determine if Δ18OBL and δ13C could be used as proxies for E and gs, and be used to screen S. viridis for differences in WUE in breeding programs. The Δ18OBL and δ13C were significantly different between well-watered and water-limited plants and correlated with each other and with E, gs, and instantaneous water use efficiency (Anet/gs). Therefore, Δ18OBL and δ13C can be useful proxies to screen genotypes for drought resistance by recording differences in E, gs, and WUE

  16. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Tagliavia, Marcello; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines. PMID:27725939

  17. Qualitative Assessment and Management of Microplastics in Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis Cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Phillipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ryan Argamino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (> 5 mm have gained popularity in research and the public eye in recent years. This is due to the fact that they contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs which pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Bivalves, which are filter feeders, are considered to be good indicators of marine pollution. In this preliminary study, Asian green mussel (Perna viridis, an example of edible bivalve, cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines was subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the presence of microplastics. Through microscopic analysis, microplastics were found present in the acid-digested mussel soft tissue. A management program is suggested for policy makers and stakeholders to reduce the negative impact of microplastic pollution to both humans and the marine environment.

  18. Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

    2013-11-01

    On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas

  19. Studies on zinc(II)-biosorption capability of a filamentous green algal species (mougeotia viridis) isolated from electroplating wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption capacity of zinc(II) by a filamentous green alga Mougeotia viridis, isolated from the wastewater discharged by electroplating industry was tested under laboratory conditions as a function of contact time, pH, and initial metal ion and biomass concentrations. Optimum pH value for zinc(II) biosorption was determined as 5.0. At 10 mg 1.1 zinc(II), the biosorption equilibrium with I g I-I algal biomass was reached in 10 min showing a relative efficiency of 59.24% metal removal. When the bio sorbent biomass was increased to 2 g I-I, the metal removal capacity was enhanced to 81.4%. At optimum conditions, zinc(II) uptake increased with the increase in initial metal ion concentration from 5-300 mg I-I. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be suitable for describing the biosorption of zinc(II) by Mougeotia viridis. The q/sub max/ obtained experimentally and theoretically calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at the regression coefficient value of 0.9975, respectively, were 27.7 mg and 26.71 mg zinc(II) g-I algal biomass, at the initial metal concentration of 200 mg/sup i//sup -I/; In five repeated biosorption-desorption cycles, the zinc(II) desorption from the metal-loaded algal biomass remained around 99%. The observations reported in the present study indicate that the alga can be used as an efficient bio sorbent for the removal of zinc(II) from aqueous solution. (author)

  20. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  1. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  2. Lophotrochozoan neuroanatomy: An analysis of the brain and nervous system of Lineus viridis(Nemertea using different staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loesel Rudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny. While recent accounts on the nervous system of a number of animal clades such as arthropods, annelids, and molluscs are abundant, in depth studies of the neuroanatomy of nemerteans are still wanting. In this study, we used different staining techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the architecture of the nervous system of Lineus viridis with high anatomical resolution. Results In L. viridis, the peripheral nervous system comprises four distinct but interconnected nerve plexus. The central nervous system consists of a pair of medullary cords and a brain. The brain surrounds the proboscis and is subdivided into four voluminous lobes and a ring of commissural tracts. The brain is well developed and contains thousands of neurons. It does not reveal compartmentalized neuropils found in other animal groups with elaborate cerebral ganglia. Conclusions The detailed analysis of the nemertean nervous system presented in this study does not support any hypothesis on the phylogenetic position of Nemertea within Lophotrochozoa. Neuroanatomical characters that are described here are either common in other lophotrochozoan taxa or are seemingly restricted to nemerteans. Since detailed descriptions of the nervous system of adults in other nemertean species have not been available so far, this study may serve as a basis for future studies that might add data to the unsettled question of the nemertean ground pattern and the position of this taxon within the phylogenetic tree.

  3. 大青叶蝉寄主植物名录%Catalogue of Host Plants of Cicadella viridi L.(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 韩琪; 徐博

    2015-01-01

    在田间调查和查阅国内外文献的基础上,整理出大青叶蝉(Cicadella viridis L.)寄主植物名录,主要涉及裸子植物、双子叶植物和单子叶植物,共计3纲65科275种(含变型、亚种和变种).

  4. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade containing several strains of D. viridis. The new strain was designated Dunaliella viridis MSV-1 and submitted to the GenBank under the accession number HQ864830. The optimum salinity for MSV-1 growth is between 1.0 to 1.5 M NaCl and does not turn red up to 4.5 M NaCl, confirming identity of the isolated strain. With respect to growth response to copper toxicity, increase in Cu2+ concentration from 1 to 30 µM, caused progressive increase in cell number ml-1 of culture over time, whereas reduction in cell number occurred at 100 and 200 µM Cu+2. Nano copper (colloidal copper with 40 nm dimensions showed less toxicity compared to the ionic form. Cell number ml-1 of culture did not change up to 200 µM nano copper but decreased at 500 µM. In conclusion, the analysis of the ITS sequence is a reliable basis for establishing evolutionary relationships among species and strains of the genus Dunaliella and due to rapid growth at 1.5 M NaCl and high cell density, D. viridis MSV-1 is a good candidate for biofuel production from microalgae.

  5. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Moradshahi; Hajar Zamani; Mansour Kharati-KoupaeI

    2012-01-01

    In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade contai...

  6. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescen...

  7. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  8. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans. PMID:24634728

  9. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40% of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growth (cell.mL-1 and biomass (µg chlorophyll-a.mL-1 curves performed using the Chi-square test (pFoi estudado o efeito das diferentes concentrações de esgoto urbano secundário (10%, 20%, 30% e 40% sobre o crescimento de Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae e Dunaliellla viridis (Chlorophyceae para verificar a possibilidade do seu uso como meio de cultura altenativo para estas espécies. Culturas stocks duplicatas de 700mL foram mantidas sob condições de laboratório controladas. As adições de 30% e 40% foram as mais eficientes para o crescimento de ambas as espécies. Análises estatísticas para o ajuste do crescimento (cel.mL-1 e curvas de biomassa (µg clorofila-a.mL-1 em relação ao tempo de cultura desenvolvidas usando Chi-square test (p<0.05, demonstraram diferenças significativas entre o meio nutritivo f/2 e a adição de 40% usada para estas duas espécies. Os resultados sugerem que algumas das concentrações testadas, rendem densidades celulares e taxas de crescimento satisfatórias quando comparados com outros meios de cultura (macroalga, estratos de esterco bovino e de galinha sendo um meio altenativo que pode ser usado para sistemas de aquicultura semi intensivos devido aos baixos custos e fácil aquisição.

  10. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huifeng [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-11-15

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  11. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  12. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal concentrations were within levels allowed worldwide (FAO, BFL, FDA). • The highest concentration of heavy metals was found during the drought period. • Significant relationships amid size and metal concentration only found in drought. - Abstract: Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd > Pb, and for drought: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes

  13. The characterization of two peroxiredoxin genes in Dunaliella viridis provides insights into antioxidative response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huijuan; Meng, Xiangzong; Gao, Qiang; Qu, Wufei; Xu, Tengjiao; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a group of antioxidant enzymes, are an important component of the oxidative defense system and have been demonstrated to function as peroxidases, sensors of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling and/or chaperones. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from a halotolerant alga, Dunaliella viridis, and was used in a functional complementation screen for antioxidative genes in an oxidative sensitive yeast mutant. Two Prx genes, DvPrx1 and DvPrx2, were obtained from this screen. These two genes were classified as type II Prx and 2-Cys Prx based on amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis. When over-expressed in yeast cells, both Prx genes were able to confer better oxidative tolerance and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subcellular localization experiments in tobacco cells revealed that both DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 were localized in the cytosol. The transcription of DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 can be induced by hypersalinity shock, but is not obviously affected by treatment with high levels of oxidant. Our results shed light on the function and regulation of Prx genes from Dunaliella and their potential roles in salt tolerance. PMID:21431909

  14. Phosphorylation of MAP kinase-like proteins mediate the response of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella viridis to hypertonic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Berl, Tomas; Rivard, Christopher J; Edelstein, Charles L; Capasso, Juan M

    2004-02-01

    The microalga Dunaliella viridis has the ability to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses including osmotic and thermal shocks, UV irradiation and nitrogen starvation. Lacking a rigid cell wall, Dunaliella provides an excellent model to study stress signaling in eukaryotic unicellular organisms. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, UV irradiation or high temperature, a 57-kDa protein is recognized by antibodies specific to mammalian p38, to its yeast homologue Hog1, and to the phospho-p38 MAP kinase motif. This 57-kDa protein appears to be both up-regulated and phosphorylated. Three other proteins (50, 45, 43 kDa) were transiently phosphorylated under stress conditions as detected with an antibody specific to the mammalian phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) motif. Treatment with specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) activities markedly impaired the adaptation of Dunaliella to osmotic stress. From an evolutionary standpoint, these data strongly suggest that MAP kinase signaling pathways, other than ERK, were already operating in the common ancestor of plant and animal kingdoms, probably as early as 1400 million years ago. PMID:14741745

  15. Effects of aqueous and dietary preexposure and resulting body burden on silver biokinetics in the green mussel Perma viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dalin; Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether preexposure of green mussel Perna viridis to Ag influenced metal uptake kinetics we compared various physiological indicators of metal uptake kinetics between the control mussels and mussels preexposed to Ag in both diet and water at different levels (up to 5 weeks). In all preexposed mussels, the assimilation of Ag increased by 1.1-3.0 times with increasing Ag body concentration (0.651-19.3 microg g(-1)) as compared with the controls (Ag body concentration of 0.311-0.479 microg g(-1)), whereas the efflux rate constants decreased by 45-88%. There was no significant increase in Ag associated with the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction following exposure of the mussels to Ag through either the dissolved or food phase. The clearance rates were little affected or depressed byAg preexposure, and the relationship between the Ag influx rate from the dissolved phase and the Ag preexposure was somewhat complicated. The influx rate decreased with increasing Ag body burden at <2.5 microg g(-1), above which it increased with increasing Ag body burden. Our results indicate that the mussels may modify physiological processes to ambient chronic Ag exposure, consequently accumulating more Ag. Ag body concentration in these mussels may therefore increase disproportionally in response to increasing Ag concentration in the ambient environments. Ag preexposure and resulting body burden should be considered carefully when interpreting the observed Ag concentration in biomonitoring animals to evaluate the Ag pollution in seawater.

  16. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. PMID:27155389

  17. Validating Internal Control Genes for the Accurate Normalization of qPCR Expression Analysis of the Novel Model Plant Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lambret-Frotté

    Full Text Available Employing reference genes to normalize the data generated with quantitative PCR (qPCR can increase the accuracy and reliability of this method. Previous results have shown that no single housekeeping gene can be universally applied to all experiments. Thus, the identification of a suitable reference gene represents a critical step of any qPCR analysis. Setaria viridis has recently been proposed as a model system for the study of Panicoid grasses, a crop family of major agronomic importance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify suitable S. viridis reference genes that can enhance the analysis of gene expression in this novel model plant. The first aim of this study was the identification of a suitable RNA extraction method that could retrieve a high quality and yield of RNA. After this, two distinct algorithms were used to assess the gene expression of fifteen different candidate genes in eighteen different samples, which were divided into two major datasets, the developmental and the leaf gradient. The best-ranked pair of reference genes from the developmental dataset included genes that encoded a phosphoglucomutase and a folylpolyglutamate synthase; genes that encoded a cullin and the same phosphoglucomutase as above were the most stable genes in the leaf gradient dataset. Additionally, the expression pattern of two target genes, a SvAP3/PI MADS-box transcription factor and the carbon-fixation enzyme PEPC, were assessed to illustrate the reliability of the chosen reference genes. This study has shown that novel reference genes may perform better than traditional housekeeping genes, a phenomenon which has been previously reported. These results illustrate the importance of carefully validating reference gene candidates for each experimental set before employing them as universal standards. Additionally, the robustness of the expression of the target genes may increase the utility of S. viridis as a model for Panicoid grasses.

  18. 绿色杜氏藻转录组分析%Transcriptome analysis ofDunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 杭雨晴; 刘浩; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes forDunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO ) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) data-bases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81 593 transcripts were found, and 77 117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16 569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classifica-tion annotated 76 436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30 678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was an-notated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foun-dation of metabolic pathway research forDunaliella viridis.%为了深入了解绿色杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis)基因信息及功能、耐盐相关通路(甘油脂代谢)及关键酶,本文首次通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序技术对绿色杜氏藻转录组进行测序,利用Trinity软件将数据组装形成转录本,对所有转录本进行COG(Clusters of Orthologous Groups)、GO(Gene Ontology)和KEGG(Kyoto En-cyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)分类和功能注释、Pathway注

  19. Correlation analysis of symmetry breaking in the surface nanostructure ordering: case study of the ventral scale of the snake Morelia viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A.; Filippov, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    In contrast to the majority of inorganic or artificial materials, there is no ideal long-range ordering of structures on the surface in biological systems. Local symmetry of the ordering on biological surfaces is also often broken. In the present paper, the particular symmetry violation was analyzed for dimple-like nano-pattern on the belly scales of the skin of the pythonid snake Morelia viridis using correlation analysis and statistics of the distances between individual nanostructures. The results of the analysis performed on M. viridis were compared with a well-studied nano-nipple pattern on the eye of the sphingid moth Manduca sexta, used as a reference. The analysis revealed non-random, but very specific symmetry violation. In the case of the moth eye, the nano-nipple arrangement forms a set of domains, while in the case of the snake skin, the nano-dimples arrangement resembles an ordering of particles (molecules) in amorphous (glass) state. The function of the nano-dimples arrangement may be to provide both friction and strength isotropy of the skin. A simple model is suggested, which provides the results almost perfectly coinciding with the experimental ones. Possible mechanisms of the appearance of the above nano-formations are discussed.

  20. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  1. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  2. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  3. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and PAHs in Perna viridis collected from seaport and non-seaport waters in the Straits of Johore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Shahbazi, A; Zakaria, M P

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23052577

  4. Influence of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on the carbon assimilation performance and cell composition of the unicellular alga Dunaliella viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, F.J.L.; Jimenez, C.; Figueroa, F.L.; Xavier Niell, F. [Univ. de Malaga, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Malaga (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The carbon assimilation efficiency and the internal composition of the chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis have been studied under conditions of current (0.035%) and enriched (1%) levels of CO{sub 2}, with and without N limitation (supplied as nitrate). Results show that both photosynthesis and growth rates are enhanced by high CO{sub 2}, but the strategy of acclimation also involves the light harvesting machinery and the nutritional metabolism in an N supply dependent manner. D. viridis carried out a qualitative rather than a quantitative acclimation of the light harvesting system leading to increased PSII quantum yields. Total internal C decreased as a consequence of either active growth or organic carbon release to the external medium. The latter process allowed photosynthetic electron transport to proceed at higher rates than under normal CO{sub 2} conditions, and maintained the internal C:N balance in a narrow range (under N sufficiency). N limitation generally prevented the effects of high CO{sub 2}, with some exceptions such as the photosynthetic O-2 evolution rate. (au)

  5. Double trouble for grasshopper molecular systematics: intra-individual heterogeneity of both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences in Hesperotettix viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesperotettix viridis grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae:Melanoplinae) exhibit intra-individual variation in both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. These findings violate core assumptions underlying DNA sequence data obtained via pol...

  6. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  7. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  8. A physiological study of integument secretions in the marine polychaete Eulalia viridis and their potential biotechnological value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in marine bioproducts, especially in those with life improving potential to humans. Marine invertebrates, in particular, possess particular interest due to their high diversity, abundance and ecological importance. However, the physiology of such a wide and diverse group of organisms is far from understood. Marine annelids, in particular (Class Polychaeta, are of especial interest, in large part owing to their ecological representativity and easy handling. Still only few studies have been focusing on physiological traits of the polychaeta that may relate to the production of bioproducts of potential biotechnological applications. The secretion of substances by polychaetes is acknowledged to relate primarily with locomotion and feeding, but also thought to have an important role in egg protection, prevention against infection and even as defence mechanisms against possible predators. As such, the present work aims at identifying, isolating and analysing the nature of integumentary secretions of E. viridis, a common intertidal worm of rocky shores. Histological analyses revealed a more complex microanatomy of the skin than it could be anticipated. Several cell types were identified in the integument, each bearing different functions such as structural support, pigmentation and sensorial, to which is added secretion as one of the most important roles. Due to the great complexity of the integument, the identification of the chemical nature of all types of secretions is particularly challenging. However, more detailed histochemical analyses and electron microscopy enabled the identification of different secretory cells and their chemical nature and role. The analyses was complemented by protein isolation from mucous and homogenates trough SDS-PAGE. Extracts revealed, for instance, that peptidic substances produced by the skin are potentially biocidal, as assessed through the Microtox Assay. Overall, the results enhance the

  9. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  10. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  11. BIOMONITORING OF AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM,COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC IN THE COASTAL WETLAND WATER BY USING GILLS OF THE GREEN- LIPPED MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Abdul Rahim Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in the gills and remaining soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from 12 geographical sites ( 10 from the west and 2 from the east coastal waters) of Peninsular Malaysia. All samples showed that the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were generally higher in the gill than those in the remaining soft tissues. These results could be due to the fact that gills are the first organ of metal accumulation and larger surface area with mucus sheets in the organ. Since the mussel gill is a better accumulator of Cd, Pb and Zn of ambient seawater than remaining soft tissue, it is a potential indicator of ambient levels of dissolved metals in the ambient seawater. However, further validations based on laboratory conditions are needed.

  12. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation. PMID:23660441

  13. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation.

  14. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity.

  15. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24334123

  16. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel C20-elongase gene from the marine microalgae, Pavlova viridis, and its use for the reconstitution of two pathways of long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tonglei; Yu, Aiqun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-08-01

    The marine microalga, Pavlova viridis, contains long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3). A full-length cDNA sequence, pvelo5, was isolated from P. viridis. From sequence alignment, the gene was homologous to fatty acyl elongases from other organisms. Heterologous expression of pvelo5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that it encoded a specific C20-elongase within the n-3 and n-6 pathways. Elongation activity was confined exclusively to EPA and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). GC analysis indicated that pvelo5 could co-express with other genes for biosynthesis to reconstitute the Δ8 and Δ6 pathways. Real-time PCR results and fatty acid analysis demonstrated that long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids production by the Δ8 pathway might be more effective than that by the Δ6 pathway. PMID:23546943

  18. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  19. 狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取和含量测定%EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL TANNIN FROM SETARIA VIRIDIS( L. ) BEAUV.RIPE FRUITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱武; 罗素琴; 刘乐乐; 吴宁远; 王来兵; 于姝燕; 张国萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To extract total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beaux, ripe fruits and deter mination the content of total tannin. Methods: It was adopted the optimum ultrasonic extraction tech nique to extract the total tannin from Setaira viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits. Compleximetry was applied to determine the content of total tannin. Results: The content of total tannin was 0.4650%. Conclu sion :Ultrasonic extraction technique is simple and rapid,Content determination of complexometric titra tion method is safe and reliable. The method was available for extraction and content determination of total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits.%目的:从狗尾草果实中提取总鞣质并测定其含量.方法:采用超声波法提取狗尾革果实的总鞣质,用络合滴定法测定其总鞣质的含量.结果:狗尾草果实总鞣质的含量为0.4650%.结论:采用超声法提取操作程序简便、迅速,络合滴定法含量测定方法安全可靠,准确度和精密度较高,可用于狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取及含量测定.

  20. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  1. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  2. OVERVIEW OF INDIAN MEDICINAL TREE: BAMBUSA BAMBOS (DRUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikini Aakruti A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have a great potential for pharmacological activities. Bambusa bambos family Graminae is highly reputed Ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as bamboo. It is tall sized tree growing throughout India. It also occurs in Srilanka, Malaya, Peru and Myanmar. Bambusa bambos has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. It is widely used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, astringent, laxative, diuretic, anti-ulcer, anti-arthritic, anti-obesity and abortifacient activities. The various chemical constituents reported in this plant are oxalic acid, chorogenic acid, ferulicacid,coumeric acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillinic acid, caffeic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, benzoic acid, diferuloylarabinoxylanhexasaccharide, diferuloyl oligosaccharide, (5, 5’-di-(diferul9,9’-dioyl-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-9-(1→4-D-xylopyranose] (taxiphyllin, arginine, cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenlyamine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, betain, choline, proteolytic enzymes, nuclease, urease. Pharmacological evaluation of various parts of the plant have demonstrated antioxidant, anthelminthic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fertility, hypothermic, anti-thyroid anti-tumour and ecbolic activities. Various phyto-pharmacological evaluations have been reported in this literature which indicates the potential of Bambusa bambos as a therapeutic agent. This review mainly focuses on traditional, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological information of Bambusa bambos.

  3. Theoretical studies on the influence of molecular interactions on the mechanism of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center of Rps. viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hong(徐红); ZHANG; Rubo(张汝波); QU; Zhengwang(屈正旺); ZHANG; Xingkang(张兴康); ZHANG; Qiyuan(张启元)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the QM/MM optimized X-ray crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis, quantum chemistry density functional method (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G) has been performed to study the interactions between the pigment molecules and either the surrounded amino acid residues or water molecules that are either axially coordinated or hydrogen bonded with the pigment molecules, leading to an explanation of the mechanism of the primary electron-transfer (ET) reactions in the PRC. Results show that the axial coordination of amino acid residues greatly raises the ELUMO of pigment molecules and it is important for the possibility of ET to take place. Different hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues, water molecules and pigment molecules decrease the ELUMO of the pigment molecules to different extents. It is crucial for the ET taking place from excited P along L branch and sustains that the ET is a one-step reaction without through accessory bacteriochlorophyll (ABChl b). It is insufficient to treat the whole protein surrounding as a homogeneous dielectric medium.

  4. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology &

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity of Life History Characteristics:Quantitative Analysis of Delayed Reproduction of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis) in the Songnen Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Li; Yun-Fei Yang

    2008-01-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis L,) is a common weed species in temperate regions. Research on the effect of delayed reproduction on the phenotypic plasticity and regularity of the vegetative and reproductive growth is of vital significance for understanding population regulation and control of the weed in the growing season, Green foxtail seeds were sown every 10 days from 25 June to 24 August of 2004. The growth and production metrics were measured via harvesting tufts and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that the reproductive tillers, seed number, seed biomass and one thousand-seed weight of plants at the first sowing (25 June) approximately increased 28.8, 7827.0, 1104.0 and 12.3 times compared with that at the last sowing (24 August), respectively. Total tillers, reproductive tillers and height increased linearly as the reproductive period delayed, however, biomass increased exponentially. Quadratic equations best explained the relationships between the delayed reproductive period and seed number, Inflorescence length, one thousand-seed weight, seed biomass. Based on the quantity and quality of seed production, weeding young seedlings emerging before July can be the most effective weed-control strategy in the Songnen Plain.

  6. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Priscilla T.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Mak, Sarah S.T.; Ng, W.C. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Leung, Kenneth M.Y., E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-09-15

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  7. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. PMID:25240268

  8. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  9. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amutha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1 is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2 is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the least contaminated Vellar estuary Parangipettai (Station-3 was considered as the reference site. The 2 year (2005-2007 observation was recorded seasonally; the antioxidant activity varied seasonally and organally (digestive gland, gill and mantle in the marine green mussel Perna viridis. The common antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Glutathione Reductase (GR activity were evaluated. The CAT and SOD are responded well with seasons (i.e., monsoon, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and summer seasons. During monsoon period, both CAT and SOD activity are very low in all the Stations, in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period their activity were moderate and higher enzyme activity was noted during summer season. On contrary, the GR activity was noted as very low during summer and very high during pre or post monsoon and the activity was moderate during monsoon period. In addition the GR activity respond to temperature also but the other antioxidants CAT and SOD yielded no detectable activity. Among the organs liver showed higher CAT and SOD activity when compared to gill and mantle but the GR exhibited the increased activity in gill but not in liver.

  10. Photosynthetic acclimation to photon irradiance and its relation to chlorophyll fluorescence and carbon assimilation in the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, F J; Jiménez, C; Chavarría, J; Xavier Niell, F

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the long-term acclimation of the halotolerant microalga Dunaliella viridis to different photon irradiance, ranging from darkness to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). In order to assess the effects of long-term photoinhibition, changes in oxygen production rate, pigment composition, xanthophyll cycle and in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence using the saturating pulse method were measured. Growth rate was maximal at intermediate irradiance (250 and 700 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The increase in growth irradiance from 700 to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1) did not lead to further significant changes in pigment composition or EPS, indicating saturation in the pigment response to high light. Changes in Photosystem II optimum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) evidenced photoinhibition at 700 and especially at 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). The relation between photosynthetic electron flow rate and photosyntetic O(2) evolution was linear for cultures in darkness shifting to curvilinear as growth irradiance increased, suggesting the interference of the energy dissipation processes in oxygen evolution. Carbon assimilation efficiencies were studied in relation to changes in growth rate, internal carbon and nitrogen composition, and organic carbon released to the external medium. All illuminated cultures showed a high capability to maintain a C:N ratio between 6 and 7. The percentage of organic carbon released to the external medium increased to its maximum under high irradiance (1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). These results suggest that the release of organic carbon could act as a secondary dissipation process when the xanthophyll cycle is saturated. PMID:16228345

  11. 商州药用植物大青叶蝉为害情况调查%An Investigation of Damages by Cicadella viridis to Medicinal Plant in Shangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐养璇

    2012-01-01

    As to the increasing damage by harmful insects to the medicinal plants in Shangluo City, an investigation is done on occurrence and damage of Cicadella viridis to Radix lsatidis, Astragalus Mongholicus and Platycodon Root, with the sample selected by five diagonal points in Shangzhou District, Shangluo City. The results show that Cicadella viridis had a widespread occurrence, but in small quantity in Radix Isatidis,the root of large-flowered skullcap and the root of balloon flower. The highest average number of insects in single plant is 1.944,0.211 and 0.486,with the lowest 0.429,0.015 and 0.090, respectively in Radix Isatidis, the root of large-flowered skullcap and Cicadella viridis, with Radix Isatidis taking the most insects. The damage of Cicadella viridis to Radix Isatidis in 2009-2010 is small, with the highest variance of 12.5%-13.34%. The general occurrence of green Cicadella viridis to Shangzhou medicinal plant is small, with little annual change, slight damage.%针对商洛市药用植物害虫为害加重的情况,采用大田对角线五点平均取样法调查了商洛市商州区板蓝根、黄芪和桔梗等药用植物上大青叶蝉的发生及为害情况。结果显示:大青叶蝉在商州区种植的板蓝根、黄芪和桔梗中普遍发生,但发生量较小,板蓝根、黄芪和桔梗中单株平均有虫数最高分别为1.944头/株、0.211头/株和0.486头/株;最低分别为0.429头/株、0.015头/株和0.09头/株;三种药材中板蓝根叶片上发生数量最大;2009—2011年大青叶蝉在板蓝根上的为害程度变幅较小。虫害指数最高变幅为12.51%-13.34%。大青叶蝉在商州中药种植区药用植物上总体发生量小;种群年变化小,害情轻微。

  12. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  13. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis reveals a distinctive quadripartite architecture in the chloroplast genome of early diverging ulvophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae is currently debated. The four complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences presently available for representatives of these classes have revealed extensive variability in overall structure, gene content, intron composition and gene order. The chloroplast genome of Pseudendoclonium (Ulvophyceae, in particular, is characterized by an atypical quadripartite architecture that deviates from the ancestral type by a large inverted repeat (IR featuring an inverted rRNA operon and a small single-copy (SSC region containing 14 genes normally found in the large single-copy (LSC region. To gain insights into the nature of the events that led to the reorganization of the chloroplast genome in the Ulvophyceae, we have determined the complete cpDNA sequence of Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, a representative of a distinct, early diverging lineage. Results The 151,933 bp IR-containing genome of Oltmannsiellopsis differs considerably from Pseudendoclonium and other chlorophyte cpDNAs in intron content and gene order, but shares close similarities with its ulvophyte homologue at the levels of quadripartite architecture, gene content and gene density. Oltmannsiellopsis cpDNA encodes 105 genes, contains five group I introns, and features many short dispersed repeats. As in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA, the rRNA genes in the IR are transcribed toward the single copy region featuring the genes typically found in the ancestral LSC region, and the opposite single copy region harbours genes characteristic of both the ancestral SSC and LSC regions. The 52 genes that were transferred from the ancestral LSC to SSC region include 12 of those observed in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA. Surprisingly, the overall gene organization of

  14. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  15. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  16. Sphodromantis viridis (Forskal, 1775: New for Portugal and new records of the rare and small mantids Apteromantis aptera (Fuente, 1894 and Perlamantis allibertii Guérin-Méneville, 1843 in the country (Mantodea: Mantidae and Amorphoscelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marabuto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new records are presented on some of the least known mantis species in the Iberian Peninsula. From data collected in Portugal, their analysis has proven to represent an important advancement in the knowledge of this group of insects for the country and the Western Mediterranean area. Twenty new citations provide a better understanding on the distribution of the crepuscular species Perlamantis allibertii, the IUCN red listed Apteromantis aptera and the first Portuguese records of Sphodromantis viridis, extending their western limits of occurrence in Europe. The data thus gathered emphasizes the need to invest in biodiversity assessment for increased knowledge on species distribution and phenology but also for monitoring over time, essential to better ascertaining ecosystem services, the effects of climate change and habitat conservation.

