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Sample records for antichloris viridis druce

  1. Distribución de los inmaduros de Antichloris viridis Druce, 1884 en la planta de plátano (Musa AAB, sub grupo plátano, cv. Hartón) en el sur del lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Liscano, O.A.; Domínguez Gil, O

    2005-01-01

    Para determinar la distribución de Antichloris viridis, en la planta de plátano, se seleccionaron dos plantaciones comerciales, en los municipios Francisco Javier Pulgar y Colón del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se clasificaron los estados de desarrollo de las plantas (GD) en seis grados de acuerdo al número de hojas y el estado fisiológico de la planta. Se determinó el % de defoliación y la presencia de huevos, larvas pequeñas, medianas y grandes y pupas por hoja. Se delimitaron tres estratos por...

  2. Primeiro registro de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae em frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae. First record of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae feed on fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae.

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    Édson Possidônio TEIXEIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, atacando frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, desde o início do desenvolvimento até a sua dispersão, no Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S e 46º36’W, localizado nos municípios de Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã e São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.It is registered for the first time the occurrence of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae attacking fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, since the beginning of development until its dispersion, at Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S and 46º36’W, located in the Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã and São Paulo counties, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  3. Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpene Ester Derivatives from Alnus viridis ssp. viridis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Miroslav; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Veselinovic, Jovana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vidakovic, Vera; Tesevic, Vele; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2017-05-26

    Seven derivatives of pentacyclic triterpene acids (1-7) were isolated from the bark of Alnus viridis ssp. viridis using a combination of column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 were determined to be new after spectroscopic data interpretation and were assigned as 27-hydroxyalphitolic acid derivatives (1-3), a 27-hydroxybetulinic acid derivative (6), and a 3-epi-maslinic acid derivative (7), respectively. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with a C-27 hydroxymethyl group have been found in species of the genus Alnus for the first time. These compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity testing against a number of cancer cell lines. Also, selected pentacyclic triterpenoids were selected as potential inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIα for an in silico investigation.

  4. Accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium on the development of mangrove plant Kandelia candel (L. Druce

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    Kazi Shakila Islam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed for investigating accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium (Cr on the development of the mangrove seedling Kandelia candel (L. Druce. Seedlings treated with increasing concentrations of CrCl3 solution (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg L-1, respectively were grown in a basic nutrient solution for three months. The five month old seedlings were harvested for the experiment. This study showed that Cr treatment significantly decreased growth of K. candel in terms of seedling height, leaf number and total biomass. At the highest 3 mg L-1 Cr exposure, there was a 34.47% decrease in final seedling height, 68.95% decrease in leaf number and a 60.65% decrease in total biomass. The present study demonstrates that Cr accumulation ability of K. candel seedlings increased with the increase of treatment strength up to certain level. The concentrations of Cr in root, hypocotyl, stem and leaf ranged from 22.87 to 1.43 mg kg-1, 1.30 to 0.68 mg kg-1, 2.42 to 0.91 mg kg-1, and 1.74 to 0.74 mg kg-1, respectively. When comparing Cr concentration in different plant parts with respect to their controls, the results showed that treated plant root bioaccumulated high amounts of Cr. Almost 80% of Cr was accumulated mainly in roots. The distribution pattern of Cr in K. candel was Root > Stem > Leaf > Hypocotyl. Our findings indicated that the high concentration of Cr supply may interfere with several metabolic processes of seedlings, causing toxicity to plants as exhibited by chlorosis, necrosis, and finally, plant death.

  5. Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory Studies of Its Accumulation, Depuration and Distribution. ... coefficient, indicating that it could act as one of the excretion routes for Hg and it can be proposed as a sensitive biomonitoring material for Hg. The fecal materials released by the mussel had elevated ...

  6. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  7. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, ...

  8. Population genetics of Setaria viridis, a new model system.

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    Huang, Pu; Feldman, Maximilian; Schroder, Stephan; Bahri, Bochra A; Diao, Xianmin; Zhi, Hui; Estep, Matt; Baxter, Ivan; Devos, Katrien M; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    An extensive survey of the standing genetic variation in natural populations is among the priority steps in developing a species into a model system. In recent years, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), along with its domesticated form foxtail millet (S. italica), has rapidly become a promising new model system for C4 grasses and bioenergy crops, due to its rapid life cycle, large amount of seed production and small diploid genome, among other characters. However, remarkably little is known about the genetic diversity in natural populations of this species. In this study, we survey the genetic diversity of a worldwide sample of more than 200 S. viridis accessions, using the genotyping-by-sequencing technique. Two distinct genetic groups in S. viridis and a third group resembling S. italica were identified, with considerable admixture among the three groups. We find the genetic variation of North American S. viridis correlates with both geography and climate and is representative of the total genetic diversity in this species. This pattern may reflect several introduction/dispersal events of S. viridis into North America. We also modelled demographic history and show signal of recent population decline in one subgroup. Finally, we show linkage disequilibrium decay is rapid (<45 kb) in our total sample and slow in genetic subgroups. These results together provide an in-depth understanding of the pattern of genetic diversity of this new model species on a broad geographic scale. They also provide key guidelines for on-going and future work including germplasm preservation, local adaptation, crossing designs and genomewide association studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Optimization of Phenotyping Assays for the Model Monocot Setaria viridis.

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    Acharya, Biswa R; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Estelle, Aiden B; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Zhu, Chuanmei; Hovis, Laryssa; Pandey, Sona

    2017-01-01

    Setaria viridis (green foxtail) is an important model plant for the study of C4 photosynthesis in panicoid grasses, and is fast emerging as a system of choice for the study of plant development, domestication, abiotic stress responses and evolution. Basic research findings in Setaria are expected to advance research not only in this species and its close relative S. italica (foxtail millet), but also in other panicoid grasses, many of which are important food or bioenergy crops. Here we report on the standardization of multiple growth and development assays for S. viridis under controlled conditions, and in response to several phytohormones and abiotic stresses. We optimized these assays at three different stages of the plant's life: seed germination and post-germination growth using agar plate-based assays, early seedling growth and development using germination pouch-based assays, and adult plant growth and development under environmentally controlled growth chambers and greenhouses. These assays will be useful for the community to perform large scale phenotyping analyses, mutant screens, comparative physiological analysis, and functional characterization of novel genes of Setaria or other related agricultural crops. Precise description of various growth conditions, effective treatment conditions and description of the resultant phenotypes will help expand the use of S. viridis as an effective model system.

  10. Optimization of Phenotyping Assays for the Model Monocot Setaria viridis

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    Biswa R. Acharya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis (green foxtail is an important model plant for the study of C4 photosynthesis in panicoid grasses, and is fast emerging as a system of choice for the study of plant development, domestication, abiotic stress responses and evolution. Basic research findings in Setaria are expected to advance research not only in this species and its close relative S. italica (foxtail millet, but also in other panicoid grasses, many of which are important food or bioenergy crops. Here we report on the standardization of multiple growth and development assays for S. viridis under controlled conditions, and in response to several phytohormones and abiotic stresses. We optimized these assays at three different stages of the plant’s life: seed germination and post-germination growth using agar plate-based assays, early seedling growth and development using germination pouch-based assays, and adult plant growth and development under environmentally controlled growth chambers and greenhouses. These assays will be useful for the community to perform large scale phenotyping analyses, mutant screens, comparative physiological analysis, and functional characterization of novel genes of Setaria or other related agricultural crops. Precise description of various growth conditions, effective treatment conditions and description of the resultant phenotypes will help expand the use of S. viridis as an effective model system.

  11. The greening of the coasts: review of the Perna viridis success story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis has been receiving a lot of attention from workers working in the research areas of intertidal ecology, aquaculture, pollution monitoring, biofouling, zoogeography and invasion biology. P. viridis is a remarkable species in terms of its ability to reach very high

  12. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

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    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  13. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

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    Sabourault, Cécile; Ganot, Philippe; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2009-07-23

    Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm) can be easily separated. A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed). We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs). Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial). We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest available genome, the sea anemone N. vectensis, as well as

  14. Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 (Pisces: Labridae)--a case of taxonomic con- fusion and mistaken extinction.

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    Russell, Barry C; Craig, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 is known from only three specimens collected from Mauritius, and despite intensive sampling, the species has not been seen or reported since it was originally described. This apparent failure to 'rediscover' A. viridis at Mauritius has led to speculation that it is extinct, and the species has been widely cited as an example of a marine fish extinction. Far from being extinct, Anampses viridis has been taxonomically confused and actually is the adult male (terminal phase) colour form and a junior synonym of A. caeruleopunctatus Rüppell 1829, a species that is common and widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region.

  15. Transcriptome profiling of the Australian arid-land plant Eremophila serrulata (A.DC.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae) for the identification of monoterpene synthases.

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    Kracht, Octavia Natascha; Ammann, Ann-Christin; Stockmann, Julia; Wibberg, Daniel; Kalinowski, Jörn; Piotrowski, Markus; Kerr, Russell; Brück, Thomas; Kourist, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Plant terpenoids are a large and highly diverse class of metabolites with an important role in the immune defense. They find wide industrial application as active pharmaceutical ingredients, aroma and fragrance compounds. Several Eremophila sp. derived terpenoids have been documented. To elucidate the terpenoid metabolism, the transcriptome of juvenile and mature Eremophila serrulata (A.DC.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae) leaves was sequenced and a transcript library was generated. We report on the first transcriptomic dataset of an Eremophila plant. IlluminaMiSeq sequencing (2 × 300 bp) revealed 7,093,266 paired reads, which could be assembled to 34,505 isogroups. To enable detection of terpene biosynthetic genes, leaves were separately treated with methyl jasmonate, a well-documented inducer of plant secondary metabolites. In total, 21 putative terpene synthase genes were detected in the transcriptome data. Two terpene synthase isoenzymatic genes, termed ES01 and ES02, were successfully expressed in E. coli. The resulting proteins catalyzed the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate, the universal substrate of monoterpene synthases to myrcene and Z-(b)-ocimene, respectively. The transcriptomic data and the discovery of the first terpene synthases from Eremophila serrulata are the initial step for the understanding of the terpene metabolism in this medicinally important plant genus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SALT EFFECTS ON SWARMERS OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD

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    Baas-Becking, L. G. M.

    1931-01-01

    1. Dunaliella viridis Teodoresco thrives equally well in solutions of NaCl 1 to 4 mol and pH 6 to 9. 2. The organism is sensitive to calcium and magnesium, especially in acid medium. 3. Calcium and magnesium are antagonistic. In a molar solution of NaCl the antagonistic relation Mg:Ca is 4 to 5. In a 4 molar solution of NaCl the proportion becomes many times as great (20:1). 4. Although the strains used in this investigation did not occur in sea water concentrates, the increase in the antagonistic ratio Mg:Ca in which they can live closely paralleled the changes in this ratio which take place when sea water evaporates. 5. The other organisms which occurred in the cultures each show a specific relation to Ca and Mg. 6. The size of the cells of Dunaliella does not decrease with increasing NaCl content. PMID:19872621

  17. Preliminary study on the bioaccumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis through the dissolved pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Carmelo Adrian B.

    2011-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a common fear among shellfish consumers. Saxitoxins are the group of compounds that are responsible for PSP. These compounds are produced by Pyrodinium bahamense var compresssum (PbC) which accumulate in perna viridis as they feed on PbC. This study aims to determine the presence of an alternative pathway, called the dissolved pathway, through which saxitoxins accumulate in Perna viridis independent of PbC. Perna viridis were exposed to a certain concentration of saxitoxins for a period of 24 hours and saxitoxin levels were determined at certain times throughout the period. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Oshima method was used in the measurement of toxins levels. Results show that mussels accumulate saxitoxins even in the absence of PbC, which supported the hypothesis that an alternative dissolved pathway contributes to the accumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis. (author)

  18. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations...

  19. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    Bioactivity guided fractions of cell-free hemolymph of bacterially challenged marine mussel, Perna viridis led to the isolation of a novel quaternary alkaloid 1, which was identified by its spectral data. The isolated molecule 1 has been found...

  20. Growth of the green mussel, Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth of the green mussel, P. viridis L., was studied in a sea water circulating system for 12 months. The maximum growth rate was recorded during March - May, coinciding with the maximum abundance of phytoplankton. The other hydrological...

  1. Methods for performing crosses in Setaria viridis, a new model system for the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Setaria viridis is an emerging model system for C4 grasses. It is closely related to the bioenergy feed stock switchgrass and the grain crop foxtail millet. Recently, the 510 Mb genome of foxtail millet, S. italica, has been sequenced (1,2) and a 25x coverage genome sequence of the weedy relative S. viridis is in progress. S. viridis has a number of characteristics that make it a potentially excellent model genetic system including a rapid generation time, small stature, simple growth requirements, prolific seed production (3) and developed systems for both transient and stable transformation (4). However, the genetics of S. viridis is largely unexplored, in part, due to the lack of detailed methods for performing crosses. To date, no standard protocol has been adopted that will permit rapid production of seeds from controlled crosses. The protocol presented here is optimized for performing genetic crosses in S. viridis, accession A10.1. We have employed a simple heat treatment with warm water for emasculation after pruning the panicle to retain 20-30 florets and labeling of flowers to eliminate seeds resulting from newly developed flowers after emasculation. After testing a series of heat treatments at permissive temperatures and varying the duration of dipping, we have established an optimum temperature and time range of 48 °C for 3-6 min. By using this method, a minimum of 15 crosses can be performed by a single worker per day and an average of 3-5 outcross progeny per panicle can be recovered. Therefore, an average of 45-75 outcross progeny can be produced by one person in a single day. Broad implementation of this technique will facilitate the development of recombinant inbred line populations of S. viridis X S. viridis or S. viridis X S. italica, mapping mutations through bulk segregant analysis and creating higher order mutants for genetic analysis.

  2. Mapping of HABs Contaminated In Green Shells (Perna viridis) in Semarang Bay

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    A'in, Churun; Suryanti, Suryanti; Haeruddin, Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    The existence of Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) can adversely affect the water like a mass death of fish and oxygen depletion. Some types of HABs can be contaminated with seafood and contain biotoxins that are detrimental to the health of humans who consume them. Green mussels (Perna viridis) has the properties of filter feeders so vulnerable to contamination HABs. This research was conducted to produce spatially thematic maps contaminated HABs in P. viridis so providing information about risk prediction P. viridis when consumed by humans. Sampling was done purposively in three (3) stations that represent the Bay Semarang namely western boundary waters (Kendal), middle (Semarang) and the eastern boundary (Demak). Sampling done two (2) times, namely East season (June -July) and the second transitional season (September) 2016. Analysis of HABs done either in water or body tissues of P. viridis through the analysis of food habit. The results shows that P. viridis genus positive contaminated HABs phytoplankton Tricodesmium and Ceratium. Spatial distribution and abundance of Tricodesmium genus Fitoplankton is wider and taller than the HABs Phytoplankton genus Ceratium. Group HABs are found in the tissues of P. viridis no potential as biotoxin that does not cause adverse health risks.

  3. The Use of Maleic Hydrazide for Effective Hybridization of Setaria viridis.

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    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available An efficient method for crossing green foxtail (Setaria viridis is currently lacking. S. viridis is considered to be the new model plant for the study of C4 system in monocots and so an effective crossing protocol is urgently needed. S. viridis is a small grass with C4-NADP (ME type of photosynthesis and has the advantage of having small genome of about 515 Mb, small plant stature, short life cycle, multiple tillers, and profuse seed set, and hence is an ideal model species for research. The objectives of this project were to develop efficient methods of emasculation and pollination, and to speed up generation advancement. We assessed the response of S. viridis flowers to hot water treatment (48°C and to different concentrations of gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, maleic hydrazide (MH, and kinetin. We found that 500 μM of MH was effective in the emasculation of S. viridis, whilst still retaining the receptivity of the stigma to pollination. We also report effective ways to accelerate the breeding cycle of S. viridis for research through the germination of mature as well as immature seeds in optimized culture media. We believe these findings will be of great interest to researchers using Setaria.

  4. Reference gene identification for reliable normalisation of quantitative RT-PCR data in Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Quan; Eamens, Andrew L; Grof, Christopher P L

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the key platform for the quantitative analysis of gene expression in a wide range of experimental systems and conditions. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression quantification via RT-qPCR is entirely dependent on the identification of reliable reference genes for data normalisation. Green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) has recently been proposed as a potential experimental model for the study of C 4 photosynthesis and is closely related to many economically important crop species of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses, including Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Sacchurum officinarum (sugarcane). Setaria viridis (Accession 10) possesses a number of key traits as an experimental model, namely; (i) a small sized, sequenced and well annotated genome; (ii) short stature and generation time; (iii) prolific seed production, and; (iv) is amendable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. There is currently however, a lack of reference gene expression information for Setaria viridis ( S. viridis ). We therefore aimed to identify a cohort of suitable S. viridis reference genes for accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. Eleven putative candidate reference genes were identified and examined across thirteen different S. viridis tissues. Of these, the geNorm and NormFinder analysis software identified SERINE / THERONINE - PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A ( PP2A ), 5 '- ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASE 6 ( ASPR6 ) and DUAL SPECIFICITY PHOSPHATASE ( DUSP ) as the most suitable combination of reference genes for the accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. To demonstrate the suitability of the three selected reference genes, PP2A , ASPR6 and DUSP , were used to normalise the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE ( CAD ) genes across the same tissues. This approach readily demonstrated the suitably of the three

  5. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45 ± 3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ≈85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

  6. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (≈3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis.

  7. High mortality and poor growth of green mussels, Perna viridis, in high chlorophyll- a environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Tan Kar; Denil, Delta Jenetty; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the stock status of P. viridis in Marudu Bay. The gonad development was monitored by histological examination, while the population parameters including asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), mortality rate ( Z, F and M), exploitation level ( E) and recruitment of P. viridis were estimated using the lengthfrequency data. Results of the current study demonstrated that P. viridis in Marudu Bay spawned throughout the year with two major peaks, one in April to May and another one in October to December. The recruitment pattern was continuous with the peak in May to June 2014, which corresponded to the first spawning peak in April. However, no significant recruitment was observed from the second spawning peak due to the difference in spawning timing between male and female populations. The estimated asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), total mortality ( Z), natural mortality ( M), fishing mortality ( F) and growth performance ( φ) of P. viridis in Marudu Bay were estimate to be 117 mm, 0.97 yr-1, 4.39 yr-1, 1.23 yr-1, 3.16 yr-1 and 4.123, respectively. The exponent b of the lengthweight relationship was 2.4 and exploitation level ( E) was 0.72. The high mortality, low condition indices and negative allometric of P. viridis in Marudu Bay is caused by a lack of suitable food in the surrounding water.

  8. Abscission zone development in Setaria viridis and its domesticated relative, Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John G; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Development of an abscission zone (AZ) is needed for dispersal of seeds, and AZ loss was a critical early step in plant domestication. The AZ forms in different tissues in different species of plants, but whether the AZ is developmentally similar wherever it occurs is unknown. AZ development in Setaria viridis was studied as a representative of the previously uncharacterized subfamily Panicoideae. One accession of the wild species S. viridis and two of its domesticate, S. italica, were studied. Strength of the AZ was measured with a force gauge. Anatomy of the AZ was studied throughout development using bright field and confocal microscopy. The force required to remove a spikelet of S. viridis from the parent plant dropped steadily during development, whereas that required to remove spikelets of S. italica increased initially before stabilizing at a high level. Despite the clear difference in tensile strength of the AZ, anatomical differences between S. viridis and S. italica were subtle, and the position of the AZ was not easy to determine in cross sections of pedicel apices. Staining with DAPI showed that nuclei were present up to and presumably through abscission in S. viridis, and acridine orange staining showed much less lignification than in other cereals. The AZ in Setaria is developmentally and anatomically different from that characterized in rice, barley, and many eudicots. In particular, no set of small, densely cytoplasmic cells is obvious. This difference in anatomy could point to differential genetic control of the structure. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  12. Abundance and size distribution of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis on co-occurring algal hosts on the Swedish west coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp. at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host.

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.; Goldanskii, V.I.; Birk, A.; Parak, F.; Fritzsch, G.; Sinning, I.; Michel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (E h =+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe 3+ -state, and at low potential (E h = 1 50 mV) they are low spin Fe 2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe 2+ configuration independent of E h and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe 2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe 2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe 2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2 >, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  14. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  15. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2014-01-01

    (rhodamine WT and brilliant blue), we investigated the relationship between irrigation and O2 dynamics in burrows of M. viridis. The investigated animals shifted between 2 modes of ventilation: ciliary pumping for 77% of the time and muscular pumping for 23% of the time. On average, muscular pumping...

  16. The invasive Asian green mussel Perna viridis in South Africa: all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Asian green mussel Perna viridis is an invasive Indo-Pacific species recently reported from South African harbours. To verify the invasion, a phylogenetic (and morphological) analysis of green-shelled mussels (n = 39), found in six South African harbours, was conducted using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase ...

  17. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A; Chatterji, A

    The extract of the Indian green mussel (Perna viridis L.) was found to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell capillary tube in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml of crude extract, there no formation...

  18. Establishment of primary cell culture from the temperate symbiotic cnidarian, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay-Verdier, Stéphanie; Dall'osso, Diane; Joli, Nathalie; Olivré, Juliette; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Zamoum, Thamilla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis, a member of the Cnidaria phylum, is a relevant experimental model to investigate the molecular and cellular events involved in the preservation or in the rupture of the symbiosis between the animal cells and their symbiotic microalgae, commonly named zooxanthellae. In order to increase research tools for this model, we developed a primary culture from A. viridis animal cells. By adapting enzymatic dissociation protocols, we isolated animal host cells from a whole tentacle in regeneration state. Each plating resulted in a heterogeneous primary culture consisted of free zooxanthellae and many regular, small rounded and adherent cells (of 3-5 μm diameter). Molecular analyses conducted on primary cultures, maintained for 2 weeks, confirmed a specific signature of A. viridis cells. Further serial dilutions and micromanipulation allowed us to obtain homogenous primary cultures of the small rounded cells, corresponding to A. viridis "epithelial-like cells". The maintenance and the propagation over a 4 weeks period of primary cells provide, for in vitro cnidarian studies, a preliminary step for further investigations on cnidarian cellular pathways notably in regard to symbiosis interactions.

  19. Kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Morelli, Luca; Quintaneiro, Carla; Calado, Gonçalo; Calado, Ricardo; Cruz, Sónia

    2018-04-30

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs incorporate intracellular functional algal chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) for periods ranging from a few days to several months. Whether this association modulates the photobehaviour of solar-powered sea slugs is unknown. In this study, the long-term retention species Elysia viridis showed avoidance of dark independently of light acclimation state. On the contrary, Placida dendritica , which shows non-functional retention of kleptoplasts, showed no preference over dark, low or high light. High light acclimated (HL ac ) E. viridis showed a higher preference for high light than low light acclimated (LL ac ) conspecifics. The position of the lateral folds (parapodia) was modulated by irradiance, with increasing light levels leading to a closure of parapodia and protection of kleptoplasts from high light exposure. Furthermore, closure of parapodia occurred at higher irradiances in HL ac E. viridis Our results strongly indicate that kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug E. viridis . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura : Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Schembri, P. J.; Boukal S., David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2005), s. 473-484 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB1007201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bonellia viridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2005

  1. Content Heavy Metal Pb, Cd In Perna viridis And Sediments In Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, D.; Suryanti, S.; Latifah, N.

    2018-02-01

    Waste disposal from human activities, generally contain heavy metals such as Pb and Cd which derived from industrial activities. The aims of the study were to know the concentration of Pb and Cd heavy metals contained in Perna viridis tissue, sediment and water at Semarang Bay. This study was conducted in May 2017 at Semarang Bay. - Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. The heavy metal content in the water and clam was observed using- APHA method and was analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results showed that concentration of heavy metal of Pb in the water was 0.00-50.5mg/L and the Cd content was of 26.9-51.7 mg/L, whereas the concentration of Pb in the sediment is 445.5-2.053.0mg/L and Cd 963.3-2,150.0 mg/L. Pb content in soft tissue of Perna viridis - is 67.1-1.933.9 mg/L and the concentration of Cd was 203.5-5.787.3 mg/L. The analysis of Pb and Cd in seawater, sediment and soft tissue of Perna viridis according to Enviroment Ministerial decree (KepMenLH ) number 51 of 2004 and applied by NOAA 1999 does not exceed the quality standard, that meant that the Perna viridis has been contaminated by metal Pb it is controversial with the above sentence and Cd. It concluded that the metal content of Pb and Cd in Perna viridis tissue exceeds the quality standard, so it is not suitable to be consumed, especially in high quantity

  2. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    tested for cell damage and antioxidant responses in P. viridis for over 15 day period. The parameters measured included lipid peroxidation (LPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR...

  3. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult), indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed...

  4. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  5. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. ?13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significa...

  6. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  7. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, A; Shanas, U

    2010-12-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's "first flush", but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative performance of the mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis, cultivated at four different depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielyn García

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of environmental variability on the growth and survival of the subtropical and tropical mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis at four different culture depths in the Gulf of Cariaco during an annual cycle. Juveniles of P. perna (39.1±1.88 mm in shell length and P. viridis (36.7±1.87 mm were sown on nylon ropes (3/4" and suspended from a raft at 1, 3, 6 and 9 m depths. Every six weeks, three replicates of each species were sampled (10 individuals per replicate at each depth. Growth parameters were determined: mass and shell length, dry mass of soft tissues as well as fouling and survival rates. Temperature, transparency, chlorophyll a, oxygen, salinity and particulate organic and inorganic matter were recorded at each culture depth for the purpose of relating growth and survival to environmental change. The results show that the growth of both species was linked to the environment, especially with regard to the influence of the food and temperature. A period of stagnant growth of P. perna was associated with the higher temperature and lower phytoplankton biomass that is characteristic of the season with prevalent water column stratification (August-November 2007. By contrast, the growth of P. viridis did not stagnate, although it was gradual and relatively lower. At the end, P. perna achieved higher growth rates than P. viridis. Possible culture strategies to improve the production of both mussel species are discussed.

  9. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Zhang; Houyuan Lu; Naiqin Wu; Xiaoyan Yang; Xianmin Diao

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern p...

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination revea...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  11. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  12. Setaria viridis as a model system to advance millet genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crop.

  13. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica . These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops.

  14. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P.; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops. PMID:27965689

  15. Setaria viridis and Setaria italica, model genetic systems for the Panicoid grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pinghua; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are diploid C(4) grasses with small genomes of ∼515 Mb. Both species have attributes that make them attractive as model systems. Setaria italica is a grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India that is closely related to the major food and feed crops maize and sorghum. A large collection of S. italica accessions are available and thus opportunities exist for association mapping and allele mining for novel variants that will have direct application in agriculture. Setaria viridis is the weedy relative of S. italica with many attributes suitable for genetic analyses including a small stature, rapid life cycle, and prolific seed production. Setaria sp. are morphologically similar to most of the Panicoideae grasses, including major biofuel feedstocks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus). They are broadly distributed geographically and occupy diverse ecological niches. The cross-compatibility of S. italica and S. viridis also suggests that gene flow is likely between wild and domesticated accessions. In addition to serving as excellent models for C(4) photosynthesis, these grasses provide novel opportunities to study abiotic stress tolerance and as models for bioenergy feedstocks.

  16. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  17. Characterization of glutathione peroxidase diversity in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Alexis; Zamoum, Thamilla; Christen, Richard; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress. We identified a GPx repertoire through a phylogenetic analysis showing 7 GPx transcripts belonging to the A. viridis host and 4 GPx transcripts strongly related to Symbiodinium sp. The biochemical approach, used for the first time with a cnidarian species, allowed the identification of GPx activity in the three cellular compartments and in the animal mitochondrial fraction, and revealed a high GPx electrophoretic diversity. The symbiotic lifestyle of zooxanthellae requires more GPx activity and diversity than that of free-living species. Heat stress induced no modification of GPx activities. We highlight a high GPx diversity in A. viridis tissues by genomic and biochemical approaches. GPx activities represent an overall constitutive enzymatic pattern inherent to symbiotic lifestyle adaptation. This work allows the characterization of the GPx family in a symbiotic cnidarian and establishes a foundation for future studies of GPx in symbiotic cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of BdMATE Gene Improves Aluminum Tolerance in Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots. In sorghum, a membrane transporter gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family was identified and characterized as an aluminum-activated citrate transporter gene responsible for Al tolerance in this crop. Setaria viridis is an emerging model for C4 species and it is an important model to validate some genes for further C4 crops transformation, such as sugarcane, maize, and wheat. In the present work, Setaria viridis was used as a model plant to overexpress a newly identified MATE gene from Brachypodium distachyon (BdMATE, closely related to SbMATE, for aluminum tolerance assays. Transgenic S. viridis plants overexpressing a BdMATE presented an improved Al tolerance phenotype, characterized by sustained root growth and exclusion of aluminum from the root apex in transgenic plants, as confirmed by hematoxylin assay. In addition, transgenic plants showed higher root citrate exudation into the rhizosphere, suggesting that Al tolerance improvement in these plants could be related to the chelation of the metal by the organic acid anion. These results suggest that BdMATE gene can be used to transform C4 crops of economic importance with improved aluminum tolerance.

  19. Is Echinometra viridis facilitating a phase shift on an Acropora cervicornis patch reef in Belize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, C. M.; Greer, L.; Norvell, D.; Benson, W.; Curran, H.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reef health is in rapid decline across the Caribbean due to a number of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. A phase shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominant reefs is pervasive and has been well documented. Acropora cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) has been particularly affected by this shift due to mass mortality of this species since the 1980s. In recent years few Caribbean A. cervicornis refugia have been documented. This study characterizes the relationship between coral and grazing urchins on a rare patch reef system dominated by A. cervicornis off the coast of Belize. To assess relative abundance of live A. cervicornis and the urchin Echinometra viridis, photographs and urchin abundance data were collected from 132 meter square quadrats along five transects across the reef. Photographs were digitized and manually segmented using Adobe Illustrator, and percent live coral cover and branch tip densities were calculated using Matlab. Mean percent live coral cover across all transects was 24.4 % with a high of 65% live coral per meter square. Average urchin density was 18.5 per quadrat, with an average density per transect ranging from 22.1 to 0.5 per quadrat. Up to over 400 live A. cervicornis branch tips per quadrat were observed. Data show a positive correlation between E. viridis abundance and live A. cervicornis, suggesting that these urchins are facilitating recovery or persistence of this endangered coral species. These results suggest the relationship between E. viridis and A. cervicornis could be a key element in a future reversal of the coral to macroalgae phase shift on some Caribbean coral reefs.

  20. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  1. Propagação Assexuada de Chacrona (Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavon) Via Estaquia Foliar

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Moisés Pereira Galvão; Universidade de Taubaté - UNITAU; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Universidade de Taubaté; Aoyama, Elisa Mitsuko; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES; Rodrigues, Eliana; Universidade Federal de São Paulo; Cruz, Lilian Pereira; Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the asexual propagation of Psychotria viridis by leaf cuttings. The treatments were: A - Whole leaf cuttings, B - leaf cuttings with the top third cut off; C - with the lower third of the cuttings removed; D - with cuts on the primary vein of leaf cuttings, and E - poles with cuts on the leaf ’s secondary veins. The cuttings were immersed in distilled water for a period of 70 days. In all the treatments, the rooting was observed to occur in the region of the cut, or...

  2. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  3. Peucetia viridis (Blackwall, 1858), caracteres y discusión (Aranae, Oxyopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Alfageme, José Antonio

    1991-01-01

    New records of the type-species of the genus Peucetia from the south of the Iberian Peninsula, near the Mediterranean Sea, confirm its presence in Europe. P. viridis has been recently the subject of taxonomical confussion. In this paper a more complete description of the species is proposed, illustraded with drawings of its general aspect and genital organs. Algunas citas nuevas de la banda mediterránea, en el sur de la Península Ibérica, confirman la presencia en Europa de la especie-tipo...

  4. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  5. Nidovirus-Associated Proliferative Pneumonia in the Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervas, Eva; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laimbacher, Andrea; Romero-Palomo, Fernando; Jelinek, Christine; Keller, Saskia; Smura, Teemu; Hetzel, Udo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014 we observed a noticeable increase in the number of sudden deaths among green tree pythons (Morelia viridis). Pathological examination revealed the accumulation of mucoid material within the airways and lungs in association with enlargement of the entire lung. We performed a full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterize the pathogenesis of this mucinous pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung tissue samples from a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing (NGS). From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome whose sequence was pythons and Indian pythons. We then employed reverse transcription-PCR to demonstrate the presence of the novel nidovirus in all diseased snakes. To attempt virus isolation, we established primary cultures of Morelia viridis liver and brain cells, which we inoculated with homogenates of lung tissue from infected individuals. Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus Morelia viridis nidovirus (MVNV). We then generated an antibody against MVNV nucleoprotein, which we used alongside RNA in situ hybridization to demonstrate viral antigen and RNA in the affected lungs. This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium, which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. IMPORTANCE Novel nidoviruses associated with severe respiratory disease were fairly recently identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons. Herein we report on the isolation and identification of a further nidovirus from green tree

  6. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Ismail; Yap Chee Kong

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  7. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Yan Yuanyi; Zhao Xiaokui; Peng Yefang; Shi Qiong

    1997-10-01

    Two important radionuclides 134 Cs and 65 Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134 Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134 Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65 Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65 Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65 Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134 Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65 Zn even if specific activity of 65 Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134 Cs and 65 Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  8. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries.

  9. Fusion and retrotransposition events in the evolution of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis neurotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Lazarus, Nimrod; Gur, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Sea anemones are sessile predators that use a variety of toxins to paralyze prey and foe. Among these toxins, Types I, II and III are short peptides that affect voltage-gated sodium channels. Anemonia viridis is the only sea anemone species that produces both Types I and III neurotoxin. Although the two toxin types are unrelated in sequence and three-dimensional structure, cloning and comparative analysis of their loci revealed a highly similar sequence at the 5' region, which encodes a signal peptide. This similarity was likely generated by gene fusion and could be advantageous in transcript stability and intracellular trafficking and secretion. In addition, these analyses identified the processed pseudogenes of the two gene families in the genome of A. viridis, probably resulting from retrotransposition events. As presence of processed pseudogenes in the genome requires transcription in germ-line cells, we analyzed oocyte-rich ovaries and found that indeed they contain Types I and III transcripts. This result raises questions regarding the role of toxin transcripts in these tissues. Overall, the retrotransposition and gene fusion events suggest that the genes of both Types I and III neurotoxins evolved in a similar fashion and share a partial common ancestry.

  10. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  11. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  12. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, Syed M.; Fatima, K.; Al-Frayh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  13. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  14. Changes in microbial communities associated with the sea anemone Anemonia viridis in a natural pH gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Dalit; Buia, Maria-Cristina; Fine, Maoz; Banin, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification, resulting from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, is a pervasive stressor that can affect many marine organisms and their symbionts. Studies which examine the host physiology and microbial communities have shown a variety of responses to the ocean acidification process. Recently, several studies were conducted based on field experiments, which take place in natural CO(2) vents, exposing the host to natural environmental conditions of varying pH. This study examines the sea anemone Anemonia viridis which is found naturally along the pH gradient in Ischia, Italy, with an aim to characterize whether exposure to pH impacts the holobiont. The physiological parameters of A. viridis (Symbiodinium density, protein, and chlorophyll a+c concentration) and its microbial community were monitored. Although reduction in pH was seen to have had an impact on composition and diversity of associated microbial communities, no significant changes were observed in A. viridis physiology, and no microbial stress indicators (i.e., pathogens, antibacterial activity, etc.) were detected. In light of these results, it appears that elevated CO(2) does not have a negative influence on A. viridis that live naturally in the site. This suggests that natural long-term exposure and dynamic diverse microbial communities may contribute to the acclimation process of the host in a changing pH environment.

  15. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-03-05

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification.

  16. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  17. Whole transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing of model species Setaria viridis to support C4 photosynthesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajia; Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiuling; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Kai; Wang, Sisi; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Setaria viridis is an emerging model species for genetic studies of C4 photosynthesis. Many basic molecular resources need to be developed to support for this species. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis from multiple developmental stages and tissues of S. viridis using next-generation sequencing technologies. Sequencing of the transcriptome from multiple tissues across three developmental stages (seed germination, vegetative growth, and reproduction) yielded a total of 71 million single end 100 bp long reads. Reference-based assembly using Setaria italica genome as a reference generated 42,754 transcripts. De novo assembly generated 60,751 transcripts. In addition, 9,576 and 7,056 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering S. viridis genome were identified when using the reference based assembled transcripts and the de novo assembled transcripts, respectively. This identified transcripts and SSR provided by this study can be used for both reverse and forward genetic studies based on S. viridis.

  18. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-02-01

    Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping-pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  20. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cangkang Kerang Hijau (Perna Viridis Menjadi Kitin Sebagai Biokoagulan Air Sungai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsidar HS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimum weight of chitin that used as biocoagulant of river water. The water sample is taken from Kajenjeng river and the chitin used for research are isolated from green mussels (Perna viridis shell powder through three steps such as deproteination by NaOH 3%, demineralization by HCl 1,25 N and depigmentation by NaOCl 4%. Then, the obtained chitin are contacted into water with variation of 0,25 gram; 0,5 gram; 0,75 gram and 1 gram in an hour. The result showed that optimum weight of chitin for COD determination, total hardness, calcium and turbidity is 0,75 gram, while optimum weight of chitin for magnesium determination is 0,5 gram.