  17. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  18. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS1 from Dunaliella viridis and investigation of the impact on expression of DvGS1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Wang, Peipei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    A novel glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS1 showing highest amino acid sequence identity of 78 % with the other homologous GS proteins from green algae, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DvGS1 occupied an independent phylogenetic position which was different with the GSs from higher plants, animals and microbes. Functional complement in E. coli mutant confirmed that the DvGS1 encoded functional GS enzyme. Real-time PCR analysis of DvGS1 in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation revealed that the mRNA level of DvGS1 was positively up-regulated in 12 h. The DvGS1 levels at the points of 12 and 24 h were separately twofold and fourfold of the level before nitrogen starvation. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS1 in higher plants, the transgenic study of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out. Phenotype identification demonstrated that all three transgenic lines of T3 generation showed obviously enhanced root length (26 %), fresh weight (22-46 % at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (26 %), leaf size (29 %) and silique number (30 %) compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Biochemical analysis confirmed that all three transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content, soluble protein concentration, total amino acid content and the leaf GS activity than the wild type plants. The free NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) concentration in fresh leaves of three transgenic lines were reduced by 17-26 % and 14-15 % separately (at two concentrations of nitrate supplies) compared with those of the wild types. All the results indicated that over-expression of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis significantly results in the improvement of growth phenotype and the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24307252

  19. Anti-Fatigue Effect Derived from Compound Enzyme Hydrolysates of Perna Viridis Meat%翡翠贻贝肉复合酶解物的抗疲劳作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方富永; 苗艳丽; 程诚; 马孝甜; 陈木连; 宋文东

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the anti-fatigue function from compound enzyme hydrolysates of Perna Viridis meat by mice experiments. Method: Five groups of mice were divided into low-dose group, medium-dose group, high-dose group, original meat group and control group. Low, medium and high dose group were given hydrolysates, which were prepared with papain, neutral protease and pineapple proteinase in turn. Original meat group and control were respectively given Perna Viridis meat powder and saline similarly for 30 days. Blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen, liver glyco-gen,and the time of loaded swimming were measured to study anti-fatigue function. Results:Compared with the control, High-dose group could significantly decreased the blood lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen (P0.05). Conclusion:Compound enzyme Hydrolysates of Perna Viridis meat has anti-fatigue effects by mice experiments.%目的:通过动物实验研究翡翠贻贝肉复合酶解物的抗疲劳效果.方法:将昆明种小鼠分成5组,设低、中、高剂量组、原肉组和对照组.翡翠贻贝肉浆依次以木瓜蛋白酶、中性蛋白酶、菠萝蛋白酶水解制备酶解物,用于3个剂量组的小鼠灌胃.原肉组和对照组分别以翡翠贻贝肉原肉粉及生理盐水灌胃.连续灌胃30 d后,测定各组小鼠运动后血乳酸、血清尿素氮浓度及肝糖原含量,观察负重游泳时间,根据试验结果判断抗疲劳效果.结果:与对照组比较,翡翠贻贝肉复合酶解物高剂量组小鼠运动后血乳酸及血清尿素氮浓度降低极显著(P<0.01),肝糖原含量显著升高(P<0.05),负重游泳时间显著延长(P<0.05);中、低剂量组、原肉组与对照组相比,上述各项试验指标均无显著性影响(P>0.05).结论:动物实验证明翡翠贻贝肉复合酶解物具有抗疲劳作用.

  20. MAR序列介导野苋菜凝集素基因在白菜中的表达%Expression of Amaranthus viridis L. Agglutinin Mediated by Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) Sequence in Transgenic Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    以'丰顺'白菜带柄子叶为转化受体,用带有MAR(Matrix Attachment Region)和不带MAR的两种植物表达载体进行农杆菌介导转化野苋菜凝集素基因(Amaranthus viridis L. agglutinin,AVA)获得转基因的抗蚜小白菜.分析MAR序列介导对转基因表达的影响.表明利用MAR序列介导AVA基因表达,获得转基因植株的数量比对照提高29.63%;转AVA基因白菜对桃蚜(Myzus persicae)的群体发展有一定的抑制作用,平均抑制率为55.8%;MAR序列介导AVA基因表达的转基因植株中,该基因的表达水平比对照高,并且不同转基因单株间AVA基因表达差异比对照小.

  1. 野苋菜凝集素基因的克隆及抗蚜性%Cloning of AVA Gene from Amaranthus viridis and Effect of Aphid Resistance on Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 李楠; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    通过PCR从苋科植物野苋菜Amaranthus viridis L.基因组DNA中扩增出野苋菜凝集素的核基因片段AVA.序列分析结果表明该基因为1 831 bp,含有一个922 bp的内含子和两个分别为212 bp和697 bp的外显子.采用反向PCR技术获得了该基因的编码区克隆.分别构建含有内含子和不含内含子的AVA基因植物表达载体pBI121AVA-GUS和pBI121AVAc-GUS,通过根癌农杆菌介导法转化烟草.PCR、GUS检测结果均表明AVA基因不仅已整合到烟草基因组DNA中,而且初步表明转基因烟草有AVA蛋白表达.抗蚜实验表明含内含子和无内含子的AVA基因在转基因烟草中的抗蚜能力不同,转AVA和AVAc烟草对蚜虫的抑制率分别为60.81%和50.63%,有的植株高达97%.实验结果表明所克隆的AVA基因是具有抗蚜能力的苋菜凝集素基因家族中的新成员.

  2. Pharmacological Evaluation of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce in Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, and Vascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of Prosopis cineraria, a plant native of Pakistan, was tested for its possible presence of spasmolytic, bronchodilator, and vasodilator activities in an attempt to validate some of its folkloric uses. Moreover, attempts were made to provide plausible explanations of the observed biological activities. The extract caused relaxation of the spontaneous as well as K+ (80 mM-induced contractions at tissue bath concentrations of 3–10 mg/mL in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, probably mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. This finding was further confirmed by the shifting of the Ca+2 concentration response curves to the rightward in a manner similar to verapamil used as a standard Ca+2 channel blocker. The extract also exhibited nonspecific relaxant effect on carbachol (1 μM- and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations. The same effect was recorded for phenylephrine (11 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations in a manner similar to verapamil. These observations confirm that observed bronchodilator and vasodilator activities were possibly mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. The above-mentioned observations validate the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal ailments.

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Diversity in Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Under Arid Agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neelam Verma; Jagadish Chandra Tarafdar; Krishna Kant Srivastava; Jitendra Panwar

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) were assessed for their qualitative and quantitative distribution from eight districts of Rajasthan. A total of three species of Acaulospora, one species of Entrophospora, two species of Gigaspora, twenty-one species of Glomus, seven species of Sclerocystis and three species of Scutellospora were recorded. A high diversity of AM fungi was observed and it varied at different study sites. Among these six genera, Glomus occurred most frequently. Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus aggregatum, and Glomus mosseae were found to be the most predominant AM fungi in infecting Prosopis cineraria. Acaulospora, G. fasciculatum, Sclerocystis was found in all the fields studied, while Scutellospora species were found only in few sites. A maximum of thirty-six AM fungal species were isolated and identified from Jodhpur, whereas only thirteen species were found from Jaisalmer. Spores of Glomus fasciculatum were found to be most abundant under Prosopis cineraria.

  4. Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stellaa; Narayanan, N; Raj Kapoor, B

    2011-04-01

    The antitumour activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf (PCL) and stem bark (PCB) of Prosopis cineraria (L.) in Swiss albino mice was evaluated against an Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumour model. The activity was assessed using survival time, peritoneal cells, haematological studies, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, solid tumour mass and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCL and PCB were found to be potent and possessed significant cytotoxicity towards EAC tumour cells.

  5. On Moniligaster coeruleus Horst (Moniligaster viridis Beddard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1896-01-01

    In my description of this large earthworm from Borneo ¹) I made already the suggestion, that the species probably did not belong to the genus Moniligaster, but I preferred to range it provisionally in this genus till we were better informed about the characters of several Moniligaster- species, only

  6. NaHCO3浓度对等鞭藻3011、等鞭藻塔溪堤品系和绿色巴夫藻生长的影响%Effect of NaHCO3 concentration on growth of Isochrysis galbana 3011 strain, Tahitian I.galbana strain and Pavlova viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁英; 麦康森; 孙世春; 梁广尧

    2001-01-01

    对等鞭藻3011(Isochrysis galbana3011)、等鞭藻塔溪堤品系(Tahitian Isochrysisgalbana)和绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridisai)3株微藻种进行培养。NaHCO3的质量浓度分别为0,200,400,800,1200和1600mg/L,培养温度(22±1)℃,盐度28,光照强度5000lx。结果表明,NaHCO3的浓度对3株微藻生长的影响差异显著,经过6d的培养,培养液中不加NaHCO3、但连续充气组中3株微藻的细胞浓度都达到最大值;除充气不加NaHCO3组外,3株微藻的细胞浓度都在NaHCO3 1600mg/L组中达到最大值。%NaHCO3 concentrations were designed at 100,200, 400, 800, 1 200and 1 600 mg/L. Three marine microalgal strains (Isochrysis galbana 3011, Tahitian Isochrysis galbana and Pavlova viridis)were cultured at water temperature (22±1)℃; the salinity was adjusted to 28 by using distilled water,and the light intensity was 5 000 lx. The results showed that NaHCO3 had significant influence on the growth of the 3 marine microalgal strains. After 6 days culture, the 3 marine microalgal strains all grew the best when NaHCO3 concentration was 0 mg/L with continuously air-bubbling (aerating groups). Except that, the optimum NaHCO3 concentration for the highest cell density of I.galbana 3011, Tahitian I.galbana and P.viridis were all at 1 600 mg/L.

  7. 珠江河口区翡翠贻贝中有机氯农药和多氯联苯含量及分布%Concentrations and distribution of organochlorinated pesticides and PCBs in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis collected from the Pearl River Estuarine Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方展强; 张润兴; 黄铭洪

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs were determined in the green-lipped mussels ( Perna viridis ), collected from thirteen sites along the Pearl River estuarine zone from July to August 1996. The ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBa in mussels were in the ranges of not - detected ~1.1 ng g-1, 9.5~ 191 ng g- 1 and 82.8 ~ 615.1 ng g- 1 (lipid weight basis) respectively. Relative high levels of DDTs and PCBs were found in mussels collected from the mouth of Pearl River. Mus~ls collected from Tsim Sha Tsui Pier (Victoria Harbour) showed the highest contamination of PCBs, while those collected from Hebao Island (Western estuarine zone) had the relative high contamination of DDTs and HCHs. Penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCB were selectively accumulated in Perna viridis. The isomeric composition analysis of residues in mussels from thirteen coastal locations indicated that there were two different PCBs pollution sources in the Pearl River Estuarine zone.%对分布于珠江河口区海域的翡翠贻贝有机氯农药和多氯联苯的含量进行测定,结果显示:HCHs为ND—1.1ng·g-1,DDTs为9.5—191ng·g-1,PCBs为82.8—615.1ng·g-1.尖沙嘴码头(维多利亚港)贻贝积累的PCBs浓度量高,珠江河口桂山岛和外伶仃岛的贻贝积累的DDTs和PCBs浓度较高,而荷包岛(珠江河口西海区)的贻贝则检出含量较高的HCHs和DDTs.贻贝选择性积累含5—6个氯原子数的PCB异构体.各采样点贻贝积累的PCBs组成分析表明珠江河口区海域存在两个PCBs污染源.

  8. Behavioral responses of leaves and vascular cambium of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce to different regimes of coal-smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.; Mahmooduzzafar; Aref, I.M.; Khan, P.R. [Hamdard University, New Delhi (India). Faculty of Science

    2010-07-01

    The foliar and cambial responses of Prosopis cineraria to five different coal-smoke regimes in Delhi, India, were studied using the monthly collections of leaves and cambial blocks as well as the data on SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations from each of the five study sites. Coal-smoke inhibited pigment concentration, NR activity and sugar content and promoted stomatal index and the nitrate and sulfur contents. Stomatal conductance was low, leading to a drop in the net photosynthetic rate. Cambial activity started quite late and the annual increment of wood was reduced despite a prolonged active phase, possibly due to a distinctly retarded rate of cambial cell division. Vessel proportion in the wood increased but the size of vessel elements and fibers decreased. Such studies may help in identifying trees suitable for cultivation in the pollution-affected areas.

  9. Species Composition of Mangrove Forests in Aurora, Philippines : A Special Reference to the Presence of Kandelia Candel (L.) Druce

    OpenAIRE

    Leon-rotaquio Jr., Eutiquio de; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Rotaquio, Ronaldo L.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a preliminary identification of floral mangrove species, categorizing them as major mangrove species, minor mangrove species, mangrove associates, specialized groups and describing the present conditions and threats in the mangrove areas of Aurora- the only known site of Kandelia candel in the Philippines. The results showed that there are thirty (30) major and minor mangrove species; twenty-two (22) mangrove associates and ten (10) specialized groups identified. T...

  10. Karyotype Study on Scilla scilloides (Lindl.) Druce in Yantai%烟台绵枣儿的核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 赵彦宏; 刘林德; 王丽娟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the chromoseome number and the karyotype of Scilla scilloides in Yantai. [Method] Root tips of Scilla scilloides were pretreated by 8-hydroxyquinoline, then fixed, dissociated and stained for slice production. The chromosome number was ana-lyzed by microscopic examination, and then cells with good chromosomal morphology and dispersal chromosome were studied by microscopic photos. [Re-sult] The somatic chromosome number of Scilla scilloides in Yantai was 2n=16+1Bs, while the karyotype formula was K (2n)=2x=16+1Bs=6m+4sm (2SAT)+4st+2t+1Bs and the karyotype classification was "3B" type. [Conclusion] Karyotype comparison, division of cell type and evolution of Scilla scilloides in Yantai are discussed, which provides basis for cytogenetics, evolutionary genetics, modem taxonomy and genetic breeding.

  11. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  12. МАТЕРИАЛЫ К ГЕЛЬМИНТОФАУНЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ ЖАБЫ B UFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768 (AMPHIBIA: ANURA) В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Чихляев, И.

    2014-01-01

    Представлены данные о гельминтофауне зеленой жабы Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 на территории Самарской области. Всего обнаружено 14 видов гельминтов из 5 классов: Monogenea (1), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (6), Nematoda (5) и Acanthocephala (1). Типичными паразитами с высокой степенью инвазии являются геонематоды Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788). Моногенеи, цестоды, трематоды и скребни относятся к числу редких паразитов ...

  13. ВЛИЯНИЕ ЭТАНОЛА НА СОСТАВ И ВЫХОД БИОМАССЫ DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEODOR. ПРИ КВАЗИНЕПРЕРЫВНОМ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Божков, А.; Мензянова, Н.; Сысенко, Е.

    2014-01-01

    Исследовали влияние этанола (конечная концентрация 0,3 и 0,5%) на выход биомассы, ее состав (содержание нуклеиновых кислот, протеинов, липидов, хлорофиллов a и b, -каротина и экзо полисахаридов) и морфологию клеток Dunaliella viridis в режиме квазинепрерывного культивирования. Обнаружено, что добавление в среду культивирования этанола до конечной концентрации 0,3% увеличивало выход биомассы в 2 раза по сравнению с квазинепрерывным культивированием без этанола и в 2,5 раза по сравнению с нако...

  14. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippia packardii (Morrison and Hippia insularis (Grote are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n. Elasmia cave Metzler, sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson, ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  15. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce) from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Metzler; Edward Knudson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hippia packardii (Morrison) and Hippia insularis (Grote) are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n. Elasmia cave Metzler, sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson, ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  16. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПОЧКИ У АМФИБИЙ В ЛИЧИНОЧНЫЙ ПЕРИОД РАЗВИТИЯ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЖАБЫ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ (BUFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768)

    OpenAIRE

    СВЕТАШЕВА Д.Р.; ГРУШКО М.П.

    2014-01-01

    Описываются морфофизиологические особенности формирующегося мезонефроса у личинки зеленой жабы (Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768). Определено, что изученный орган, наряду с функцией выделения, выполняет функцию кроветворения на протяжении личиночного периода развития. В почке образуются элементы крови всех линий. Основную долю формирующихся элементов крови на протяжении всего личиночного периода развития составляли клетки эритропоэтического ряда, далее, по мере убывания – гранулоцитопоэтические и ...

  17. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  18. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  19. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    of different bacteria were mixed and dissolved in 1500ll saline buffer. Animals were injected with 100ll of mixed cocktail of bacteria into the posterior adductor muscles. Hemolymph collection was done by slightly opening the animals with the help of forceps so... that adductor muscle does not break and then hemolymph collected from posterior adductor muscles. Hemolymph was collected into an Alsevier solution and immediately centrifuged at 1000 rpm at * Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 2025902241; fax: +91 2025902648...

  20. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    injected with 0.002% colchicine in Normal saline into the posterior adductor muscle (Justo et al. 1991) and reared for 24 h in an aquarium containing aerated seawater with 0.002% colchicine (Vitturi et al. 2000). For chromosomal preparation of solid tissues...

  1. The role of the vomeronasal organ in rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) predatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, W R; Kardong, K V

    1996-01-01

    During predatory behavior, rattlesnakes depend primarily upon thermal and visual cues to initially aim a strike. However, it has been hypothesized that prey-related odors sensed by the vomeronasal system act as releasing stimuli of the strike and that such vomodors are primary stimuli during poststrike trailing and swallowing of the envenomated rodent. To test this, northern Pacific rattlesnakes were rendered avomic by bilateral lesions of the vomeronasal nerves, and their vomic and avomic predatory behaviors were compared. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited fewer strikes and complete elimination of trailing and swallowing behavior. These results support the hypothesis that vomodors sensed via the vomeronasal organ are capable of acting as releasing stimuli of selected rattlesnake predatory behaviors. Sensory input via the vomeronasal organ is important during prestrike/strike behavior, and it is a major route of sensory input during poststrike trailing and ingestion of envenomated prey.

  2. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  3. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid in WAF-exposed specimens signify the importance of antioxidants in protecting the cell against the oxidative damage arising from petroleum contamination. The responses...

  4. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation...

  5. ETUDE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DU SECHAGE SOLAIRE DES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE (MENTHA VIRIDIS).

    OpenAIRE

    BOUMEDIENE, TOUATI

    2014-01-01

    LES PLANTES MÉDICINALES ET AROMATIQUES ET EN PARTICULIER LES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE ONT BEAUCOUP D'IMPORTANCE POUR LA PHARMACOPÉE, LA PARFUMERIE ,LA CONFISERIE ET LA LIQUORISTE RIE . CE TRAVAIL ENTRE DANS LE CADRE DE LA VALORISATION DE CETTE PLANTE PRODUITE EN GRANDE QUANTITÉ DANS LE SUD ET LE SUD-OUEST ALGÉRIEN .IL S'AGIT RÉÉTUDIER LE SÉCHAGE DE CETTE PLANTE ET DE DÉVELOPPER L'UTILISATION DE L’ÉNERGIE POUR SE'CHER LA MENTHE VIRIDES.

  6. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    ). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential...

  7. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and weight computEd. by applying Von Bertalanffy's equation did not show significant deviation from the observed values. Specific growth rate (SGR) was calculated, by using the values of shell-length, varied from 0.74 to 138.52%. SGR maxima was observed...

  8. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    . Keywords: Genotoxicity, DNA damage, Comet assay, Cigar tobacco extracts, H2O2 Introduction Marine pollution is a global problem and can arise from natural occurrences as well as human activities, resource uses and interventions..., 781, 56-63. Nacci, D.E., Cayula, S., and Eugene, J., (1996). Detection of DNA damage in individual cells from marine organisms using the single gel assay. Aquatic Toxicol., 35,197?219. Ostling, O., and Johanson, K.J., (1984). Microelectrophoretic...

  9. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 36 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Massoud Mirshahi et al. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cells Cultures Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) (Golestaneh et al., 2001), were cultured in endothelial basal.... The human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) line was continuously propagated in 75 cm culture dishes, containing RPMI 1640 supplemented with glutamine (1 mM), fetal calf serum (10%), penicillin (100 U/ml), streptomycin (100 U/ml) and incubated...

  10. Tumours of reptiles 4. Multiple osteomas in the lizard Laceria viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1958-01-01

    Whereas in fishes several osteomas (Bell, 1793; Gervais, 1875; Bland-Sutton, 1885 ; Plehn, 1906 ; Schroeders, 1908 ; Fiebiger, 1909 ; Williamson, 1913 ; Beatti, 1916 ; Kazama, 1924 ; Sagawa, 1925; Williams, 1929; Takahashi, 1929; Thomas, 1932, 1933; Lucké and Schlumberger, not published, see the pub

  11. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Soundarya Srirangan; Marie-Laure Sauer; Brian Howard; Mia Dvora; Jacob Dums; Patrick Backman; Heike Sederoff

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the ligh...

  12. Construction and Characterization of a Dunaliella viridis Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library%盐藻(Dunaliella viridis)细菌人工染色体文库的构建和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥宗; 杨晓武; 管祯玮; 张男; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2007-01-01

    盐藻具有极强的耐盐能力,是研究植物耐盐机制的模式系统.为了对其耐盐机制进行深入的研究,以pCC1BAC为载体,构建了盐藻的细菌人工染色体(BAC)文库.该文库共有9 216个转化子,插入片段平均长度为55kb,以单克隆形式保藏在96块96孔板中,并建立了四维PCR基因筛选体系,可以通过4轮PCR快速筛选获得阳性单克隆.根据本实验室分离到的两个盐藻基因的cDNA序列(DvSPT2和DvTPSP)设计引物,通过PCR从该文库中各筛到4个阳性BAC克隆,说明该文库能有效用于分离盐藻基因的基因组序列,据此推测该文库约覆盖4倍盐藻基因组序列.

  13. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko;

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3...

  14. Absorption of Cu/sup + +/ by long-term cultures of Dunaliella salina, D. tertiolecta, and D. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustigman, B.; Korky, J.; Zabady, A.; McCormick, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    By means of atomic absorption analysis, the authors measured the effect of salinity on the absorption of copper. They used long term cultures of Dunaliella in order to determine if alterations in plasmalemma permeability occur as a result of adaptation to different osmotic conditions. Since copper appears to affect the mechanisms involved in osmotic resistance with Dunaliella, they hoped to elucidate some of the characteristics of permeability.

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Limnophila indica (Linn.) Druce on shigellosis%有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物抗志贺菌病作用的体内和体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya Subhadra; Gouthami Gade; Vinod Kombath Ravindran; Vidya Sravanthi Emani; Saikumar Parre; David Banji

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物抑制志贺菌病的作用.方法:首先将有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物做初步化学筛选.使用2种革兰阴性菌、2种革兰阳性菌,2种抗生素耐药的志贺杆菌和1种非抗生素耐药的志贺杆菌经纸片扩散法进行体外抗菌筛选.蓖麻油诱发Wistar大鼠腹泻后,以洛哌丁胺作为标准对照药进行有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物止泻实验.通过人工胃模型测定有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物的体外抗酸作用,并且对其中和胃酸的效率、容量、体积和氢离子消耗进行评估.结果:有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物中含有酚类、黄酮类、生物碱等化学成分,以及脂肪和油脂.有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物被证明对包括抗生素耐药的志贺杆菌在内的4个菌株具有较强的抑制作用,并且其抗腹泻作用具有剂量依赖性.当服用最低剂量100mg/kg时,其抗腹泻效果比标准对照药洛哌丁胺更好(P<0.01).体内实验结果显示有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物具有轻微的抗酸作用.结论:有梗石龙尾甲醇提取物具有轻微的抗酸活性以及强效的抗菌、止泻作用,这对于开发抗痢疾、抗腹泻作用的草药具有一定的意义.%OBJECTIVE:The research aimed to evaluate the anti-Shigella and antacid activities of the methanolic extract of Limnophila indica.METHODS:The whole plant of L.indica was extracted using methanol and then subjected to preliminary chemical screening.The in vitro antibacterial screening on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria as well as three Shigella species of which two bacteria were antibiotic-resistant were evaluated by disc diffusion method.Castor oil-induced diarrhoea on Wistar albino rats was performed by using loperamide as a standard control.The in vitro antacid activity was tested by artificial stomach model.The neutralization efficiency,capacity,volume and hydrogen ions consumed were also evaluated.RESULTS:The preliminary chemical screening on methanolic extract of L.indica showed the presence of phenolic compounds,flavonoids,alkaloids,fats and oils.It was proved to be a potent antibacterial agent against the four bacterial strains.Screening against Shigella species revealed that it was a powerful antibacterial agent towards antibiotic-resistant Shigella species.In the case of in vivo antidiarrheal activity,the plant has shown a dose-dependent activity and the lowest dose at 100 mg/kg gave a much better result than loperamide (P<0.01).The in vitro antacid study showed a mild activity.CONCLUSION:As the plant L.indica has been proved to be a competent antibacterial as well as a compelling antidiarrheal agent with mild antacid activity,this plant can be very well suggested to be an eminent substitute for the various synthetic anti-dysentery and antidiarrheal agents available in the market.

  16. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Warren R. [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: warren.davies@rmit.edu.au; Siu, William H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jack, Ralph W. [Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  17. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Warren R; Siu, William H L; Jack, Ralph W; Wu, Rudolf S S; Lam, Paul K S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel. PMID:16291202

  18. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  19. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G. S.; Asokan, D.P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarker: sister chromatid exchange (SCE); chromosomal aberration; micronucleus (MN); hemic neoplasia (HN), mutagenic activity; comet cells. Exposure/effect represented: exposure to trace metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn) / DNA damage. Analytical technique: Toxic and essential elements in tissues were determined using AAS; metaphase chromosomes were viewed using light microscope (Olympus BX50) with image analysis facility; hemolymph was stained using the Schiff Feulgen-picromethyl blu...

  20. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-07-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  1. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Zancolli; Timothy G. Baker; Axel Barlow; Rebecca K. Bradley; Calvete, Juan J.; Kimberley C. Carter; Kaylah de Jager; John Benjamin Owens; Jenny Forrester Price; Libia Sanz; Amy Scholes-Higham; Liam Shier; Liam Wood; Catharine E. Wüster; Wolfgang Wüster

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hy...

  2. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BRG100, a Strain with Bioherbicidal Properties against Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail) and Other Pests of Agricultural Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Town, Jennifer; Links, Matthew G.; Boyetchko, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. BRG100 inhibits the growth of certain agricultural pests and is a potentially useful biopesticide for weeds and plant diseases. We have sequenced the 6.25-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into 4 scaffolds. Genome sequence comparisons revealed that this strain may represent a novel species of Pseudomonas.

  3. Toxicity and Traces of Hg, Pb and Cd in the Hepatopancreas, Gills and Muscles of Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnidayanti, Y

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals contamination on the coast of Jakarta Bay has led to the level of pollution and can cause toxicity to organisms living in the sea, i.e., green mussels. Green mussels have the ability to detoxify metals entering their bodies. Their ability to accumulate metals is higher than other aquatic animals. This is due to their sedentary life which prevents them from avoiding the effects of pollution and their high tolerance to certain metals. The high concentration of metal content would be toxic to the cell because metal ions can act as oxidants and bind to organic and protein molecules. The results of the study showed that traces of heavy metals were detected in the hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads organs of the mussels living in the waters of Muara Angke. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were found in all four organs, while mercury (Hg) was not detected in the muscles. Traces of Hg and Cd were not detected in hepatopancreas, gills, muscles and gonads of green mussels in Panimbang, while Pb was detected by 0.00 1 in the male gonads and 0.01 in hepatopancreas. The concentration of Pb in the male gonads are still below the acceptable limit and concentration of Pb in the hepatopancreas is relatively equivalent to the acceptable limit. Metal detection in the organs above shows that the Muara Angke waters tend to be polluted and have an impact on the mussels weight loss as a result of heavy metal toxicity.

  4. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    The deep burrowing, invasive spionid polychaete, Marenzelleria spp. (3 sibling species), is rapidly expanding its range in the Baltic Sea ecosystem, increasing the depth of the bioturbated zone dramatically relative to the native benthic community. One concern is the effect of this invasion...

  5. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  6. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20 My of divergence.

  7. Effect of NH4Cl on Growth of Micro Algae Dunaliella viridis%氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春旺; 张青田

    2005-01-01

    报道了氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响情况.绿色杜氏藻的一次性培养试验结果显示,氯化铵的浓度对绿色杜氏藻的增殖具有显著的影响.最适宜绿色杜氏藻增殖的浓度是0.20~1.00mmol/L,浓度值过高和过低均不利于绿色杜氏藻增殖,浓度过高时增殖缓慢,并且稳定期短,易崩溃.在最适宜浓度水平时,绿色杜氏藻进入指数生长期较快,增殖速率值较大;在1.00mmol/L浓度时,绿色杜氏藻在稳定期获得最大的微藻密度值.

  8. Zwei neue Apogonien von den Philippinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1897-01-01

    Fulva, parce viridi-metallico micans, supra glabra, subtusatro-viridis, squamulis setiformibus albis sat parce tecta; clypeo antice truncato, creberrime et quam fronte fortius punctato; prothorace aliquid remote punctato, angulis anticis acutis; scutello subtiliter punctato, interdum laevi; elytris

  9. Lepidopterans as Potential Agents for the Biological Control of the Invasive Plant, Miconia calvescens

    OpenAIRE

    Elisangela G.F. Morais; Marcelo C. Picanço; Semeão, Altair A.; Barreto, Robert W.; Rosado, Jander F.; Martins, Julio C.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated eight species of Lepidoptera associated with Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Brazil, including six defoliators, Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Druentia inscita Schaus (Mimallonidae), Antiblemma leucocyma Hampson (Noctuidae), three Limacodidae species, a fruit borer Carposina cardinata Meyrick (Carposinidae), and a damager of flowers Pleuroprucha rudimentaria Guenée (Geometridae). Based on host specificity and the damage caused to ...

  10. Nieuwe plantesoorten voor Vlieland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de G.Th.

    1977-01-01

    The author mentions the records of a number of taxa new for the Wadden island of Vlieland, viz. Thalictrum dunense L. subsp. dunense (Dum.) Rouy et Fouc., Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, Carex acutiformis Ehrh., C. paniculata L., Phalaris canariensis L., and Orchis praetermissa Druce.

  11. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amutha, C.; P Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species) that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1) is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2) is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the ...

  12. 一种狗尾草病原真菌的鉴定及菌株致病性研究%Identification and pathogenicity of fungus on Setaria viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏利; 邓晖; 牛永春

    2010-01-01

    经形态学鉴定和rDNA ITS序列分析,16株分离自北京、河北、河南发病狗尾草的菌株、2株分别分离自河南发病虎尾草、牛筋草的菌株和1株分离自青海发病野燕麦的菌株被鉴定为狗尾草平脐蠕孢Bipolaris setariae.接种试验表明,来自狗尾草的菌株比来自其他寄主植物的菌株对狗尾草致病性强,分离自野燕麦的菌株对狗尾草无致病性,分离自不同地区不同样品狗尾草的菌株其致病性有显著差异.菌株NYl对狗尾草有很强致病性,接种后5d植株叶片即全部呈枯死状,接种后7d整个植株枯萎死亡.菌株NYl对马唐和虎尾草也有很强致病性,但对于大多数供试栽培植物致病性很弱或无致病性.因此,B.setariae NYl菌株具有进一步开发成为狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草等杂草的生物除草剂的潜力.

  13. Analysis of the Dunaliella viridis Transcriptome and Related Pathways following Glucose Induction%葡萄糖诱导绿色杜氏藻转录组及相关通路差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 刘浩; 章丽; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是研究耐盐机理的模式绿藻.葡萄糖不仅是营养物质,而且还是信号物质.目前,对绿色杜氏藻转录组、糖处理后差异表达基因和β-胡萝卜素生物合成途径关键基因表达还不清楚.本研究通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序,获得葡萄糖处理和未处理绿色杜氏藻转录组信息.利用P value值和差异倍数对样本进行差异表达分析,共111条转录本存在差异表达,3条为上调转录本,108条为下调转录本.利用RT-qPCR检验差异表达分析的准确性.结果表明,转录本表达结果与转录组分析结果一致.GO功能富集结果表明,71条下调转录本与代谢相关,占所有下调转录本的65.74%.KEGG富集分析结果表明,21条KEGG通路含89条下调转录本,14条通路与代谢相关.代谢中通路最多的为能量代谢(6条),含63条下调转录本.能量代谢中与光合作用相关的下调转录本最多,为29条.通过分析找到2条与β-胡萝卜素生物合成相关通路(MVA/MEP途径及β-胡萝卜.素合成途径),并发现通路的关键基因hmgs、dxs、dxr、psy、pds、chyb,对其进行差异表达分析,均不存在差异表达.研究表明,葡萄糖抑制了绿色杜氏藻光合作用,代谢受阻,但未影响β-胡萝卜.紊生物合成相关通路及关键基因.

  14. Effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth of extreme halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%不同营养条件对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可文; 宋涛; 程小莲

    2014-01-01

    探讨了不同浓度碳源、氮源(N/P)、无机磷源、脲及卤虫干粉(或发酵液)卤水培养基对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响,以期为更好地开发杜氏藻资源提供全面、系统的资料.结果表明:通过物理方式直接通入CO2补充极端嗜盐杜氏藻培养基,能有效的保障极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长所需的碳源;采用尿素作为藻培养基氮源效果较好,无机磷浓度应维持较低水平;卤虫发酵液较卤虫干粉能有效延长藻细胞高密度生长期,极端嗜盐杜氏藻适宜培育浓度范围:尿素浓度为30.00 mg·L-1-90.00 mg·L-1,N/P维持在25左右,NaH2PO4浓度为2.71 mg.L-1-12.00 mg·L-1,3.50 mg·L-1最优;卤虫发酵液浓度应在250.00 mg·L-1以上.

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression Study of DHDDS of Dunaliella viridis%绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因生物信息学分析及表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘益芳; 龚一富; 俞凯; 朱帅旗; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是一种能产生重要次生代谢产物类胡萝卜素的单细胞绿藻,脱氢多萜醇焦磷酸合成酶(dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase,DHDDS)是其在类胡萝卜素合成途径中的相关酶.旨在研究DHDDS基因表达与类胡萝卜素含量之间的关系.提取绿色杜氏藻总RNA,通过转录组测序获得DHDDS基因全长,对该基因进行生物信息学分析;并用不同浓度甲基茉莉酸(MeJA)处理绿色杜氏藻,采用实时定量PCR研究该基因转录差异.结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因全长2211 bp,含有一个1 740bp长的开放阅读框(ORF),编码579个氨基酸序列.DHDDS蛋白餍理论等电点为7.63,相对分子质量为62 472.7 Da.预测结果表明,DHDDS蛋白不含信号肽,也不存在跨膜区域,该蛋白定位于细胞质基质.氨基酸序列比对结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS蛋白与小球藻的同源性最高(59%).实时定量PCR结果表明,经100μmol/L MeJA处理的绿色杜氏藻DHDDS表达水平最高,具有极显著差异;在该浓度下,类胡萝卜素含量均高于其他浓度组.且DHDDS基因的表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.绿色杜氏藻DHDDS是一种定位于细胞质基质中的酶,其与绿色杜氏藻类胡萝卜素合成途径有关.在一定浓度范围的MeJA诱导下,低浓度的MeJA对其表迭起促进作用,高浓度MeJA对其表达有抑制作用,且其表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.

  16. Diversity, Ecology and Herbivory of Hairstreak Butterflies (Theclinae) Associated with the Velvet Tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes-Péérez, F. R.; Alfaro-Alpíízar, M. A.; Johnson, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. Erora opisena (Druce), Parrhasius polibetes (Cramer), and Temecla paron (Godman and Salvin) were studied in association with M. calvescens, an uncommon tree in its natural range in the neotropics and a target for biocontrol as...

  17. Macrobenthic communities of the coastal waters of Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Rodrigues, N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    on the rocky sub- stratum, were collected from sts. 1 and 3. Since the beds of P. viridis were observed in the intertidal and subtidal rocky areas along the Dabhol coast (in the vicinity of sts.1 and 3), therefore the specimens of P. viridis found...

  18. Shallow-water Niphatidae (Haplosclerina, Haplosclerida, Demospongiae) from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (tropical southwestern Atlantic),

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, U.S.; Berlinck, R.G.S.; Hajdu, E.

    2005-01-01

    Two niphatids are described here: Amphimedon viridis and Pachychalina alcaloidifera sp. nov. Amphimedon viridis is a common and conspicuous species in most of the tropical western Atlantic. Pachychalina alcaloidifera sp. nov. has this far been found only in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo

  19. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, whi...... Conidiobolus coronatus. Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes) were also isolated from S. viridis....

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 ref|YP_001798514.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viri...dis] gb|ABS82050.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viridis] YP_001798514.1 0.001 29% ...

  1. Nomenclatural Changes in the Neotropical Eumaeini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Robbins

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural actions are taken in the Neotropical Eumaeini in advance of publication of the Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera Checklist. Lectotypes are designated for eleven species group names: Lycaena astiocha Prittwitz, 1865; Thecla azia Hewitson, 1873; Thecla beroea Hewitson, 1868; Thecla cupa Druce, 1907; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Thecla erenea Hewitson, 1867; Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1867; Thecla guacanagari Wallengren, 1860; Thecla stagira Hewitson, 1867; and Thecla thoria Hewitson, 1867. Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878 and Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916 are transferred from Eumaeini to Deudorigini (Theclinae. Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 is transferred from Polyommatinae to Theclinae (Eumaeini. Six type localities are changed: Colombia to Africa for Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916; Amazon to Guayaquil for Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Colombia to Southeast Asia for Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Bolivia to Westem North America for Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992; Argentina to the United States for Strymon nivnix K. Johnson, Eisele & MacPherson, 1990; and Dominican Republic to mainland Central and South America for Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989. Seven new synonyms are: Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 = Thecla hygela Hewitson, 1868 syn. nov.; Thecla saepium Boisduval, 1852 = Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992 syn. nov.; Thecla tyriam H.H. Druce, 1907 = Zigirina minutia K. Johnson & Adams, 1997 syn. nov.; Thecla halciones Butler & H. Druce, 1872 = Decussata colombiana K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Sal azar, 1997 syn. nov.; Papilio celmus Cramer, 1775 = Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989 syn. nov.; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867 = Thecla tyleri Dyar, 1913 syn. nov.; and Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1877 = Thecla iopas Godman & Salvin, 1887 syn. nov. The generic name Decussata K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Salazar, 1997 is a new junior synonym of Ostrinotes K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom

  2. Riqueza, abundância e sazonalidade de Sphingidae (Lepidoptera num fragmento de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil Species richness, abundance and seasonality of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Duarte Júnior

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, NE-Brasil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho foi realizado um levantamento de Sphingidae de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os esfingídeos foram coletados com luz de vapor de mercúrio durante duas noites consecutivas por mês, próximo ao novilúnio. Foram determinadas riqueza de espécies, abundância e sazonalidade. Oitenta e nove espécimes de 23 espécies em 13 gêneros foram registrados; 84% dos indivíduos foram machos. Muitas espécies foram raras e de 13 espécies foi coletado apenas um exemplar. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] foram registradas pela primeira vez no Nordeste do Brasil. A esfingofauna não mostrou nenhum padrão de sazonalidade, e riqueza e abundância de espécies de esfingídeos não se correlacionaram com precipitação mensal e temperatura.In the Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, NE-Brazil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho a survey of Sphingidae was performed from December 2002 to November 2003. The hawkmoths were collected with vapor mercury light during two consecutive nights per months near new moon. Species richness, abundance and seasonality were determined. Eighty-nine specimens of 23 species in13 genera were recorded; 84% the individuals were males. Most species were rare and from 13 species only one exemplar was collected. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] were recorded for the first time in Northeastern Brazil. The sphingofauna showed no seasonal patterns and

  3. Nuevos registros para la fauna de Saturniidae (Lepidoptera en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. ZAPATA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brindan nuevas citas de 17 especies de Saturniidae para la Argentina. Estos registros corresponden a las subfamilias: Arsenurinae [Arsenura xanthopus (Walker y Titaea tamerlan (Maassen]; Ceratocampinae: [Almeidella approximans (Schaus, Cicia nettia (Schaus, Citheronia aroa Schaus, Citheronia maureillei Wolfe & Herbin, Citioica anthonilis (Herrich- Schäffer, Eacles ducalis (Walker, Othorene cadmus (Herrich-Schäffer, Othorene purpurascens (Schaus y Ptiloscola photophila (Rothschild] y Hemileucinae [Cerodirphia brunnea (Draudt, Dirphia curitiba Draudt, Hirpida nigrolinea (Druce, Hylesia ebalus (Cramer, Leucanella gibbosa (Conte y Molippa strigosa (Maassen & Weyding].

  4. Lepidopterans as potential agents for the biological control of the invasive plant, Miconia calvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Elisangela G F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Semeão, Altair A; Barreto, Robert W; Rosado, Jander F; Martins, Julio C

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated eight species of Lepidoptera associated with Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Brazil, including six defoliators, Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Druentia inscita Schaus (Mimallonidae), Antiblemma leucocyma Hampson (Noctuidae), three Limacodidae species, a fruit borer Carposina cardinata Meyrick (Carposinidae), and a damager of flowers Pleuroprucha rudimentaria Guenée (Geometridae). Based on host specificity and the damage caused to plants, S. lotanalis and D. inscita are the most promising species for biological control of M. calvescens. Furthermore, if C. cardinata and P. rudimentaria have host specificity in future tests, these caterpillars could also be considered as appropriate biocontrol agents. PMID:22938203

  5. An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint by the natural standard research collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; M Grimes Serrano, Jill; Guilford, Jacquelyn; Isaac, Richard; Seamon, Erica; Varghese, Minney

    2010-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint (Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis) including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:22435615

  6. Effect of different extraction procedures on antimicrobial activity of marine bivalves: A comparison

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Chatterji, A.; Das, P.

    Anti-bacterial activity was evaluated in different crude extracts of five commercially important edible marine bivalves, namely Meretrix casta (Chemnitz), Polymesoda (Geloina) P. erosa (Solander), Perna viridis (Linnaeus), Crassostrea gryphoides...

  7. Ten new species of Cicindelidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Walther

    1898-01-01

    Differt ab Od. simulatore m. statura majore; labro longiore, in medio (ab basi ad apicem) viridi-tincto, dente mediana distincta; fronte latiore, oculis magis prominentibus, vittis discoidalibus deficientibus; thorace breviore latiore, postice rainus angustato; elytris longioribus, magis parallelis,

  8. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... difficult to inspect and treat. On November 1, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 67379-67384...(y). (banana rust thrips); Coccus viridis (green scale); Diplosolenodes occidentalis...

  9. Three New Rhizopulvinaria Species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) for Scale Insect Fauna of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

    2002-01-01

    Three Rhizopulvinaria species, Rhizopulvinaria pyrethri Borchsenius, Rhizopulvinaria turkestanica (Archangelskaya), and Rhizopulvinaria viridis Borchsenius, were identified on wild flora in eastern Anatolia in 1997. All of them are new records for the Turkish scale insect fauna.

  10. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281806 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MIEESKSIKEKFGVLDSVPVGACLLQDDFVVLFWNTCLEE...YP_007117793.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281754 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MLYNNEILPTLTVESSPRSMNILLYKLLSLRRIEYIAVDR...YP_007115817.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281805 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MYLILPDLYANMTYQIDERLNTSPCGFLSFADDGTIVMVN...YP_007118829.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  13. Spearmint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Garden Mint, Green Mint, Hierbabuena, Huile Essentielle de Menthe Verte, Lamb Mint, Mackerel Mint, Menta Verde, Mentha cordifolia, Mentha crispa, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Menthe Verte, Menthe Crépue, Menthe Douce, Menthe à Épis, ...

  14. Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

    pfeifferae, Dercitopsis sp.] against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and green mussel Perna viridis are reported here. All the extracts examined inhibited the settlement of cyprids of B. amphitrite. Toxicity revival studies indicate...

  15. Antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of Senecio species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Emilio; Castro, Felipe; Fernández, Francisco; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

    2012-05-01

    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip., S. viridis var. viridis Phill. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are native species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina. The total phenolics, flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids contents, as well as radical scavenging, antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts (infusion and decoction) of all three species were determined. S. nutans was the most active. The extracts did not show antibacterial activity. Alkaloids were not detected in any of the aqueous extracts of the three studied species. PMID:22799087

  16. Genetic analysis of the marine mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on mitochondrial COI sequence and its phylogenetic relationship with other congeneric species%基于COI序列的翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis线粒体遗传特性分析及其近缘种间的系统关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位正鹏; 孔晓瑜; 吴相云; 喻子牛

    2009-01-01

    应用通用引物COIL 1490和COtH 2198对翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis的性腺和体细胞线粒体DNA进行PCR扩增,获得661bp长度的COI基因片段,经过比对性腺与体细胞的COI片段,发现雄性性腺与体细胞COI基因均为一个单倍型,即体内只有一种线粒体DNA类型,没有发现双单性遗传现象,雌、雄性腺的COI基因片段变异率很低(0.31%).应用 PAUP构建NJ树、MP树以及贝叶斯法构建了贝叶斯树,对股贻吡属3种间的系统关系进行了分析,结果表明,翡翠股贻贝P.viridis、p.canaliculus和P.perna之间的分化与分歧年代的估算是相吻合的.

  17. Study on Biological Characteristic of the Halotolerant Dunaliella Viridis Living in the Mud Flat of Bohai Sea Gulf of China%中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生物学特性研究(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱玲; 张福; 马若欣; 姜润林

    2005-01-01

    文章对中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的生物学特征作了综合论述,内容包括极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的繁殖特性、生长特性、耐盐特性、以及对卤水生境因子(包括化学因子,物理因子,生物因子)适应性的研究.

  18. The Ratio of Na+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO2-4 in Brine Effect the Growth of Halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%卤水Na+/Mg2+,Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 刘同慧

    2010-01-01

    极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻是世界上迄今发现的最耐盐的真核光合生物,藻体内含有植物蛋白、脂肪酸、多糖、叶绿素、甘油等多种营养成分和生物活性物质,具有开发天然保健品或生物药品的应用前景、文章依据人工海水理论和方法,研究了水体Na+/Mg2+、Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响,从而探讨适合该藻类生长的化学环境.

  19. Effects of salinity on growth rate, chlorophyll content and cell cycle of Dunaliella viridis%盐度对绿色杜氏藻生长速率、叶绿素含量及细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 苏绣榕; 李太武; 杨凤香

    2003-01-01

    在不同盐度梯度下,进行了盐度对绿色杜氏藻Dunaliella viridis的生长、叶绿素含量和细胞周期影响的试验.结果表明:1)绿色杜氏藻在盐度为10时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最低,分别为0.121个/d和908.27μg/L;在盐度为60时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最高,分别为0.381个/d和1 192.41μg/L.2)不同盐度下单位细胞叶绿素含量呈现高-低-高的变化趋势,盐度60时,单位细胞叶绿素含量最低,叶绿素a为2.32×10-6μg/个,叶绿素总量为3.31×10-6μg/个.3)盐度为60时,绿色杜氏藻的细胞周期S期最短,为36.9%,G2期为0.8%;盐度80时,绿色杜氏藻的G2期最短,为0.3%,S期为43.6%,即绿色杜氏藻在盐度为60~80时,S期、G2期最短,细胞进入分裂期所用时间最短.本试验结果表明,培养绿色杜氏藻以盐度60~80的水体最为适宜.

  20. 转盐生杜氏藻β-胡萝卜素羟化酶基因(chyb)烟草的获得及耐盐性鉴定%Acquisition and Salt-tolerance Evaluation of Transgenic Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with β-carotene Hydroxylase Gene (chyb) from Dunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 龚一富; 刘林; 周静; 孙娇璐; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    β-胡萝卜素羟化酶(β-carotene hydroxylase,chyb)作为盐生杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis胡萝卜素合成代谢途径中的关键酶,催化β-胡萝卜素经两步反应合成玉米黄素.盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物抗逆性方面有重要研究价值.本研究利用前期克隆得到的盐生杜氏藻chyb基因(GenBank登录号:JN118489),构建了植物表达载体pC AMB IA3 301-chyb.通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404介导的叶盘法将其转入烟草(Nicotiana tabacum),获得16株草铵膦抗性再生植株,经PCR及RT-PCR扩增分析表明,chyb基因已转入其中13株烟草植株中,并可以进行正常转录.通过测定转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量、叶片相对电导率和脯氨酸含量对转基因烟草的耐盐性进行了检测,结果表明,与对照组相比,转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量均极显著提高(P<0.01),其中转基因烟草平均株高为37.82cm,是对照组烟草平均株高的1.37倍.在100 mmol/L NaC1胁迫处理下,转基因烟草的成活率为84.45%,是对照组烟草的1.58倍;在200 mmol/L NaC1胁迫下对照组烟草萎蔫死亡,而转基因烟草仍可生长存活.经检测转基因烟草叶片的相对电导率升高但变化幅度较小,脯氨酸含量较对照组极显著增加(P<0.01).研究结果说明转基因烟草的耐盐性得到了提高,为进一步探讨盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物耐盐性方面的功能提供基础资料.

  1. 中国蝴蝶一属四种新纪录(鳞翅目:锤角亚目)%New Records of Butterflies from China ( Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) : One Genus and Four Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劭骥; 朱建青; 张鑫

    2012-01-01

    One genus and four species of butterflies were reported for the first time from China, i. e. , the genus is Suasa de Niceville, 1890 ( Lycaenidae), Suasa lisides (Hewitson, 1863) , the four species are Darpa striata ( H. Druce, 1873) ( Hesperiidae), Lethe minerva (Fabricius, 1775) (Nymphalidae), Arhopala dispar Riley et Godfrey, 1921 (Lycaenidae), and Rapala hades (de Niceville, 1895) (Lycaenidae). Brief descriptions, comparisons with similar species, and some observational notes are given in this paper.%报道中国蝴蝶新纪录1属4种:新纪录属为索灰蝶属Suasa de Nicéville,1890;新纪录种为弄蝶科的纹毛弄蝶Darpa striata(H.Druce,1873)、蛱蝶科的米纹黛眼蝶Lethe minerva(Fabricius,1775)、灰蝶科的帝娆灰蝶Arhopa-la dispar Riley et Godfrey,1921和哈燕灰蝶Rapala hades(de Nicéville,1895),并附简要描述对比及野外观察记录.

  2. Nuevos registros para la fauna de Saturniidae (Lepidoptera en Argentina New records for the fauna of Saturniidae (Lepidoptera from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. Zapata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se brindan nuevas citas de 17 especies de Saturniidae para la Argentina. Estos registros corresponden a las subfamilias: Arsenurinae [Arsenura xanthopus (Walker y Titaea tamerlan (Maassen]; Ceratocampinae: [Almeidella approximans (Schaus, Cicia nettia (Schaus, Citheronia aroa Schaus, Citheronia maureillei Wolfe & Herbin, Citioica anthonilis (Herrich-Schäffer, Eacles ducalis (Walker, Othorene cadmus (Herrich-Schäffer, Othorene purpurascens (Schaus y Ptiloscola photophila (Rothschild] y Hemileucinae [Cerodirphia brunnea (Draudt, Dirphia curitiba Draudt, Hirpida nigrolinea (Druce, Hylesia ebalus (Cramer, Leucanella gibbosa (Conte y Molippa strigosa (Maassen & Weyding].New records are provided for 17 species of Saturniidae from Argentina. The new records correpond to the following subfamilies: Arsenurinae [Arsenura xanthopus (Walker and Titaea tamerlan (Maassen]; Ceratocampinae [Almeidella approximans (Schaus, Cicia nettia (Schaus, Citheronia aroa Schaus, Citheronia maureillei Wolfe & Herbin, Citioica anthonilis (Herrich-Schäffer, Eacles ducalis (Walker, Othorene cadmus (Herrich-Schäffer, Othorene purpurascens (Schaus and Ptiloscola photophila (Rothschild]; and Hemileucinae [Cerodirphia brunnea (Draudt, Dirphia curitiba Draudt, Hirpida nigrolinea (Druce, Hylesia ebalus (Cramer, Leucanella gibbosa (Conte and Molippa strigosa (Maassen & Weyding].

  3. Pyrrhopyginae: gêneros novos e revalidados (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae Pyrrhopyginae: new and revalidated genera (Lepidoptera, Hespe-riidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The following new genera with their type-species are described: Oxynetrini: Cyclopyge gen. n. - type-species: Pyrrhopyge roscius Hopffer, 1874; Pyrrhopygini: Arnysoria gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] galgala Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] chalybea Scudder, 1872, Creonpyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] creon H. Druce, 1874, Cyanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sangaris Skinner, 1921, Gunayan gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] rhacia Hewitson, 1875, Jonaspyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] Jonas C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Melanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] maculosa Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] sela Hewitson, 1866, Mysarbia gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sejanus Hopffer, 1874, Ochropyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge ruficauda Hayward, 1932. Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921 and Yanguna Watson, 1893 are revalidated. The following are revalidated combinations: Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867, Apyrrothrix arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893, Yanguna cometes cometes (Cramer, 1770, Yanguna cometes cometides Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna cometes staudingeri (Plštz, 1879, Yanguna cosyra (H. Druce, 1875, Yanguna spatlosa spatlosa (Hewitson, 1871, Yanguna spatlosa aspllos Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna spatlosa mabillei H.H. Druce, 1909, Yanguna tetricus Bell, 1931, Yanguna thelersa (Hewitson, 1866, The following are new combinations: Cyclopyge roscius roscius (Hopffer, 1874, Cyclopyge roscius flavomaculata (Bell, 1937, Cyclopyge roscius iphimedia (Plštz, 1886, Yanguna erebus (Plštz, 1879, Gunayan rhacia (Hewitson, 1875, Gunayan rubrlcollts (Sepp, [1841], Gunayan timaeus (Bell, 1931, Chalypyge chalybea chalybea (Scudder, 1872, Chalypyge chalybea chlorts (Evans, 1951, Chalypyge zereda zereda (Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge zereda hygieia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Chalypyge zereda insana (Staudinger, 1876, Chalypyge

  4. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  5. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  6. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe AMINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticillata. The maximum germination of foxtails (S. verticillata, S. viridis was obtained when seeds were treated with pH 7 buffer solution. Increasing of osmotic and salt stress decreased seed germination of foxtails. Setaria verticillata seed germination was more tolerant than those of S. glauca and S. viridis to high water stress condition. Setaria glauca and S. verticillata seed germination were more tolerant to high salinity stress than S. viridis. Seedling emergence decreased with increasing the burial depth and no germination observed at 8 cm soil depth.

  7. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture.

  8. Pain management in mice using methanol extracts of three plants belongs to family Amaranthaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar BS; Lakshman K; Jayaveera KN; Vel Murgan C; Arun Kumar PA; Vinod Kumar R; Meghda Hegade; Sridhar SM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis(A. viridis), Amaranthus caudatus (A. caudatus) and Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus). Methods:In this study, the analgesic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were investigated by acetic acid-induced writhings test, hot plate test and tail immersion test for mice. Results:It was found that all the three plants showed significant pain management effect(P<0.01) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, but showed a less significant effect at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the entire tests used for evaluation of analgesic activities (P<0.05). Conclusions:Methanol extracts of A. viridis, A. caudatus and A. spinosus show potent analgesic activities, and this study provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  9. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    for an average sized M. viridis of about 0.01ml/min of water rich in nutrients and reduced compounds such as sulfide. Provided the large spread of M. viridis in this estuary, the introduction of this non native species in Odense Fjord may have important consequences for the structure of the microbial...... in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of the dynamic...... seeds with their fecal pellets. The emergence of the seedling is only possible if the seed is positioned within the top 6 cm of the sediment (MS3). We estimate that in areas where the abundance of A. marina >8 ind m-2, the eelgrass reproductive success may be compromised. The recent increase...

  10. Mycoflora in the rhizosphere of some wild plants around karachi university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with data regarding rhizosphere mycoflora of wild plants including Amaranthus viridis L., Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz and Tridax procumbens L. which were collected from different location around Karachi University campus. Result recorded for the properties of rhizosphere showed texture of soil as sandy loam soil, moisture content ranged between 15-31% and basic pH of C. barbata while acidic in case of A. viridis and T. procumbens. 21 fungal species belonging to 16 genera were isolated from rhizospheric soil of wild plants by direct plate method while 28 species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild plants by serial dilution method. The result showed that greatest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution method. Maximum number of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere soil of C. barbata whereas lowest number of fungi were recorded from rhizosphere soil of A. viridis. (author)

  11. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe AMINI; Faezeh ZAEFARIAN; Rezvani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis) was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticill...