  2. Larval development and shape variation of the kelpfish Myxodes viridis (Teleostei: Clinidae

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    Francisca Zavala-Muñoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larval development and shape ontogeny of the kelpfish Myxodes viridis (Clinidae are described for the first time. A total of 214 individuals ranging between 3.51 and 23.09 mm standard length collected off central Chile were assessed employing classic and geometric morphometrics, illustration with camera lucida and a double-staining technique for cartilaginous and bone structure observation. Based on characteristics such as yolk sac presence and fin formation, six stages of larval development were differentiated: yolk sac, preflexion, flexion, early postflexion, late postflexion and juvenile. Shape changes during development are subtle and occur smoothly, being more significant in the head and preanal length, and ontogenetic allometry accounts for almost 15%. Cartilage formation takes place first at the branchial arches and cranium; then hypural, haemal and neural arches are consecutively formed. Bony structure ossification occurs late in the development. Vertebral centra ossify directly, without cartilaginous matrix replacement.

  3. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels (Perna viridis and Cockle Shell (Anadara granosa

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    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animalprotein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study wasconducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samplesof cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. Thetarget gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant ofvirulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTGCCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescencesignals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeriamonocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminatedby Listeria welshimeri.

  4. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    on the column. Fractions of 1 ml each were collected. The absorbance of these fractions was also monitored at 280 nm. The lysozyme activity was checked against Micrococcus luteus. Ion exchange chromatography - The lyophilized active samples (McL2 and PvL2... in the case of M. casta – McL1, McL2 (fr 7), McL3, McL4, McL5 and McL6, and 7 in the case of P. viridis - PvL1, PvL2 (fr 5), PvL3, PvL4, PvL5, PvL6, PvL 7. Fig. 2: Absorbance of Sephadex fractions of M. casta at 280 nm Absorbance at 280 nm Fig. 3...

  5. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  6. Microsporidia in a woodland pool I. Lanatospora costata sp. n. (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia), parasite of Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda): fine structure and molecular phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Refardt, D.; Larsson, J.I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 269-280 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsporidian parasite * Megacyclops viridis * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016

  7. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm, Marenzelleria viridis, langs danske kyster – tegn på økologiske konsekvenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Christoffersen, Kenn

    ud af de 6 resterende stationer vi undersøgte. Antallet af M. viridis på disse stationer var dog beskeden (... tæthed af M. viridis og en række sediment og abiotiske parametre, hvilket bekræfter artens store tolerance overfor det omskiftelige brakvands miljø og sediment karakteristika, der kendetegner de danske kyster. Disse abiotiske parametre understøtter dog forekomsten af lige netop M. viridis frem for de...... andre søskendearter, da sidstnævnte fortrækker enten lavere salinitet eller lavere temperatur end typisk for de danske kyster. Der blev observerede nogle svage negative sammenhæng mellem Marenzelleria viridis og de naturligt forekommende arter, såsom Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor, Corophium spp. og...

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis L'Her.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Canhoto, Jorge; Vale-Silva, Luís; Silva, Maria João; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2011-05-01

    In the present work we report for what we believe to be the first time the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi. The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide and FUN-1 staining of Candida albicans cells by flow cytometry following short treatments with the essential oil. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole being the main constituent. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present at lower concentrations. According to the determined MIC and MLC values, the dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive fungi (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to 0.64 µl ml⁻¹), followed by Candida species (at 0.64-2.5 µl ml⁻¹). For most of these strains, MICs were equivalent to MLCs, indicating a fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in Candida albicans at concentrations well below the respective MICs (as low as MIC/16). Flow cytometry results suggested a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. Our results show that L. viridis essential oils may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the practical relevance of our in vitro research.

  9. MODULACIÓN DE LA SINTESIS DE METALOTIONINAS EN Perna viridis PREEXPUESTOS A COBRE Y EXPUESTOS A CADMIO | MODULATION OF METALLOTHIONEIN SYNTHESIS IN Perna viridis PRE EXPOSED TO COPPER AND EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Lemus,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The metallothioneins (Mts have been used as biomarkers because toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Cu can induce their synthesis; however, environmental factors and the presence of other xenobiotics can determine the magnitude of the response in future exposures to metal ions. Metallothionein concentration was determinate in the soft tissue of Perna viridis juveniles pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd (Cu/Cd for 21 days. For this, three experimental groups were established: exposed to Cd, pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd and the control group (no metal. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of P. viridis was significantly higher in pre-exposed organisms to Cu, with an average value of 6.6 ± 1.9 mg/g, while in those exposed to Cd, was 4.7 ± 2.4 mg/g. Mts concentrations were also higher in the Cu/Cd experimental group, with a value of 1.36 ± 0.52 mg/g in relation to those exposed to Cd which had a value of 0.79 ± 0.47 mg/g. The relationship between Mts and bioaccumulation of Cd was significant in the group exposed to Cd, but not in the exposed Cu/Cd. These results suggest that Cu possibly acted as an inducer of Mts in the body, which led to increased accumulation of Cd in P. viridis and increase in Mts concentration. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd in P. viridis was determined by previous exposure of the organism and hence its response on levels of MTs also depends on it.

  10. Algal genotype and photoacclimatory responses of the symbiotic alga Symbiodinium in natural populations of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, J. C.; Douglas, A. E.; Sharp, V. A.; Searle, J. B.; Brown, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    As an approach to investigate the impact of solar radiation on an alga–invertebrate symbiosis, the genetic variation and photosynthetic responses of the dinoflagellate algal symbiosis in an intertidal and a subtidal population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis were explored. Allozyme analysis of the anemones indicated that the two populations were genetically very similar, with a Nei's index value of genetic identity (I) of 0.998. The algae in all animals examined were identified as Symbiodinium of clade a by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The symbiosis in the two populations did not differ significantly in algal population density, chlorophyll a content per algal cell or any photosynthetic parameter obtained from studies of the relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. We conclude that there is not necessarily genetic variation or photosynthetic plasticity of the symbiotic algae in Anemonia viridis inhabiting environments characterized by the different solar irradiances of the subtidal and intertidal habitats.

  11. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  12. Bases débiles minoritarias de la raíz de Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Martínez Pérez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio químico de la raíz de la especie Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. que crece en Cuba, con el objetivo de profundizar en este tema. Se aislaron, purificaron y caracterizaron diferentes alcaloides correspondientes a las bases débiles, entre los que se encuentran la ajmalidina, la a-yohimbina, la quebrachidina, la reserpinina y la yohimbina. Se descarta la presencia de reserpina.It was conducted a chemical study of the root of the species Rauwolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. that grows in Cuba aimed at depening in this topic. Different alkaloids corresponding to the weak bases, such as ajmaline, a-yohimbin, quebrachidine, reserpine and yohimbin, were isolated, purified and characterized. The presence of reserpine is discarded.

  13. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses.

  14. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Masullo, Tiziana; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human c...

  15. The transcriptomic response to thermal stress is immediate, transient and potentiated by ultraviolet radiation in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A; Ganot, P; Furla, P; Sabourault, C

    2012-03-01

    Among the environmental threats to coral reef health, temperature and ultraviolet increases have been proposed as major agents, although the relative contribution of each in the cnidarian/zooxanthellae symbiosis breakdown has been poorly addressed. We have investigated the transcriptomic response to thermal stress, with and without ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using the Oligo2K A. viridis microarray, dedicated to genes potentially involved in the symbiosis interaction, we monitored the gene expression profiles after 1, 2 and 5 days of stresses that further lead to massive losses of zooxanthellae. Each stress showed a specific gene expression profile with very little overlap. We showed that the major response to thermal stress is immediate (24 h) but returns to the baseline gene expression profile after 2 days. UVR alone has little effect but potentiates thermal stress, as a second response at 5 days was observed when the two stresses were coupled. Several pathways were highlighted, such as mesoglea loosening, cell death and calcium homeostasis and described in more details. Finally, we showed that the dermatopontin gene family, potentially involved in collagen fibrillogenesis, issued from actinarian-specific duplication events, with one member preferentially expressed in the gastroderm and specifically responding to stress. Anemonia viridis EST sequences have been deposited into GenBank dbEST ([GenBank:FK719875–FK759813]. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Bennici, Carmelo; Biondo, Girolama; Costa, Salvatore; Di Natale, Marilena; Masullo, Tiziana; Monastero, Calogera; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2018-01-11

    Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis . The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera , Exaiptasia pallida , Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis . These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP ( AvTCTP ) after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  17. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  18. Determination of the Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia viridis L. Shoots: A Comparison of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts

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    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvia viridis L. is an annual herb used in Mediterranean medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the polyphenol profile of aqueous (decoction and infusion and hydroethanolic extracts of aerial parts of field-grown S.viridis and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The polyphenol profiling was performed via UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Additionally, the total polyphenol content in extracts tested were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, O2•− scavenging and TBARS methods. The hydroethanolic extract gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, followed by the infusion. The UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis of extracts showed a total of 19 phenolic compounds identified as flavonoids (four compounds, phenylethanoids (eight compounds and phenolic acids (seven compounds. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, verbascoside was the predominant phenylethanoid, while apigenin glucuronide or methylluteolin glucuronide, depending on the sample, were the predominant flavonoids in the analyzed extracts. The presence of a high polyphenol level indicated a high antioxidant activity of both the infusion and the hydroalcoholic extract. These results indicate that S. viridis is a rich resource of phenolic compounds and can be used in dietary applications with the potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  19. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soft tissues of the green mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Bivalve: Mytilacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbon, V.X.L.

    1991-01-01

    Untreated agro-industrial and domestic waste continuously being damped along the shores of its surrounding provinces and cities pollute the Manila Bay coastal waters. Presumably, its oyster and mussel culture farms are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Yet, this alarming signs remain barely investigated. Pollution enhanced, the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals threaten the flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem. Trace concentrations of toxic elements in the marine food chain can trigger deleterious biochemical, physiological and ecological impact. Known to be bio-accumulated by aquatic organisms, the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the edible tissues of Perna viridis were determined. Water and sediments sampled from the mussel culture farms were also analyzed. Results revealed that despite the apparent pollution, except for Cu and Zn, which registered slightly higher values, Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were much lower than the maximum permissible limits. Even water and sediments samples tested showed that mean concentrations of these elements were still below sublethal limits. (auth.). 79 refs.; 8 figs.; 13 tabs.; 16 plates

  20. Kelayakan Kualitas Perairan Sekitar Mangrove Center Tuban Untuk Aplikasi Alat Pengumpul Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Hikmah Julinda Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, East Java is a potential habitat for the green mussel (Perna viridis L.. Therefore, the water quality of this area need to be assessment. The study was aimed to determine the feasibility of water quality in coastal water f Mangrove Center Tuban for application collecting gear of green mussels. The sampling was conducted by set up three stations randomly in studied area. Parameters was measured including temperature, pH, salinity, DO, depth, turbidity, BOD and TSS. The results showed that the coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, owned temperature that ranged from 29.10 to 30.67 0C, the pH ranged from 8.23 to 8.37, salinity ranged from 26.87 to 30.30 ‰, DO fall in the range of 6,63- 6.87 mg / L, the water depth at the time of measurement ranges from 40-85 cm. TSS ranged from 206.2 mg / L to 353.7 mg / L, BOD value between 4.05 to 12.2 mg / L, while the turbidity ranged from 134 to 400 NTU. Parameters that below the standard namely temperature, pH, DO, salinity and BOD, while TSS and turbidity were exceed the threshold quality standards set by the government.

  1. Feasibility of green mussel, Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kar Soon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve aquaculture is an important source of affordable animal protein for coastal community. The success and sustainability of this industry is highly influenced by the suitability of the environment in which it is carried out. Present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of green mussel (Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay. The site suitability for green mussel farming was evaluated based on biophysical parameters and food availability. The in situ environmental parameters, phytoplankton abundance and composition were collected from 10 sampling stations on monthly interval from May 2014 to April 2015. The results showed that the environmental parameters and food availability in most of the sampling stations were suitable for green mussel. However, the presence of phytoplankton taxa (Chaetoceraceae which are unfavorable by green mussel in most of the stations located at the bay pocket make those areas less recommended for green mussel farming. In contrast, stations located on the mouth of the bay exhibited high site suitability rating points and hence are highly recommended for cultivation of green mussel.

  2. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  3. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  5. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  6. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  7. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  8. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  9. Establishing the thermal threshold of the tropical mussel Perna viridis in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, B P L; Lai, C H

    2014-08-30

    With increasing recognition that maximum oxygen demand is the unifying limit in tolerance, the first line of thermal sensitivity is, as a corollary, due to capacity limitations at a high level of organisational complexity before individual, molecular or membrane functions become disturbed. In this study the tropical mussel Perna viridis were subjected to temperature change of 0.4 °C per hour from ambient to 8-36 °C. By comparing thermal mortality against biochemical indices (hsp70, gluthathione), physiological indices (glycogen, FRAP, NRRT) and behavioural indices (clearance rate), a hierarchy of thermal tolerance was therein elucidated, ranging from systemic to cellular to molecular levels. Generally, while biochemical indices indicated a stress signal much earlier than the more integrated behavioural indices, failure of the latter (indicating a tolerance limit and transition to pejus state) occurred much earlier than the other indices tending towards thermal extremities at both ends of the thermal spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  11. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.R.; Budil, D.E.; Gast, P.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  12. Bromus interruptus (Hack.) Druce (Poaceae) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Tim C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Bromus interruptus is a grass which was endemic to England but is now extinct in the wild. Attention is drawn to the two historic records from the Netherlands, where it was probably introduced with agricultural seed, in case it still survives in the wild. It is readily recognised from the contracted

  13. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  14. Effects of Sodium Nitrate and Mixotrophic Culture on Biomass and Lipid Production in Hypersaline Microalgae Dunaliella Viridis Teod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Kharati-Koupaei

    Full Text Available To access the potential application of Dunaliella viridis Teod. for biofuel production, the effects of culture media composition on biomass and lipid content of this microalgae were investigated. Measured at the 20 th day, sodium nitrate at 5.0 mM augmented biomass production by 26.5 percent compared to control (1 mM sodium nitrate. Total lipids expressed as µg mL-1 of culture also increased with increase in nitrate concentration up to 5.0 mM sodium nitrate, whereas when expressed on the per cell basis, total lipids stayed relatively constant at most of the tested nitrate concentrations except at 0.5 mM which was 31.4 percent higher compared to 1.0 mM nitrate. At 5.0 mM sodium nitrate, by using 20 g L-1 of glucose in mixotrophic culture of D. viridis, cell number augmented by 36.4 percent compared to the cultures with no added glucose. Llipid content per cell and per mL of culture was increased by 71.4 and 135.1 percent, respectively. Among plant hormones, 10-9 M indole-3- acetic acid (IAA plus 10 -8 M trans-zeatin riboside led to 22.8 percent higher biomass relative to control (without hormone and at 1.0 mM sodium nitrate. It is concluded that altering the growth conditions of D. viridis can lead to higher cell densities and higher lipids content which can be exploited for biofuel production.

  15. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  16. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  17. Molar extinction coefficients and other properties of an improved reaction center preparation from Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.K.; Clayton, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reaction centers have been purified from chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas viridis by treatment with lauryl dimethyl amine oxide followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and precipitation with ammonium sulfate. The absorption spectrum at low temperature shows bands at 531 and 543 nm, assigned to two molecules of bacteriopheophytin b. The 600 nm band of bacteriochlorophyll b is resolved at low temperature into components at 601 and 606.5 nm. At room temperature the light-induced difference spectrum shows a negative band centered at 615 nm, where the absorption spectrum shows only a week shoulder adjacent to the 600 nm band. The fluorescence spectrum shows a band at 1000 nm and no fluorescence corresponding to the 830 nm absorption band. Two molecules of cytochrome 558 and three of cytochrome 552 accompany each reaction center. The differential extinction coefficient (reduced minus oxidized) of cytochrome 558 nm was estimated as 20 +- 2 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ through a coupled reaction with equine cytochrome c. The extinction coefficient of reaction centers at 960 nm was determined to be 123 +- 25 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ by measuring the light-induced bleaching of P-960 and the coupled oxidation of cytochrome 558. The corresponding extinction coefficient at 830 nm is 300 +- 65 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/. The absorbance ratio ..cap alpha../sub 280nm/..cap alpha../sub 830nm/ in our preparations was 2.1, and there was 190 kg protein per mol of reaction centers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed three major components of apparent molecular weights 31,000, 37,000, and 41,000.

  18. Functional polarity of the tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: role in inorganic carbon acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furla, P; Bénazet-Tambutté, S; Jaubert, J; Allemand, D

    1998-02-01

    The oral epithelial layers of anthozoans have a polarized morphology: photosynthetic endosymbionts live within endodermal cells facing the coelenteric cavity and are separated from the external seawater by the ectodermal layer and the mesoglea. To study if this morphology plays a role in the supply of inorganic carbon for symbiont photosynthesis, we measured the change in pH and the rate of OH- (H+) fluxes induced by each cell layer on a tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Light-induced pH increase of the medium bathing the endodermal layers led to the generation of a transepithelial pH gradient of approximately 0.8 pH units across the tentacle, whereas darkness induced acidification of this medium. The light-induced pH change was associated with an increase of total alkalinity. Only the endodermal layer was able to induce a net OH- secretion (H+ absorption). The light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer was dependent on the presence of HCO3- in the compartment facing the ectoderm and was sensitive to several inhibitors of ion transport. [14C] HCO3- incorporation into photosynthates confirmed the ectodermal supply, the extent of which varied from 25 to > 90%, according to HCO3- availability. Our results suggest that the light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer followed the polarized transport of HCO3- and its subsequent decarboxylation within the endodermal cell layer. This polarity may play a significant role both in inorganic carbon absorption and in the control of light-enhanced calcification in scleractinian corals.

  19. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Horváth

    Full Text Available Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality or across multiple (behavioural syndrome behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis. We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome, (ii behavioural type (individual mean behaviour and (iii behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation. Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age. Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  2. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is ‘anchored’ to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  3. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, E.

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  5. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

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    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  7. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768 in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

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    Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42, the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases, followed by killing by humans (usually children – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2% and domestic cats (2% has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.

  8. Characterization of Small HSPs from Anemonia viridis Reveals Insights into Molecular Evolution of Alpha Crystallin Genes among Cnidarians

    OpenAIRE

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive stu...

  9. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3...... of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon....... Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons....

  10. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  11. Evolutionary conserved mechanisms pervade structure and transcriptional modulation of allograft inflammatory factor-1 from sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, Angela; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Bennici, Carmelo; Colombo, Paolo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Nicosia, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Gene family encoding allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is well conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, the first AIF-1 homologue from cnidarians was identified and characterised in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. The full-length cDNA of AvAIF-1 was of 913 bp with a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 148 bp, a 3'-UTR of 315 and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide with149 amino acid residues and predicted molecular weight of about 17 kDa. The predicted protein possesses evolutionary conserved EF hand Ca 2+ binding motifs, post-transcriptional modification sites and a 3D structure which can be superimposed with human members of AIF-1 family. The AvAIF-1 transcript was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of unchallenged sea anemone, suggesting that AvAIF-1 could serve as a general protective factor under normal physiological conditions. Moreover, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvAIF-1 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by warming conditions, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Thus, mechanisms associated to inflammation and immune challenges up-regulated AvAIF-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest its involvement in the inflammatory processes and immune response of A. viridis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level.