  12. Gamma ray induced seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants in two varieties of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry, well filled seeds of rice cultivars Basmati and Phalguna were irradiated with 20, 30, 40, and 50 kR gamma ray doses with a view to study their radio sensitivity in inducing seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants. In general, the percentage of germination, survival, seedling height and leaf number decreased in the irradiated population. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutants induced include albino, viridis, xantha and other categories like striata, zebra and maculata. Viridis was more predominant in Basmati whereas xantha was more in phalguna. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. BIOMETRIC AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES OF Perna v iridis AND Pe rna i ndica ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmy KV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth indices of the Mussels, Perna viridis and Perna indica collected from the south west coast of India were examined using statistical methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA sepa rated 2 morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult, indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed leptokurtic population. The allometry was not static, but simple and ontogenetic since their population was continuously varying. The present study shows that factor analysis is better than principal component analysis for delineating the morphometric characteristics of living organisms

  14. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  15. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc

  16. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  17. De Apterygotenfauna van het eiland Urk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, A.M.

    1929-01-01

    Op een tweetal excursies (van 11—13 Juli en van 26—28 September) werden op Urk negen soorten van Apterygogenea gevonden, n. 1.: Hypogastrura viatica (Tullb.). Friesea mirabilis (Tullb.). Onychiurus armatus (Tullb.). Proisotoma schötti (D. T.). Isotoma (Vertagopus) cinerea (Nic.). Isotoma viridis Bou

  18. A REVISION OF THE GENUS SPATHOLOBUS (LEGUMINOSAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Jeannette

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the S. E. Asiatic genus Spatholobus 28 species are recognized, 6 of which are never described before: S. albus^ S. auricomus, S. auritus, S. hirsutus, S. multiflorus and S. viridis. One variety (S. ferrugineus var. acutus is also newly described. A key and full descriptions with plates and maps to illustrate the distribution are given.

  19. Water relations in millipedes from some alpine habitat types (Central Alps, Tyrol) (Diplopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Erwin; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    1985-01-01

    Five species of millipedes, living cither in a mixed oak wood (alt. 670 m) (Enantiulus nanus, Mastigona mutabilis) or in an Alnus viridis community (alt. 2000 m) ( Leptoiulus saltuvagus, Haasea fonticulorum and Ochogona caroli) and the nival species Trimerophorella nivicomes are compared in respect

  20. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... 1998. Dudleya abramsii subsp. parva... Conejo dudleya.... Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR..., delta green ground...... Elaphrus viridis.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 45 FR 52807; 08/08... 95825. Butterfly, bay checkerspot...... Euphydryas editha Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 49...

  1. Cyperaceae surinamenses novae vel criticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittien, H.

    1933-01-01

    Cyperus ruderalis Uitt. nov. spec. Annuus, viridis, culmis caespitosis, complanatis, raro trigonis, striatis, apicem versus modice setulosis, 6—10 cm longis, 1—1,5 mm latis, basi 0—2-foliatis. Foliis culmo multo brevioribus vel subaequilongis, 1,5—2,5 mm latis. Umbella simplex vel interdum mediocrit

  2. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  3. Ultrastructural examination of the pycnidia and conidia of the genus Opegrapha (Arthoniales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of examinations on the variation of pycnidia and conidia of the following Opegrapha species occurring in Poland: O. atra, O. calcarea, O. dolomitica, O. gyrocarpa, O. niveoatra, O. rupestris, O. varia, O. vermicellifera, O. viridis and O. vulgata.

  4. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia;

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast global...

  5. 76 FR 349 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... transfer membership interest in Viridis Energy, LLC. Filed Date: 12/23/2010. Accession Number: 20101227... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 December 27, 2010. Take notice that...

  6. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  7. Deactivation of excitation energy in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, J.; Hara, M.; Goc, J.; Planner, A.; Wróbel, D.

    1997-08-01

    Absorption, photoacoustic and time-resolved in μs time range delayed luminescence spectra have been measured in order to follow the interaction among chromophores when Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction centres are closely packed in a form of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. Two types of Langmuir-Blodgett samples have been prepared and investigated: multilayers consist of one type of reaction centre ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides or Rhodopseudomonas viridis) and multilayers composed of mixed reaction centres ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides mixed with Rhodopseudomonas viridis). Using the Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composed of two types of bacteria reaction centres mixture, we were able to extend the spectral region of the light/solar energy absorbed by the system. It was shown that each form of pigment participates in thermal dissipation but to a different degree. A special pair (bacteriochlorophyll dimer) does not contribute to delayed luminescence. Delayed luminescence in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides differs very significantly from each other. Bacteriopheophytin as well as dihydromesochlorophyll contribute to delayed luminescence but the degree of their participation in this radiative process depends strongly on the type of reaction centre. Delayed luminescence and thermal processes have been indicated as important processes of deactivation of the photoexcited chromophores in reaction centres.

  8. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only. PMID:23650857

  9. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  10. [Computational genome analysis of three marine algoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, O A; Boĭko, A L; Shcherbatenko, I S

    2013-01-01

    Computational analysis of genomic sequences of three new marine algoviruses: Tetraselmis viridis virus (TvV-S20 and TvV-SI1 strains) and Dunaliella viridis virus (DvV-SI2 strain) was conducted. Both considerable similarity and essential distinctions between studied strains and the most studied marine algoviruses of Phycodnaviridae family were revealed. Our data show that the tested strains are new viruses with the following features: only they were isolated from marine eukaryotic microalgae T. viridis and D. viridis, coding sequences (CDSs) of their genomes are localized mainly on one of the DNA strands and form several clusters with short intergenic spaces; there are considerable variations in genome structure within viruses and their strains; viral genomic DNA has a high GC-content (55.5 - 67.4%); their genes contain no well-known optimal contexts of translation start codones, and the contexts of terminal codons read-through; the vast majority of viral genes and proteins do not have any matches in gene banks. PMID:24479317

  11. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  12. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety. PMID:26853592

  13. Nutritional and toxic factors in selected wild edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil, J L; Rodríguez-García, I; Torija, E

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and carotenes); antinutritional and toxic components (oxalic acid, nitrate and erucic acid) were determined in sixteen popular species of wild edible plants which are collected for human consumption in southeast Spain. Ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids contents were very high in several species, especially in Chenopodium album L. (155 mg/100 g). Carotenoid content ranged from 4.2 mg/100 g (Stellaria media Villars) to 15.4 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). A range of values was found for oxalic acid from absence to 1100 mg/100 g of plant material. Nitrate contents ranged from 47 mg/100 g (Salicornia europaea L.) to 597 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). Low amounts of erucic acid were found in the Cruciferae family (Sisymbrium irio L. 1.73%; Cardaria draba L. 1.23%) and Plantago major L. 3.45%.

  14. Chemical spying in coral reef fish larvae at recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Natacha; Brooker, Rohan M; Lecellier, Gaël; Berthe, Cécile; Frédérich, Bruno; Banaigs, Bernard; Lecchini, David

    2015-10-01

    When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was intentionally produced by juvenile and adult conspecifics already on the reef (communication process) or whether the cues used result from normal biochemical processes with no active involvement by conspecifics ("spying" behavior by larvae). Conspecific chemical cues attracted the majority of larvae (four out of the seven species tested); although while some species were equally attracted to cues from adults and juveniles (Chromis viridis, Apogon novemfasciatus), two exhibited greater sensitivity to adult cues (Pomacentrus pavo, Dascyllus aruanus). Our results indicate also that spying cues are those most commonly used by settling fishes (C. viridis, P. pavo, A. novemfasciatus). Only one species (D. aruanus) preferred the odour of conspecifics that had had visual contact with larvae (communication). PMID:26318049

  15. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  16. Estimation of proximate composition, micronutrients and phytochemical compounds in traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shrawan; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Srivastava, Amit; Singh, L B; Srivastava, R C

    2011-11-01

    In present study, 10 preferred traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for nutritional profiles. Moisture content in their edible parts ranged from 83.43 to 94.78%. Maximum ash content was recorded in Portulaca oleracea, crude protein in Colocasia esculenta, crude fibre in Eryngium foetidum and fat in E. foetidum. Phosphorus was maximum in Ipomea aquatica, potassium in C. esculenta, zinc, calcium and manganese in Centella asiatica, copper in Sauropus androgynous, sodium and iron in P. oleracea, magnesium in Amaranthus viridi and cobalt in C. esculenta. Maximum polyphenol was recorded in Hibiscus sabdariffa, carotenoids in A. viridi, ascorbic acid in Saursops androgynus, anthocyanin in C. esculenta and chlorophyll in S. androgynus. Antioxidant activity was maximum in P. oleracea. Positive correlation was observed between polyphenol and tannin content and also between antioxidant activity and photochemicals. The developed nutritional profiles is being used in health and nutrition related schemes in Islands. PMID:21615278

  17. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  18. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety.

  19. Crecimiento comparativo de las especies de robalo del pacífico costarricense cultivado en jaulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento de varias especies del róbalo del Pacífico, obtenidas como larvas de 50 mg en Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya y cultivadas en una jaula suspendida en un canal de abastecimiento de una finca camaronera durante 222 días. Las especies Centropomus nigrescens y C. viridis (N+V se distinguen bien de las especies C. unionensis y C. robalito (U+R por medio de la coloración general, forma de cabeza y cuerpo, y longitud de la espina anal. Las primeras tuvieron un crecimiento aproximadamente tres veces mayor (G=0,14 que las segundas (G=0,05. No se pudieron identificar las especies medius y armatus en la muestra.  En general, el crecimiento del grupo nigrescens-viridis en la jaula fue modesto e inferior al establecido previamente para estas especies en laboratorio.

  20. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  1. Vibrational spectra of free and intracellular DNA in the weak electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbeshko, Galina I.

    1998-09-01

    Vibrational bands of DNA molecules from birds' erythrocytes, as well as Dunaliella viridis alga cells and Escherichia coli bacteria clinical strains in the weak microwave field were investigated with IR spectroscopy. Drastic changes were detected in the intensities and fine structure of C equals O and PL2 bands for polarized spectra of irradiated samples of DNA molecules as compared with the reference samples in the 1700-1000 cm-1 region. No essential changes were detected in the IR spectra in the region of PO2 bands of DNA for the Escherichia coli, irradiated by the weak electromagnetic field, but essential redistribution of intensities and change in halfwidths of the PO2 symmetrical bonds were detected for Dunaliella viridis alga cells.

  2. 利用ITS序列对两个盐藻株的分子鉴定%Identification of Two Dunaliella sp. Based on Nuclear ITS rDNA Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2006-01-01

    对实验室长期保存的两个盐藻株(Dunaliella salina)核糖体rDNA的ITS(internal transcribed space)序列(ITS1+5.8SrDNA+ITS2)用PCR技术扩增并克隆,经序列测定后,与从GenBank中获得的相关序列一起构建系统发育树.结果显示:其中一个(Dunaliella salina SHU 01)与Dunaliella viridis CONC 002的距离最近,另一个(Dunaliella salina SHU02)与Dunaliella salina UTEX 1644的距离最近.因此分别命名为Dunaliella viridis SHU与Dunaliella salina SHU.

  3. Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, Vânia C S; do Amaral, Fernanda P; Santos, Karina F D N; Agtuca, Beverly; Xu, Youwen; Schueller, Michael J; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Stacey, Gary; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria can promote plant growth; however, it is controversial whether biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) from associative interaction contributes to growth promotion. The roots of Setaria viridis, a model C4 grass, were effectively colonized by bacterial inoculants resulting in a significant enhancement of growth. Nitrogen-13 tracer studies provided direct evidence for tracer uptake by the host plant and incorporation into protein. Indeed, plants showed robust growth under nitrogen-limiting conditions when inoculated with an ammonium-excreting strain of Azospirillum brasilense. (11)C-labeling experiments showed that patterns in central carbon metabolism and resource allocation exhibited by nitrogen-starved plants were largely reversed by bacterial inoculation, such that they resembled plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Adoption of S. viridis as a model should promote research into the mechanisms of associative nitrogen fixation with the ultimate goal of greater adoption of BNF for sustainable crop production.

  4. Biomarkers and toxicological evaluation of Lavandula spp. essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Silvia; Candeias, M. Fátima; Piçarra, Andreia; Lopes, Orlando; Lima, Mónica; Pereira, Marizia; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Martins, M. Rosário

    2015-01-01

    Lavenders belong to the family Labiatae and are one of the most popular aromatic plants widely used in food industry, perfumery and pharmaceutical preparations. Their oils are traditionally believed to be antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, disinfectant, and effective for burns and insect bites [1]. Previous studies have shown that the essentials oils of Lavandula stoechas subsp. luisieri Rozeira (L. luisieri) and Lavandula viridis L’Hér have a broad-spectrum ant...

  5. New Discoveries of Plants From Hebei Province%河北植物新增补属、种与入侵物种新分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲红; 路端正; 王百田

    2007-01-01

    报道了《河北植物志》与《河北高等植物名录》未记录的植物1属3种1变种.其中拔毒散(Sida szechuensis Matsuda)、偃狗尾草[Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. var. depressa(Honda) Kitag.]在河北省首次记录.

  6. Photoprotection in sequestered plastids of sea slugs and respective algal sources

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo; Newcomer, Rebecca; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Serôdio, João; Pelletreau, Karen N.; Rumpho, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Some sea slugs are capable of retaining functional sequestered chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) for variable periods of time. The mechanisms supporting the maintenance of these organelles in animal hosts are still largely unknown. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the occurrence of a xanthophyll cycle were investigated in the sea slugs Elysia viridis and E. chlorotica using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. The photoprotective capacity of kleptoplasts was compared to ...

  7. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, LC; Arnlund, D.; White, TA; Katona, G.; DePonte, DP; Weierstall, U.; Doak, RB; Shoeman, RL; Lomb, L; Malmerberg, E.; Davidsson, J; Nass, K.; Liang, MN; Andreasson, J.; Dell'Aquila, A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro; Maurício Yonamine; Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares; Maria Gabriela Menezes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show ...

  9. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  10. Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo Ibrahim; Hilou Adama; Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby; Compaore Moussa; Millogo Jeanne; Nacoulma Odile Germaine

    2011-01-01

    The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenol...

  11. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Mercurio; Fabrizio Li Vigni

    2007-01-01

    The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one...

  12. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  13. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  14. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  15. The adaptive significance of ontogenetic colour change in a tropical python

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Heinsohn, Robert; Endler, John A

    2006-01-01

    Ontogenetic colour change is typically associated with changes in size, vulnerability or habitat, but assessment of its functional significance requires quantification of the colour signals from the receivers' perspective. The tropical python, Morelia viridis, is an ideal species to establish the functional significance of ontogenetic colour change. Neonates hatch either yellow or red and both the morphs change to green with age. Here, we show that colour change from red or yellow to green pr...

  16. Mapping lipid and detergent molecules at the surface of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J; Gardiner, Alastair T; Roszak, Aleksander W; Stončius, Sigitas; Kočovský, Pavel; Isaacs, Neil W

    2011-06-01

    Electron-density maps for the crystal structures of membrane proteins often show features suggesting binding of lipids and/or detergent molecules on the hydrophobic surface, but usually it is difficult to identify the bound molecules. In our studies, heavy-atom-labelled phospholipids and detergents have been used to unequivocally identify these binding sites at the surfaces of test membrane proteins, the reaction centres from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Blastochloris viridis. The generality of this method is discussed in the present article.

  17. The Signaling Function of an Extra-floral Display: What Selects for Signal Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Adi Sadeh; Avi Shmida

    2007-01-01

    The vertical inflorescences of the Mediterranean annual Salvia viridis carry many small, colorful flowers, and are frequently terminated by a conspicuous tuft of colorful leaves ("flags") that attracts insect pollinators. Insects may use the flags as indicators of the food reward in the inflorescences, as long-distance cues for locating and choosing flowering patches, or both. Clipping of flags from patches of inflorescences in the field significantly reduced the number of pollinators that ar...

  18. Bottom-up effects of soil quality on a coffee arthropod interaction web

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Dominguez, GM; Witter, JD; Spongberg, AL; Philpott, SM

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient availability and soil quality influence herbivores through changes in plant traits and can have cascading effects on herbivore interactions. In complex systems, with many positive and negative interactions, the consequences of these bottom-up effects are still not well established. We carried out a set of studies to determine the impact of soil quality (organic compost amendments) on a hemipteran herbivore (Coccus viridis), two ant mutualists, predators, pathogens, parasitoids of C. ...

  19. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in...

  20. Physiological characterization of Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisca; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda; Robledo, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Physiological responses of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis, isolated from solar saltworks on the Yucatan Peninsula, were studied. Optimal growth temperature for D. salina was 22 degrees C (3.06 x 10(6) cells mL(-1)) and 26 degrees C for D. viridis (4.04 x 10(6)cells mL(-1)). Total carotenoid content in D. salina increased with temperature to a maximum of 35.14 pg cell(-1) at 38 degrees C. Dunaliella salina alpha-carotene and beta-carotene content was 0.083+/-0.003 and 0.598+/-0.020 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively, whereas lower values were found in D. viridis cultured under same experimental conditions (0.018+/-0.002 and 0.136+/-0.012 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively). The highest specific growth rate in D. salina was obtained at 10% NaCl (0.28 d(-1)), while its cell volume increased from 524 to 2066.93 microm(3) when cultured from 10% to 35% NaCl. Maximum photosynthetic rates were attained when increasing from optimal growing temperature to 30 degrees C for D. viridis (108 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)) and D. salina (139 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)). Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations indicated physiological adjustments in both species, with higher acclimation in D. salina. Evaluation of physiological attributes of these species will be used for to carry out mass cultivation. PMID:16949279

  1. PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF SOME STRAINS OF DUNALIELLA

    OpenAIRE

    Duc Tran; Trung Vo; Sixto Portilla; Clifford Louime; Nguyen Doan; Truc Mai; Dat Tran; Trang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Dunaliella strains were isolated from a key site for salt production in Vietnam (Vinh Hao, Binh Thuan province). The strains were identified based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) markers. The phylogenetic tree revealed these strains belong to the clades of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis. Results of this study confirm the ubiquitous nature of Dunaliella and suggest that strains of Dunaliella salina might be acquired locally worldwide for the production of beta-carotene. The iden...

  2. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) cultivada em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa; Max W. P. Santana; Marcus A.B. Pires

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added da...

  3. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g-1) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  4. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HE Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH,a process known as “ocean acidification”.The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis,and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China.We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance,respiration,and excretion rates in these three species.The animals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control),7.7,or 7.4.The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P.fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.nobilis and P.viridis.The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P.fucata and P.viridis.In contrast,the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C.nobilis.The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species.The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake,oxygen consumption,and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves.Different species respond differently to seawater acidification.Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechanisms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  5. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis.

  6. 中国广肩小蜂一新属及一新纪录属(膜翅目,广肩小蜂科)%ONE NEW GENUS AND ONE NEWLY RECORDED GENUS OF EURYTOMIDAE(HYMENOPTERA,CHALCIDOIDEA)FROM CHINA,WITH A DESCRIPTION OF ONE NEW SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩; 肖晖; 黄大卫

    2004-01-01

    研究了广肩小蜂科1新属丽广肩小蜂属Chryseurytoma Chen et Huang,描述1新种绿丽广肩小蜂Chryseurytoma viridis Chen et Huang,sp.nov.及中国1新纪录属刺盾广肩小蜂Acantheurytoma Cameron.新种绿丽广肩小蜂Chryseurytoma viridis Chen et Huang,sp. nov.的主要特征为:额无前眶脊;前足基节无纵槽;前单眼位于触角洼之上;胸部明显隆起;前胸背板前缘无脊;盾纵沟伸至中胸盾片3/4;触角除棒节褐色外其余为黄色;柄后腹长为宽的3.2倍.模式标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所动物标本馆.%One new genus Chryseurytoma Chen et Huang,with its included species Chryseurytoma viridis Chen et Huang,sp.nov.,is described.One newly recorded genus Acantheurytoma Cameron is noted from China.Type specimens are deposited in the Zoological Museum,Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Goudinho Viana, Willian; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Feldman, Max; Priest, Henry D; Trontin, Charlotte; Lee, Tak; Jiang, Hui; Baxter, Ivan; Mockler, Todd C; Hochholdinger, Frank; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R

    2016-08-01

    Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity. PMID:27422554

  8. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  9. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:21809617

  10. Secondary Metabolites of Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp.9H in the South China Sea%南海红树林内生真菌 Aspergillus sp.9H 次级代谢产物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳磊; 蓝雄; 黄华容; 张焜

    2015-01-01

    Seven compounds,including brefeldin A (1),methoxyvermistatin (2),6 -demethylver-mistatin (3),purpurester A (4),and glyceroll-hendecanoate (5),were isolated from the mangrove en-dophytic fungus Aspergillus sp.9H,obtained from the Kandeliacandel (Linn.)Druce,collected from Yangjiang,Guangdong.Their structures were identified through mass analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 2,4,5 were isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.for the first time.%对南海红树林内生真菌 Aspergillus sp.9H 的次级代谢产物进行研究。利用土豆培养基对菌种进行培养,综合采用多种柱层析技术从 Aspergillus sp.9H 的次级代谢产物中分离得到了5个单体化合物,运用质谱、核磁等现代波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为 brefeldin A (1),methoxyvermistatin (2),6-demethylvermistatin (3),purpurester A (4)和十一烷酸甘油酯(5)。其中化合物2,3,4均为首次从曲霉属海洋真菌中分离得到。

  11. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  12. Damage to Miconia calvescens and seasonal abundance of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Castillo, Alexander; Johnson, M Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The success of M. calvescens as an invasive species is greatly owing to its shade tolerance and the shaded habitat it creates, where many native plant species that are light-demanding cannot survive. Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a neotropical leaf roller attacking M. calvescens, was evaluated for two mechanisms by which it reduces leaf area of its host plant: feeding (defoliation), which removes leaf tissue, and tying leaf rolls, which reduces exposed area of leaves. These impacts were quantified over a 1-yr period at a field site in Costa Rica, where densities of S. lotanalis larvae attacking M. calvescens peaked at the end of the rainy season and declined in the dry season. Up to 47.5% of leaves were attacked by S. lotanalis, with cumulative defoliation by an undetermined number of larvae removing an average of ≍30% (253 cm(2)) of each leaf attacked. Defoliation and leaf rolling were compared in a greenhouse experiment in which individual S. lotanalis larvae defoliated an average of 3.7% (17.8 cm(2)) of each attacked leaf, and reduced exposed leaf area as a result of leaf rolling by an average of 12.8% (66.2 cm(2)). Our results complement the findings of previous studies of S. lotanalis and confirm its potential as a biological control agent of M. calvescens. PMID:25182612

  13. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Pérez, F R; Alfaro-Alpízar, M A; Johnson, M T

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. Erora opisena (Druce), Parrhasius polibetes (Cramer), and Temecla paron (Godman and Salvin) were studied in association with M. calvescens, an uncommon tree in its natural range in the neotropics and a target for biocontrol as an invader in Pacific islands. Host plant use by the three theclines was similar, with eggs being laid on inflorescences and cryptic larvae remaining there throughout development. Feeding damage by E. opisena was most abundant in pre-flowering M. calvescens, when 23% of inflorescences showed feeding damage characteristic of this species. Feeding damage by T. paron peaked at flowering, when 30% of inflorescences were affected. At field sites, E. opisena and T. paron damaged an average of 26 and 18% of each attacked inflorescence, respectively. In cage experiments, individual third- and fourth-instar larvae of E. opisena damaged an average of 24 and 21% of an inflorescence before pupating, respectively. This study provides the first host plant record for E. opisena and T. paron, the first record of P. polibetes feeding on Melastomataceae, and the first records of E. opisena and T. paron presence in Costa Rica. PMID:21265617

  14. Nectar and Pollen Sources for Honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) in Qinglan Mangrove Area, Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Feng Yao; Subir Bera; Yu-Fei Wang; Cheng-Sen Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nectar and pollen sources for honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) were studied in Qinglan mangrove area, Hainan Island, China, based on microscopic analysis of honey and pollen load (corbicular and gut contents) from honeybees collected in October and November 2004. Qualitative and quantitative melittopalynological analysis of the natural honey sample showed that the honey is of unifloral type with Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) as the predominant (89.14%) source of nectar and pollen for A.cerana cerana in October. Members of Araceae are an important minor (3%-15%) pollen type, whereas those of Arecaceae are a minor (<3%) pollen type. Pollen grains of Nypa fruticans Wurmb., Rhizophora spp.,Excoecaria agallocha L., Lumnitzera spp., Bruguiera spp., Kandelia candel Druce, and Ceriops tagal (Perr.)C. B. Rob. are among the notable mangrove taxa growing in Qinglan mangrove area recorded as minor taxa in the honey, The absolute pollen count (i.e. the number of pollen grains/10 g honey sample) suggests that the honey belongs to Group Ⅴ (>1 000 000). Pollen analysis from the corbicular and gut contents of A. cerana cerana revealed the highest representation (95.60%) of members of Sonneratia spp. (Sonneratiaceae),followed by Bruguiera spp. (Rhizophoraceae), Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae,Anacardiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Of these plants, those belonging to Sonneratia plants are the most important nectar and pollen sources for A. cerana cerana and are frequently foraged and pollinated by these bees in November.

  15. Review of the species level taxonomy of the neotropical butterfly genus Oenomaus (Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Faynel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the Neotropical hairstreak genus Oenomaus are described: O. mancha Busby & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador; O. gwenish Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Panama; O. lea Faynel & Robbins, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador; O. myrteana Busby, Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador; O. mentirosa Faynel & Robbins, sp. n. (type locality Peru; O. andi Busby & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador and O. moseri Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Brazil, Santa Catarina. For each new Oenomaus species, we present diagnostic characters and notes on its habitat and biology. We illustrate adults, genitalia, and distribution. New distributional and biological data are presented for 21 previously described Oenomaus species. Oenomaus melleus guyanensis Faynel, 2008 is treated as a new synonym of O. m. melleus (Druce, 1907. Females are described and associated with males for ten species using a variety of factors, including mitochondrial COI DNA “barcode” sequences. We summarize the reasons why the number of recognized Oenomaus species has grown in the past decade from one species to 28 species. Finally, we overview the habitats that Oenomaus species occupy and note that the agricultural pest on Annonaceae, O. ortygnus, is the only Oenomaus species that regularly occurs in greatly disturbed habitats.

  16. Biomass, species composition and diversity of benthic diatoms in mangroves of the Houyu Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Changping; GAO Yahui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    The biomass, species composition and diversity of benthic diatom assemblages in mud-flat soils in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce communities with and without vegetation were studied seasonally at the Houyu Bay in Fuding City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 103taxa were identified (including varieties). Eighty-four taxa were found in the mud-flat with vegetation and 74 taxa in the mud-fiat without vegetation, while the biomass was large in January and April and decreased from July to October. The most abundant species in the mud-flat with vegetation are Nitzschia cocconeiformis, Gyrosigma scalproides and N. Fasciculata, compared with G. Scalproides and N.obtusa var. Scalpelliformis in the mud-flat without vegetation. High H' values at 2 sites during all seasons suggest that diatom assemblages in the sediments of the Houyu Bay represent an original environment. Multi-dimensional scaling of diatom assemblages from mud-flats with and without vegetation shows that a slight seasonal change and only a single association occur in the angroves.

  17. Influence of water logging time on the growth of candel seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Luzhen; WANG Wenqing; LIN Peng

    2004-01-01

    Influence ofwaterlogging time on the growth ofKandeliacandel(L.) Druce seedlings grown for 70 d in the artificial-tidal tanks' simulated semidiumal tide under greenhouse is studied. Sand and soil act as the substrate and artificial sea-water with salinity of 15 is used in cultivation. Shorter waterlogging time (inundated for about 2 ~ 4 h) promotes thegrowth of K. candel seedlings, while longer time(inundated more than 8 h) or no waterlogging(0 h) inhibits theirgrowth. The number and length of aerating roots increase with the increase ofwaterlogging time. Under existing condi-tions, the optimalwaterlogging time for the growth of K. canoel seedlings is about 2 ~ 4 h in every tide cycle. Com-pared with other treatments, the 2 h sanded treatments obtain the highest biomass of seedlings, have the lowest massloss ofhypocotyl and broaden the photosynthetic area by increasing the area per leaf after 70-d cultivation. And the soiltreatments have the similar tendeney. However, waterlogging for 8 h in every tide cycle is critieal for normal develop-ment of seedlings. K. candel seedlings are highly tolerant to waterlogging and a proper waterlogging is beneficial to thegrowth ofK. candel seedlings.

  18. Moisture Absorption and Retention of Plysaccharides from Four Marine Shellfishes%4种海洋贝类多糖提取和保湿性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一清; 童银洪; 陈小丽; 梁飞龙; 杜晓东

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides were obtained from the whole viscera of marine shellfishes Pinctada martensii, Pteria penguin, Perna viridis and Crassostrea rivularis by hot water extraction. Moisture absorption of the polysaccharidc extractions from the four shellfishes were evaluated in contrast with traditional humectants such as glycerol, 1,3-butanediol, propanediol, PEG-400. At a relative humidity of 44%, the order of moisture absorption rate at 12 hours of the humectants was as follows: Pinctada martensii < Crassostrea rivularis< Pteria penguin < Perna viridis < PEG-400 < 1, 3-butanediol < glycerol < propanediol. At a relative humidity of 80%, the order of moisture absorption rate at 12 hours of the humectants listed as follows: Crassostrea rivularis < Pinctada martensii < Pteria penguin < 1,3-butanediol < Perna viridis < PEG-400 < glycerol Perna viridis > Pinctada martensii> Pteria penguin > glycerol > 1, 3-butanediol> propanediol > PEG-400. Moisture absorption rate of polysaccharide from Perna viridis was superior to the other shellfishes, and inferior to traditional humectants. Moisturizing retention rate of polysaccharide of Perna viridis was inferior to oyster, and superior to the others.%以马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)、企鹅珍珠贝(Pteria penguin)、翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)和近江牡蛎(oyster)的内脏团为原料提取、纯化多糖,与甘油、聚乙二醇400( PEG-400)、丙二醇和1,3-丁二醇四种常规保湿剂进行比较.结果表明,在相对湿度为44%时,前12h吸湿率顺序为:马氏珠母贝<近江牡蛎<企鹅珍珠贝<翡翠贻贝< PEG-400<1,3-丁二醇<甘油<丙二醇;在相对湿度为80%时,前12h吸湿率顺序为:近江牡蛎<马氏珠母贝<企鹅珍珠贝<1,3-丁二醇<翡翠贻贝< PEG-400<甘油<丙二醇.前12h的保湿率顺序为:近江牡蛎>翡翠贻贝>马氏珠母贝>企鹅珍珠贝>甘油>1,3-丁二醇>丙二醇> PEG-400.翡翠

  19. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  20. Comparison of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots and Rhizosphere of Invasive Cenchrus incertus and Native Plant in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan XIANG; Baodong CHEN; Huan LI; Ruojuan LI; Xin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Plant invasions could significantly alter arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effect may vary with plant species and local environments. Identifying changes in the AM fungal community due to plant invasion could improve our understanding of the invasion processes. Here, we examined the AM fungal community composition both in roots and rhizo-sphere soils of the invasive plant Cenchrus incertus and the dominant native plant Setaria viridis in a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP). The results showed that AM fungal abundance in the rhizosphere soils of C. incertus was significantly lower than that of S. viridis. The AM fungal community com-position in the rhizosphere soils of the two plant species also largely differed. In general, AM fungal community structures in roots corresponded very wel to that in rhizosphere soils for both plant species. The dominant AM fungal type both in invasive and native plants was T-RFLP 524bp, which represents Glomus sp. (Virtual taxa 109 and 287). Three specific T-RF types (280, 190 and 141bp) were significantly more abundant in C. incertus, representing three clusters in Glomus which also named as VT (virtual taxa) 287, 64 and 214, Rhizophagus intraradices (VT 113) and Diversispora sp. (VT 60). While the specific T-RF types, 189 and 279bp, for S. viridis, only existed in Glomus cluster 1 (VT 156), were significantly less abundant in C. incertus. These results indicated that AM fungi might play an important role in the invasion process of C. incertus, which stil remains to be fur-ther investigated.

  1. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

  2. Impaired gonadal and somatic development corroborate vulnerability differences to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol among deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Schneider, Rudolf J; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a global decline. One poorly investigated reason could be the pollution of aquatic habitats by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). We tested the susceptibility to the synthetically stabilized estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in three deeply diverged anuran species, differing in sex determination systems, types of gonadogenesis and larval ecologies. To understand whether data from the amphibian model Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) are analogous and applicable to only distantly related non-model amphibians, tadpoles of X. laevis, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae) were simultaneously exposed to 50, 500 and 5000ng/L EE2 from hatching until completion of metamorphosis, using a flow-through-system under identical experimental conditions. Comparing molecularly established genetic with histologically assessed phenotypic sex in all species, we have recently shown that EE2 provoked numerous genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversals and mixed sex individuals, confirming overall its expected feminizing effect. In the present study, we focus on the influence of EE2 on gonadal and somatic development. Anatomy and histology revealed several species-specific effects. In both non-model species, H. arborea and B. viridis, high numbers of anatomically impaired gonads were observed. In H. arborea, exposed to 5000ng/L EE2, numerous underdeveloped gonads were detected. Whereas EE2 did not alter snout-to-vent length and body weight of X. laevis metamorphs, H. arborea showed a treatment-dependent decrease, while B. viridis exhibited an increase in body weight and snout-to-vent length. Apart from a concentration-dependent occurrence of yellowish skin color in several H. arborea, no organ-specific effects were detected. Since EE2 ubiquitously occurs in many aquatic ecosystems and affects sexual and somatic development, among EDCs, it may indeed contribute to amphibian decline. The inter-species variation in developmental EE2-effects

  3. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  4. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  5. A Quarantine Harmful Plant: Amaranthus rudis%一种检疫性有害植物——西部苋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞赟; 于文涛; 郭琼霞; 沈建国; 李敏; 连德福

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the geographical distribution, morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, harmful-ness , transmission route and prevention method of quarantine harmful plant Amaranthus rudis, and detailedly described the morphological differences between Amaranthus rudis and its close species Amaranthus viridis.%阐述了检疫性有害植物西部苋的地理分布、形态特征、生物学特性、危害性、传播途径及防治方法,详细描述了西部苋与其近似种糙果苋在形态特征上的区别.

  6. Description of a nomen nudum species of Liriomyza Mik and the first record of Liriomyza blechi Spencer from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Almeida, Flávio Roberto De Albuquerque; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The nomen nudum Liriomyza flagellae is formerly described in this paper as Liriomyza valladaresae sp. nov., based on male and female specimens collected in the Brazilian Amazon and reared from leaves of Alternanthera tenella and Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Information on the puparium and the biology of this new species are provided. The species Liriomyza blechi, previously recorded from the U.S.A., Guadeloupe and Dominican Republic, is newly recorded from Brazil, reared from leaves of Blechum pyramidatum (Acanthaceae) and Spigelia anthelmia (Loganiaceae). PMID:27394352

  7. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  8. Novi prilozi poznavanju alohtone faune mekušaca uzduž ciparske obale: novi stražnjoškržnjaši u ciparskoj fauni

    OpenAIRE

    TSIAKKIROS, Louis; ZENETOS Argyro

    2011-01-01

    Nalazi nekoliko stranih vrsta stražnjoškržnjaša, prethodno nepoznatih na Cipru, potvrđuju da je širenje Indo-Pacifičkih vrsta sve izražajnije u istočnom dijelu Sredozemnog mora. U ovom radu se iznose podaci o pojavi četiri nove alohtone vrste zabilježene fotografijom tijekom vremenskog razdoblja od preko 8 godina. Zabilježene su slijedeće vrste: Chelidonura fulvipunctata, Chromodoris annulata, Flabellina rubrolineata i Hypselodoris infucata. Dodatno nalaz vrste Melibe viridis, koja se do tada...

  9. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  10. 水产加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    040728 多种方法测定经热处理的菲律宾翡翠贻贝中麻痹性贝毒毒素==Varied assays for PSP toxins in heat shocked Philippine green mussels(Perna viridis)[刊,英]/ Azanza M P V,Azanza R V,Ventura S R //J.Food.Safety.-2004,24(1).-249 ~261 毒性分析即用老鼠活体分析,受体结合分析及MIST-AlertTM快速测试盒进行免疫

  11. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M1 and chlorophyll mutations in M2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14CO2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14CO2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  13. Ayahuasca: uma revisão dos aspectos farmacológicos e toxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Salum Pires; Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues Oliveira; Mauricio Yonamine

    2010-01-01

    A ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa originariamente utilizada em rituais de tribos indígenas da região amazônica. Esta bebida é preparada pela infusão de caules da Banisteriopsis caapi Morton, que contém β-carbolinas que são inibidoras da monoaminoxidase (MAO), e de folhas da Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavón, que contém o alucinógeno N,N-dimetiltriptamina (DMT). A enzima MAO degrada a DMT no fígado e intestino. No Brasil, a ayahuasca tem sido incorporada em rituais de grupos sincréticos re...

  14. [Isolation of Actinomycetes synthesizing proteases with thrombolytic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, S V; Salivonik, S M

    1988-01-01

    Proteases with the thrombolytic activity were studied in 212 strains of actinomycetes isolated from different soils of the Soviet Union. The cultures belonged to the genera Micromonospora, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Proteases were synthesized by 41% of the studied actinomycetes and some of their strains completely dissolved in vitro artificially obtained blood thrombi within 120-240 min. In the Streptomyces genus, more active strains were found in the groups Flavus, Fradia and Globisporus. The groups Olivaceus, Violaceus and Viridis had less active strains. PMID:3062331

  15. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe;

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis...... diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger). Soil cores were collected at Gyldensteen Beach (Northern Fyn, Denmark), where a 200 ha area is designated for flooding as part of a nature restoration project. Soils cores were experimentally flooded for 1 month before adding polychaetes. We measured the effect...

  16. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk) en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus), cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense), ortiga (Urtica urens), manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla), caléndula (Calendula officinalis), yerbabuena (Menta viridis), ajo (Allium sativum) y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum), preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l), fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repetic...

  17. Shipboard assessment of hearing sensitivity of tropical fishes immediately after exposure to seismic air gun emissions at Scott Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the potential effects of emissions from an air gun array on hearing of tropical reef fish using AEP thresholds measured in the field. Over 7 days, 51 Chromis viridis,47 Lutjanus kasmira, 20 Myripristis murdjan, and 10 Sargocentron spiniferum were tested. AEP thresholds were determined before and after exposure to emissions from one or two passes of an airgun array. Temporary threshold shift resulting from sound exposure was not found in any species,even when cumulative sound exposure levels reached 190 dB re 1 μPa2-s.

  18. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Raimondi; R.S. Oliveira Jr; Constantin, J; D.F. Biffe; J.G.Z Arantes; L.H. Franchini; F.A Rios; E. Blainski; J.B Osipe

    2010-01-01

    Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95) das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi re...

  19. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Detoxification and Antioxidation Induced by Cd Stress in Kandelia candel Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia Weng; Lingxia Wang; Fanglin Tan; Li Huang; Jianhong Xing; Shipin Chen; Chilien Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metal Cadmium (Cd),added to the water bodies through weathering of rocks and human activities,constitutes one of the major environmental pollutants toxic to plants.This study examines the proteome changes in roots of actively growing Kandelia candel (L.) Druce when challenged with Cd.This mangrove-like species proliferates in estuaries and bays and is a potential choice for phytoremediation of Cd.A total of 53 proteins were up-or down-regulated following a short-term Cd treatment.The identities of the differentially expressed proteins were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF.Approximately half of the up-regulated proteins are involved in oxidative response,including antioxidant enzymes,enzymes required for glutathione biosynthesis,enzymes in TCA and PPP cycles for generating ATP,NADH and NADPH.These results support the prediction that a prompt antioxidative response is necessary for the reduction of the oxidative stress caused by Cd and set the stage for further investigating of Cd up-regulated proteins in Kandelia candel.In summary,this investigation of global proteomic changes in K.candel roots reveals a complex cellular network affected by Cd stress.The network covers a broad range of metabolic processes,including protein synthesis,antioxidative/detoxifying reactions,energy generation,and metabolites production against Cd stress.Particularly important,our results support the predicted key roles of glutathione biosynthesis,ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidative defense system in Cd detoxification in K.candel roots.This understanding is necessary for developing the woody plant K.candel for phytoremediation of Cd and other heavy metals and may be critical for maintaining health mangrove ecology.

  20. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  1. Antifungal antibiotic CA1189 produced by a Mangrove endophyte Streptomyces sp.A1626%红树林内生链霉菌A1626产生的抗真菌抗生素CA1189

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚以文; 李进军; 王辂; 余蓉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To purify and to identify an antifungal compound of an endophytic isolate Streptomyces sp. A1626, which was isolated from stems of Kandelia candel(Linn.) Druce, and to determine its antifungal activity. Methods Compound CA 1189 was separated and purified by solvent extraction, silica gel, RP-18 column chromatography. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including UV, IR, MS,1D and 2D NMR experiments. Its in vitro antifungal activity was determined with micro-broth dilution assay. Results and Conclusion The potent antifungal compound CA 1189 is identical with benzoxazole derivative AJI9561.%目的 研究秋茄内生链霉菌菌株A1626产生的活性代谢产物.方法 发酵液经有机溶剂萃取、正相硅胶柱层析、C18柱制备色谱分离获得单体,通过紫外光谱、红外光谱、质谱、一维和二维核磁共振谱的测定解析,确证单体化合物的结构,采用微量液体稀释法对单体化合物的抗真菌活性进行测定.结果 与结论活性化合物CA1189属于苯并噁唑类,与文献报道的AYI9561结构一致,其抗真菌活性为首次报道.

  2. Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species ofAmaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girija K; Lakshman K; Udaya Chandrika; Sabhya Sachi Ghosh; Divya T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal andSTZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of200 mg/kg and400 mg/kg p.o.daily for21days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed.Results:It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusions:Methanol extracts ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  3. Functional characterization of terpene synthases and chemotypic variation in three lavender species of section Stoechas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkader, Tarek; Guitton, Yann; Pasquier, Bernard; Magnard, Jean Louis; Jullien, Frédéric; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Legendre, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav. subsp. lusitanica, Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas and Lavandula viridis l'Hér. are three lavender taxa that belong to the botanical section Stoechas and are widely used as aromatherapy, culinary herb or folk medicine in many Mediterranean regions. The analysis of their bioactive volatile constituents revealed the presence of 124 substances, the most abundant being the bicyclic monoterpenes fenchone, camphor and 1,8-cineole that give these three species their respective chemotypes. Most noteworthy was fenchone which, with its reduced form fenchol, made 48% of the total volatile constituents of L. pedunculata while present at 2.9% in L. stoechas and undetectable in L. viridis. In order to provide a molecular explanation to the differences in volatile compounds of these three species, two monoterpene synthases (monoTPS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (sesquiTPS) were cloned in L. pedunculata and functionally characterized as fenchol synthase (LpFENS), α-pinene synthase (LpPINS) and germacrene A synthase (LpGEAS). The two other lavender species contained a single orthologous gene for each of these three classes of TPS with similar enzyme product specificities. Expression profiles of FENS and PINS genes matched the accumulation profile of the enzyme products unlike GEAS. This study provides one of the rare documented cases of chemotype modification during plant speciation via changes in the level of plant TPS gene expression, and not functionality. PMID:24943828

  4. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95 das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em solo de textura franco-argiloarenosa (20% de argila e 1,9 de matéria orgânica, e as doses dos herbicidas alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 e trifluralin 600 foram aplicadas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura das plantas daninhas. Avaliou-se o controle das plantas daninhas após a permanência dos herbicidas no solo por períodos de 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias depois da aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. A atividade residual de alachlor e prometryne, na dose C95, não foi suficiente para o controle eficiente (>80% das espécies por períodos de até 30 DAA. Quanto ao alachlor, o emprego da dose recomendada não se refletiu em aumento considerável da atividade residual, exceto em relação a A. viridis. A dose recomendada de prometryne proporcionou controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. hybridus. A dose recomendada de oxyfluorfen controlou eficientemente A. hybridus e A. spinosus até 30 DAA, espécies estas que não haviam sido eficientemente controladas pela dose C95. Trifluralin 450 promoveu controle residual eficiente de 30 DAA somente em relação a A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 foi eficiente no controle de A. hybridus e A. viridis até os 30 DAA e até 29 e 28 DAA para A. lividus e A. spinosus, respectivamente. Clomazone não promoveu controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin e S

  5. Parasitóides Associados a Cochonilhas e Aleirodídeos (Sternorrhyncha de Plantas Cítricas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. With the purpose of knowing parasitids of scales and whiteflies, associates to the citrus plants in Rio de Janeiro State, they were accomplished leaves collected contend fitoparasits: Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, Tetraleurodes (=Aleurotrachelus cruzi (Cassino, Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi, Coccus viridis (Green, Crysomphalus ficus (Ashmead, Orthezia praelonga (Douglas and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret, being this ones clean, it soon after proceded the organism elimination that was study object (each leaf remained with an only species of fitoparasite, so that parasitoids that had arisen had gone same associate to that species. After this procedure the leaves were incubate for a period of 25 days, when it was observed only parasitism in A. floccosus, P. aspidistrae, C. viridis and T. cruzi, and parasitoids of this the latter, not identified because the number specimens was very reduced. It was parasiting A. floccosus it observed: Arrhenophagus sp., Cales sp., Encarsia sp. (1, Eretmocerus sp., Signiphora sp. (1, Signiphora sp. (2, Signiphora sp. (3 and a species of the family Platygasteridae. Parasiting P. aspidistrae it was observed: Arrhenophagus sp., Cales sp., Encarsia sp. (2 and Pteroptrix sp. Some species are associated either to A. floccosus or to P. aspidistrae. By the results it was verified that Arrhenophagus sp. the parasitism and the species of the family Platygasteridae in A. floccosus and parasitism of Arrhenophagus sp. and Pteroptrix sp. in P. aspidistrae, they are occurrence new record for do Rio de Janeiro State

  6. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  7. Mean residence times for tritium in some terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of tritiated water from a single or multiple exposure, its fixation and elimination from 3 terrestrial plants, Raphanus sativus L., Amaranthus viridis L. and Phyllanthus fraternus Webster under experimental field conditions are described. Tissue free water tritium (TFWT) attains peak concentration within 4 hr after a single exposure in R. sativus and then decreases with a single component from both leaves and root, with a biological half-time of 36.4 +- 4.2 and 48.5 +- 7.2 hr respectively. TFWT in leaves of A. viridis reaches its peak value within 0.5 hr of exposure and its decay exhibits 2 component fall, one having a very short half-life of 2.4 +- 0.7 hr and the other a long half-time of 86.1 +- 2.0 hr. The two component decay of tritium in TFWT is well represented in P. fraternus. The long-lived components are nearly 8 times of the short-lived ones, both in leaves and stems respectively. Generally, the long -lived component accounts for 15% of the peak TFWT. Tissue bound tritium (TBT) reaches to 4% of TFWT in Phyllanthus sp. TBT elimination time is many times longer than the experimental periods employed in the present study. (author)

  8. Novos Cerambycinae neotropicais e transferência de Tippmannia Monné para Hesperophanini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae New Neotropical Cerambycinae and transference of Tippmannia Monné to Hesperophanini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os seguintes novos táxons neotropicais de Cerambycinae são descritos: em Hesperophanini, Corupella gen. nov., espécie-tipo C. asperata sp. nov. (Brasil; em Graciliini, Aruama gen. nov., espécie-tipo A. viridis sp. nov. (Bolívia e A. incognita sp. nov. (Brasil; em Necydalopsini, Abaiba gen. nov., espécie-tipo A. dimorphica sp. nov. (Bolívia; em Heteropsini, Unatara gen. nov., espécie-tipo U. atinga sp. nov. (Colombia. Transfere-se Tippmannia Monné, 2006 de incertae sedis para Hesperophanini.The following new taxa of Cerambycinae are described: in Hesperophanini, Corupella gen. nov., type species C. asperata sp. nov. (from Brazil; in Graciliini, Aruama gen. nov., type species A. viridis sp. nov. (from Bolívia and A. incognita sp. nov. (from Brazil; in Necydalopsini, Abaiba gen. nov., type species A. dimorphica sp. nov. (from Bolívia; in Heteropsini, Unatara gen. nov., type species. U. atinga sp. nov. (from Colombia. Tippmannia Monné, 2006 is transferred from incertae sedis to Hesperophanini.

  9. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  10. Reducing Insects Contaminations through Stored Foodstuffs by Use of Packaging and Repellency Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye ALLAHVAISI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of stored agricultural products against insects is carried out with chemical insecticides. They have harmful effects for human being, animal and environment. This research carried out on plant essential oils, which are one of the harmless materials and act like contact-fumigant from offering the prospect for using in stored product. They should have the ability to repel the insects. The objective of the present study was to test the properties of Prunus amygdalus L. and Mentha viridis L. for preventing the penetration of pest insects, including: T. castaneum, S. granaries, S. paniceum and R. dominica, to packaged cereals. As foodstuff was packaged by PE polymer and placed into a container 10 g of wheat and flour. The repellent essential oils used in the interior surface of containers. The releasing of insects carried out around the containers to determinate the insect�s penetration percentage with effect of repellents. The highest concentration counted was 1.75 ?l of essential oil per 0.5 ml acetone. The results showed that P. amygdalus had the most repellency effect on T. castaneum that cause 78.52% contamination deduction inside the packaged crop in comparing with control. In addition, M. viridis caused the most repellency on S. granarius (63.81%. The results demonstrated the efficacy of these essential oils for using it in organic food protection. They can prevent the infestation of the stored-product pests to the warehouse.

  11. The salt relations of Dunaliella. Further observations on glycerol production and its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowitzka, L J; Kessly, D S; Brown, A D

    1977-05-13

    Dunaliella tertiolecta (marine) and D. viridis (halophilic) were each trained by serial transfer to grow at salt concentrations previously regarded as the other's domain. D. viridis then had a salt optimum at 1.0-1.5 M sodium chloride whereas that for D. tertiolecta was less than 0-2 M. Nevertheless D. tertiolecta grew faster than the halophil at all salt concentrations up to 3.5 M, the highest at which they were compared. Both species accumulate glycerol, which is necessary for growth at elevated salinities and which responds in its content to water activity (aw) rather than specifically to salt concentration. Variation in glycerol content is a metabolic process which occurs in the dark from accumulated starch as well as photosynthetically. Regulation of glycerol content by aw does not require protein synthesis. The NADP-specific glycerol dehydrogenase of each of the algae is likely to be directly involved in the regulation of glycerol content. Kinetic studies, together with those described in an earlier publication, show that the enzyme has regulatory properties and that both glycerol and dihydroxyacetone act as effectors as well as reactants. A mechanism of the reaction is tentatively proposed. PMID:19000

  12. Cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-He; Xia, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Jiao; Bai, Lin-Han

    2012-08-01

    The full-length cDNA of a Na(+) -dependent Pi transport gene (DsSPT1) in Dunaliella salina was cloned by 3' and 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 716 predicted amino acids, which exhibited 60.5% identity to that of Na(+) -dependent Pi transport 1 (DvSPT1) from Dunaliella viridis. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in DvSPT1 from D. viridis and PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result of real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression level of DsSPT1 was enhanced at first and reached its peak at 90 min after salt stress; however, D. salina cells rapidly absorbed extracellular inorganic phosphorus which was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) during the first 5 min under salt stress. It suggested that D. salina on the absorption of inorganic phosphorus was regulated at DsSPTI posttranslational level. PMID:22052620

  13. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and its effect on quantitative traits in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ambavane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (12% moisture of two finger millet cultivar viz., Dapoli-1 and Dapoli Safed were irradiated with four doses of gamma-rays viz., 400 Gy, 500 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy at BARC, Mumbai. In laboratory test, root and shoot lengths of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma rays. Similarly, germination percentage and survival rate of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma irradiation during field study. In M1 generation, three types of chlorophyll mutations viz., albino, xantha and viridis were observed. Albino and xantha were observed in all treatments, whereas, viridis observed only in lower doses viz., 400 Gy and 500 Gy. Based on the chlorophyll mutation frequency on M1 plants, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were computed. In Dapoli-1 variety, two early maturing mutants and three high yielding mutants were isolated from 500 Gy dose and 600 Gy dose, respectively. In M2 generation, the mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing various types of chlorophyll and morphological macro mutants, few of those show significant change in flowering, maturity and plant height character and few of them have good breeding value.

  14. 陕北7种杂草种子对石油污染的耐受性研究%Responses of Seed Germination of 7 Weed Plants to Petroleum Contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁迎春; 王建; 王宏; 任绵绵; 山宝琴; 同延安

    2014-01-01

    为筛选可用于陕北油田区石油污染土壤修复的杂草植物,试验通过野外调查,选择当地石油污染严重的土壤上能较好生长的7种杂草植物为研究对象,以种子发芽作为生态指示,设置不同土壤石油质量浓度的培养试验,通过观测每天的发芽率和最终发芽时间,研究了杂草种子对石油污染的耐受性。结果表明,在土壤石油质量分数达到9 g/kg时各杂草种子发芽率开始受到抑制。石油污染胁迫下总体萌发能力排序为:狗尾草(Setaria viridis)>沙打旺(Astragalus adsurgens)>紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)>草木犀(Melilotus officinalis)>皱果苋(Amaranthus viridis)>灰灰菜(Chenopodium album)>黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)。其中狗尾草、紫花苜蓿、沙打旺和草木犀4种杂草植物在石油质量分数为9,17 g/kg土壤中发芽率都达到对照的70%以上,对石油污染胁迫具有较强的耐受性。在试验条件下(培养前蒸馏水浸种24 h),土壤石油并未对杂草种子发芽时间造成显著影响。%To screen plants for phytoremediation of petroleum- contaminated soils, four treatments with different levels of petroleum pollutants were designed and seed germination rate and germination time of 7 tested plant species were determined to investigate the germination adaptability of the tested plants in petroleum- contaminated soils. The results showed that these weed seeds were inhibited when the concentrations of petroleum pollution reached 9 g/kg. The germination adaptability of the tested plants was as follows:Setaria viridis>Astragalus adsurgens>Medicago sativa>Melilotus officinalis> Amaranthus viridis > Chenopodium album > Artemisia annua. The germination rate of Setaria viridis, Astragalus adsurgens, Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis could be above 70% when the concentration of petroleum pollution was 9 and 17 g/kg, and these plant species have a high tolerance of petroleum hydrocarbon

  15. 贵阳市3种野生叶菜的部分功能性成分及其理化特性研究%Analysis on partial functional components and physicochemical characters of 3 species of wild leaf vegetables in Guiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯丰; 彭慧蓉; 郭肖; 欧腾; 宋毓雪

    2012-01-01

    以产自贵州地区的繁缕、灰灰菜和野苋菜野生蔬菜为试验材料,测定了其部分功能性成分及其理化特性.结果表明:不同野生蔬菜间功能性成分的含量存在差异,灰灰菜中的蔗糖、蛋白质及膳食纤维含量较高,繁缕中的淀粉含量较高,野苋菜中黄酮含量较高;野苋菜的持水率和膨胀力显著高于灰灰菜和繁缕;3份野生蔬菜对不饱和脂肪的吸附能力总体在2.00 g/g左右,对饱和脂肪的吸附能力以灰灰菜最低;当3份野生蔬菜材料用量为0.1g时,其对胆固醇的吸附能力最大,野生蔬菜材料间差异不显著.%Stellaria media, Chenopodium album and Amaranthus viridis, 3 wild vegetables from Guizhou Province, were used as test materials, and their partial functional components and physico-chemical properties were studied. The results showed that the contents of functional components were different in different wild vegetables. The sucrose, protein and dietary fiber contents of C. Album were the highest,the starch content of S. Media was the highest,and the flavone content of A. Viridis was the highest. The water holding capacity and expansion capacity of A. Viridis were significantly higher than those of the other two vegetables. The 3 wild vegetables' capacity of adsorbing unsaturat-ed fat was about 2.00 g/g,and C. Album's capacity of adsorbing saturated fat was the lowest. When the amount of the 3 wild vegetable materials used was 0. 1 g, their cholesterol-adsorbing capacities were the greatest,and there were no significant differences among them.