  13. HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN BEBERAPA POPULASI KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUEN CYTROCROME B mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok kerang hijau (Perna viridis di beberapa perairan Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Sampel kerang hijau yang berasal dari populasi alam perairan Tanjung Kait, Kamal, Panimbang, Cirebon, Pasuruan, Kenjeran, dan Pangkep diambil secara acak. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing mitokondria daerah cytochrome B adalah HCO (F: 5’-TAA ACT TCA GGG TGA CCA AAA AAT CA-3’ (26 bp dan LCO (R: 5’-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3’ (25 bp. Sekuen DNA yang diperoleh digunakan untuk analisis homologi, analisis genetic distance dan analisis kekerabatan. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida berdasarkan BLAST-N terhadap sekuen mtDNA Perna viridis yang tersimpan di Genebank menunjukkan similaritas 97%. Hasil analisis didapatkan jarak genetik yang terdekat adalah populasi Tanjung Kait dengan Kenjeran sedangkan jarak genetik terjauh adalah populasi Cirebon dengan Kamal. Hubungan kekerabatan yang ditunjukkan dengan dendrogram diperoleh 2 kelompok yaitu 6 populasi membentuk satu kelompok dan populasi Cirebon membentuk kluster tersendiri. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program breeding kerang hijau di Indonesia

  14. Mortalidade de Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae por Lecanicillium spp. em diferentes órgãos de Coffea arabica

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade de Coccus viridis por Lecanicillium spp. em folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica. O trabalho foi realizado na casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, entre fevereiro de 2005 a junho de 2006. Foram utilizadas sementes da variedade Catuaí vermelho de café (C. arabica. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi composta por 3,0 mmol/L de N, 9,0 mmol/L de K, 1,0 mmol/L de P, 4,0 mmol/L de Ca, 2,1 mmol/L de S, 46 µmol/L de B, 0,3 µmol/L de Cu, 60,0 µmol/L de Fe, 2,0 µmol/L de Mg, 0,5 µmol/L de Mo e 36,0 µmol/L de Mn. As cochonilhas e o fungo foram coletados de folhas de café em lavouras comerciais de Viçosa, MG e foram mantidos em gaiolas em Casa de Vegetação. As plantas foram infestadas com oito meses de idade. A infestação foi realizada por contato de C. viridis infectadas com o fungo sobre as cochonilhas sadias. As densidades de C. viridis viva e morta nas folhas e nos ramos foram avaliadas aos 0, 15, 30, 35, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a infestação. Usou-se análise de variância, teste de média de Skott-Knott e análise de regressão linear simples a p<0,05. O fungo Lecanicillium spp. causou mortalidade em todos os estádios de C. viridis. De forma geral, a maior mortalidade ocorreu no terceiro ínstar. Além disso, o fungo causou maior mortalidade nesse inseto praga na face abaxial da folha de café. Mortality of Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae by Lecanicillium spp. in differents Coffea arabica organs in greenhouseAbstract. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mortality of Coccus viridis by Lecanicillium spp. on faces of the leaves, and branches of Coffea arabica. This work was conducted in greenhouse at UFV. The experiment was carried out from February 2005 to June 2006. Seeds of the lineage IAC 15 from the variety “Catuaí Vermelho” coffee (C. arabica were used. The nutritive solution utilized was composed for 3. 0 mmol/L of N, 9. 0 mmol/L of K, 1. 0 mmol

  15. A new species of myrmecophilous lady beetle in the genus Diomus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Diomini) from Chiapas, Mexico that feeds on green coffee scale, Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of myrmecophilous lady beetle in the genus Diomus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Diomini) is described from a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico. The new species was found preying on the green coffee scale pest, Coccus viridis (Green), tended primarily by Azteca sericeasur Longino an...

  16. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch.) Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana A. Vdovina; Olga A. Serova; Nina M. Kadantseva

    2014-01-01

    This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  17. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch. Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Vdovina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  18. N2 fixing alder (Alnus viridis spp.fruticosa) effects on soil properties across a secondary successional chronosequence in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Mitchell; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    Green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa) is a dominant understory shrub during secondary successional development of upland forests throughout interior Alaska, where it contributes substantially to the nitrogen (N) economy through atmospheric N2 fixation. Across a replicated 200+ year old vegetation...

  19. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325

  1. BIOCUMULACIÓN Y EFECTO DEL CADMIO EN JUVENILES DEL MEJILLÓN VERDE Perna viridis (L. 1758 (MYTILOIDA: MYTILIDAEI BIOCUMULACIÓN AND EFFECT OF CADMIUM IN JUVENILES THE GREEN MUSSEL Perna viridis (L. 1758 (MYTILOIDA: MYTILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA ACOSTA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential for bioaccumulation of Cadmium in juveniles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (with average antero-posterior length 12.67±3.02 mm exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (50 and 80 μgCd/ L and the immediate effect on the RNA/DNA ratio during an exposure period of 8 days. Cadmium levels were quantified in all tissues and the shell, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with air-acetylene flame. The ratio RNA/DNA was quantified in the abductor muscle. After two days of the experiment, the mussels showed the highest accumulation of Cd in tissues, which was proportional to the experimental concentrations, and then the levels in tissues remained unchanged during the rest of the experiment. Organisms in the control treatment maintained a constant amount of cadmium throughout the study. The accumulation in the shell was continuous and proportional to the concentration of the treatments. The ratio RNA/DNA showed a decline in both treatments, while organisms in the control group showed the highest levels and without significant changes throughout the experiment. Results showed an immediate incorporation of Cd in organisms, during the first 48 hours of exposure, with subsequent regulation of the metal, generating possibly a metabolic cost to counteract the toxic effect, leading to a decrease in RNA/ DNA ratio. Perna viridis is a species capable of regulating tolerable levels of cadmium, responding with effective regulatory mechanisms that allow it to acclimate to contaminated areas. The continuous accumulation of Cd in the shell suggests that this compartment can be used as an indicator of pollution for this metal in aquatic systems.

  2. Componentes bioquímicos de los tejidos de Perna perna y P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, en relación al crecimiento en condiciones de cultivo suspendido Biochemical components of the tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, in relation to the growth under conditions of suspended cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios ocurridos en carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos de la glándula digestiva, músculo y lóbulos gonadales de los mejillones Perna perna y P. viridis bajo condiciones de cultivo suspendido en el Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Paralelamente, se llevaron registros de la condición reproductiva de ambas especies y de temperatura, clorofila a y seston. Los resultados muestraron que en los tejidos analizados de ambas especies, los lóbulos gonadales presentaron las mayores variaciones de los sustratos energéticos estudiados. La variación de los sustratos energéticos se explicó en ambos mejillones mediante desarrollo gonádico y la disponibilidad de alimento, particularmente clorofila a para P. perna y seston total para P. viridis. La temperatura fue un factor que afectó negativamente a P. viridis. Los contenidos de los diferentes sustratos energéticos observados en P. perna fueron más altos que en P. viridis, a lo largo de casi todo el periodo experimental, lo que indicó que esta especie mostró una mayor capacidad para explotar de manera más eficiente los recursos alimenticios presentes en las condiciones de cultivo suspendido.In the organisms, the variations of the biochemical composition of reproductive and somatic tissues in the growth permit to infer about its adaptative to environment. In the present study, we evaluate the changes observed in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins of digestive gland, muscle and gonad tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis, growing in suspended culture at Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. The reproductive condition of both mussels and environmental factors (temperature, chlorophyll a and of the seston were determinate. The results show that, in both species, the gonadic lobes showed the highest variations in the biochemical component. The variations in the biochemical components were direct explained by the variations in the gonad development and the food availability, particularly chlorophyll a

  3. Genetics and physiology of cell wall polysaccharides in the model C4 grass, Setaria viridis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Collins, Helen M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Henderson, Marilyn; O'Donovan, Lisa A; Shirley, Neil J; Schwerdt, Julian G; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-10-02

    Setaria viridis has emerged as a model species for the larger C4 grasses. Here the cellulose synthase (CesA) superfamily has been defined, with an emphasis on the amounts and distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a cell wall polysaccharide that is characteristic of the grasses and is of considerable value for human health. Orthologous relationship of the CesA and Poales-specific cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes among Setaria italica (Si), Sorghum bicolor (Sb), Oryza sativa (Os), Brachypodium distachyon (Bradi) and Hordeum vulgare (Hv) were compared using bioinformatics analysis. Transcription profiling of Csl gene families, which are involved in (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthesis, was performed using real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was measured using a modified Megazyme assay. The fine structures of the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, as denoted by the ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl residues (DP3:DP4 ratio) was assessed by chromatography (HPLC and HPAEC-PAD). The distribution and deposition of the MLG was examined using the specific antibody BG-1 and captured using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cellulose synthase gene superfamily contains 13 CesA and 35 Csl genes in Setaria. Transcript profiling of CslF, CslH and CslJ gene families across a vegetative tissue series indicated that SvCslF6 transcripts were the most abundant relative to all other Csl transcripts. The amounts of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in Setaria vegetative tissues ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% w/w with much smaller amounts in developing grain (0.003% to 0.013% w/w). In general, the amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was greater in younger than in older tissues. The DP3:DP4 ratios varied between tissue types and across developmental stages, and ranged from 2.4 to 3.0:1. The DP3:DP4 ratios in developing grain ranged from 2.5 to 2.8:1. Micrographs revealing the distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in walls of different cell types and the data were

  4. Qualitative Assessment and Management of Microplastics in Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis Cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Phillipines

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    Cristian Ryan Argamino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (> 5 mm have gained popularity in research and the public eye in recent years. This is due to the fact that they contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs which pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Bivalves, which are filter feeders, are considered to be good indicators of marine pollution. In this preliminary study, Asian green mussel (Perna viridis, an example of edible bivalve, cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines was subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the presence of microplastics. Through microscopic analysis, microplastics were found present in the acid-digested mussel soft tissue. A management program is suggested for policy makers and stakeholders to reduce the negative impact of microplastic pollution to both humans and the marine environment.

  5. Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Shi Qiong; Zhao Xiaokui

    1997-10-01

    Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125 I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis), has been studied. The results showed that concentration capacity of every part in smaller mussels was higher than that in larger ones. Concentration factors of 125 I in byssus (about 0.5 x 10 3 ∼1.5 x 10 3 ), the highest in all parts of the mussels, were 30∼200 times as that in soft tissues, 200∼600 times as that in feet, 600∼1000 times as that in shells. Although wet weight of byssus was no more than 1% of whole body's wet weight, the content of 125 I accumulated in it accounted for as high as 75% of total 125 I content. The relationship between concentration factor of 125 I in byssus and whole body's wet weight (or shell length) can be described as a negative power function. (16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  6. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

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    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  8. A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, Erwann P; Luis, José; Nuccio, Christopher; Villard, Claude; Mansuelle, Pascal; Lebrun, Régine; Villard, Pierre Henri

    2018-04-19

    Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis , was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM). Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS) sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD) motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF).

  9. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Masullo, Tiziana; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis . Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  10. METHYL MERCURY IN GREEN MUSCLE (Mytilus viridis L. FROM FISH MARKET MUARA ANGKE : BEFORE AND AFTER COOKING

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    Ermin K. Winarno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of methyl mercury content in green muscle (Mytilus viridis L. that were taken from Pasar Pelelangan Ikan Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay has been carried out. Sampling was taken in November 2005 and March 2006, the samples were bought from the green muscle sellers. The aim of this research is to know the effect of cooking on the content of methyl mercury in green muscle. Samples were homogenized, weighed and washed with aceton and toluene. After washing, the homogenized material was added with HCl solution, extracted with toluene, then the methyl mercury content in toluene extract was analyzed using gas chromatography. The results of this research showed that methyl mercury concentration in raw and cooked green muscle respectively were 0.803 + 0.019 mg/g and 0.443 + 0.035 mg/g (in November 2005 and 0.096 + 0.014 mg/g and 0.079 + 0.016 mg/g (in March 2006 respectively. The methyl mercury content in raw (in November 2005 was higher than in cooked green muscle as permitted concentration in the sea biota by WHO and FAO, it is 0.5 ppm (mg/g, on the other hand the result of the second sampling in March 2006 showed that methyl mercury content in green muscle was lower than permitted concentration. Cooking process of the green muscle decreased methyl mercury content 44.85% (sampling in November 2005 and 17.71% (sampling in March 2006, because methyl mercury that bonded to protein were distributed to boiling water. Methyl mercury content in green muscle after cooking was still lower than the permitted concentration.   Keywords: methyl mercury, green muscle, Mytilus viridis L., Muara Angke

  11. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

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    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  12. The 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: a potential early warning system for environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, O; Ron, E; Loya, Y

    2001-09-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is often correlated with adaptation to environmental stress. We examined the role of HSP60 (60 kDa) in acclimatization to thermal stress in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using monoclonal antibodies, we identified HSP60 in sea anemones for the first time, and showed that its expression varied with changes in seawater temperature (SWT). Anemonia viridis displayed high levels of HSP60 when extreme temperatures prevailed in stressful habitats such as tidal pools. Specimens sampled from different temperature layers in the same tidal pool differed in their levels of HSP60. Specimens from subtidal zones exhibited a seasonal pattern of expression of HSP60, according to the seasonal SWT. The level of HSP60 was significantly higher in the summer (SWT, 31 degrees C) than in other seasons throughout the year. This study suggests the use of HSP60 expression as a tool for stress detection in marine invertebrates.

  13. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  14. Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanthi, Lourduraj A.; Revathi, Peranandam; Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2017-01-01

    This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied in P. viridis from Ennore estuary. • Heavy metal accumulation leads to severe cellular and DNA damage. • Comet assay and cytopathology proved to be a biomarker in ecotoxicology. • The data justifies the need of remedial measures along Ennore Estuary.

  15. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro cultures and wild plants of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Romano, Anabela

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential of different extracts from wild plants and in vitro cultures of Lavandula viridis L'Hér. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids, and luteolin and pinocembrin. Water/ethanol extract from in vitro cultures contained the highest amount of the identified phenolic compounds (51652.92 mg/kg). To investigate the antioxidant activity we used Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Fe(2+) chelation activity and the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates (in vitro). Overall, all the extracts from both wild plants and in vitro cultures exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals, to chelate Fe(2+) and to protect against lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts from L. viridis were active in inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (Ellman's method). Our findings suggest that L. viridis in vitro cultures represent a promising alternative for the production of active metabolites with antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OCCURRENCE IN THE SOIL AND DISPERSAL OF Lecanicillium lecanii, A FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF THE GREEN COFFEE SCALE (Coccus viridis AND COFFEE RUST (Hemileia vastatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug William Jackson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Lecanicillium lecanii attacks the green scale (Coccus viridis, a pest of coffee, and is also a hyperparasite of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix. Knowledge of the epizootiology of this fungus is potentially important for conservation biological control in coffee agroecosystems. The presence of viable propagules of L. lecanii in the soil, a possible environmental reservoir, was assessed using two baiting methods: the standard Galleria mellonella bait method and a C. viridis bait method. Infectious propagules of L. lecanii were detected in soil samples taken from a 45 ha study plot, both nearby and far from recent epizootics of L. lecanii. To test the potential for the transmission of L. lecanii conidia from the soil via rain splash or wind, coffee seedlings with populations of C. viridis were placed near L. lecanii-inoculated soil and then subjected to artificial rain and wind treatments. Rain splash was shown to be a potential transmission mechanism. Dispersal of L. lecanii conidia by the ant Azteca instabilis was tested using field and laboratory ant-exclusion experiments. Azteca instabilis was shown to transport conidia of L. lecanii; however, dispersal by A. instabilis may not be important under field conditions.

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufeng Qie

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  18. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  19. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans.

  1. Evidence of accelerated evolution and ectodermal-specific expression of presumptive BDS toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2013-10-30

    Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS) peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under-representation in our

  2. Evidence of Accelerated Evolution and Ectodermal-Specific Expression of Presumptive BDS Toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under

  3. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  4. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huifeng; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  5. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

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    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  6. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved insecticidal toxicity by fusing Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis with Av3 of Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu; Cheng, Xing; Ding, Xuezhi; Yao, Ting; Chen, Hanna; Li, Wenping; Hu, Shengbiao; Yu, Ziquan; Sun, Yunjun; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-05-01

    Av3, a neurotoxin of Anemonia viridis, is toxic to crustaceans and cockroaches but inactive in mammals. In the present study, Av3 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The purified Av3 was injected into the hemocoel of Helicoverpa armigera, rendering the worm paralyzed. Then, Av3 was expressed alone or fusion expressed with the Cry1Ac in acrystalliferous strain Cry(-)B of Bacillus thuringiensis. The shape of Cry1Ac was changed by fusion with Av3. The expressed fusion protein, Cry1AcAv3, formed irregular rhombus- or crescent-shaped crystalline inclusions, which is quite different from the shape of original Cry1Ac crystals. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was improved by fused expression. Compared with original Cry1Ac expressed in Cry(-)B, the oral toxicity of Cry1AcAv3 to H. armigera was elevated about 2.6-fold. No toxicity was detected when Av3 was expressed in Cry(-)B alone. The present study confirmed that marine toxins could be used in bio-control and implied that fused expression with other insecticidal proteins could be an efficient way for their application.

  8. A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity

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    Erwann P. Loret

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis, was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM. Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF.

  9. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

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    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  10. Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-09-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China.

  11. Expression of homing endonuclease gene and insertion-like element in sea anemone mitochondrial genomes: Lesson learned from Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sylvia Ighem; Urbarova, Ilona; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-04-30

    The mitochondrial genomes of sea anemones are dynamic in structure. Invasion by genetic elements, such as self-catalytic group I introns or insertion-like sequences, contribute to sea anemone mitochondrial genome expansion and complexity. By using next generation sequencing we investigated the complete mtDNAs and corresponding transcriptomes of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its closer tropical relative Anemonia majano. Two versions of fused homing endonuclease gene (HEG) organization were observed among the Actiniidae sea anemones; in-frame gene fusion and pseudo-gene fusion. We provided support for the pseudo-gene fusion organization in Anemonia species, resulting in a repressed HEG from the COI-884 group I intron. orfA, a putative protein-coding gene with insertion-like features, was present in both Anemonia species. Interestingly, orfA and COI expression were significantly up-regulated upon long-term environmental stress corresponding to low seawater pH conditions. This study provides new insights to the dynamics of sea anemone mitochondrial genome structure and function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validating Internal Control Genes for the Accurate Normalization of qPCR Expression Analysis of the Novel Model Plant Setaria viridis.