  16. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho (Zea mays L. por meio de herbicidas Weed control in maize (Zea mays L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. L. dos Santos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a ação do butylate, aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com atrazine, no controle de plantas daninhas da cultura do milho, foi instalado um experimento de campo em solo fino areno-argiloso. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: butylate a 2,80; 3,60 e 4,32 kg/ha (p.p.i.; butylate + atrazine a 3,24 + 0,80; 3,24 + 1,20 e 3,60 + 0,96 kg/ha (p.p.i.; atrazine a 3,00 kg/ha e atrazine + metolachlor a 1,40 + 2,10 kg/ha, ambos aplicados em pré-emergência e empregados como herbicidas padrão para a cultura. As plantas daninhas encontradas foram: tiririca - Cyperus rotundus L., carurú comum - .:maranthus viridis L., capim de colchão - Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. e capim pé-de-galinha Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate nas três doses apresentou-se bem contra C. rotundus e E. indica; nas doses de 3,60 e 4,32 kg foram obtidos bons resultados sobre D. sanguinalis. Butylate + atrazine controlou, nas três doses, todas as espécies incidentes, o mesmo ocorrendo com a mistura atrazine + metolachlor. Atrazine foi mais eficiente para A. viridis e E. indica. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas foi prejudicial para a cultura.Butylate at 2.80; 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha and butylate + atrazine at. 3.24 + 0.80; 3.24 + 1.20 and 3.60 + 0.96 kg, were applied in preplant incorporated; atrazine at 3.00 kg and atrazine + metolachlor at 1.40 + 2.10 kg were applied in preemergence on corn. The weeds were represented by Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate + atrazine, in all rates, atrazine + metolachlor and atrazine gave good control of the weeds in general. Butylate, in the three rates, controlled C. rotundus and E. indica; at 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha controlled well D. sanguinalis. The herbicides did not cause injuries to the crop.

  17. New synonyms and a new name in Asteraceae: Senecioneae from the southern African winter rainfall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2010-12-01

    new name O. daucifolia J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is provided to replace the later homonym O. abrotanifolia (Harv. Druce.

  18. Phytoremediation of oil contaminated soil by some arid legume tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Vyas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the world. Phytoremediationis a promising technology for the clean up of petroleum contaminated soil. In the present work therhizosphere of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce, Acacia senegal (L. Willd. and Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. Ex.Del. plants were tested for their abilities to stimulate the microbial degradation of soil pollutants in desertsoil contaminated with 2.5-2.6% crude petroleum oil. The results showed that the roots of the threedifferent plants were density associated with total bacteria, fungi and oil-degrading microorganisms, thisis confirmed from the (R+/S+ ratios which ranged from 55.2-250.8 (for total bacteria, 20-131.3 (forfungi and 95.7-296.1 (for oil degraders. Percentages of oil-degraders were higher in the rhizospheresoil of P. cineraria (65.5% as compared to the rhizosphere soil of A. senegal and A. nilotica plants (22.5% and 20.2 % respectively. The results of the biodegradation of oil and its fractions showed that greatreduction (26 % of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs was observed in the rhizosphere soil of P.cineraria as compared to 15.6 % and 12.8 % reduction in rhizosphere soil of A. senegal and A. niloticarespectively. It was observed also that in the polluted non-cultivated soil the TPHs were reduced by 8.2 -10.5 % as a result of biostimulation process only (addition of nutrients.The results also showed that P.cineraria rhizosphere was able to reduce more of the saturated (43.0 % and more of the aromatics(25.7 % fractions, compared to (35.2 % and 7.9 % for A. senegal and (31.2 % and 4.1 % for A.nilotica rhizospheres. It is of interest to find that 5.3 % of the hardly degradable fraction resins weredegraded in rhizosphere soil of P. cineraria. The present results clearly demonstrated that P. cineraria provided successful phytoremediation process of a contaminated desert soil as compared to the othertwo legume trees.

  19. The effect of storage of 2 varieties of golden algaes at different temperatures%温度对2种饵料金藻保存效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱葆华; 潘克厚; 林黎明

    2006-01-01

    研究了在室温25℃±2℃,4, -5 ,-22℃下绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridis)和球等鞭金藻(Isochrysis galbana)的保存效果,通过测定其存活率以及主要脂肪酸的变化情况筛选出了2种金藻的适宜保存温度.结果表明,绿色巴夫藻短期内(30~45 d)在-5℃下保存效果最好,较长期(45 d以上)保存则应在-22℃,而球等鞭金藻则在-22℃下保存效果最好.

  20. Influence of Contactopy on Two-Dimensional Brazil-Nut Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesuma, Teja; Praja Purwa Aji, Dimas; Viridi, Sparisoma; Suprijadi

    2016-01-01

    Using hard sphere collision scheme and molecular dynamics method simulation, two-dimension Brazil-Nut Effect (BNE) is conducted. BNE inital configurations are artificially created to obtain number of contacts between the grains, called as contactopy. It is observed that from initial condition until the end of BNE observation, center-of-mass in vertical direction tends to decrease, while contactopy tends to increase, which are similar to the reported results in a Gedankenexperiment (Viridi et al., 2014). Initial configurations which are also dependent on contactopy influence the rise time since it can override influence of density ratio that should affect rise time (Möbius et al., 2001). We investigate on how the intruder rise time influenced by contactopy, as well as density.

  1. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25630112

  2. 辽宁省草坪杂草调查初报%A preliminary survey report of weeds in turf of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹莹; 魏松红; 刘大旻; 尹晓东; 刘冰; 何志勇

    2007-01-01

    在一年的时间里,对辽宁省草坪杂草进行调查、鉴定和统计,总结了辽宁省草坪杂草的种类、分布特点以及沈阳地区主要草坪杂草的危害情况.调查结果表明,辽宁省草坪杂草共有62种,隶属于27个科;沈阳地区危害较重的杂草有蒲公英(Taraxacum mongolicum)、车前(Plantago asiatica)、光头稗(Echinochloa colonum)、荠菜(Capsella burss-pastoris)、藜(Chenopodium album)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、酢浆草(Oxalis corniculata).

  3. Study on the Botanical Component and Quantity of Weed Populations During the Seedling in Alfalfa Spring-sowing Field in Oasis of Shihezi City%新疆石河子绿洲区春播苜蓿幼苗期田间杂草的植物学成分及数量调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娟娟; 于磊; 鲁为华; 周培孝; 张凡凡

    2013-01-01

    对石河子绿洲区春播苜蓿幼苗期田间杂草进行了调查.结果表明,春播苜蓿建植幼苗期田间杂草共有10科,26种.其中主要的田间杂草有6种,分别是狗尾草(Selaria viridis)、藜(Chenopodium album)、反枝苋(Amamnthus restroflexus)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea)、苘麻(Abutilon theophrcasti)和刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos seqetum),同时对6种主要的田间杂草的形态学特征进行了简要描述.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  5. Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by nine native plant species grown at a sewage sludge dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Shaltout, Kamal H

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, nine native plant species were collected to determine their potential to clean up nine heavy metals from soil of a sewage sludge dump site. Almost all nine plant species grown at sewage sludge dump site showed multifold higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to plants grown at the reference site. All the investigated species were characterized by a bioaccumulation factor (BF) > 1.0 for some heavy metals. BF was generally higher for Cd, followed by Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Fe. The translocation factor (TF) varied among plant species, and among heavy metals. For most studied heavy metals, TFs were Amaranthus viridis and Bassia indica are considered hyperaccumulators of Pb; and Portulaca oleracea is considered hyperaccumulator of Mn. PMID:27184987

  6. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  7. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lourdes Chamorro

    Full Text Available This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

  9. Effects of plant growth regulators on survival and recovery growth following cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S R; Touchell, D H; Senaratna, T; Bunn, E; Tan, B; Dixon, K W

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on survival, recovery and post-recovery growth of shoot apices following cryopreservation are limited. In this study, the effects of plant growth regulators in both the culture phase and the recovery phase of cryostorage were examined for the rare plant species, Anigozanthos viridis ssp terraspectans Hopper. Survival of shoot apices was not correlated to cytokinin or auxin treatments administered in culture media prior to cryostorage. In recovery media, the plant growth regulators, kinetin, zeatin (cytokinins), IAA, (auxin) and GA3 were examined for their effect following cryopreservation. It was found that the application of a combination of cytokinin and 0.5 microM GA3 from day zero was the most appropriate for obtaining vigorously growing plantlets following LN immersion. This combination proved to be more effective than basal medium, zeatin or kinetin treatments.

  10. Women's Health Among the Chumash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, menopause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, Ephedra viridis, Leymus condensatus, Vitis californica, Eschscholzia californica, Rosa californica, Scirpus acutus, Anemopsis californica and Phoradendron macrophyllum. By providing the specific uses of plants for specific diseases and discussing chemistry, efficacy and safety concerns for each plant, we hope that this article gives direction to women seeking to use plants in their health care.

  11. Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that several morphospecies of Microcystis, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (Kuetzing) Lemmermann and Microcystis viridis (A. Brown) Lemmermann can produce hepatotoxic microcystins. However, previous studies gave contradictory conclusions about microcystin production of Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek. In the present study, ten Microcystis morphospecies were identified in waterblooms of seven Chinese waterbodies, and Microcystis wesenbergii was shown as the dominant species in these waters. More than 250 single colonies of M. wesenbergii were chosen, under morphological identification, to examine whether M. wesenbergii produce hepatotoxic microcystin by using multiplex PCR for molecular detection of a region (mcyA) of microcystin synthesis genes, and chemical analyses of microcystin content by ELISA and HPLC for 21 isolated strains of M. wesenbergii from these waters were also performed. Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that M. wesenbergii from Chinese waters did not produce microcystin. - Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that Microcystis wesenbergii was not a microcystin producer in Chinese waters

  12. Six genetically distinct clades of Palola (Eunicidae, Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Anja

    2015-09-18

    A total of 36 lots of Palola spp. (Eunicidae, Annelida) were collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Of these, 21 specimens were sequenced for a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These sequences were analysed in conjunction with existing sequences of Palola spp. from other geographic regions. The samples from Lizard Island form six distinct clades, although none of them can clearly be assigned to any of the nominal species. Four of the six Lizard Island clades fall into species group A and the remaining two into species group B (which also includes the type species, Palola viridis). All sequenced specimens were characterized morphologically as far as possible and a dichotomous key was assembled. Based on this key, the remaining samples were identified as belonging to one of the clades.

  13. Shoaling reduces metabolic rate in a gregarious coral reef fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S.; McClure, Eva C.; Munday, Philip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many animals live in groups because of the potential benefits associated with defense and foraging. Group living may also induce a ‘calming effect’ on individuals, reducing overall metabolic demand. This effect could occur by minimising the need for individual vigilance and reducing stress through social buffering. However, this effect has proved difficult to quantify. We examined the effect of shoaling on metabolism and body condition in the gregarious damselfish Chromis viridis. Using a novel respirometry methodology for social species, we found that the presence of shoal-mate visual and olfactory cues led to a reduction in the minimum metabolic rate of individuals. Fish held in isolation for 1 week also exhibited a reduction in body condition when compared with those held in shoals. These results indicate that social isolation as a result of environmental disturbance could have physiological consequences for gregarious species. PMID:27655821

  14. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  15. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.

  16. Potential new tool for weed control in organically grown agronomic crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during summer 2007 to determine a baseline information on crop and weed tolerance to broadcast flaming utilizing different rates of propane. The species evaluated were: maize (Zea mays, sorghum (Sorghum halepense, soybean (Glycine max, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. The propane rates applied were 0, 12.1, 30.9, 49.7, 68.5 and 87.22 kg/ha. The response of the plants to propane rates were described by log-logistic models. Plant response to flame varied depending on the species, growth stage and propane rate. Broadleaf weeds were more susceptible to flames than grasses. Field maize and sorghum were less susceptible, while soybean and sunflower were severely injured. Of all crops tested, broadcast flaming has the most potential for use in field maize.

  17. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  18. THE USE OF MICROALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS OF ORGANIC POLLUTION IN BRISAS OQUENDO, CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucra, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pools of stagnant water from Brisas de Oquendo neighborhood, Callao, Peru provides a great opportunity to study the composition algal from poluted environments. We characterized species from May to September 2005, collecting a series plankton and sediment samples. These was identified at the lowest rank taxonomy possible, to indicate the relative abundance and level of saprobity. A total of 22 species were identified: Bacillariophyta (14 species, followed by Cyanophyta (4 species, Chlorophyta (2 species and Euglenophyta (2 species. Dominant algae species were Chlamydomonas ehrenbergi and Euglena viridis, forming algal blooms throughout the sampling period. Subdominant species were: Nitzschia linearis, Nitzschia solita, Nitzschia fonticola, Oscillatoria tenuis and Lyngbya sp. The algal association suggests that these waters vary from â-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic, thus demonstrating the importance of the use of these organic pollution-tolerant species in water quality studies.

  19. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  20. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis. PMID:18506697

  1. Guatemalan plants extracts as virucides against HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Luis M; Alvarez, Amparo; Bermejo, Mercedes; González, Nuria; Beltrán, Manuela; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Cruz, Sully M; Gaitán, Isabel; del Olmo, Esther; Escarcena, Ricardo; García, Pablo A; Cáceres, Armando; San Feliciano, Arturo; Alcamí, José

    2008-06-01

    Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo. PMID:18068962

  2. The algae-lytic ability of bacterium DC10 and the influence of environmental factors on the ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Shunyu; LIU; Yongding; SHEN; Yinwu; LI; Genbao

    2005-01-01

    A lysing-bacterium DC10, isolated from Dianchi Lake of Yunnan Province, was characterized to be Pseudomonas sp. It was able to lyse some algae well, such as Microcystis viridis, Selenastrum capricornutum, and so on. In this study, it was shown that the bacterium lysed the algae by releasing a substance; the best lytic effects were achieved at Iow temperatures and in the dark. Different concentrations of CaCI2 and NaNO3 influenced the lytic effects;the ability to lyse algae decreased in the following order: pH 4 > pH 9 > pH 7 > pH 5.5. It was significant to develop a special technology with this kind of bacterium for controlling the bloomforming planktonic microalgae.

  3. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  4. Suscetibilidade diferencial de plantas daninhas do gênero Amaranthus aos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e chlorimuron-ethyl Differential susceptibility of Amaranthus genus weed species to the herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium and chlorimuron-ethyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade de cinco espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Amaranthus a herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. As espécies avaliadas foram: A. deflexus (caruru-rasteiro, A. hybridus (caruru-roxo, A. retroflexus (caruru-gigante, A. spinosus (caruru-de-espinho e A. viridis (caruru-de-mancha. O trabalho foi dividido em duas fases. Na primeira, as espécies de plantas daninhas foram submetidas à aplicação de 12 tratamentos herbicidas em pós-emergência. Na segunda, os herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e chlorimuron-ethyl foram avaliados com a metodologia de curvas de dose-resposta, repetida duas vezes. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre plantas com 5-6 folhas e as doses utilizadas na segunda fase foram: 16D, 4D, D, 1/4D, 1/16D, 1/64D e ausência do produto, em que D é a dose recomendada de cada herbicida. As doses utilizadas (D foram de 3,75 e 7,5 g ha-1 para o herbicida trifloxysulfuron e 12,5 e 17,5 g ha-1 para chlorimuron, na primeira e na segunda condução, respectivamente. Na primeira fase, foram avaliados o controle percentual e a massa seca das parcelas aos 20 dias após a aplicação (DAA; na segunda, avaliou-se o controle percentual aos 20 DAA. As espécies de Amaranthus avaliadas neste trabalho apresentaram diferenças de suscetibilidade aos herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência, principalmente ao trifloxysulfuron e ao chlorimuron, em que A. deflexus foi a espécie menos suscetível, seguido por A. spinosus, A. viridis, A. hybridus e A. retroflexus.This work aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of five Amaranthus genus weed species to herbicides applied post-emergence. The species evaluated were: A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis. The work was divided into two phases. In the first phase, weed species were submitted to post-emergence application of 12 herbicide treatments. In the second phase, the herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium and

  5. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  6. La fuente de nitrógeno como herramienta auxiliar en el manejo de las malas hierbas

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Asensio, J. S.; Bardisi, E.; Fernández García, N.; Soto, A.; Olmos, E.

    2015-01-01

    Los resultados de producción de biomasa, tanto de parte aérea como de raíz, nos muestran las distintas preferencias por una u otra fuente [(nitrato (NO3 -) o amonio(NH4 +)] de nitrógeno (N), así como La influencia de la fuente de N en la respuesta a la dosis (2 mM vs. 0,2 mM) en la zona radicular: Amaranthus viridis y Chenopodium album prefieren el NO3- y no responden a la dosis de NH4+, Conyza bonaeriensis y Solanum nigrum también prefieren NO3- pero responden a la dosis de NH4+, mientras qu...

  7. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Besek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003 was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in control of annual grass- and broad-leaved weeds. The efficacy of all herbicide treatments in 2003 was lower. The best results of herbicide effectiveness were achieved with combination of linuron + dimethenamid (91.3%, trifluralin (90.1% + napropamide and clomazone + linuron (89%.

  8. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  9. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  10. 短痣金小蜂属中国首次记录及分种检索(膜翅目:小蜂总科:金小蜂科)%First record of Colotrechnus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) from China, with description of one newly-recorded species and a key to known species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤; 胡红英; 李子; 肖晖

    2014-01-01

    记录短痣金小蜂亚科Colotrechninae(小蜂总科:金小蜂科)中国1新纪录属:短痣金小蜂属Colotrechnus Thomson,及中国1新纪录种:绿短痣金小蜂Colotrechnus viridis (Masi).这是短痣金小蜂亚科在中国的首次记录,提供了形态描述、分布及形态特征图,同时提供了短痣金小蜂属世界已知6种的分种检索表.研究标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所动物标本馆.

  11. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  12. Studies on filtration rate in four species of suspension feeding bivalves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元烧; 罗文新; 曹文清; 郭东晖; 郑爱榕; 黄长江

    2002-01-01

    The filtration rates of four kinds of bivalves that were cultivated dominantly around Xiamen sea area were measured by using a laboratory flowing system. The experimental results were shown below: (1) Filtration rates were measured in the range of 54~74.8 ml/ (g@min) among the four bivalves, sequencing descently Saccostrea cucullata > Sinonovacula constricta > Mytilus viridis > Ruditapes philippinarum. (2) The relationship between filtration rates on individual size showed a negative exponential function (FR = aWb, FR' = aWb-1), with b - 1 = - 0.435 6 and - 0.392. (3) Filtration rates on Skeletonema costatum were much higher than on Alexandrium tamarensis and Scrippsilla trochoidea inS. Cucullata and R. Philippinarum. (4) FR'on algal densities was also shown a negative function(FR' = aDb-1), with b-1 =-0.143 and-0.215 2 in S.cucullata and R.philippinarum, respectively.

  13. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  14. Dispersal and development of Marenzelleria spp. (Polychaeta, Spionidae) populations in NW Europe and The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essink, Karel

    1998-09-01

    The North American spionid polychaete Marenzelleria cf. wireni was first recorded in the North Sea by Scotland in 1982. Marenzelleria cf. viridis was first found in the Baltic Sea in 1985. Tentative routes of dispersal since then are presented in this paper. In the Netherlands, a biological monitoring programme has revealed populations of M. cf. wireni in the Ems estuary, Wadden Sea, and in the SW Netherlands. In the Dollard (Ems estuary) a large population has developed (2000-3000 individuals m-2; 8-16 g ash-free dry weight m-2). Since the introduction, the macrozoobenthic community has changed from being dominated (by biomass) by bivalves, to domination by polychaetes. Recently, a similar population started to develop at Balgzand (western Dutch Wadden Sea).

  15. Patrones de forrajeo en dos especies de peces intermareales herbívoros de las costas de Chile: Efecto de la abundancia y composición química del alimento Foraging patterns of two species of intertidal herbivorous fishes: Effect of food abundance and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN W. CACERES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Los peces herbívoros son organismos que deben suplir los requerimientos de su economía energética a partir de una fuente de alimento con un bajo contenido de nutrientes y energía. Dos de las interrogantes más importantes en relación con la herbivoría por peces son: i ¿cuáles son los factores que influyen en la selección o rechazo de un determinado item dietario? y ii ¿son capaces los peces herbívoros de extraer los nutrientes y energía necesarios para suplir sus requerimientos energéticos en base a una dieta de macroalgas?. En este trabajo se estudiaron en dos especies de peces herbívoros, Scartichthys viridis y Girella laevifrons, los patrones de selectividad dietaria en terreno y laboratorio, la eficiencia de asimilación y la relación entre los patrones encontrados con la composición química del alga. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que la dieta de estos organismos se compone en más del 90% de macroalgas bentónicas. En terreno ambas especies presentan una conducta trófica no selectiva en verano y selectiva en invierno, prefiriendo el consumo de algas verdes. En los experimentos de selección dietaria ambas especies presentan un patrón similar caracterizado por la preferencia de algas verdes y rojas por sobre algas pardas. Los resultados de los experimentos de asimilación, indican que Girella laevifrons presenta tasas de asimilación mayores que Scartichthys viridis, siendo en la primera las algas verde Ulva y Enteromorpha las que presentan una mayor eficiencia de asimilación. Los resultados sugieren una fuerte relación entre el patrón de selección trófica observado en estas especies y la relación entre composición del alimento y características digestivasHerbivores are organisms that must meet their energy and nutrients requirements from a food source that typically has been characterized as having low nutritional value given their low concentration of nutrients and energy. Two of the most important questions

  16. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... information on changes in shrub cover, and a long and complex land use history has to be taken into account. In this thesis a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches are used to investigate: I. Whether landscape scale shrub expansion occurred in SW Greenland, and to what extend it is influenced...

  17. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities. PMID:25916153

  18. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae) reared in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa, F A; Santiago, A P; Abrunhosa, J P

    2008-02-01

    The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L(-1). The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4) cell.mL(-1). Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1) solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports. PMID:18470395

  19. Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Klyueva, Alla V; Levchuk, Yuri N; Leboda, Roman

    2003-09-18

    Physical principles of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), mathematical treatment of the PCS data (converting autocorrelation functions to distribution functions or average characteristics), and PCS applications to study proteins and other biomacromolecules in aqueous media are described and analysed. The PCS investigations of conformational changes in protein molecules, their aggregation itself or in consequence of interaction with other molecules or organic (polymers) and inorganic (e.g. fumed silica) fine particles as well as the influence of low molecular compounds (surfactants, drugs, salts, metal ions, etc.) reveal unique capability of the PCS techniques for elucidation of important native functions of proteins and other biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, etc.) or microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Dunaliella viridis, etc.). Special attention is paid to the interaction of proteins with fumed oxides and the impact of polymers and fine oxide particles on the motion of living flagellar microorganisms analysed by means of PCS. PMID:12969646

  20. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in spite of the fact that Dunaliella is often the main or even the sole primary producer present, so that the entire ecosystem depends on carbon fixed by this alga. This review paper summarizes our knowledge about the occurrence and the activities of different Dunaliella species in natural salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea and others), in saltern ponds and in other salty habitats where members of the genus have been found. PMID:25984505

  1. The defensive strike of five species of lanceheads of the genus Bothrops (Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M S; Martins, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the defensive strike of one species of each of five recognized lineages within the genus Bothrops, namely, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. pauloensis. The defensive strike of the studied species was in general similar to that of Crotalus viridis and C. atrox, but some important differences were observed. Bothrops alternatus and B. pauloensis struck preferentially from a tight body posture, whereas B. jararaca and B. moojeni from a loose body posture. Defensive strikes were either true or false (during the latter, the mouth remains closed or partially open). Almost all strikes were successful; only on a few occasions snakes missed their target (flawed strikes). Strike variables were very conservative among the five species, especially strike distance and height, and one possible explanation may be related to constraints imposed on strike variables as a way of increasing strike accuracy. PMID:17876444

  2. 浙江沿海贻贝种类形态比较研究%Study on Shape Comparison of Mussel Species in Zhejiang Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义浩

    2009-01-01

    胎贝科(Mytilidae)的许多种类在浙江沿海均有分布,但没有做过系统的研究.文章调查研究了浙江沿海的厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)、紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)、隔贻贝(Genus Septifer)、凸壳肌蛤(Musculista senhausia)、翡翠贻贝(Pema viridis)、毛贻贝(Trichomoya hirsute)、偏顶蛤(Modiolus modiolua)、黑养麦蛤(Vignadula atrata )、石蛏(Lithophaga Roding),并对它们的形态构造进行了描述和比较.

  3. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety.

  4. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae cultivada em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added daily to the culture. The larvae moulted seven times progressing through the zoea VIII. Megalopa stage was not achieved. The intermoulting period of each stage averaged from eight to 12 days. Morphological comparisons with previous reports are briefly discussed.Os estágios iniciais da lagosta tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 foram descritos e ilustrados a partir de espécimes cultivados em laboratório. Fêmeas ovígeras foram capturadas em seu habitat, na profundidade cerca de 15 metros e transportadas para o laboratório. As larvas foram cultivadas em tanques de água recirculante por aproximadamente 15 dias e, então transferidas para quatro aquários (capacidade 10 litros. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. recém eclodidos. A microalga Dunaliella viridis AUTOR foi diariamente adicionada no cultivo. As larvas mudaram sete vezes alcançando o zoea VIII. O estágio megalopa não foi obtido. O período de intermuda de cada estágio variou de cerca de oito a 12 dias. Comparações morfológicas com trabalhos anteriores são brevemente discutidas.

  5. Experimental studies on dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) production by four marine microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chengxuan; YANG Guipeng; PAN Jinfen; ZHANG Honghai

    2010-01-01

    The production of dimethylsulfide(DMS)and dimethylsulfoniopropionate(DMSP)by marine microalgae was investigated to elucidate more on the role of marine phytoplankton in ocean-atmosphere interactions in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle.Axenic laboratory cultures of four marine microalgae-Isochrysis galbana 8701,Pavlova viridis,Platymonas sp.and Chlorella were tested for DMSP production and conversion into DMS.Among these four microalgae,Isochrysis galbana 8701and Pavlova viridis are two species of Haptophyta,whine Chlorella and Platymonas sp.belong to Chlorophyta.The results demonstrate that the four algae can produce various amounts of DMS(P),and their DMS(P)production was species specific.With similar cell size,more DMS was released by Haptophyta than that by Chlorophyta.DMS and dissolved DMSP(DMSPd)concentrations in algal cultures varied significantly during their life cycles.The highest release of DMS appeared in the senescent period for all the four algae.Variations in DMSP concentrations were in strong compliance with variations in algal cell densities during the growing period.A highly significant correlation was observed between the DMS and DMSPd concentrations in algal cultures,and there was a time lag for the variation trend of the DMS concentrations as compared with that of the DMSPd.The consistency of variation patterns of DMS and DMSPd implies that the DMSPd produced by phytoplankton cells has a marked effect on the production of DMS.In the present study,the authors' results specify the significant contribution of the marine phytoplankton to DMS(P)production and the importance of biological control of DMS concentrations in oceanic water.

  6. Glomalin-related soil protein in a Mediterranean ecosystem affected by a copper smelter and its contribution to Cu and Zn sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo; Meier, Sebastián; Borie, Gilda; Rillig, Matthias C; Borie, Fernando

    2008-11-15

    The amount of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), its contribution to the sequestering of Cu and Zn in the soil, and the microsite variation of other soil traits (pH, water-stable aggregates--[WSA], soil organic carbon--[SOC]) was studied in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem near a copper smelter and affected by deposit of metal-rich particles since 1964. Rhizospheric (R) and non-rhizospheric (NR) soil of four representative plants (Argemone subfusiformis, Baccharis linearis, Oenothera affinis and Polypogon viridis) was analyzed. The results showed a strong variability in GRSP (6.6-36.8 mg g(-1)), Cu content (62-831 mg kg(-1) for the total Cu and 5.8-326 mg kg(-1) for the available Cu) and pH (4.2-5.5) in the different plant and rhizospheric zones analyzed. A strong relationship between the GRSP with the soil Cu and Zn contents was found (r=0.89 and 0.76 for Cu and Zn respectively, p<0.001). The GRSP-bound Cu ranged from 3.76 to 89.0 mg g(-1) soil and represents 1.44-27.5% of the total Cu content in soil. Moreover, the WSA reached 89% in P. viridis R. For this plant, the C contained in GRSP represented up to 89% of SOC, and this coincided with the most extreme conditions of soil degradation within the ecosystem (the highest content of heavy metals and low pH values). This study provides evidence on the role of the GRSP in Cu and Zn sequestration and suggests a highly efficient mechanism of AMF to mitigate stress leading to stabilization of soils highly polluted by mining activities. PMID:18762323

  7. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  8. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  9. 杂草对草甘膦敏感性快速测定方法%Quick Detection Methods of the Sensitivity of Weeds to Glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宇; 倪汉文

    2013-01-01

    [Aims] The method of quickly detecting weed sensitivities to glyphosate was established.[Methods] The reliabilities of the conventional whole-plant method and two quick methods seed bioassay and leaf segment bioassay were compared in detecting weed sensitivities to glyphosate with four weed species Echinochloa crus-galli,Setaria viridis,Amaranthus retroflexus and Abutilon theophrasti.[Results] The sensitivity of these weeds to glyphosate was similar whether using seed and leaf segment detection methods or using the conventional detection method.The order of weed sensitivity to this herbicide was A.theophrasti < E.crus-galli < A.retroflexus < S.viridis.[Conclusions] Seed bioassay and leaf segment bioassay are reliable in detecting sensitivities of weeds to glyphosate.%[目的]建立杂草对草甘膦敏感性的快速检测方法.[方法]比较种子和叶段2种快速测定法和常规整株测定法测定4种杂草对草甘膦的剂量反应的可靠性.[结果]种子和叶段2种快速测定法和常规整株测定法测定的稗草、狗尾草、反枝苋和苘麻4种杂草对草甘膦的敏感性相当,敏感性顺序为苘麻<稗草<反枝苋<狗尾草.[结论]种子和叶段2种快速法测定能可靠地测定杂草对草甘膦的敏感性.