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    Julia Lambret-Frotté

    Full Text Available Employing reference genes to normalize the data generated with quantitative PCR (qPCR can increase the accuracy and reliability of this method. Previous results have shown that no single housekeeping gene can be universally applied to all experiments. Thus, the identification of a suitable reference gene represents a critical step of any qPCR analysis. Setaria viridis has recently been proposed as a model system for the study of Panicoid grasses, a crop family of major agronomic importance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify suitable S. viridis reference genes that can enhance the analysis of gene expression in this novel model plant. The first aim of this study was the identification of a suitable RNA extraction method that could retrieve a high quality and yield of RNA. After this, two distinct algorithms were used to assess the gene expression of fifteen different candidate genes in eighteen different samples, which were divided into two major datasets, the developmental and the leaf gradient. The best-ranked pair of reference genes from the developmental dataset included genes that encoded a phosphoglucomutase and a folylpolyglutamate synthase; genes that encoded a cullin and the same phosphoglucomutase as above were the most stable genes in the leaf gradient dataset. Additionally, the expression pattern of two target genes, a SvAP3/PI MADS-box transcription factor and the carbon-fixation enzyme PEPC, were assessed to illustrate the reliability of the chosen reference genes. This study has shown that novel reference genes may perform better than traditional housekeeping genes, a phenomenon which has been previously reported. These results illustrate the importance of carefully validating reference gene candidates for each experimental set before employing them as universal standards. Additionally, the robustness of the expression of the target genes may increase the utility of S. viridis as a model for Panicoid grasses.

  13. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B; Srisuksawad, K.; Permnamtip, V.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of 210 Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209 Po as an internal tracer. The 210 Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210 Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210 Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210 Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210 Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210 Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210 Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  15. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pwork showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  16. Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of leaf oxygen and carbon isotopic composition with transpiration efficiency in the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Ellsworth, Patrícia V; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-06-15

    Leaf carbon and oxygen isotope ratios can potentially provide a time-integrated proxy for stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E), and can be used to estimate transpiration efficiency (TE). In this study, we found significant relationships of bulk leaf carbon isotopic signature (δ13CBL) and bulk leaf oxygen enrichment above source water (Δ18OBL) with gas exchange and TE in the model C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica. Leaf δ13C had strong relationships with E, gs, water use, biomass, and TE. Additionally, the consistent difference in δ13CBL between well-watered and water-limited plants suggests that δ13CBL is effective in separating C4 plants with different availability of water. Alternatively, the use of Δ18OBL as a proxy for E and TE in S. viridis and S. italica was problematic. First, the oxygen isotopic composition of source water, used to calculate leaf water enrichment (Δ18OLW), was variable with time and differed across water treatments. Second, water limitations changed leaf size and masked the relationship of Δ18OLW and Δ18OBL with E. Therefore, the data collected here suggest that δ13CBL but not Δ18OBL may be an effective proxy for TE in C4 grasses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

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    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  19. Impact of cadmium on forage kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover") after 3-,10- and 56-day exposure to a Cd-spiked field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Dumez, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Platel, Anne; Nesslany, Fabrice; Deram, Annabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Cuny, Damien

    2018-03-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg -1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied. Metal accumulation was quantified, as well as DNA damage, by means of the comet assay and immunodetection of 8-OHdG levels. Globally, B. oleracea was relatively tolerant to those Cd exposures. However, comet assay and detection of 8-OHdG revealed some DNA damage but which are not significant. According to metal accumulation analysis, B. oleracea var. viridis cv Prover could be a good candidate for alternative growing in contaminated areas.

  20. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binupriya, A.R.; Sathishkumar, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, S.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  1. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binupriya, A.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sathishkumar, M., E-mail: cvemuthu@nus.edu.sg [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Yun, S.-I., E-mail: siyun@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  2. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dalin; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-01-01

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  3. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

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    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  4. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Abiodun Ayoka

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity. Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, Neuro-endocrine dysfunction, Reproductive toxicity, Rats, Amaranthus viridis

  5. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

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    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  7. Hypolipidemic Activity of Prosopis cineraria L (Druce) Fruit Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic potential of the 70 % ethanol fruit extract of Prosopis cineraria (Fabaceae) (Et. PCF) in triton-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Methods: Et-PCF was obtained by pulverizing whole dried fruits and extracting with 70 % ethanol. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of ...

  8. Hypolipidemic Activity of Prosopis cineraria L (Druce) Fruit Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collecting blood samples from all the rats and testing for serum lipid profile. ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals .... OPLS 2005 force field energy of crystal structure.

  9. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  10. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  11. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

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    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  12. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  13. Depuration Study of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in Green Mussels Perna viridis through Continues-discontinues and Acid Extraction Methods

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    Budiawan; Bakri, Ridla; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Handayani, Sri; Ade Kurnia Putri, Rizki; Tamala, Riska

    2018-01-01

    Green mussel or Perna viridis is filter feeder, which is very susceptible to heavy metals. It takes an effort to release heavy metal contents on the green shell, one of method that can be used to release heavy metal from green shell is depuration proccess. In this research, the depuration process was conducted by continues method of depuration, discontinues method by using various kind of water and acid extraction. The optimum time of continues depuration method is 1.5 hours, with circulation speed 250 L/h and result of Pb metal content decreased is equal to 30.048% and 29.748% for Cu. In the discontinues method, the optimum result was reached at 100oC by using PAM water as the media at 3 h immersion period with decrease of Pb metal content 35.001% and Cu metal content 39.015%. In the acid extraction method, the optimum condition was achieved by 11% acetic acid solvent with decreasing of Pb and Cu levels are 88.224% and 76.298%. For the determination of protein content, the decrease of protein content obtained by treatment with 11% acetic acid extract showed decrease of protein content 36.656% with Kjeldahl method.

  14. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Field experiments on individual adaptation of the spider crab Inachus phalangium to its sea anemone host Anemonia viridis in the northern Adriatic Sea

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    S. LANDMANN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adaptation of the spider crab Inachus phalangium (Fabricius, 1755 to one of its sea anemone host species, Anemonia viridis (Forsskål, 1775 in the coastal region of Rovinj, Croatia. Similar to other brachyuran species, Inachus spp. generally lives within the anemone to obtain protection from possible predators. Using removal and reintroduction experiments, this study investigates the protection mechanism and shows a loss of adaptation after a period of 10 days when the crabs are taken out of their host and kept solitary. Thirty-nine anemones from two different trial sites were marked individually and the inhabiting crabs were isolated to be released back into their individual hosts later. The reactions of the anemones were closely observed and characterized to determine the respective state of crab adaptation. As 35 out of 39 individuals provoked a defense /attack reaction of the anemone, it is concluded that the crabs possessed some sort of non-permanent protection mechanism that was lost during the test run (chi-square test, p < 0.00014. All tested crabs re-inhabited their host anemones within a maximum of 20 minutes after they had been reintroduced and stung by the anemones. Therefore, habituation to the host’s defense / attack mechanism is acquired individually and not genetically inherent to the species. The results are compared to adaptation and protection data on other decapod crustaceans and some anemonefishes.

  18. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology &

  19. Crecimiento del mejillón verde Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae bajo sistema de cultivo de fondo en la ensenada de Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

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    Vanessa Acosta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos representan uno de los grupos más importantes desde el punto de vista económico en la acuicultura marina, debido a los bajos costos de producción y a su alta rentabilidad. En este estudio se planteó probar la hipótesis de un mayor crecimiento de Perna viridis en cultivo de fondo, por un mejor aprovechamiento de alimento presente en el medio, lo cual permitirá descartarla o no como especie de cultivo para el Golfo de Cariaco. En este sentido, se evaluó el crecimiento y la supervivencia del mejillón verde P. viridis en condiciones de cultivo de fondo entre julio 2007 y febrero 2008. Las semillas del mejillón (35.81±1.41mm de longitud fueron obtenidas en la localidad de Guaca (costa norte del estado Sucre y trasladadas hasta la Estación Hidrobiológica de Turpialito, golfo de Cariaco, estado Sucre-Venezuela, en donde se sembraron en cestas “españolas”. Mensualmente se determinó supervivencia así como la longitud máxima de la concha, la masa seca del músculo, resto de tejidos y de la gónada. Los parámetros ambientales (temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, clorofila a, seston total y su fracción orgánica, en la zona de cultivo se determinaron cada 15 días. Mensualmente se realizaron determinaciones de proteínas, lípidos y carbohidratos al seston. Durante todo el estudio el mejillón mantuvo un crecimiento continuo, alcanzando al final una longitud máxima de 78.7±4.43mm. Sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento de la masa seca de los tejidos somáticos (músculo, resto de tejido y reproductivo, mostraron variabilidad a lo largo del estudio, produciéndose al final un incremento significativo en dichos tejidos. Las variaciones observadas en la tasa de crecimiento de la masa del tejido reproductivo, dependió de las reservas acumuladas y del alimento ofertado por el medio ambiente. El seston orgánico durante toda la experiencia mostró una independencia de la temperatura y de la clorofila a

  20. De novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analysis of the foot from Chinese green mussel (Perna viridis in response to cadmium stimulation.

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    Xinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The Chinese green mussel, Perna viridis, is a marine bivalve with important economic values as well as biomonitoring roles for aquatic pollution. Byssus, secreted by the foot gland, has been proved to bind heavy metals effectively. In this study, using the RNA sequencing technology, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis on the mussel feet with or without inducing by cadmium (Cd. Our current work is aiming at providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of byssus binding to heavy metal ions. The transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26.13-Gb raw data. After a careful assembly of clean data, we obtained a primary set of 105,127 unigenes, in which 32,268 unigenes were annotated. Based on the expression profiles, we identified 9,048 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Cd treatment (50 or 100 μg/L at 48 h and the control, suggesting an extensive transcriptome response of the mussels during the Cd stimulation. Moreover, we observed that the expression levels of 54 byssus protein coding genes increased significantly after the 48-h Cd stimulation. In addition, 16 critical byssus protein coding genes were picked for profiling by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Finally, we reached a primary conclusion that high content of tyrosine (Tyr, cysteine (Cys, histidine (His residues or the special motif plays an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals in byssus. We also proposed an interesting model for the confirmed byssal Cd accumulation, in which biosynthesis of byssus proteins may play simultaneously critical roles since their transcription levels were significantly elevated.

  1. Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in Marudu Bay, Northeast Malaysian Borneo, three years after a massive mortality event

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    Afizah Mohd Taib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in a particular coastal marine environment can be affected by many factors, including environmental change, pollution, disease outbreak and massive mortality event. The present study was conducted to determine the density, recruitment and growth performance of farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay, three years after a mass mortality event. The study was carried out for 12 months between April 2013 and March 2014. The length frequency data of 1,308 individuals of green mussel were analyzed using the latest version of the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II. The result showed that the green mussel recruitment in Marudu Bay occurs throughout the year with two major peaks i.e. February and July which coincided with the monsoon seasons. The asymptotic length (L∞, growth coefficient (K and growth performance index (φ’ of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay are relatively high at 113.4 mm, 1.7 year-1 and 4.34, respectively. However, despite good culture location, the settlement density of green mussel in the bay was low. We suspected that the low settlement density could be influenced by the ecological effects due to the long term suspension of the culture substrates and the physiochemical properties of the water in Marudu Bay. Nevertheless, chlorophyll-á measurement alone was not able to justify if food scarcity has resulted in high mortality of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay.

  2. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis reveals a distinctive quadripartite architecture in the chloroplast genome of early diverging ulvophytes

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    Lemieux Claude

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae is currently debated. The four complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences presently available for representatives of these classes have revealed extensive variability in overall structure, gene content, intron composition and gene order. The chloroplast genome of Pseudendoclonium (Ulvophyceae, in particular, is characterized by an atypical quadripartite architecture that deviates from the ancestral type by a large inverted repeat (IR featuring an inverted rRNA operon and a small single-copy (SSC region containing 14 genes normally found in the large single-copy (LSC region. To gain insights into the nature of the events that led to the reorganization of the chloroplast genome in the Ulvophyceae, we have determined the complete cpDNA sequence of Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, a representative of a distinct, early diverging lineage. Results The 151,933 bp IR-containing genome of Oltmannsiellopsis differs considerably from Pseudendoclonium and other chlorophyte cpDNAs in intron content and gene order, but shares close similarities with its ulvophyte homologue at the levels of quadripartite architecture, gene content and gene density. Oltmannsiellopsis cpDNA encodes 105 genes, contains five group I introns, and features many short dispersed repeats. As in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA, the rRNA genes in the IR are transcribed toward the single copy region featuring the genes typically found in the ancestral LSC region, and the opposite single copy region harbours genes characteristic of both the ancestral SSC and LSC regions. The 52 genes that were transferred from the ancestral LSC to SSC region include 12 of those observed in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA. Surprisingly, the overall gene organization of

  3. Effect of Temperature and Drought Stress on Germination of Slender Amaranth (Amaranthus viridis L. and Prostrate Pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson Seeds

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    Marjan Diayanat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis L. and prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson are two common weeds in vegetables and summer crop fields of Iran. The two Amaranthus species have all the attributes required by ecologically successful annual weeds: rapid growth, early reproduction and continuous seed production. Knowledge of the germination requirements of these weeds will helps determine the proper conditions for germination and emergence and allow better management of them. Water and temperature are determining factors for seed germination of weed. Both factors can, separately or jointly, affect the germination percentage and germination rate. Water stress is one of the main constraints on plant growth and the most common environmental stresses around the world. Water stress affects the different aspects of plant growth and causes reduction and delay in seed germination. Seed germination of all plant species requires a minimum of water to be absorbed and swelled and that is why osmotic potential should not be less than a certain amount. Materials and Methods: Seeds were harvested from vegetable fields of Karaj. For breaking dormancy, seeds were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for two minutes. Two experiments were conducted at Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Ecology lab, in 2016. First experiment was based on completely randomized design with 4 replications .The seeds were treated with different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45oC. Germination percentage and germination rate were measured and seed were considered to have germinated with the emergence of the radical. Intersected lines model is used to determine the cardinal temperature. Second experiment was conducted to determine the effects of simulated dry conditions (use PEG and temperature on seed germination of slender amaranth and prostrate pigweed. Exposure to polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 solutions has been

  4. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E

    1999-08-31

    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  5. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  6. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  7. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  8. Sphodromantis viridis (Forskal, 1775: New for Portugal and new records of the rare and small mantids Apteromantis aptera (Fuente, 1894 and Perlamantis allibertii Guérin-Méneville, 1843 in the country (Mantodea: Mantidae and Amorphoscelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marabuto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new records are presented on some of the least known mantis species in the Iberian Peninsula. From data collected in Portugal, their analysis has proven to represent an important advancement in the knowledge of this group of insects for the country and the Western Mediterranean area. Twenty new citations provide a better understanding on the distribution of the crepuscular species Perlamantis allibertii, the IUCN red listed Apteromantis aptera and the first Portuguese records of Sphodromantis viridis, extending their western limits of occurrence in Europe. The data thus gathered emphasizes the need to invest in biodiversity assessment for increased knowledge on species distribution and phenology but also for monitoring over time, essential to better ascertaining ecosystem services, the effects of climate change and habitat conservation.

  9. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  10. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  11. Therapeutic horror? Olga Druce, House of Mystery and the controversy over children’s radio thrillers

    OpenAIRE

    Krutnik, Frank

    2017-01-01

    From the 1930s to the 1950s, parents, educators, psychologists and others hotly debated the impact of US radio’s sensational genre programming on young listeners. While many condemned radio thrillers and chillers for subjecting children to excessive emotional arousal, or for encouraging juvenile delinquency, more progressive authorities argued for their cathartic potential. Drawing on a wide range of materials from contemporary newspapers, magazines, trade journals and radio shows, this artic...

  12. Pharmacological Evaluation of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce in Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, and Vascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of Prosopis cineraria, a plant native of Pakistan, was tested for its possible presence of spasmolytic, bronchodilator, and vasodilator activities in an attempt to validate some of its folkloric uses. Moreover, attempts were made to provide plausible explanations of the observed biological activities. The extract caused relaxation of the spontaneous as well as K+ (80 mM-induced contractions at tissue bath concentrations of 3–10 mg/mL in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, probably mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. This finding was further confirmed by the shifting of the Ca+2 concentration response curves to the rightward in a manner similar to verapamil used as a standard Ca+2 channel blocker. The extract also exhibited nonspecific relaxant effect on carbachol (1 μM- and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations. The same effect was recorded for phenylephrine (11 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations in a manner similar to verapamil. These observations confirm that observed bronchodilator and vasodilator activities were possibly mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. The above-mentioned observations validate the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal ailments.

  13. Gynoecium micromorphology and vasculature іn Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L. Druce (Asparagaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana S. Fishchuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the gynoecium of Sansevieria hyacinthoidessynascidiate, hemisynascidiate, hemisymlicate and asymplicate vertical zones are available. Ovule lies medially in the hemisynascidiate zone. Carpel trace is three-bundled. Septal nectary height is twice as locule height due to the extension of the nectary in the ovary base and roof. Septal nectaries at the various levels correspond to infralocular, internal and external types. Peculiarly, that nectary splits in its bases are not connected by epidermal cells.

  14. A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Roy, Rajiv; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Sarkar, Sajal; Jash, Shyamal K; Mondal, Sadhan

    2013-10-01

    A new pentacyclic triterpenoid constituent, characterized as 3-oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29α-carboxylic acid (1) on the basis of detailed spectral studies, was isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Limnophila indica (Scrophulariaceae). Compound 1 exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (MICs within a range of 25-30 μg/ml) and moderate activity against four Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea ananatis (MICs within a range of 30-100 μg/ml). The plant pathogenic bacterium P. ananatis and human pathogenic S. typhimurium responded at comparatively higher concentrations of the compound 1, which were 75 and 100 μg/ml respectively. The compound inhibited the growth of Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa completely with a clear bactericidal mode of action at their MIC values. The compound upon treatment on both B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa released substantial amount of nucleic acid in the external medium and also effected the change of morphology towards pleomorphicity, thereby indicating its probable action on cell membrane. Furthermore, the triterpenoid 1 was found not to inhibit a probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LABW4 under in vitro condition and to possess no toxicity in Swiss albino mice. © 2013.

  15. On Psophia viridis and Ps. obscura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsch, O.

    1898-01-01

    When Dr. Sharpe wrote the Catalogue of the Fulicariae and Alectorides (Birds, vol. XXIII, 1894) he referred with regard to the above two species to the material in the Leyden Museum, as they were not then represented in the collection of the British Museum. Misled by the wrong determination of the

  16. Влияние гипоксии на синтез низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов Fragaria viridis Duch

    OpenAIRE

    Гусев, Николай; Петрова, Галина; Немерешина, Ольга; Бомбела, Татьяна

    2012-01-01

    В статье приведены данные по содержанию низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов (танидов) в тканях Fragaria viridis Duch., произрастающей в различных экологических условиях. Выявлены отличия в содержании антиоксидантов для растений, подвергшихся воздействию гипоксии.

  17. Het verschil tussen Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce (Welriekende salomonszegel) en P. x hybridum Brügger (Tuinsalomonszegel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1999-01-01

    Bij het controleren van waarnemingen die aan FLORBASE zijn toegevoegd¹² bleek dat veel waarnemingen van Polygonatum odoratum (Welriekende salomonszegel) buiten het duingebied betrekking hebben op P. x hybridum (Tuinsalomonszegel). Polygonatum odoratum is een soort van droge, kalkrijke grond; hij is

  18. Содержаниe витаминов в листьях Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston) степной зоны оренбургского Предуралья

    OpenAIRE

    Докучаева, Юлия; Гусев, Николай; Немерешина, Ольга

    2015-01-01

    Изучена зависимость содержания витаминов от экологических условий в растении Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston) землянике зелёной, или клубнике. Результаты исследований показывают, что содержание антиоксидантов аскробиновой кислоты, токоферола и каротина в листьях Fragaria viridis обусловлено фазой развития растений и их местообитанием. Показано повышенное содержание токоферола в листьях растения, произрастающего в зоне влияния промышленных поллютантов, что, возможно, является одним из механизмо...