  10. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  11. Climate change impact research on arable weeds – data, methods and applications at various scale levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitsameter, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, a large number of studies have examined various aspects of possible consequences of climate change for the biology and damage potential of arable weeds. However, there are merely a few examples that have comprehensively investigated individual weed species or arable crop systems within a clearly delimited geographical area. In the frame of the research co-operation KLIFF (Climate change impact and adaptation research for Lower Saxony, we tested an approach that combines a number of methods to span several scale levels and types of environmental factors, which was intended to provide as accurate as possible an estimate of the potential distribution and performance of individual arable weed species under the predicted future climate conditions. This approach was put to practice for the species Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Datura stramonium, Iva xanthiifolia and Setaria viridis. We combined projections of the potential future distribution of the individual weed species based on a correlative distribution modelling approach (regional scale level with pot experiments (local scale level on the vegetative and generative performance of these species under climatic conditions predicted for the end of the current century for Lower Saxony. A synopsis revealed that the results obtained from the different approaches corresponded to a large extent. For A. retroflexus, D. stramonium, E. crus-galli, and S. viridis, both approaches indicated a neutral or positive effect of the predicted future climate on their potential distribution and performance, whereas the opposite was found for I. xanthiifolia. Merely for A. theophrasti, results of the two methods did not fully concur. Altogether, our results highlight that investigating climate change impact on weeds by combining several methods to span several scale levels allows fitting various data sets to a comprehensive picture for a delimited region. It has

  12. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  13. Temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan as revealed by mussel watch and specimen bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y.; Yoshinaga, J.; Horiguchi, T.; Uehiro, T.; Morita, M. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Mussel watch program coupled with a pilot specimen bank at NIES was conducted from 1983 to 1987, and also from 1993 to 1994, and their results were compared to reveal temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan. Special emphasis was paid to reveal the change of ``background`` level of pollutants by collecting bivalves in remote islands. Several species of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis, M. coruscus, Septifer virgatus, Pema viridis), oysters (Saxostrea mordax, Crassostrea gigas) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum, Tridacna crocea) were collected to cover subfrigid to subtropical zones along Japan islands. The level of TBT decreased considerably between the above two intervals, i.e., from 0.12--0.01 {micro}g/g in mid 80`s to 0.03-n.d. (less than 0.01) {micro}g/g in 1993. This decrease may reflect the start of the regulation in 1990. The clam samples collected at Tokyo bay and stored in specimen bank were found to contain considerable levels (near 0.3 {micro}g/g) of TBT and TPT in 1980, and their levels were almost constant through mid and late 1980`s. Several heavy metals, including Cd, showed interesting spatial distribution patterns; their concentrations tend to be higher in less populated remote islands in western part of Japan than in densely populated areas. Cd concentrations, however, also show apparent correlation with Zn status of each organism (especially evident in Septifer sp.), and the interpretation of the results is not straightforward at this stage. Interestingly, a tropical green mussel, P. viridis, was found to be spreading in some densely populated area including Tokyo and Osaka bays.

  14. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  15. INDUCED MACROMUTATION IN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM. F. NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoy Kumar Ghosh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen viable macromutants (viridis, lax branching, bushy, unbranched I and II, dark green leaf, broad leaf I and II, narrow leaf I and II, drooping leaf I and II, dwarf and early maturity were induced in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F. Nees (Family: Acanthaceae at M2 following EMS (Ethyl methanesulfonate and dES (Diethyl sulfate treatments (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% for 2h and 4h durations to dry seeds (moisture content 11.55%. Mutation frequency over M2 population was 2.82% and lax branching mutant was maximum (0.51%. EMS induced relatively higher (3.12%, spectrum 1 to 4 frequency of mutation than dES (2.46%, spectrum 1 to 3. The mutant trait(s were monogenic recessive mostly (viridis showed digenic mode of inheritance. All mutants bred true at M4. Meiotic analysis revealed 2n=50 chromosomes always in the plant types (control: 24.92II+0.51I/cell; mutants: 24.80II+0.40I to 25II/cell at MI; AI cells were cytologically balanced in all cases. Pollen fertility (control: 80.63%, mutants: 21.28% to 89.25% and viability (control: 72.24%, mutants: 27.55% to 59.04% were also assessed. DAPI staining was performed to assess pollen nuclei composition (3-nucleate stage in dark green leaf, broad leaf I and drooping leaf II as the mutants showed considerably lower pollen fertility and viability than normal plants. Results indicated that pollen developmental phase may be significant for reproductive outcome. Andrographolide (estimated from matured leaves by HPTLC content (control: 3.41%, mutants: 0.03 to 3.99% was significantly higher in bushy and broad leaf I and II than normal plants. The mutants induced were considered to be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  16. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Melton

    Full Text Available Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes. Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1, petB (1, psbB (2, and rrl (1. The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4, atp1 (1, nad3 (1, nad5 (1, and rrs (3. Double-cut-and-join (DCJ values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta. A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae closely to Ulva (Ulvales and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales.

  17. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat. PMID:16806394

  18. Induction of Secondary Carotenogenesis in New Halophile Microalgae from the Genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, A E; Selivanova, E A; Chekanov, K A; Sidorov, R A; Nemtseva, N V; Lobakova, E S

    2015-11-01

    We report on the effects of high light irradiance (480 µmol quanta/(m(2)·s)) and salinity (160 and 200 g/liter NaCl) on culture growth as well as on cell lipid pigment and fatty acid (FA) composition in three novel strains of halophile microalga from the genus Dunaliella. Based on the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence and on the capability of accumulation of secondary (uncoupled from the photosynthetic apparatus) β-carotene, the strains Dunaliella sp. BS1 and BS2 were identified as D. salina and Dunaliella sp. R5 as D. viridis. Under conditions optimal for growth, chlorophylls and primary carotenoids (mainly lutein) dominated the pigment profile of all investigated strains. The main FA were represented by unsaturated C18 FA typical of thylakoid membrane structural lipids. In all studied cells, stressors caused a decline in chlorophylls and an increase in unsaturated C16 and C18 FA associated with reserve lipids. The carotenogenic species D. salina demonstrated 10-fold increase in carotenoids accompanied by a decline in lutein and a drastic increase in β-carotene (up to 75% of total carotenoids). In D. viridis, only 1.5-fold increase in carotenoid content took place, the ratio of major carotenoids remaining essentially unchanged. The role of the carotenogenic response in mechanisms of protection against photooxidative damage is discussed in view of halophile microalgae stress tolerance and application of the new Dunaliella strains for biotechnological production of β-carotene. PMID:26615443

  19. A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vaughn M; Krüger, Kerstin; Saccaggi, Davina L; Millar, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    Increasing international trade and tourism have led to an increase in the introduction of exotic pests that pose a considerable economic threat to the agro-ecosystems of importing countries. Scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) may be contaminants of export consignments from the South African deciduous fruit industry to the European Union, Israel, United Kingdom and the United States, for example. Infestations of immature scale insects found on South African fruit destined for export have resulted in increasing rates of rejection of such consignments. To identify the risk posed by scale insect species listed as phytosanitary pests on table grapes to the abovementioned importing countries, a field survey was undertaken in 2004-2005 in vineyards throughout all grape-producing regions in South Africa. Coccoidea species found during the current field survey were Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), Coccus hesperidum L. and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead). With the exception of Pl. ficus, which has only been collected from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) and Ficus carica (Moraceae) in South Africa, these species are polyphagous and have a wide host range. None of the scale insect species found to occur in vineyards in South Africa pose a phytosanitary risk to countries where fruit are exported except for Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel) and N. viridis that have not been recorded in the USA. All scale insects previously found in vineyards in South Africa are listed and their phytosanitary status discussed. The results of the survey show that the risk of exporting scale insect pests of phytosanitary importance on table grapes from South Africa is limited.

  20. Comparison of the aflR gene sequences of strains in Aspergillus section Flavi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Zong; Liou, Guey-Yuh; Yuan, Gwo-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Aflatoxins are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius and a few other species. The toxic effects of aflatoxins have adverse consequences for human health and agricultural economics. The aflR gene, a regulatory gene for aflatoxin biosynthesis, encodes a protein containing a zinc-finger DNA-binding motif. Although Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae, which are used in fermented foods and in ingredient manufacture, have no record of producing aflatoxin, they have been shown to possess an aflR gene. This study examined 34 strains of Aspergillus section Flavi. The aflR gene of 23 of these strains was successfully amplified and sequenced. No aflR PCR products were found in five A. sojae strains or six strains of A. oryzae. These PCR results suggested that the aflR gene is absent or significantly different in some A. sojae and A. oryzae strains. The sequenced aflR genes from the 23 positive strains had greater than 96.6 % similarity, which was particularly conserved in the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. The aflR gene of A. sojae has two obvious characteristics: an extra CTCATG sequence fragment and a C to T transition that causes premature termination of AFLR protein synthesis. Differences between A. parasiticus/A. sojae and A. flavus/A. oryzae aflR genes were also identified. Some strains of A. flavus as well as A. flavus var. viridis, A. oryzae var. viridis and A. oryzae var. effuses have an A. oryzae-type aflR gene. For all strains with the A. oryzae-type aflR gene, there was no evidence of aflatoxin production. It is suggested that for safety reasons, the aflR gene could be examined to assess possible aflatoxin production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

  1. 重庆市烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度研究%Investigation on Categories,Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金香; 丁伟; 刘元平; 石生探; 何林; 张永强

    2015-01-01

    为明确重庆市烟田杂草的种类、分布和危害情况,采用倒置 W 九点取样法对重庆市烟田杂草进行了调查。结果表明:重庆市烟田杂草共有121种,隶属于35科,其中阔叶杂草93种,占76•86%;禾本科杂草19种,占15•70%;其他杂草9种,占7•44%。一年生杂草68种,占56•20%;多年生杂草53种,占43•80%。根据各杂草相对高度、相对盖度、相对多度的综合值进行评价,藜、紫苏、尼泊尔蓼、马唐、牛膝菊、艾蒿、狗尾草和黄花蒿是重庆市烟田的优势杂草。地区间杂草发生危害情况差异显著,尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊和雀稗在渝东北植烟区发生危害较为严重,艾蒿、马唐、狗尾草、西来稗、紫苏和藜次之;渝中部植烟区以藜发生危害较为严重,马唐、尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊、黄花蒿、铁苋菜和春蓼次之;渝东南植烟区以藜、紫苏、黄花蒿和狗尾草的危害占优势。%An investigation was carried out by inverted W nine point sampling method to study the catego ‐ries ,distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Chongqing Municipality .The results showed that there were 121 weed species belonging to 35 families ,including 93 kinds of broad‐leaved weeds (ac‐counted for 76•86% ) ,19 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 15•70% ) and 9 kinds of the others (accounted for 7•44% ) ;among them ,there were 68 kinds of annual weeds (accounted for 56•20% ) and 53 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 43•80% ) .According to comprehensive value of the relative height ,relative coverage and relative abundance of weeds , Chenopodium album L• , Perilla frutescens (L• ) Britt• , Polygonum nepalense Meisn• , Digitaria sanguinalis (L• ) Scop• , Galinsoga p arviflora Cav• ,A rtemisia argyi Levl• et Vant• ,Setaira viridis (L• ) Beauv• and A rtemisia annua L• were domi‐nant weeds in Chongqing .Weed damages in

  2. 冀西北马铃薯田杂草群落分布及防控对策%Distribution of Weed Communities and Control Strategies in Potato Fields in the Northwest of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉慧; 康爱国; 赵志英; 冯青

    2014-01-01

    调查表明,冀西北马铃薯田杂草种类约32种,隶属于18科;以藜、萹蓄、卷茎蓼、苦荞、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊、狗尾草、野黍等为优势种群,个别地块牻牛儿苗比例偏高。2012年出现频率最高的是狗尾草,为41.77%;其次为野黍(18.99%)、牻牛儿苗(18.70%)、苦荞(5.32%)、卷茎蓼(3.40%)和萹蓄(3.30%)。同一生态区域不同年份马铃薯田之间,不同农田生态区域坡梁地与下湿滩地杂草群落结构存在差异。一些马铃薯田狗尾草、野黍、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊杂草比重上升,传播蔓延加快。采取农业措施及化学防除相结合的综合防治技术,可有效控制马铃薯田草害发生与危害。%Thirty-two weed species belonging to 18 families were found in potato fields in the northwest of Hebei Prov-ince.The dominant species mainly include Chenopodium album L.,Polygonum aviculare L.,P.convolvulus L.,Fagopy-tum tataricum (L.) Gaertn,Sonchus brachyotus DC.,Saussurea amara,Setaria viridis (L) Beauv,and Eriochloa villosa ( Thunb.) Kunth.Erodium stephanianum Willd.predominated in several individual regions .The most frequent weed in 2012 was S.viridis (42%),followed by E.villosa (9%),E.Stephanianum(19%),F.tataricum(5%),P.convolvulus (3%) and P.aviculare(3%).The structure of weed communities in potato fields varied among years within an ecore-gion or in diverse ecoregions such as sloping land and hummock under wet beach .The proportion of some weeds ,inclu-ding S.viridis,E.villosa,S.arvensis and S.amara is increasing in some potato fields;they are also spreading rapidly . Adopting an integrated management technology ,that is agricultural measures combined with chemical control methods ,can effectively control weeds and prevent their damage in potato fields .

  3. Research on Microbial Amount in Rhizosphere of Pioneer Plant in Reclaimed Core-Mining Subsidence Area%采煤塌陷复垦区先锋植物根际微生物数量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯颖; 丁锦平

    2016-01-01

    采用以空间代替时间的方法,研究了采煤塌陷区复垦后土壤自然演替状况下先锋植物根际微生物数量和组成的变化,探讨不同先锋植物根际微生物变化的特征和规律.结果表明,不同先锋植物其根际微生物的数量不同,其中,复垦1年后的土壤,狗尾草[Setaria viridis(L.)Beauv.]的根际细菌、真菌和放线菌数量及微生物总量均大于刺儿菜[Cirsium setosum Willd.ex MB.]的根际微生物数量,复垦3年后则相反;两种先锋植物根际微生物的数量均随着复垦年限的延长而显著增加,其中,细菌和放线菌数量增加的较快,因此,细菌所占微生物总量的比例随着复垦年限延长而增加,而真菌的比例降低.复垦后土壤上的先锋植物根际效应十分明显,从微生物类群来看,根际效应是真菌>放线菌>细菌,从植物类别来看,复垦1年后的土壤上,先锋植物狗尾草的根际效应大于刺儿菜,但复垦3年后则相反,说明随着物种和时间的变化,根际效应也发生变化.%The method that spatial sequence instead of time successional sequence was applied to analyze the soil microbial amount and composition in rhizosphere of pioneer plant in reclaimed core-mining subsidence area, to explore the change characteristics and law of rhizosphere microorganism of pioneer plant. The results showed that the rhizosphere microorganism quantity varied in different pioneer plants. The quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and total microorganism of Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. was more than that of Cirsium setosum Willd. ex MB. after 1 year of land reclamation, while the quantity was contrary after 3 years of land reclamation. The number of rhizospheric microorganism of two pioneer plants increased sig-nificantly with the extension of reclamation time. Furthermore, the range of increase in bacteria and actinomycetes was larger than that of fungi. Therefore, the percentage of bacteria increased with time, but

  4. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Aves, Trogonidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest A contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Aves, Trogonidae na Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pizo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Trogons are pan-tropical forest birds that eat a mix of fruits and arthropods. With direct observations of wild feeding birds, I assessed the relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus at Parque Estadual Intervales, southeast Brazil. Fruits and arthropods made the bulk of the food items recorded, with a tendency of frugivory increasing with body mass. The Trogon species differed in the proportion of fruits and arthropods taken, with T.viridis being the most frugivorous species (66% of feeding bouts, n = 47. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods did not differ between the wet and dry seasons for any species. In the omnivorous gradient, T.viridis is close to the frugivorous extreme, whereas T.surrucura and T.rufus is next to the insectivorous end. Such a distinction may have important consequences for the territoriality and social behavior of these birds.Os surucuás são aves florestais pantropicais que se alimentam de frutos e artrópodes. Com observações diretas de aves forrageando na natureza, estudei a contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil. Frutos e artrópodes foram os itens mais registrados, com uma tendência do grau de frugivoria aumentar com o aumento da massa corporal da ave. As três espécies diferiram em relação à proporção de frutos e artrópodes de que se alimentam; T.viridisfoi a espécie mais frugívora (66% dos registros, n = 47. As contribuições relativas de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta não diferiram entre as estações seca e úmida para nenhuma das três espécies. A diferença no grau de frugivoria aqui revelada pode ter conseqüências importantes para a territorialidade e organização social dos surucuás.

  5. Use of solaria to predict weed density and floristic composition in no-till cropping systems Uso de solaria na predição da densidade de ervas daninhas e da composição florística no sistema de semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Calviño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a new method, developed for predicting density and floristic composition of weed communities in field crops. Based on the use of solaria (100 mm transparent plastic tarps lying on the soil to stimulate weed seedlings emergence, the method was tested in Tandil, Argentina, from 1998 to 2001. The system involved corn and sunflower in commercial no-till system. Major weeds in the experiments included Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and S. viridis, which accounted for 98% of the weed community in the three years of experiments since 1998. Large numbers of Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album and Ammi majus were present in 2001. Comparison of weed communities under solaria with communities in field crops indicated that the method is useful for predicting the presence and density of some major weed species, at both high and low densities, of individuals in areas of 10 ha using only five solaria. Low density of weed species makes the method particularly useful to help deciding the time for herbicide applications to avoid soil contamination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novo método, desenvolvido para predizer a densidade e a composição florística das comunidades de plantas daninhas. O método é baseado no uso de solaria (plástico transparente de 100 mm sobre o solo, a fim de estimular o aparecimento de ervas daninhas, e foi testado em Tandil, Argentina, de 1998 a 2001. O sistema envolve milho e girassol, em cultivos comerciais em semeadura direta. As principais espécies experimentadas foram Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata e S. viridis, que responderam por 98% da comunidade nos três anos de experiência. Números altos de Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album e Ammi majus estavam presentes em 2001. A comparação de comunidades de ervas daninhas sob solaria com comunidades fora de solaria indicou que o método é útil para predizer a presença e

  6. 苋属4种外来有害杂草在中国的适生区预测%Prediction of potential distribution of four alien invasive Amaranthus weeds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卉; 何兴金

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Potential distribution of Amaranthus retrofiexus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis in China were evaluated to provide the basis for working out the quarantine and control measures. [Method] Two ecological niche models, GARP and Maxent, were used to predict the four Amaranthus weeds' potential distribution areas in China. [Result] It showed that wet days, elevation, minimum temperature, water vapour pressure and slope are key environmental factors affecting their distribution. The model evaluation showed that both models made good prediction results, and Maxent performed better. Based on both models, we predicted that the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. were eastern China, part of northern China, small parts of northwestern and northeastern China, southwestern China except Tibet and west of Sichuan Province, and most area of southern China. [Conclusion] It is suggested that prediction and control measures for the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. should be taken.%[目的]明确反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)、凹苋(A.lividus)、刺苋(A.spinosus),皱果苋(A.viridis)4种有害杂草在中国的适生区,为有效制定检疫措施和防治决策提供依据.[方法]基于4种苋属杂草已有的分布点数据,使用GARP和Maxent两个生态位模型对其在中国的适生区进行预测.[结果]对4种苋属植物适生区影响最大的环境因子主要为雨日频率、海拔、极端低温、水汽压、坡度.模型评价表明,Maxent和GARP两模型对4种杂草的分布均能较好地进行预测,Maxent的结果稍好于GARP.以Maxent为主,GARP作参考,得出苋属4个种在中国的适生区主要集中在华东地区、华北的部分地区、西北和东北的少数地区、除西藏和四川西部以外的西南地区以及中南的大部分地区.[结论]建议相关部门对4种杂草适生区域及其周边做好相应的预警和治理工作.

  7. 国产十四种苋属植物的染色体数目%Chromosome numbers of 14 species in Amaranthus from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋葆华; 张学杰; 李法曾; 万鹏

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, chromosome numbers of 14 species of the genus Amaranthus from China are reported: A. retroflexus 2n=34, A. caudatus 2n=32, A. hybridus 2n=32, A. spinosus 2n=34, A. cruentus 2n=34, A. hypochendriacus 2n=32, A. paniculatus 2n=32, A. roxburghianus 2n=34, A. blitoides 2n=32, A. polygonoides 2n=34, A. albus 2n=32, A. viridis 2n=34, A. lividus 2n=34, A. tricolor 2n=34. The number in A. roxburghianus is reported here for the first time. The basic chromosome numbers in this genus are x=16 and x=17 and both numbers are found in sect. Amaranthus and sect. Blitopsis. The chromosomes in this genus are very small in size, hampering a detailed karyotype analysis.%报道了国产14种苋属植物的染色体数目.部分种的染色体数目为2n=34,即反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus,刺苋A. spinosus,红苋A. cruentus,腋花苋A. roxburghianus,合被苋A. polygonoides,皱果苋A. viridis,凹头苋A. lividus,苋A. tricolor. 其他种的染色体数目为2n=32,即尾穗苋A. caudatus,绿穗苋A. hybridus,千穗谷A. hypochendriacus,繁穗苋A. paniculatus,北美苋A. blitoides,白苋A. albus.其中腋花苋的染色体数目为首次报道.该属染色体基数为x=16,17.两种染色体基数在苋属2个组(sect. Amaranthus和 sect. Blitopsis)中均存在.由于苋属植物染色体大多为小型染色体,因此对苋属植物目前尚不能进行详尽的核型分析.

  8. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of a fungal parasite of coffee scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Doug; Zemenick, Ash T; Malloure, Brian; Quandt, C Alisha; James, Timothy Y

    2016-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii persists in a highly dynamic network of habitat patches (i.e., a metapopulation) formed by its primary host, the green coffee scale Coccus viridis. Lecanicillium lecanii is an important biological control of both C. viridis and the coffee rust, Hemileia vastatrix. Successfully managing this biocontrol agent will depend on an increased understanding of the characteristics of its dispersal, as migration between occupied and unoccupied patches is essential for the persistence of this metapopulation. In the present study, we employ a population genetics approach, and show that in our study system, a coffee farm in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico, L. lecanii is characterized by clear spatial genetic structure among plots within the farm but a lack of apparent structure at smaller scales. This is consistent with dispersal dominated by highly localized transport, such as by insects or rain splash, and less dependence on longer distance dispersal such as wind transport. The study site was dominated by a few multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, and their identities and large-scale locations persist across both study years, suggesting that local epizootics (outbreaks) are initiated each wet season by residual propagules from the previous wet season, and not by long-distance transport of propagules from other sites. The index of association, a measure of linkage disequilibrium, indicates that epizootics are primarily driven by asexual, clonal reproduction, which is consistent with the apparent lack of a teleomorph in the study site and the presence of only a single mating type across the site (MAT-1-2-1). Although the same predominant clonal genotypes were found across years, a drastic difference in genotypic diversity was witnessed across two sites between the two years, suggesting that interclonal selection was occurring. In light of the dispersal limitation of L. lecanii, spatial structure may be an essential axis

  9. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  10. Las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies de Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae en localidades cercanas del norte de Chile Parasite infracommunities of two blennid species, Scartichthys (Pisces: Blenniidae, at nearby localities off northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FLORES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de dos especies congenéricas y simpátridas de peces marinos: Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 y Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876 (Pisces: Blenniidae, en tres localidades del intermareal rocoso de Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' O, norte de Chile, separadas por no más de 6 km, con muestras recolectadas entre agosto y septiembre de 2005. El objetivo fue evaluar la variabilidad de la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad, dominancia y composición en una escala espacial y temporal reducida. En total, se recolectaron 2.110 individuos parásitos en los 134 hospedadores examinados, los que pertenecían a 14 taxa. Se encontró una gran similitud en la composición y en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades, tanto entre especies de hospedadores como entre sitios de estudio. Se interpreta que las condiciones ambientales, los factores ecológicos como el uso del habitat y de los recursos alimentarios, y los factores evolutivos como el alto grado de parentesco de estas especies de Scartichthys, son las principales influencias en la alta similitud parasitaria encontrada.The infracommunities of metazoan parasites in two congeneric and sympatric marine fish species, Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes 1836 and Scartichthys gigas (Steindachner 1876, were studied and compared between three localities of the intertidal rocky shore off the coast of northern Chile, near Iquique (20°32' S, 70°11' W, which were separated by no more than 6 km. Samples were collected between August and September 2005. The goal of this study was to assess the variability in richness, abundance, diversity, dominance and parasite composition between close localities sampled within a short period. In all, 2,110 parasite individuals were collected from the 134 hosts examined, and 14 parasite taxa were identified. There was great similarity in the aggregated and compositional properties of the infracommunities, both between

  11. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of a fungal parasite of coffee scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Doug; Zemenick, Ash T; Malloure, Brian; Quandt, C Alisha; James, Timothy Y

    2016-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii persists in a highly dynamic network of habitat patches (i.e., a metapopulation) formed by its primary host, the green coffee scale Coccus viridis. Lecanicillium lecanii is an important biological control of both C. viridis and the coffee rust, Hemileia vastatrix. Successfully managing this biocontrol agent will depend on an increased understanding of the characteristics of its dispersal, as migration between occupied and unoccupied patches is essential for the persistence of this metapopulation. In the present study, we employ a population genetics approach, and show that in our study system, a coffee farm in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico, L. lecanii is characterized by clear spatial genetic structure among plots within the farm but a lack of apparent structure at smaller scales. This is consistent with dispersal dominated by highly localized transport, such as by insects or rain splash, and less dependence on longer distance dispersal such as wind transport. The study site was dominated by a few multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, and their identities and large-scale locations persist across both study years, suggesting that local epizootics (outbreaks) are initiated each wet season by residual propagules from the previous wet season, and not by long-distance transport of propagules from other sites. The index of association, a measure of linkage disequilibrium, indicates that epizootics are primarily driven by asexual, clonal reproduction, which is consistent with the apparent lack of a teleomorph in the study site and the presence of only a single mating type across the site (MAT-1-2-1). Although the same predominant clonal genotypes were found across years, a drastic difference in genotypic diversity was witnessed across two sites between the two years, suggesting that interclonal selection was occurring. In light of the dispersal limitation of L. lecanii, spatial structure may be an essential axis

  12. Weed Species in Pennisetum alopecuroides Meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang%贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草种类调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 张菊; 王威力; 王平; 袁莉; 徐刚; 黄剑

    2015-01-01

    Weed species in P .alopecuroides meadow were investigated by using the inverted W-pattern with 9 sampling method to understand weed occurrence status in P .alopecuroides meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang.The results showed that there are 33 species of weeds belonged to 13 families,and 14 Asteraceae weeds, 5 Gramineae weeds, 3 Amaranthaceae weeds and 2 Labiatae weeds account for 42.42%,15.15%、9.09% and 6.06% respectively.Dominant weeds with relative abundance > 5% are Sonchus brachyotus ,Galinsoga parviflora , Digitaria sanguinalis , Siegesbeckia orientalis , Bidens pilosa ,Artemisia argyi ,Lamium amplexicaule ,Cyperus rotundus ,Setaira viridis ,Ixeris debilis , Chenopodium album ,Pinellia ternate ,Ixeris chinensis ,Capsicum frutescens ,Reigeron annuus ,Oxalis corniculata ,Capsella bursa-pastoris ,Cirsium segetum ,Var .indica,Amaranthus viridis and Fallopia multiflora .S.brachyotus,G.parviflora,D.sanguinalis and S.orientalis,are dominant populations in local P .alopecuroides meadow.%为了解贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草发生情况,为其杂草防除提供依据,采用倒“W”9点取样法对其进行调查。结果表明:狼尾草地的杂草共有13科33种。其中,菊科最多,有14种,占42.42%;禾本科、苋科、唇形花科分别有5种、3种 和 2 种,各占15.15%、9.09%和6.06%;其余科各1种,各占3.03%。相对多度>5%的优势杂草有苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐、豨莶、鬼针草、艾草、宝盖草、莎草、狗尾巴草、剪刀股、藜、半夏、山苦荬、辣椒、一年蓬、酢浆草、荠菜、小蓟、马兰、野苋和何首乌。其中,苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐和豨莶为当地狼尾草地的优势种群。

  13. Calosotinae and Neanastatinae in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, with descriptions of new species and a supplementary note on Brasema Cameron, 1884 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew, R. R.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognized as occurring in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands are nine species of Calosota, seven species of Eusandalum and one species of Pentacladia in Calosotinae, and one species each of Metapelma and Neanastatus in Neanastatinae. Taxonomic and biological data, keys to species of Calosota and Eusandulum, and descriptions of two new species of Calosota are provided. The following new synonymies are proposed: Calosota fumipennis Bolívar under C. aestivalis Curtis, C. lixobia Erdös under C. obscura Ruschka, C. matritensis Bolívar and C. modesta Bolívar under C. viridis Masi. A supplementary note on Brasema (Eupelminae in Spain is appended with Brasema ephedricola Askew synonymized under Brasema stenos (Boucek (new combination.