  19. Kinetics of Soluble Glucan Production by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, M.; Benešová, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2003), s. 633-638 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : eps * hplc Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  20. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  1. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce) from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Knudson, Edward C

    2011-01-01

    Hippia packardii (Morrison) and Hippia insularis (Grote) are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n.Elasmia cave Metzler,sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson,ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  2. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippia packardii (Morrison and Hippia insularis (Grote are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n. Elasmia cave Metzler, sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson, ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  3. Биохимические особенности и антибактериальное действие препаратов Fragaria viridis

    OpenAIRE

    ГУСЕВ НИКОЛАЙ ФЁДОРОВИЧ; ДОКУЧАЕВА ЮЛИЯ АЛЕКСЕЕВНА; СЫЧЁВА МАРИЯ ВИКТОРОВНА; НЕМЕРЕШИНА ОЛЬГА НИКОЛАЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    Представлены результаты исследования полифенольного комплекса (флавоноиды, таниды и фенолкарбоновые кислоты) в листьях Fragaria viridis Duch. (Weston.) земляники зелёной, произрастающей в степной зоне оренбургского Предуралья. Идентифицированы флавоноиды: кверцетин, рутин, кверцитрин, гиперозид, а из фенолокислот кофейная, хлорогеновая, неохлорогеновая. Показано, что содержание полифенолов зависит от зональности и местообитания растений. Изложены результаты влияния водного экстракта лекарстве...

  4. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  5. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Torben; Delefosse, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation...... be about 0.16 ml min−1. Since the cilia pumping into the burrow occurs in periods of 24±12 min and at 50–70% of the measured time, considerable amounts of water from deeper sediments may percolate upwards to the sediment surface. This water is rich in reduced compounds and nutrients and may have important...

  6. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Z.; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is ‘anchored’ to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body con...

  7. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    antifouling activ- ity, which was evident from the few observations made in the present study, for example, C. kremfi collected from Kalpeni showed moderate activity, while that from Kada- math showed no activity. Similarly, C. pachyclados from Kalpeni showed... moderate activity, while that from Kada- math showed strong activity. This was also the case with Suberogorgia suberosa from Mandapam and Beyt Dwarka, which showed no and positive activity, respectively. Intra- specific variability in the chemically...

  8. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    peroxidation (LPX). Increased activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) both in gills and digestive glands under long...

  9. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    by defense sys- tems. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and non enzymatic antioxidant molecules such as reduced glutathione (GSH...- sures include lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl (PC), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), GSH, ascorbic acid (ASA) and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX, GR and GST. In addition DNA strand breaks, as an index of genotoxic stress and MT...

  10. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    % inhibition of oxidation of NADH in the reaction. The reaction rate was recorded at 340 nm and expressed as Units/mg protein. Catalase (CAT) activity was determined according to Aebi (1974). The method was based on the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide... was significantly higher than the reference site (BB; Fig. 2C). In case of digestive gland, SOD activity was significantly increased at MH and ML than at BB (Fig. 2D). 4.4. Catalase CAT in gill as well as in digestive gland showed much higher activity at MH and ML...

  11. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    metabolites as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative damage to cells (18,19). Th is induces antioxidative responses to protect cells against the unfavorable eff ects of ROS. To this end, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT... in the digestive gland. Th e parameters measured included LPX, PC, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), GSH, ASA, and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX, GR, and GST as indices of oxidative stress, and DNA strand breaks as an index of genotoxic stress. Th ese...

  12. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumaran, S.P.; Kutty, B.C.; Chatterji, A.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Mishra, K.P.

    -irradiation Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH...

  13. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    ) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH•), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl (PC). The scavenging activity of DPPH radical, H sub(2) O sub(2) and OH• radicals increased in dose dependent manner. The reducing power...

  14. A novel DNase like compound that inhibits virus propagation from Asian green mussel, Perna viridis (Linn.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.

    to counteract some viruses. Keywords: Antiviral property, Bivalves, DNase-like bioactivity, Plasmid pBR 322 Virus mediated pathological conditions such as Chickenpox (Varicella zoster virus, VZV), Japanese encephalitis, Chickungunya, Dengue, infectious... is an object of future research endeavor. DNAse like PPC with an antiviral property can be a potential candidate to develop an effective drugs against the DNA viruses like varicella zoster virus and Herpes viruses. Detailed work is underway to further...

  15. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    inverse relationship. In contrast, growth expressed in terms of weight was significantly influencEd. by chl-a and DO. It was also observed that chl-a either singly or in combination with particulate organic matter had significant effect on growth...

  16. Characterization of glutathione peroxidase diversity in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Pey , Alexis; Zamoum , Thamilla; Christen , Richard; Merle , Pierre-Laurent; Furla , Paola

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the s...

  17. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    species belonging to Pulmonate Communicated by S.W.A. Naqvi. A. N. Muhammed Zafar Iqbal (&) C1 M. S. Khan C1 U. Goswami Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India e-mail: zafar_ian@yahoo.co.uk; zafarin... aquaculture productivity, with annual yield of 3,22,234 tonnes in 2004 (FAO 2004) and holds the 19th position in the worldwide mariculture industry. Karyotypic features have been analyzed and documented in detail using con- ventional staining, C-banding and Ag...

  18. Preparation of Nanoparticles by Electroagulation From Soluble Exopolysaccharide Produced by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, Michaela; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sobotka, Miroslav; Cvak, Jan; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2004), s. 234-236 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electroagulation * exopolysaccharides * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  19. Eight-Membered Cyclic 1,2,3-Trithiocane Derivatives from Perophora viridis, an Atlantic Tunicate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.

    - (2002), s. 2400-2404 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : natural * products * sulfur heterocycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2002

  20. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    ) was almost identical for both the species tested, although there was a significant shift in the range of LC sub(50) values, indicating that one species is less sensitive than the other. Oil dispersant mixtures were less toxic than the dispersants alone...

  1. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  2. IncreasingpCO2correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemoneAnemonia viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Borell, Esther M.; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-01-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in sea...

  3. BUDIDAYA KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis L. DENGAN METODE DAN KEPADATAN BERBEDA DI PERAIRAN PESISIR KUALA LANGSA, ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sagita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kerang hijau merupakan komoditas budidaya laut yang sangat prospektif untuk dikembangkan pada suatu sistem budidaya, karena dapat dilakukan dengan biaya produksi yang rendah namun menghasilkan profitabilitas yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui metode dan kepadatan yang paling optimal untuk budidaya kerang hijau di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Metode penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri atas faktor metode (long line dan stick dan faktor kepadatan (20, 30, dan 40 individu/kantong 5,30 L, masing-masing diulang sebanyak empat kali. Berdasarkan sidik ragam data Specific Growth Rate (SGR dari panjang (SGL L dan bobot (SGR W menunjukkan semua perlakuan metode, kepadatan dan interaksi berbeda signifikan pada taraf uji 5% (P<0,05, di mana perlakuan yang paling optimal yaitu perlakuan metode long line dengan kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L diperoleh rata-rata nilai SGR (L sebesar 0,86 ± 0,01%/hari dan SGR (W sebesar 1,18 ± 0,04%/hari dengan sintasan mencapai 92,50 ± 2,89%. Parameter kualitas perairan selama periode budidaya masih sesuai untuk mendukung kehidupan kerang hijau di mana suhu berkisar 27,5-34,0°C; salinitas 28,5-33,0 ppt; pH 7,8-8,6; dan oksigen terlarut 4,5-6,5 mg/L; serta kecepatan arus 0,1-0,3 m/s. Budidaya kerang hijau dengan metode long line pada kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L merupakan pola budidaya yang paling optimal untuk diterapkan di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Green mussel is a very prospective marine aquaculture commodity due to its low cost production but with high profitability. This research aimed to determine the most optimal method and densities for green mussel culture in coastal waters of Kuala Langsa, Aceh. The research used a completely randomized factorial design consisting of methods factor (long line and stick and densities factor (20, 30, and 40 individuals/basket 5.30 L, each repeated four times. Based on the variance analysis of specific growth rate (SGR data of the length (SGR L and weight (SGR W, all treatments of different methods and densities as well as their interactions were significant different (P<0.05. This study suggested that long line method with a densities of 20 individuals/basket 5.30 L was found to be the most optimal treatment for green mussel culture in coastal waters of Kuala Langsa. With this long line method an average SGR (L value of 0.86 ± 0.01%/day, SGR (W value of 1.18 ± 0.04%/day, and survival rate of 92.50 ± 2.89% were obtained. Water quality parameters during the culture period are still within the suitable range for green mussel culture, with the range of temperature 27.5-34.0°C, salinity 28.5-33.0 ppt, pH 7.8-8.6, dissolved oxygen 4.5-6.5 mg/L, and current velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s.

  4. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H sub(2) O sub(2)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured...

  5. Influence of rearing water temperature on induced gonadal development and spawning behaviour of tropical green mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parathattil Rathan Sreedevi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: According to the present study temperature induced spawning method is very simple and cost effective and can accelerate the production of mussel seeds in hatchery units and further stock improvement through genetic manipulation.

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on branching in weedy green millet (Setaria viridis) and domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica) (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Andrew N; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-04-01

    Many domesticated crops are derived from species whose life history includes weedy characteristics, such as the ability to vary branching patterns in response to environmental conditions. However, domesticated crop plants are characterized by less variable plant architecture, as well as by a general reduction in vegetative branching compared to their progenitor species. Here we examine weedy green millet and its domesticate foxtail millet that differ in the number of tillers (basal branches) and axillary branches along each tiller. Branch number in F(2:3) progeny of a cross between the two species varies with genotype, planting density, and other environmental variables, with significant genotype-environment interactions (GEI). This is shown by a complex pattern of reaction norms and by variation in the pattern of significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) amongst trials. Individual and joint analyses of high and low density trials indicate that most QTL have significant GEI. Dominance and epistasis also explain some variation in branching. Likely candidate genes underlying the QTL (based on map position and phenotypic effect) include teosinte branched1 and barren stalk1. Phytochrome B, which has been found to affect response to shading in other plants, explains little or no variation. Much variation in branching is explained by QTL that do not have obvious candidate genes from maize or rice.

  7. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  8. Renormalization of the g-boson effects for Os isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun; Liu Yong; Sang Jianping

    1996-01-01

    A modified renormalization approach based on that proposed by Druce et al. is presented. The overall agreement between the spectra calculated here and the accurate spectra is significantly improved. We also use Druce's approach to generate the renormalized spectra. It is shown that in our microscopic study, both of the approaches are very useful to the determination of several free parameters of fermion residual interactions

  9. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  10. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Warren R.; Siu, William H.L.; Jack, Ralph W.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  11. Divergent Host Plant Adaptation Drives the Evolution of Sexual Isolation in the Grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Absence of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beginning stages of lineage divergence can be difficult to detect, as correlations between altered genotypic and phenotypic attributes are often weak early in the process. Shifts in host plant use and divergence in mating signals can lead to sexual isolation and ultimately speciation. To underst...

  12. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  13. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  14. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Druce HM. Allergic and non allergic rhinitis. In: Middleton EM Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF. Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis,. Mo: Mosby, Year-Book;1998.p.1005-16. 3. Blaiss MS. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):449-54. 4.

  15. African Zoology - Vol 39, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow, 273–284.

  16. 95 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    1638. 7. Shore EM, Feldmann GJ etal: A recurrent mutation in BMP type1 receptor ACVR1 causes inherited and sporadic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Nature & Genetics. 2006 DOI:10.1038/ng1783. 8. Druce M, Morris VH, Stump: Femoral nerve compression in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Rheumatology.

  17. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis of chestnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mehrcedeh

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Druce-A multiple desert tree. Researcher 1:28-32. Kvaalen H, Gram Daehlen O, Tove Rognstad A, Grǿnstad B,. Egertsdotter U (2005). Somatic embryogenesis for plant production of. Abies lasiocarpa. Can. J. For. Res. 35:1053-1060. Liu CZ, Murch SJ, Demerdash MEL, Saxena PK (2003). Regeneration.

  18. A Ludlow conodont fauna from Irian Jaya (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den M.

    1990-01-01

    The conodont fauna extracted from a boulder in the Lorentz River (southern Irian Jaya) is described. Arguments are put forward that the elements of Distomodus dubius (Rhodes, 1953) sensu Jeppsson, 1972 are part of the apparatus of species of Coryssognathus Link & Druce, 1972, a genus that

  19. List of the Lepidopterous insects collected by Mr. A. G. Vorderman in the island of Billiton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, P.C.T.

    1891-01-01

    Up to this day only a single information concerning the Lepidopterous fauna of the island of Billiton, situated between Sumatra and Borneo, was published (see: Godman, Salvin and Druce in Proceed. Zool. Soc. of London for 1878, p. 637, pl. 40). This communication was based upon a small collection

  20. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 13, No 5 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization and Composition of Volatile Oil from Polygonatum odoratum (Mill Druce) using Supercritical Fluid Extraction · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. X Zhao, J Zeng, H Gao, Y Wang, 779-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i5.19 ...

  1. Assessment of the toxic potentials of some plants powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nig. J. Nat. Sci. 1 (1): 9-11. Onolemhemhen OP, Oigiangbe CN (1991). Biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Pigeon Pea. (Cajanus cajan L. Druce) treated with vegetable Oil and Thriol. Samaru J. Agric. Res. 8: 57-63. Osuji P (1985). An outline of Stored Product Entomology for the.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... Cloning and Functional. Expression of Cycloartenol Synthases from Mangrove Species. Rhizophora stylosa Griff. And Kandelia candel (L.) Druce. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 71(7): 1788-1792. Felsenstein J (1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution. 39:783-791 ...

  3. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 4, De bastaarden van het Dryopteris spinulosa-complex in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segal, S.

    1971-01-01

    Hybrids of the Dryopteris spinulosa complex in the Netherlands Kuntze ex Druce (= D. carthusiana X D. cristata) and D. x deweveri Dryopteris x uliginosa (Joh. Jansen) J. & W. ( = D. carthusiana X D. dilatata) have been recorded from several places in the Netherlands. Fern hybrids, generally

  4. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  5. Peplidium (Scrophulariaceae): a new generic record for The Flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... together with notes on its distribution, habitat requirements and conservation status. The first Kenyan records of Limnophila indica (L.) Druce and Lindernia zanzibarica Eb.Fisch. & Hepper are also noted. Keywords: Peplidium maritimum, Limnophila indica, Lindernia zanzibarica, aquatic, Kenya, Lamu District, Tana District ...

  6. AXENIC IN-VITRO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RESPONSES OF SOME DUTCH MARSH ORCHIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, E; ECK, N

    1995-01-01

    Seedlings of Dactylorhiza majalis (Reichb.) Hunt & Summerh., D. praetermissa (Druce) Soo var.junialis (Vermen.) Sengh., D. incarnata (L.) Soo and D. maculata (L.) Soo ssp. maculata were grown axenically in vitro at various concentrations of ammonium nitrate and phosphate to assess the extent of

  7. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  8. EFFECTS OF MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON IN-VITRO NITROGEN RESPONSE OF SOME DUTCH INDIGENOUS ORCHID SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, E; ECK, ND

    The effect of mycorrhizal infection on the response to mineral nitrogen was studied in Orchis morio L., Dactylorhiza praetermissa (Druce) Soo var. junialis (Vermin.) Sengh., Dactylorhiza majalis (Reichb.) Hunt & Summerh., and Dactylorhiza incarnara (L.) Soo, using two strains of Ceratorhiza sp. and

  9. Nieuwe plantesoorten voor Vlieland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de G.Th.

    1977-01-01

    The author mentions the records of a number of taxa new for the Wadden island of Vlieland, viz. Thalictrum dunense L. subsp. dunense (Dum.) Rouy et Fouc., Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, Carex acutiformis Ehrh., C. paniculata L., Phalaris canariensis L., and Orchis praetermissa Druce.

  10. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  11. Renormalization of g-boson effects under weak coupling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun; Yang Jie; Liu Yong; Sang Jianping

    1998-01-01

    An approach based on perturbation theory is proposed to renormalized g-boson effects for sdgIBM system, which modifies that presented earlier by Druce et al. The weak coupling condition as the usage premise of the two approaches is proved to be satisfied. Two renormalization spectra are calculated for comparison and analyses. Results show that the g-boson effects are renormalized more completely by the approach proposed

  12. Biology of the Central Desert of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZANFAR, Shahina A

    2004-01-01

    A biological survey of the central desert of Oman was done using long distance transects. Vegetation was sparse and consisted of 200+ plant species, 22 species of mammals, 17 species of reptiles and amphibians, and more than 50 species of birds (migratory and resident). Three main vegetation types were identified based on ground substrate and the dominance of species. These were communities with Acacia Willd., Zygophyllum L., and open woodlands of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. Over-grazing a...

  13. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System (ECAMP), U.S. Air Force - German Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    lizard *Lacerta parva Zwerg-Zaumeidecbse dwad sand lizard *Lacerta. princeps Zagros-Eidecbse Zagros’ lizard *Lacerta viridis Smaragdeidechse green...Moschusbock musk beetle oak beetle Agrilus viridis Buchenprachtkaefer beech beetle (Lsubholzprachtksefer) deciduous tree beetles Anthaxia quadiipunctata...meadow sulfur -all European species not individually listed *Coistra. fragariae Erdbeereule strawberry moth *Consta. veronicae Rotbraune Wintereule red

  14. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    glyptosperma ribseed sandmat 0 Euphorbia maculata Spotted Spurge 0 Euthamia graminifolia Flat-top Goldentop 6 Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry 4...Foxtail UK Setaria viridis Pennisetum viridis Green Foxtail 0 Silene sp. Catchfly UK Sisyrinchium campestre White-eyed Grass 10 Sium suave

  15. First record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) infecting springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T.; Eilenberg, J.; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, whi...... Conidiobolus coronatus. Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes) were also isolated from S. viridis....

  16. Subsistence and recreational mussel (Perna perna) collecting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional collectors are subject to a daily bag limit of 50 mussels and so select ... in subsistence collecting at Kosi Bay is required, but the limited access policy should ... in India (P. viridis and P. indica), Indonesia (P. viridis) and ...... by women in Palau, Micronesia. ... Inshore marine resources and associated opportunities for.

  17. Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Kristen A.; Sharber, Wyatt V.