    Se revisan las especies de la Península Ibérica e Islas Canarias de las subfamilias Calosotinae y Neanastatinae (Eupelmidae. En Calosotinae se reconocen nueve especies de Calosota, siete de Eusandalum y una de Pentacladia, mientras que Neanastatinae incluye una especie de Metapelma y una de Neanastatus. Se aportan datos taxonómicos y biológicos, claves de identificación de las especies de Calosota y Eusandalum, y se describen dos especies nuevas para la ciencia de Calosota. Se proponen las siguientes sinonimias: Calosota fumipennis Bolívar con C aestivalis Curtis, C. lixobia Erdös con C. obscura Ruschka; C. matritensis Bolívar y C. modesta Bolívar con C. viridis Masi. Finalmente se añade una nota suplementaria sobre Brasema (Eupelminae y Brasema ephedricola Askew se sinonimiza con Brasema stenus (Boucek (combinación nueva.

  14. Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae – review of the New World and European fauna including revision of species from the West Indies and Central and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Gibson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus eneubulus (Walker, comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA, Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA, Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA, Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama, Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA, and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA. The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker, syn. n., and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan, syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a synonym

  15. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  16. Ayahuasca: uma abordagem toxicológica do uso ritualístico Ayahuasca: a toxicological approach of the ritualistic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Meres Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O chá da Ayahuasca vem sendo utilizado milenarmente por índios da América do Sul,como instrumento espiritual e ritual, com extrema religiosidade. No século passado surgiram seitas não-indígenas, que passaram a fazer uso do chá. Essa utilização vem aumentando desde a liberação do uso da Ayahuasca para fins religiosos no Brasil. A ação do chá deve-se à presença de alcalóides nas plantas utilizadas na sua preparação: o cipó Banisteriopsis caapi e as folhas do arbusto Psycotria viridis. Os efeitos observados são: alucinações, hipertensão, taquicardia, náuseas, vômitos e diarréia. Estas ações podem causar efeitos mais sérios ao organismo e, portanto, merecem maior atenção dos profissionais da saúde, no sentido de que se promovam estudos que possam permitir a utilização religiosa do chá sem maiores danos biológicos e para a conscientização dos usuários sobre os possíveis efeitos tóxicos destas substâncias.The Ayahuasca tea has been used for more than a thousand years by the Indians of South America, as a spiritual and ritualistic instrument, for religious purposes. Non-Indians sects have arose in the last century, and started to use the tea. This utilization is increasing since the legalization of the Ayahuasca for religious use in Brazil. The effect of the tea is caused by the presence of alkaloids in the plants used in its preparation: the Banisteriopsis caapi liana, and the leaves of Psycotria viridis shrub. The effects observed are: hallucination, hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. These actions may cause more serious damage to the organism, and therefore deserve more attention from the health professionals, because even for strickly religious use the tea may cause higher biological damage and therefore, the users should be made aware of the possible toxic effects of these substances.

  17. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Brutto Sabrina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus

  18. Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David L; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Many drylands, including the south-western United States, are projected to become more water-limited as these regions become warmer and drier with climate change. Such chronic drought may push individual species or plant functional types beyond key thresholds leading to reduced growth or even mortality. Indeed, recent observational and experimental evidence from the Colorado Plateau suggests that C3 grasses are the most vulnerable to chronic drought, while C4 grasses and C3 shrubs appear to have greater resistance.The effects of chronic, or press-drought are predicted to begin at the physiological level and translate up to higher hierarchical levels. To date, the drought resistance of C4grasses and C3 shrubs in this region has been only evaluated at the community level and thus we lack information on whether there are sensitivities to drought at lower hierarchical levels. In this study, we tested the apparent drought resistance of three dominant species (Pleuraphis jamesii, a C4 rhizomatous grass; Coleogyne ramosissima, a C3 drought-deciduous shrub; and Ephedra viridis, a C3 evergreen shrub) to an ongoing experimental press-drought (-35% precipitation) by comparing individual-level responses (ecophysiology and growth dynamics) to community-level responses (plant cover).For all three species, we observed consistent responses across all hierarchical levels:P. jamesii was sensitive to drought across all measured variables, while the shrubsC. ramosissima and E. viridis had little to no responses to the experimental press-drought at any given level.Synthesis. Our findings suggest that the apparent drought resistance at higher hierarchical levels, such as cover, may serve as good proxies for lower-level responses. Furthermore, it appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future

  19. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  20. Cryopreservation of 3 golden algae (Chrysophyta) used as feed in mariculture%3种饵料金藻的超低温保存研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王起华; 石若夫; 程爱华

    1999-01-01

    用两步冷冻法研究绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridis)、湛江等鞭金藻(Isochrysis zhanjiangensis)、球等鞭金藻(I.galbana 3011)的超低温保存(液氮,-196℃),探讨了影响存活率的内、外因素.结果表明,降温速率0.7℃/min,预冻温度-40℃,预冻时间30min时可获得较高的存活率.15%DMSO或15%DMSO+10%蔗糖是良好的抗冻保护剂.某些藻类在生长静止期或在低于最适温度下培养时可显著提高其存活率.通过控制内、外条件,3种金藻的存活率都可达到30%以上,比以往的报道有显著提高.

  1. Cryopreservation of Three Golden Algae Used as Food in Mariculture by Encapsulation-dehydration%包埋脱水法冰冻保存3种饵料金藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺; 王起华; 李婷婷; 刘艳萍

    2005-01-01

    用包埋脱水法冰冻保存绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridis)、湛江等鞭藻(Isochrysis zhanjiangensis)和球等鞭金藻(Isochrysis galbana 3011)3种海洋饵料金藻,探讨了胶球含水量和预培养对冰冻保存存活率的影响.结果表明:3种藻冰冻前胶球的最佳含水量不同,绿色巴夫藻为35%,湛江等鞭藻和球等鞭金藻都为30%;预培养后3种藻都在20%含水量获得最高存活率,其中绿色巴夫藻经2%PEG预培养后存活率提高了6%,效果好于5%PVP预培养.预培养对其他两种藻的存活率没有提高.

  2. Hidden in Plain Sight: How Ventral Line Markings in Chameleons May Enhance Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetarits, Emlyn J; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Chameleons, lizards often synonymous with camouflage for their color-changing abilities, possess a variety of permanent coloration patterns whose evolutionary significance remains largely unknown. In this study, we explore the potential for white ventral line markings in species across the genus Chamaeleonidae to function as a camouflage pattern against diurnal predators. Diurnal behavioral field studies of the white-lined chameleon Furcifer viridis showed that individuals typically exposed ventral line markings during the characteristic ring-flip antipredator behavior in response to a predatory threat. These ventral line markings are largely inconspicuous in other postures. Comparative morphological analyses of 86 species found that there was a significant positive correlation between ventral line markings with arboreal habitat type, even when accounting for phylogeny. These results suggest that ventral line markings (and the ring-flip behavior) could act as a disruptive or mimetic coloration marking for arboreal chameleons against visual diurnal predators. Further work testing differential predation rates is necessary in order to verify the proposed function of these line markings. PMID:26807752

  3. Thirteen new records of marine invertebrates and two of fishes from Cape Verde Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Actinoporus elegans Duchassaing, 1850 and Anthothoe affinis (Johnson, 1861 are new records from Cape Verde Islands. Also new to the marine fauna of Cape Verde are an undescribed mysid species of the genus Heteromysis that lives in associationwith the polychaete Branchiomma nigromaculata, the shrimp Tulearicoaris neglecta Chace, 1969 that lives in association with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum, an undescribed nudibranch of the genus Hypselodoris, and two undescribed species of the parasitic gastropod genus Melanella and Melanella cf. eburnea. An undescribedplathelmint of the genus Pseudobiceros, the nudibranch Phyllidia flava (Aradas, 1847 and the parasitic gastropod Echineulima leucophaes (Tomlin & Shackleford, 1913 are recorded, based on colour photos taken in the field. The crab Nepinnotheres viridis Manning, 1993 was encountered in the bivalve Pseudochama radians, which represents the first host record for this pinnotherid species. The nudibranch Tambja anayana, previously only known from a single animal, was reencountered and photographed alive. The sea anemone Actinoporus elegans, previously only known from the western Atlantic, is also reported here from São Tomé Island. In addition, the bythiid fish Grammonus longhursti and an undescribed species of the genus Apletodon are recorded from the Cape Verde Islands for the first time.

  4. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  5. 宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类普查与防治技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠; 李明; 温淑红; 安钰; 张清云

    2011-01-01

    通过大面积普查和小样方调查的方式,对宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类、防治现状等做了1次普查分析,共普查到27科76属119种杂草.其中,种类最多的是禾本科(Gramineae)杂草,有32种;菊科(Compositae)次之,有19种;藜科(Chenopodiaceae)14种.杂草密度在3级以上的有31种,占杂草总种教的26.05%,是人工防除的重点.在灌溉移栽的甘草药剂除草试验田中,危害最严重的为菊科的猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)和丝叶山苦荬(lxeris chinensis var.graminifolia),试验所选除草剂对菊科杂草无效,但时灰藜(Chenopodium album)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、猪毛菜(Salsola collina)、白草(Pennisetum centrasiaticum)等恶性杂草防效明显.同时,提出了放牧除草、机械除草、施肥、防虫等简单有效的防控措施.

  6. 兰州引黄灌区小麦田杂草群落及其生态位研究%Weed communities and eco-niches in wheat fields of the Yellow River irrigation zone of Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽荣; 蔺海明; 李荣

    2008-01-01

    通过田间调查,并结合生态位理论和方法对不同栽培条件下兰州引黄灌区小麦田主要杂草群落组成及生态位特征进行研究.结果表明:小麦田主要杂草种类有打碗花(Calystegia hederacea )、藜(Chenopodium album )、刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos segetum)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea )、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus )、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、苣荬菜(Sonchus brachyotus)和萹蓄(Polygonum aviculare).藜时间、水平、垂直生态位宽度值最高,是群落中的优势杂草;其次是打碗花,为主要杂草;且藜与打碗花的时间、水平、垂直生态位重叠值比较大.研究表明小麦田杂草群落存在潜在的变化因素,随着农田环境的变化,会导致农田杂草群落发生变化.

  7. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  8. Rapid screening and identification of phenolic antioxidants in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, R; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to identify the phenolic compounds present in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (HS), Centella asiatica (CA) and Amaranthus viridis (AV) extracts and investigate their respective antioxidant activities. Herein, an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) analytical method has been developed for the separation, and systematic characterization of the phenolic compounds in HS, CA and AV extracts and was compared along with ten standard phenolic compounds. Additionally, in vitro antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was also determined. The HS extract revealed excellent antioxidant activity such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC50=19.7 ± 1.2 μg/mL), total reduction capability (0.169 ± 0.003 at 100 μg/mL), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=39.33 ± 3.2 μg/mL), metal chelating activity (IC50=56.51 ± 3.6 μg/mL) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50=12.34 ± 2.3 μg/mL) as compared to CA and AV extracts. Furthermore, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid were found to be the major components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the HS extract as evidenced from UPLC-MS/MS. Taken together, this study demonstrates the promising antioxidant properties of the HS extract, which can further be utilized in various pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural applications. PMID:26948646

  9. Phytotoxicity of umbelliferone and its analogs: Structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Le; Li, Xiu-Zhuang; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Hong-Ru; Qin, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Two coumarins, umbelliferone and daphnoretin, were isolated from roots of Stellera chamaejasme L; the former had been identified as one of the main allelochemicals in our previous studies. Both of them have the skeleton of 7-hydroxycoumarin, but showed different phytotoxic effects. Umbelliferone and its analogs were then prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationship of hydroxycoumarins and screened for phytotoxicity. The inhibitory effects varied observably in response to the coumarin derivatives, especially umbelliferone (1), 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (3) and coumarin (10) displayed strong inhibition of lettuce and two field weeds, Setaria viridis and Amaranthus retroflexus, and compounds 11 and 12 also exhibited phytotoxic activity with species specificity. The number and location of hydroxyl groups were importantly responsible for the phytotoxicity. A C7 hydroxyl group was considered to be a potentially active site and methyl substitution at the C4 position contributed significantly to the activity. The phytotoxic mechanism was briefly studied with umbelliferone by evaluating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chlorophylls level in lettuce seedlings. The results showed that umbelliferone induced the accumulation of ROS in the root tip and significantly decreased the chlorophyll content in the leaves. Thus, a ROS-mediated regulation pathway and the inhibition of photosynthesis were definitely involved in the phytotoxicity of umbelliferone. PMID:26509496

  10. Efeito de extratos de cascas de café e de arroz na emergência e no crescimento do caruru-de-mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Julio Cesar Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar influências dos extratos aquosos de cascas de café e de arroz na emergência e no crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha (Amaranthus viridis L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial (2x2x5, sendo dois tipos de casca, em dois solos (lavoura de café e terra de barranco e cinco concentrações dos extratos (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20%. Extratos aquosos de cascas de café e de arroz, nas concentrações entre 10 e 20%, proporcionaram, respectivamente, maior estímulo e inibição na emergência. O extrato de casca de café proporcionou maior crescimento inicial e massa da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, enquanto a velocidade e a porcentagem de emergência foram mais inibidas por extrato de casca de arroz.

  11. The curious case of Neotroglocarcinus dawydoffi (Decapoda, Cryptochiridae): unforeseen biogeographic patterns resulting from isolation

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E.T.

    2014-09-09

    © 2014 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. Coral gall crabs form a commonly overlooked component of the associated fauna of shallow-water reef corals and therefore little is known about their ecology and biogeography. This study investigated the biogeography and phylogenetic position of the informal Detocarcini species group within the Cryptochiridae. We used molecular data for two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S) obtained from gall crabs covering (part of) a wide geographic range: the Red Sea, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Caledonia. Our phylogeny reconstructions portrayed the Detocarcini as paraphyletic within the monophyletic Cryptochiridae. A phylogeographic clustering was noticed in Neotroglocarcinus dawydoffi that was absent in its sister species, N. hongkongensis, and the closely related species Pseudocryptochirus viridis. A Neighbour Network was estimated for the N. dawydoffi dataset to visualize the similarity between sequences from different biogeographic areas, resulting in three groupings: (1) New Caledonia with Lembeh/Ternate (eastern Indonesia), (2) Semporna/Kudat (eastern Malaysia), and (3) Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Cryptic speciation rather than isolation is discussed and rejected as an alternative explanation for the observed biogeographic pattern.

  12. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  13. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spehar Carlos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.

  14. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  15. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  16. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  17. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiurong; LIU Huihui; CHEIN Kwan Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55μg/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml-4.96 μg/ ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μg/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24 μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kondoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4-12) types of fatty acids.

  18. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors.

  19. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  20. De novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome of Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta), a distromatic blade-forming green macroalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, James Theodore; Lopez-Bautista, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    We present the 61 614 bp circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva fasciata. Fifty-eight genes were identified including 29 protein-coding genes, 27 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Four ORFs from the Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mitogenome were conserved compared to the mitogenome of Ulva fasciata. The ∼10 000 bp size difference was mostly due to fewer introns found in U. fasciata mtDNA (4) as compared with the Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mtDNA (10). Introns were annotated in cox1 (3) and nad3 (1). The AT content was similar to Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mtDNA at 67.5%. A phylogenomic anaylsis of 28 chlorophytes and 17 protein-coding genes (14 115 bp alignment) showed that U. fasciata clusters closely with other members of the Ulvophyceae (Ulva sp. UNA00071828, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Oltmannsiellopsis viridis). This analysis did not recover a monophyletic Ulvophyceae, however, the Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae were supported as monophyletic groups. PMID:26369927

  1. Natural radioactivity and effective dose due to the bottom sea and estuaries marine animals in the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is among the countries with the highest fish consumption in the world and relies on seafood as a main source of animal protein. Thus, the radioactivity in the mostly consumed marine animals such as fishes, crustaceans and molluscs collected from the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia has been determined to monitor the level of human exposure by natural radiation via seafood consumption. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra (238U), 228Ra (232Th) and 40K ranged from 0.67 ± 0.19 Bq kg-1 (Perna viridis) to 1.20 ± 0.70 Bq kg-1 (Rastrelliger), from 0.19 ± 0.17 Bq kg-1 (Teuthida) to 0.82 ± 0.67 Bq kg-1 (Caridea) and from 34 ± 13 Bq kg-1 (Caridea) to 48 ± 24 Bq kg-1 (Teuthida), respectively. The mean annual committed effective dose due to the individual radionuclides shows an order of 228Ra > 226Ra > 40K in all marine samples. The obtained doses are less than the global internal dose of 290 μSv y-1 set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, discarding any significant radiological risks to the populace of Peninsular Malaysia. (authors)

  2. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  3. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant communities of International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill had low number of plant species as related to control area. Importance value index of all the species were determined. Senna holosericea (Fresen. Greuter, Corchorus depressus (L. Stocks and Amaranthus viridis L. were found in all the communities whereas, Corchorus trilocularis L. and Abutilon indicum (L. Sweet were present in industrial areas. A relationship between soil characteristics and plant communities of the industries of Landhi and control site were conducted. Industrial plant communities have low level of water holding capacity and organic matter and high concentrations of total soluble salts and available sulfate as relative to soil of plant community of control area. The research demonstrated that the plant species were retarded in numbers due to soil pollution as compared to control area of Karachi University Campus due to industrial existing contamination and pollution in soil in the area

  4. 细菌DC10的溶藻作用及环境因子对该作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史顺玉; 刘永定; 沈银武; 李根保

    2004-01-01

    从云南滇池分离获得溶藻细菌DC10, 该菌属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.), 它能强烈地溶解绿色微囊藻(Microcystis viridis, FACHB 102)等6种蓝藻及月芽藻 (Selenastrum capricornutum, FACHB 271) 等2种绿藻. 试验发现, 该菌通过分泌某种物质来溶解藻类, 较低的温度以及黑暗条件有利于细菌溶藻, 不同浓度的氯化钙、硝酸钠对该菌的溶藻作用有一定影响; 不同pH条件下, 溶藻作用的强弱依次为: pH 4 > pH 9 > pH 7 > pH 5.5. 发展利用该菌进行水华控制的技术具有现实意义.

  5. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  6. Identification of toxigenic Cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis in the Curonian Lagoon (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, O. I.; Dmitrieva, O. A.; Gladkikh, A. S.; Sorokovikova, E. G.

    2013-02-01

    In 2002-2008, seasonal (April-November) monitoring of the phytoplankton in the Russian part of the Curonian Lagoon at five fixed sites was performed. A total of 91 Cyanobacteria, 100 Bacillariophyta, 280 Chlorophyta, 21 Cryptophyta, and 24 Dinophyta species were found. Six potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Anabaena sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, M. viridis, M. wesenbergii, and Planktothrix agardhii dominated the phytoplankton biomass and caused water blooms. The seasonal average phytoplankton biomass ranged from 30 to 137 g/m3. The cyanobacteria's biomass varied from 10 to 113 g/m3 forming 30-82% of the total with a mean of 50%. With the aid of genetic markers (microcystin ( mcy) and nodularin synthetases), six variants of the microcystin-producing gene mcyE from the genus Microcystis were identified. Due to the intensive and lengthy blooms of potentially toxic and toxigenic cyanobacteria, the environmental conditions in the Curonian Lagoon appear unfavorable. The water should be monitored for cyanotoxins with analytical methods in order to determine if the area is safe for recreational use.

  7. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  8. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  9. A Preliminary Study of Herbaceous Vegetation Succession on the Abandoned Farmland at Water Catchment Region of Central Route for South-to-North Water Diversion Project%南水北调中线水源区弃耕地草本植被演替初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海峰; 彭鸿; 陈存根; 张小林; 廖纯艳

    2005-01-01

    以南水北调中线水源区不同年限的退耕弃荒地为研究对象,分析了其草本植被恢复阶段的群落学特征,用聚类分析和极点排序的方法对各群落类型进行了划分,探讨了其自然演替规律,并对弃耕地植被恢复的一般机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明,草本植被恢复演替过程可明显分为以下几个阶段:荠菜(Capsella bursa-pastoris)+铁苋菜(Acalypha australis)+小白酒草(Conyza canadensis)群落(退耕1年);小白酒草(Conyza canadensis)+灰绿藜(Chenopodium glaucum)群落(退耕2年);艾蒿(Artemisia argyi)+小白酒草(Conyza canadensis)+猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)群落(退耕3~6年);白茅(Imperata cylindrica)+牛尾蒿(Artemisia subdigitata)+野艾蒿(Artemisia lavandulaefolia)+狗尾草(Setaria viridis)群落(退耕7~12年+).退耕3年时群落已经趋于稳定,草本植被基本上得到恢复.

  10. The Creation Research of HNPC-A8169: A Novel Phenoxycarboxylic Acid Herbicide%芳氧苯氧羧酸除草剂HNPC-A8169的创制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄路; 何海军; 刘祈星; 雷满香; 余淑英; 任叶果; 欧晓明; 黄明智; 柳爱平

    2011-01-01

    HNPC-A8169 is a novel phenoxycarboxylic acid herbicide with intellectual properties, which was designed and created according to the prodrug theory using a new novel intermediate propynyloxy hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Through three years' greenhouse and field trials, HNPC-A8169 shows good efficacy for preventing and killing of some monocotyledons, such as digitaria sanguinalis, setaria viridis and echinochloa crus-galli, at the dose of 15-75 g a.I./hm2. HNPC-A8169 has also been proved to be safe to some dicotyledons, such as rapeseed, cotton and peanuts, or some mondcotyledons such as wheat.%利用自主设计、合成的新型炔氧羟胺盐酸盐新型中间体,根据前药理论创制出新型芳氧苯氧丙酸类新型除草剂HNPC-A80169.3年的温室实验结果表明,HNPC-A8169在15~75 ga.i./hm2剂量下,能有效防除马唐、狗尾、稗等禾本科杂草,对阔叶作物如油菜、棉花、花生等和某些禾本科作物如小麦安全.

  11. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m and 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species. (author)

  12. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: E. dejeani and E. circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of E. dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata is described. Only E. dejeani consumed T. vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  13. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  14. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lorena Carro; Petar Pujic; Martha E Trujillo; Phillipe Normand

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants have been found in eight genera belonging to three orders (Fagales, Rosales and Cucurbitales). These all bear root nodules inhabited by bacteria identified as the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. These nodules all have a peripheral cortex with enlarged cells filled with Frankia hyphae and vesicles. Isolation in pure culture has been notoriously difficult, due in a large part to the growth of fast-growing contaminants where, it was later found, Frankia was slow-growing. Many of these contaminants, which were later found to be Micromonospora, were obtained from Casuarina and Coriaria. Our study was aimed at determining if Micromonospora were also present in other actinorhizal plants. Nodules from Alnus glutinosa, Alnus viridis, Coriaria myrtifolia, Elaeagnus x ebbingei, Hippophae rhamnoides, Myrica gale and Morella pensylvanica were tested and were all found to contain Micromonospora isolates. These were found to belong to mainly three species: Micromonospora lupini, Micromonospora coriariae and Micromonospora saelicesensis. Micromonospora isolates were found to inhibit some Frankia strains and to be innocuous to other strains.

  15. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  16. Pathogenicity of P. terrestris on Maize Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of P. terrestris was determined by the Knop’s medium slants method intest tubes. Isolates originated from the roots of maize (Zea mays L., barley (Hordeum vulgareL., Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense Pers., sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L. Moench., garlic(Allium sativum L., onion (Allium cepa L., barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.Beauv.and green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P.B.. A fragment of a fungal colony, cultivated on PDA,was placed on the bottom of Knop’s medium slant in each test tube and then steriliseda maize seed was placed 2 cm away from the inoculum. After 21-day inoculation of seeds,the intensity of the development of symptoms on maize seedlings was estimated. The reddishor dark pigment on the root, mesocotyl and/or coleoptyl of seedlings was an indicatorfor the infection by the fungus under in vitro conditions. Based on the pathogenicity test,the isolates were classified into the following three groups: slightly (3 isolates, moderately(6 isolates and very pathogenic (6 isolates to maize seedlings. The obtained results showthat P. terrestris, originating from different hosts, can be a maize pathogen. These resultscan explain the high frequency and high incidence of this fungus on maize roots in Serbia.

  17. Modeling the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls in two mussel species with theoretical molecular descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU MingZhu; LIU XinHui; WANG Liang; WU Dan; SUN Tao; YANG ZhiFeng; CUI BaoShan

    2009-01-01

    Using theoretical molecular descriptors as well as partial least squares (PLS) regression,two quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed for depuration rate constants (kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two species of mussels,Perna viridis and Dreissena polymorpha.Thecross-validated Q2cum (an indicator of fitting of goodness) values for the two models are 0.501 and 0.756,and the standard deviation (SO) is 0.084 and 0.076,respectively.The achievement of satisfactory Q2cumand low SD values indicates good predictive ability and precision of the two models.The significant descriptors governing Igkd include polarizability (a),molecular volume (/Mv),molecular weight (Mw),molecular surface area (S),and total energy (TE).The key descriptors in the models reflect that van der Waals interactions play a dominant role in the depuration of PCBs.The depuration of PCBs in the two mussel species may be mainly attributed to the biota-water phase partitioning processes.

  18. Modeling the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls in two mussel species with theoretical molecular descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using theoretical molecular descriptors as well as partial least squares(PLS) regression,two quantitative structure-activity relationship(QSAR) models were developed for depuration rate constants(kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in two species of mussels,Perna viridis and Dreissena polymorpha.The cross-validated Q2cum(an indicator of fitting of goodness) values for the two models are 0.501 and 0.756,and the standard deviation(SD) is 0.084 and 0.076,respectively.The achievement of satisfactory Q2cum and low SD values indicates good predictive ability and precision of the two models.The significant descriptors governing lgkd include polarizability(α),molecular volume(MV),molecular weight(Mw),molecular surface area(S),and total energy(TE).The key descriptors in the models reflect that van der Waals interactions play a dominant role in the depuration of PCBs.The depuration of PCBs in the two mussel species may be mainly attributed to the biota-water phase partitioning processes.

  19. (Structure and function in photosynthetic membranes and their components). Annual progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Structure and function are being studied in photosynthetic membranes and their components, principally with Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. That bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) can have a strongly shifted absorption maximum in the membrane, without the involvement of excitonic Bchl-Bchl interactions was demonstrated. The orientations of pigments in the membrane are being determined, and the orientations of four distinguishable carotenoid components are under investigation. These studies provide data for computations of energy transfer and electron tunneling, and may bear on the mechanism of the electrogenic shifts of the absorption bands of carotenoids. New complexities in the absorption spectra of cytochromes were discovered, and new data concerning the distribution of carotenoids between antenna and reaction centers (RCs) in the membrane, and possible differences in their isomeric configuration were obtained. Antenna pigment-protein complexes and mutant phenotypes obtained elsewhere have been characterized. A corrected interpretation of the action of orthophenanthroline as an inhibitor of electron transport was presented. Analyses of RCs from Rp. viridis raised the possibility that the bound cytochromes Cyt 552 and Cyt 558 might consist of hemes attached to the RC protein. In collaboration with researchers at Harvard, an unusual temperature dependence for photoconversion of allophycocyanin isolated from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was found that has led to a stringent test of whether the photoconvertible allophycocyanin mediates chromatic adaptation in these organisms. Some theoretical studies of the problems that may arise in constructing solar cells from natural or artificial RCs have been conducted. (ERB)

  20. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668