    2012-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) depend on the presence of host plants (Asclepias spp.) within their breeding range for reproduction. In the southern Great Plains, Asclepias viridis is a perennial that flowers in May and June, and starts to senesce by August. It is locally abundant and readily used by monarchs as a host plant. We evaluated the effects of summer prescribed fire on A. viridis and the use of A. viridis by monarch butterflies. Summer prescribed fire generated a newly emergent population of A. viridis that was absent in other areas. Pre-migrant monarch butterflies laid eggs on A. viridis in summer burned plots in late August and September, allowing adequate time for a new generation of adult monarchs to emerge and migrate south to their overwintering grounds. Thus, summer prescribed fire may provide host plant patches and/or corridors for pre-migrant monarchs during a time when host plant availability may be limited in other areas. PMID:22859559

  18. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  19. Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Luis Miguel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
    three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
    Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
    progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
    Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
    The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
    griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
    pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
    marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
    Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos modelos epidemiológicos de predicción de la enfermedad, con el fin de observar su progreso en los dilerentes tratamientos. Posteriormente, mediante un análisis
    de regresión lineal simple, se calculó la tasa de infección (k y el coeficiente de determinación (R2, el cual indicó el modelo que más se ajustó a la realidad. Por medio de un análisis de varianza, se compararon las tasas de infección. Los resultados de los experimentos no fueron satislactorios en el
    control de la entermedady no se encontraron diferencias signilicativas entre las dosis y las frecuencias de aplicación de Streptomyces gríseovirídís (Mycostop utilizadas. Un
    comportamiento epidemiológico estadísticamente homogéneo se observó en las curvas de predicción de la enfermedad por bloque. Streptomyces griseoviridises muy dependiente de las condiciones de pH del medio de cultivo, pues, sólo se desarrolló a partir de un pH de 6,4 y con un óptimo
    crecimiento, a 7,0. No se observó una relación entre el desarrollo del organismo y la conductividad eléctrica.

  20. Особенности накопления микроэлементов в тканях Fragaria viridis (Duch. ) Weston

    OpenAIRE

    Докучаева, Юлия; Филиппова, Ася; Сафонов, Максим

    2014-01-01

    Лекарственные растения и препараты растительного происхождения занимают особое место среди средств профилактики и лечения различных заболеваний. Поэтому поиск новых перспективных растений, необходимых для использования в фитотерапии, является актуальной проблемой биологической науки, медицинской практики и ресурсоведения. Основным источником для поиска новых лекарственных растений является ареал средств народной медицины. Наибольший интерес при этом вызывают растения, обладающие комплексным д...

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281806 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MIEESKSIKEKFGVLDSVPVGACLLQDDFVVLFWNTCLEE...YP_007117793.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281805 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MYLILPDLYANMTYQIDERLNTSPCGFLSFADDGTIVMVN...YP_007118829.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  3. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281754 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MLYNNEILPTLTVESSPRSMNILLYKLLSLRRIEYIAVDR...YP_007115817.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  4. Avifauna of Boni-Dodori National Reserves, Lamu and Garissa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observers conducted a 60 min walk along a designated path in open ... rophoneus viridis were recorded in the Boni-Dodori area for the first time. ..... Mouse-coloured Sunbird Cyanomitra veroxii * .... Expedition Field techniques: Bird Surveys.

  5. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    marshelder (sumpweed) (7va) maygrass (Phalaris carol iniana) maypop (Passi flora Incarnata) milkweed (Asclepiodora viridis ) neftles (Urt ica) Ohio...plum (Prunus) wild potato vine (Tpomoea pandurata) wild rice (Zizania aquatica) wild strawberries ( Fragaria ) DATE, FILMED 15, 8 3 DTIC

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fragaria spp Fruit (b)(5)(i). Liberia Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Mali Pineapple Ananas... free from Coccus moestus, C. viridis, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Planococcus lilacinus, P. minor, and...

  7. Garrison Dam/Lake Sakakawea Master Plan with Integrated Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Missouri River, Montana: Update of Design Memorandum MGR-107D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    Toxicodendron radicans), wild strawberry ( Fragaria virginiana), violets (Oxalis violacea), and wild parsley (Lomatium orientale) fill in the...prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis ), yellowbelly racers (Coluber constrictor), western hognose snake (Heterdon nasicus), and smooth green snakes

  8. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Wainwright, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Nutt. DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS (L.) Schott ALNUS VIRIDIS Villar ssp. CRISPA (Aiton) A. Loeve & D. Loeve GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS (L.) Newman BETULA...OCTOPETALA POLYGONUM AMYHIBIUM L. FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA Duchesne POLYGONUM AVICULARE L. GEUM PERINCISUM Rydb. POLYGONUM CONVOLVULUS L. PENTAPHYLLOIDES

  9. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Lippia lanc6Tahta Foxtail, Bristly Setaria Faberfi Foxtail, Green Setaria viridis Foxtail, Yellow Setaria lutescens Galingale C Verus strigosus Garlic...Stickseed, Virginian Hackelia virginiana Stink-Grass Lraqrostis cilialensis Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Sunflower, Common Helianthus annuus Swamp

  10. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 428320264 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007118146.1 NC_019730 1117:843 ... 1150:13380 1301283:30256 ... 1158:4799 482564:3448 179408:3448 ... Antibiot...ic biosynthesis monooxygenase Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MILEAVVLNVKSGCEGD

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of the Diuretic Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The aqueous-methanol extract of Mentha viridis was administered to experimental rats at doses of 30, 50 and 100 ... species of flora for food and medicine. It is also ... Preliminary phytochemical analysis. A portion .... The regulation of.

  13. Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

    pfeifferae, Dercitopsis sp.] against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and green mussel Perna viridis are reported here. All the extracts examined inhibited the settlement of cyprids of B. amphitrite. Toxicity revival studies indicate...

  14. Emarginella, Puncturella, Fissurisepta and Rimula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    green ground-colour with a pattern of darker green blotches on the anterior face, ... pointed centrally, set at an angle of 50" to the longitudinal radular axis; exposed shaft ..... Viridis (L.), green + canus (L.), grey; referring to shell colour.

  15. Original Article Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... While the mean airborne fungal load in UBTH and Central Hospital in dry season ... Monilla infuscans, Penicillium sp., Candida sp. and Trichoderma viridis while the six (6) .... antibiotic (chloramphenicol) was incorporated into.

  16. Ecology and culturing of edible bivalves in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Nair, S.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Harkantra, S.N.; Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Roy, J.M.

    Environmental characteristics, growth rate, total production and technically feasible methods for the mass cultivation of Meretrix casta, Paphia malabarica, Villorita cyprinoides, Donax incarnatus, Perna viridis, Modiolus metcalfei and Crassostrea...

  17. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. [= Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love...Festuca rubra L., in part] Festuca saximontana Rydb. *Festuca vivipara (L.) Smith [= “Festuca vivipara”] Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ssp. glauca...tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love [= Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. crispa] Betula glandulosa Michx. Betula

  18. Terrestrial Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Timothy) Setaria faberi ’derrm. (Giant Foxtail) Setaria u-tescens (Weigel) Hubb. (Yellow Foxtail) Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Green Foxtail) Spartina...Potamore toa nodosus Poir. (Long-leaved Poadveed) PRIMU]L&CEAE Lysimachia nummalaria L.. (Moneywort) &OSACEAE *Crataegus viridis L. (Southern Thorn... Fragaria vi-riniana Duchesne. (Cultivated Strawberry) Potentilla simplex 1uichx. (Common Cinquef oil) *Prunus americans Marsh. (Wild Plum) *Prunus

  19. Investigation into feed utilisation by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (14C and 51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R.

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with 14 C and 51 Cr. The 51 Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris. (author)

  20. A Formal Approach to Discourse Anaphora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    was given a nut by Wendy, and Druce did 0 too. 0 = ? 41. The aardvark was given two peanuts for its birthday, and the axolotl was 0 too. 0...given two peanuts for its birthday 42. Wendy avoidf the aardvark, and the axolotl was 0 too. 0 = 7 In the case of multiple passives (such as are...the axolotl was 0 too. 0 = given an apple 45. Bert is a super dentist and his father was 0 too. 0 = (be) a super dentist Moreover, it appeals to me

  1. Riqueza, abundância e sazonalidade de Sphingidae (Lepidoptera num fragmento de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil Species richness, abundance and seasonality of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Duarte Júnior

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, NE-Brasil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho foi realizado um levantamento de Sphingidae de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os esfingídeos foram coletados com luz de vapor de mercúrio durante duas noites consecutivas por mês, próximo ao novilúnio. Foram determinadas riqueza de espécies, abundância e sazonalidade. Oitenta e nove espécimes de 23 espécies em 13 gêneros foram registrados; 84% dos indivíduos foram machos. Muitas espécies foram raras e de 13 espécies foi coletado apenas um exemplar. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] foram registradas pela primeira vez no Nordeste do Brasil. A esfingofauna não mostrou nenhum padrão de sazonalidade, e riqueza e abundância de espécies de esfingídeos não se correlacionaram com precipitação mensal e temperatura.In the Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, NE-Brazil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho a survey of Sphingidae was performed from December 2002 to November 2003. The hawkmoths were collected with vapor mercury light during two consecutive nights per months near new moon. Species richness, abundance and seasonality were determined. Eighty-nine specimens of 23 species in13 genera were recorded; 84% the individuals were males. Most species were rare and from 13 species only one exemplar was collected. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] were recorded for the first time in Northeastern Brazil. The sphingofauna showed no seasonal patterns and

  2. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  3. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  4. Pyrrhopyginae: gêneros novos e revalidados (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae Pyrrhopyginae: new and revalidated genera (Lepidoptera, Hespe-riidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The following new genera with their type-species are described: Oxynetrini: Cyclopyge gen. n. - type-species: Pyrrhopyge roscius Hopffer, 1874; Pyrrhopygini: Arnysoria gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] galgala Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] chalybea Scudder, 1872, Creonpyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] creon H. Druce, 1874, Cyanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sangaris Skinner, 1921, Gunayan gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] rhacia Hewitson, 1875, Jonaspyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] Jonas C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Melanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] maculosa Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] sela Hewitson, 1866, Mysarbia gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sejanus Hopffer, 1874, Ochropyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge ruficauda Hayward, 1932. Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921 and Yanguna Watson, 1893 are revalidated. The following are revalidated combinations: Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867, Apyrrothrix arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893, Yanguna cometes cometes (Cramer, 1770, Yanguna cometes cometides Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna cometes staudingeri (Plštz, 1879, Yanguna cosyra (H. Druce, 1875, Yanguna spatlosa spatlosa (Hewitson, 1871, Yanguna spatlosa aspllos Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna spatlosa mabillei H.H. Druce, 1909, Yanguna tetricus Bell, 1931, Yanguna thelersa (Hewitson, 1866, The following are new combinations: Cyclopyge roscius roscius (Hopffer, 1874, Cyclopyge roscius flavomaculata (Bell, 1937, Cyclopyge roscius iphimedia (Plštz, 1886, Yanguna erebus (Plštz, 1879, Gunayan rhacia (Hewitson, 1875, Gunayan rubrlcollts (Sepp, [1841], Gunayan timaeus (Bell, 1931, Chalypyge chalybea chalybea (Scudder, 1872, Chalypyge chalybea chlorts (Evans, 1951, Chalypyge zereda zereda (Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge zereda hygieia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Chalypyge zereda insana (Staudinger, 1876, Chalypyge

  5. Interspecific variation within the genus Asclepias in response to herbivory by a phloem-feeding insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Hunter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Induced plant responses to leaf-chewing insects have been well studied, but considerably less is known about the effects of phloem-feedings insects on induction. In a set of laboratory experiments, we examined density-dependent induction by the milkweed-oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, of putative defenses in four milkweed species (Asclepias incarnata, Asclepias syriaca, Asclepias tuberosa, and Asclepias viridis). We hypothesized that high aphid density would lead to increased cardenolide expression in species with low constitutive levels of cardenolides (e.g., A. tuberosa), but that there would be no induction in high constitutive cardenolide species (e.g., A. viridis). Based on previous studies, we did not expect cardenolide induction in A. incarnata. Contrary to our predictions, we observed feeding-induced declines of cardenolide concentrations in A. viridis. Cardenolide concentrations did not respond to aphid feeding in the other three milkweed species. Aphids also caused reductions in biomass accumulation by two of four Asclepias species, A. viridis and A. incarnata. High aphid density led to a decrease in A. viridis foliar nitrogen concentration. However, aphids had no effect on the defensive chemistry, growth, or nutritional quality of either A. syriaca or A. tuberosa. Our results highlight that congeneric plant species may respond differently to the same levels of herbivore damage.

  6. Severe Toxic Skin Reaction Caused by a Common Anemone and Identification of the Culprit Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Özgür Deniz; Gözer, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    In a marine envenomation, identification of the culprit organism can be difficult. In this case report, we present our method to identify snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis or formerly Anemonia sulcata) as the culprit of a severe toxic skin reaction. A. viridis is one of the most common anemones of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at a depth of up to 10 m. It is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, hydroids, and corals. They have toxic organelles called cnidocysts that have the capacity to inject venom with microscopic harpoon-like structures. The cnidocysts of A. viridis may cause toxic and allergic reactions, and although its venom is one of the most studied cnidarian venoms, detailed case reports are rare. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. [Spatial distribution pattern and allometric growth of three common species on moving sand dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mei-yu; Li, Xue-hua; Oh, Choong-hyeon; Park, Hong-chul; Miao, Chun-ping; Han, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Research on fine scale pattern and characteristics of allometric growth could contribute to better understanding plants' adaptation in moving sandy dunes. The abundance, height and biomass of 3 species Agriophilum aquarrosum, Corispermum candelabrum and Setaria viridis in twenty-eight 1 m x 1 m quadrats of Horqin Sandy Land were identified, mapped and described. The nearest neighbor method and O-ring O(r) function analysis were applied to analyze the spatial patterns. The results showed that the individual spatial pattern was mainly aggregated in 1 m x 1 m quadrat at community level but mainly random at population level. At 0-50 cm individual distance scale, both intraspecific and interspecific relationship were facilitation and aggregated distribution occurred at some scales and varied with increasing plant abundance in 1 m x 1 m quadrat. In 0-40 cm, the aggregated distribution of S. viridis and A. aquarrosum increased obviously; in 10-20 cm, both intraspecific and interspecific aggregation increased; in 10-30 cm, the occurrence possibility of positive correlations between S. viridis and A. aquarrosum, S. viridis and C. candelabrum all increased; in 40-50 cm, the possibility of positive correlations between A. squarrosum and S. viridis, A. squarrosum and C. candelabrum all increased. Research on the three species components indicated that the growth rate of above-ground was faster than that of underground. S. viridis had the highest ratio of under-ground biomass to above-ground biomass but its nutritional organs' biomass ratio was medium. C. candelabrum allocated more biomass to propagative organs and stem, but A. squarrosum allocated more biomass to nutritional organs. Based on the spatial distribution and allometric characteristics, the three common species in moving sand dunes preferred r strategy in their life history.

  8. Micropropagation of Lavandula spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Lavandula species are some of the most popular ornamental and medicinal plants with great economic values. These species are vegetative propagated by stem cuttings. However, the poor rooting ability and vulnerability of plantlets to contamination are major limiting factors for propagation. In vitro culture methods are suitable to overcome these limitations. This chapter describes protocols for in vitro propagation of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and Lavandula vera DC. Nodal shoot proliferation of L. viridis and plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of L. vera by an "open culture system" are highlighted.

  9. Compilation of 1984 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 1. TABS A-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    parviforus 4.0 Trientalis borealis --- 7.9 Vaccinium membranaceum 4.2 3.3 Viburnum acerfolium --- 11.1 Waldsteinia fragaria --- 1.6 I ". r h m li mm...Templeton) Pseudachorutes spp. complex Isotoridae: Isotoma (Tesoria) nigrifrons Folsom 1. (Isotona) viridis Bourlet * FEntomobryidae: Tomocerus...67.1 66.4 66.9 71.9 Z 0. hexfasciata 16.4 13.2 17.6 14.2 N Isotomidae 50 36 84 67 % I. niarifrons 50.0 55.6 57.1 76.1 %I. viridis 50.0 44.4 42.9 23.9 N

  10. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolini,L.W.; Carvalho,L.B.; Cruz,M.B.; Alves,P.L.C.A.; Cecílio Filho,A.B.

    2010-01-01

    A beterraba (Beta vulgaris), importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP,...

  11. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba Slender amaranth interference in table beet growth and production characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.W. Marcolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba (Beta vulgaris, importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil, mantendo-se constante oito plantas por caixa de beterraba em convivência com 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 plantas por caixa de A. viridis. A cultura da beterraba foi muito suscetível à interferência imposta por plantas de A. viridis, tendo sua área foliar, número de folhas, massa seca de folhas, diâmetro médio da raiz e massa fresca de raízes significativamente reduzidos mesmo em baixas densidades populacionais da planta daninha; a massa fresca de raízes foi a mais sensível à interferência.Table beet (Beta vulgaris, an important vegetable cultivated in Brazil, is very susceptible to weed interference, with Amaranthus viridis being one of the main species found in horticultural areas. The objective of this research was to study the response of table beet to competition at different densities of A. viridis, based on evaluation of crop growth and production characteristics. An experiment was carried out in 0.25 m² pots in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, with 8 table beet plants per pot kept in constant coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 plants per pot of A. viridis. The table beet crop was very susceptible to interference of A. viridis, with its leaf area, number of leaves, leaf dry mass, root mean diameter and root fresh mass being significantly reduced even under low weed densities, with root fresh mass being the most sensitive to interference.

  12. Description and phylogenetic analysis of the Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: a subtribe of detritivores Descrição e análise filogenética de Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: uma subtribo de detritívoros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Duarte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Description and phylogenetic analysis of the Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: a subtribe of detritivores. The purpose of this paper is to establish a phylogenetic basis for a new Eumaeini subtribe that includes those lycaenid genera in which detritivory has been recorded. Morphological characters were coded for 82 species of the previously proposed "Lamprospilus Section" of the Eumaeini (19 of these had coding identical to another species, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the 63 distinct ingroup terminal taxa and six outgroups belonging to four genera. Taxonomic results include the description in the Eumaeini of Calycopidina Duarte & Robbins new subtribe (type genus Calycopis Scudder, 1876, which contains Lamprospilus Geyer, Badecla Duarte & Robbins new genus (type species Thecla badaca Hewitson, Arzecla Duarte & Robbins new genus (type species Thecla arza Hewitson, Arumecla Robbins & Duarte, Camissecla Robbins & Duarte, Electrostrymon Clench, Rubroserrata K. Johnson & Kroenlein revalidated status, Ziegleria K. Johnson, Kisutam K. Johnson & Kroenlein revalidated status, and Calycopis. Previous "infratribe" names Angulopina K. Johnson & Kroenlein, 1993, and Calycopina K. Johnson & Kroenlein, 1993, are nomenclaturally unavailable and polyphyletic as proposed. New combinations include Badecla badaca (Hewitson, Badecla picentia (Hewitson, Badecla quadramacula (Austin & K. Johnson, Badecla lanckena (Schaus, Badecla argentinensis (K. Johnson & Kroenlein, Badecla clarissa (Draudt, Arzecla arza (Hewitson, Arzecla tarpa (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla canacha (Hewitson, Arzecla calatia (Hewitson, Arzecla tucumanensis (K. Johnson & Kroenlein, Arzecla sethon (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla nubilum (H. H. Druce, Arzecla paralus (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla taminella (Schaus, Arzecla albolineata (Lathy, Electrostrymon denarius (Butler & H.Druce, Electrostrymon guzanta (Schaus, Electrostrymon perisus (H. H. Druce, Rubroserrata

  13. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08145-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 50 1e-04 AF021822_1( AF021822 |pid:none) Scaptodrosophila lebanonensis supe... ...emonia viridis copper/zinc super... 49 6e-04 AF021824_1( AF021824 |pid:none) Hirtodrosophila pictiventris su

  15. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-05-15

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina.

  16. Effects of sand burial on the survival and physiology of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corispermum macrocarpum, Setaria viridis and Agriophyllum squarrosum are dominant psammophytes with strong environmental adaptability in Horqin Sandy Land, a typical agro-pastoral ecotone with frequent and intense sand activity in Northern China. We studied the survival rates, activity of antioxidant enzyme ...

  17. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    ROSACEAE Acaena californica: C-S, CPI Adenostoma fasciculctmm: CH-, CS, C-L Aichemilla arvensis: CP Fragaria vesca ssp. cabjfomica: NP, LO, M-LI Hetermeles...Thamnophis elegans * Western Aquatic Garter Snake T. couchi * Common Garter Snake T. sinalis * Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis TOTAL 22 8 3 3 BIRDS

  18. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P...Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur Alchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria vesca Wild strawberry Oewn canadense White avens Gewn laciniatun Avens Geum

  19. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tailed Rattlesnake Crotalus molossus Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis CAUTION Most snake bites occur to people who are trying to kill or catch snakes...Strawberry Fragaria bracteata Yarrow Achillea lanulosa Yellow Sweetclover Melilotus indicus IX L-2 List of Preparers Jim Battis; AFGL/LWH, Ha’-com

  20. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata...Juneberry) Crataegus spp. (Thorn-Apple) Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) Geum canadense (White Avens) Geum laciniatum (Avens) Geum triflorum (Three

  1. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Setaria viridis Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P Unidentified sp. D P P 1YDROCHARITACEAE...americanus New Jersey tea ROSACEAE Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur Alchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria oesca Wild strawberry Cewn canadense White avens

  2. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Setaria viridis I Green foxtail P P P P D Setaria sp. I Bristly foxtail P Spartina pectinata Prairie cord grass P Unidentified sp. D P P...Thalictrn sp. Meadow-rue P P RPAMNACEAE Ceanothus omericanus New Jersey tea ROSACEAE Agrimonia pubescens Cocklebur AZchemilla sp. Lady’s mantle P Fragaria

  3. Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagnan, D H B; Martinelli, N M

    2011-01-01

    Fifth-instars of the cicada species Dorisiana drewseni (Stål), Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar) are described and illustrated. Moreover, a key to the nymphs of these species along with Quesada gigas (Olivier) is also provided.

  4. The stable microbiome of inter and sub-tidal anemone species under increasing pCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erinn M; Fine, Maoz; Ritchie, Kim B

    2016-11-23

    Increasing levels of pCO 2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO 2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing. Results showed the bacterial community of the two anemone species differed significantly from each other primarily because of differences in the Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria abundances. The bacterial communities did not differ within species among sites with decreasing pH except for A. viridis at the vent site (pH = 6.05). In addition to low pH, the vent site contains trace metals and sulfide that may have influenced the bacteria community of A. viridis. The stability of the bacterial community from pH 8.1 to pH 7.4, coupled with previous experiments showing the lack of, or beneficial changes within anemones living under low pH conditions indicates that A. viridis and A. equina will be winners under future ocean acidification scenarios.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of lymnaeid snails and their potential role in transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated.

  6. Egg numbers and fecundity traits in nine species of Mantella poison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The body size and number of eggs in dissected females were analysed in nine species of the Malagasy frog genus Mantella basing upon preserved specimens. These species were distinguished in terms of habitat and grouped as 'grassland species' (included M. betsileo, M. expectata, M. viridis), and 'rainforest species' ...

  7. Role of charge-transfer states in bacterial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meech, S.R.; Hoff, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Photon echo, photon-echo excitation, and "hole-burning" data recorded in the 800-990 nm region of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 and Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction centers are reported. The primary process in these reaction centers, following excitation, was found to occur in ≈25 fsec; the

  8. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result,

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 7, No 17 (2008), Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions, Abstract PDF. AY Tijani, SE Okhale, FE Oga, SZ Tags, OA Salawu, BA Chindo. Vol 13, No 27 (2014), Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts against biofilm bacteria and green mussel Perna viridis from ...

  10. Setaria faberi Herrm. (Chinese naaldaar) in Nederland over ’t hoofd gezien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, G.M.; Reijerse, A.I.; Abbink-Meijerink, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Setaria faberi was only very recently recognized as a weed in cornfields in the Netherlands. The first herbarium collection dates back to 1925. The authors present a new identification key for the Dutch Setaria species, illustrated with SEM images of the spikelets of S. faberi, S. viridis and S.

  11. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  12. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only.

  13. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast glob...

  14. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... insect pests, inspected, and imported in commercial consignments. There would also be additional.... viridis, green scale. Darna trima, a nettle caterpillar. D. neobrevipes Beardsley, gray pineapple mealybug... phytopathogenic fungus. Melanitis leda, evening brown butterfly. Parasa lepida, blue-striped nettle grub. P. minor...

  15. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  16. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis d...

  17. A note on scavenging behaviour of adult Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Report of the first observation of scavenging behaviour in the population of Testudo hermanni boettgeri that has been monitored for six years in the village Kunovica near the city of Niš in Serbia. On 31 May 2015 at 10:18 a.m., the adult tortoise was observed while eating a dead European green lizard (Lacerta viridis.

  18. Molecular discrimination of Perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) species using the polymerase chain reaction and species-specific mitochondrial primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, D.; Waycott, M.; Byrne, L.

    2006-01-01

    This work was prompted by the need to be able to identify the invasive mussel species, Perna viridis, in tropical Australian seas using techniques that do not rely solely on morphology. DNA-based molecular methods utilizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach were developed to distinguish...

  19. Adapt, move or die - how will tropical coral reef fishes cope with ocean warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habary, Adam; Johansen, Jacob L.; Nay, Tiffany J.

    2017-01-01

    poleward, away from ocean warming hotspots where temperatures 2-3 °C above long-term annual means can compromise critical physiological processes. We examined the capacity of a model species - a thermally sensitive coral reef fish, Chromis viridis (Pomacentridae) - to use preference behaviour to regulate...

  20. Biotic interactions in the face of climate change: a comparison of three modelling approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter biotic interactions, and may lead to temporal and spatial mismatches of interacting species. Although the importance of interactions for climate change risk assessments is increasingly acknowledged in observational and experimental studies, biotic interactions are still rarely incorporated in species distribution models. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the obligate interaction between Aeshna viridis and its egg-laying plant Stratiotes aloides in Europe, based on an ensemble modelling technique. We compared three different approaches for incorporating biotic interactions in distribution models: (1 We separately modelled each species based on climatic information, and intersected the future range overlap ('overlap approach'. (2 We modelled the potential future distribution of A. viridis with the projected occurrence probability of S. aloides as further predictor in addition to climate ('explanatory variable approach'. (3 We calibrated the model of A. viridis in the current range of S. aloides and multiplied the future occurrence probabilities of both species ('reference area approach'. Subsequently, all approaches were compared to a single species model of A. viridis without interactions. All approaches projected a range expansion for A. viridis. Model performance on test data and amount of range gain differed depending on the biotic interaction approach. All interaction approaches yielded lower range gains (up to 667% lower than the model without interaction. Regarding the contribution of algorithm and approach to the overall uncertainty, the main part of explained variation stems from the modelling algorithm, and only a small part is attributed to the modelling approach. The comparison of the no-interaction model with the three interaction approaches emphasizes the importance of including obligate biotic interactions in projective species distribution modelling. We recommend the use of

  1. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  2. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  3. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  4. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  5. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  6. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins t...

  7. Crotoxin: Structural Studies, Mechanism of Action and Cloning of Its Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    with these same antisera, while cross-reactivity with B3-bungarotoxin was very slight. Neurophysin and phospholipase A2 from N. n. atra and honey bee ...toxin from Cror alus viridis concolor, and monoclonal antibodies to czotoxin. We have used these to search for cross-reactive, homologoiis proteins in...concolor, and monoclonal antibodies to crotoxin. We have used these to search for cross-reactive, homclogous proteins in other venoms and examine their

  8. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  9. Relações de interferência entre plantas daninhas e a cultura do grão-de-bico

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Carita Liberato do [UNESP; Pavan, Guilherme Bacarim [UNESP; Souza, Marcelo Claro de; Martins, José Valcir Fidelis [UNESP; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The grains of chickpea consumed in Brazil are almost entirely imported. Considering that chickpeas presents conditions to be cultivated in some regions of Brazil, this study aimed to study interference of six weed plants (Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria nuda and Eleusine indica) on the vegetative development of chickpeas. Thus, we evaluated the shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll content and dry weight of leaves, stem an...

  10. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    in large quantities by traditional methods and sold live in the market for human consumption. The economically important sp e cies of marine bivalves are green mussel ( Perna viridis ), e s tuarine oyster ( Crassostrea madrasensis ), giant oyster... in developing an effecti ve drug has been the unique characteristics of antigenic variation of virus resulting in the emergence of new variant virus strains 14 . There are a number of antiviral drugs introduced in the market such as tricyclic sy m- metric...

  11. The adaptive significance of ontogenetic colour change in a tropical python

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Heinsohn, Robert; Endler, John A

    2006-01-01

    Ontogenetic colour change is typically associated with changes in size, vulnerability or habitat, but assessment of its functional significance requires quantification of the colour signals from the receivers' perspective. The tropical python, Morelia viridis, is an ideal species to establish the functional significance of ontogenetic colour change. Neonates hatch either yellow or red and both the morphs change to green with age. Here, we show that colour change from red or yellow to green pr...

  12. Review of world genera of Ceinae, with the description of two new Palaearctic species of Spalangiopelta Masi (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Dan Mitroiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the first illustrated key to all described genera of Ceinae, i.e., Bohpa Darling, 1991, Cea Walker, 1837, and Spalangiopelta Masi, 1922. Based on the study of the original material, the genus Diparisca Hedqvist, 1964 stat. nov. is removed from the synonymy with Spalangiopelta and its higher classification is discussed. Spalangiopelta rameli sp. nov. and S. viridis sp. nov. are described from Greece and the Canary Islands, respectively.

  13. Ribosomal DNA in diploid and polyploid Setaria (Poaceae) species: number and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Cenzi, Gisele; Pereira, Daniele Lais; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Techio, Vania Helena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Setaria Beauvois, 1812 is a genus of economically important forage species, including Setaria italica (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812 and Setaria viridis (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812, closely related species and considered as model systems for studies of C4 plants. However, complications and uncertainties related to taxonomy of other species of the genus are frequent due to the existence of numerous synonyms for the same species or multiple species with the same name, and overlapp...

  14. Ribosomal DNA in diploid and polyploid Setaria (Poaceae) species: number and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Cenzi, Gisele; Pereira, Daniele Lais; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Setaria Beauvois, 1812 is a genus of economically important forage species, including Setaria italica (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812 and Setaria viridis (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812, closely related species and considered as model systems for studies of C4 plants. However, complications and uncertainties related to taxonomy of other species of the genus are frequent due to the existence of numerous synonyms for the same species or multiple species with the same name, and overlapping of morphological characteristics. Cytogenetic studies in Setaria can be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies as well as for applications in breeding. Thus, this study is aimed at locating 45S and 5S rDNA sites through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in Setaria italica, Setaria viridis and Setaria sphacelata (Schumacher, 1827) Stapf, Hubbard, Moss, 1929 cultivars (cvs.) Narok and Nandi. Setaria italica and Setaria viridis have 18 chromosomes with karyotype formulas 6m + 3sm and 9m, respectively. The location of 45S and 5S rDNA for these species was in different chromosome pairs among the evaluated species. Setaria viridis presented a more symmetrical karyotype, strengthening the ancestral relationship with Setaria italica. Setaria sphacelata cvs. Narok and Nandi have 36 chromosomes, and karyotype formulas 11m+7sm and 16m+2sm, respectively. The 45S rDNA signals for both cultivars were also observed in distinct chromosome pairs; however chromosomes bearing 5S rDNA are conserved. Karyotypic variations found among the studied species are evidence of chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:26753080

  15. Environmental Assessment: Permanent Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Salix sp., Populus sp., Lemna minor , Cyperus sp. Delta Green Ground Beetle The Delta Green Ground Beetle, Elaphrus viridis Horn, 1878 is a...and the SCLA. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time. None of...environmental effects on adjacent populations. Therefore, no disproportionately high and adverse effects will occur to minority and low-income

  16. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Marta; Ana Elda, Maqueda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan Arbós, Rosa Maria; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Ángel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus ß-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimental...

  17. Distribution of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs on Leaves of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, Masayuki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; YOSHIDA, Naoko; IGUCHI, Hiroyuki; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest coun...

  18. Étude de quelques Pucciniales liés aux plantes cultivées au Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Cette rouille n'a jamais été signalée auparavant sur Mentha viridis (hôte nouvel) dans le. Maroc. Au Maroc, Puccinia menthae Pers. (1801) a été rencontrée sur Mentha rotundifolia au lieu frais près d'Idni sur la route du Tizi n'Test (Haut Atlas), Satureja calamintha subsp. ascendes dans la pelouse au bord.

  19. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis.

  20. Differential expression of photosynthesis-related genes in pentaploid interspecific hybrid and its decaploid of Fragaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Dongya; Chen, Baoyu; Mao, Nini; Qiao, Yushan; Ji, Muxiang

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidization always induces a series of changes in genome, transcriptome and epigenetics, of which changes in gene expression are the immediate causes of genotype alterations of polyploid plants. In our previous study on strawberry polyploidization, genes related to photosynthesis were found to undergo changes in gene expression and DNA methylation. Therefore, we chose 11 genes that were closely related to plant photosynthesis and analysed their expression during strawberry hybridization and chromosome doubling. Most genes of pentaploids showed expression levels between parents and were more similar to F. × ananassa. Gene expression levels of decaploids were higher than those of pentaploids and F. × ananassa. Different types of photosynthesis-related genes responded differently to hybridization and chromosome doubling. Chloroplast genes and regulatory genes showed complex responses. Structural genes of the photosynthetic system were expressed at a constant level and displayed a clear dosage effect. The methylation levels of one CG site on SIGE, which regulates expression of chloroplast genes, were negatively correlated with gene expression. In pentaploids and decaploids, more transcripts were from F. × ananassa than from F. viridis. The ratio of transcripts from from F. × ananassa to those from F. viridis was close to the ratio (4:1) of the genome of F. × ananassa to that of F. viridis in pentaploids and decaploids, but there were also some exceptions with obvious deviation.

  1. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanishkene, V.B.; Zlobin, V.S.; Zheleznyakova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90 Sr and 144 Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  2. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, D.H.; Yan, S.P.; Gu, Y.J.; Li, D.J.; Du, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g -1 ) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  3. Research on the Strength Variation of Root-Clay Systems under Freeze-Thaw Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the influence of an effective root system of rhizome plants on the reinforcement of slope soil under freeze-thaw conditions. This study focused on the mechanical properties between roots and clay in the root system of four plant species from different regions of China (northeast, northern, central, and southern areas: Setaria viridis, Eleusine indica, Zoysia japonica, and Carex leucochlora. Based on the interfacial friction effects between the plant roots and the soil, pull-out tests and unconfined compressive strength tests were conducted on the reinforced soil system for varying numbers of freeze-thaw cycles. Several stages of the pull-out process of the root system in clay are explicitly proposed based on the interfacial friction test results. The results showed that the friction effect between Zoysia japonica roots and the soil was the most significant and that these roots had the best reinforcement effect. In contrast, the friction and reinforcement effects between Setaria viridis roots and the soil were the worst, and the resulting unconfined compressive strength was the smallest. However, the freeze-thaw resistance ability of the Setaria viridis and soil system was stronger than that of the Zoysia japonica system.

  4. Tubulin-isotype analysis of two grass species-resistant to dinitroaniline herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldin, T R; Ellis, J R; Hussey, P J

    1992-09-01

    Trifluralin-resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (goosegrass) and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (green foxtail) exhibit cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides. Since microtubules are considered the primary target site for dinitroaniline herbicides we investigated whether the differential sensitivity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of these species results from modified tubulin polypeptides. One-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting using well-characterised anti-tubulin monoclonal antibodies were used to display the family of tubulin isotypes in each species. Seedlings of E. indica exhibited four β-tubulin isotypes and one α-tubulin isotype, whereas those of S. viridis exhibited two β-tubulin and two α-tubulin isotypes. Comparison of the susceptible and resistant biotypes within each species revealed no differences in electrophoretic properties of the multiple tubulin isotypes. These results provide no evidence that resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides is associated with a modified tubulin polypeptide in these biotypes of E. indica or S. viridis.

  5. Phytotoxicity Study on Bidens sulphurea Sch. Bip. as a Preliminary Approach for Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bruna P; Nepomuceno, Mariluce P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Alves, Pedro L C A; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-06-28

    Farmers of the Franca region in Brazil observed that Bidens sulphurea was able to eliminate the Panicum maximum weed, which infected coffee plantations, without affecting the crop. In an effort to determine if the inhibitory effects observed were due to the presence of phytotoxic compounds from leaves and roots, a biodirected isolation and spectroscopic characterization has been carried out. The leaf dichloromethane and root acetone extracts were the most active, and the former appeared to be more phytotoxic to the target species, including four weeds. A total of 26 compounds were isolated from leaves and roots, and four of them are described here for the first time. The major compounds in the leaf extract are the sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, reynosin, and santamarine, and these showed marked inhibition. Amaranthus viridis and Panicum maximum were the most sensitive species of the weeds tested. These three phytotoxic lactones were also evaluated on A. viridis and P. maximum under hydroponic conditions. A. viridis was the most affected species with the three lactones, and santamarine was the most phytotoxic compound on both. This is the first time that the phytotoxicity of sesquiterpene lactones has been evaluated on hydroponic culture. The work described here is a preliminary approach for the use of B. sulphurea for weed control in agriculture, both as a cover crop and by use of its components as natural herbicide leads.

  6. Plant uptake of bicarbonate as measured with the 11C isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Wood, R.A.; Soufi, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    11 C which is cyclotron produced by 14 N(P, α) 11 C(half-life 20.1 M) was used as a tracer of bicarbonate to determine its movements from a nutrient solution through roots to stems and leaves of bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Improved Tendergreen). The short time involved and the high solution pH minimized the need for use of the Henderson Hasselbach equation for activity correction. Quantities of 11 C did move into roots, stems and leaves with a sharp decreasing gradient (root/stem = 14.5, stems/leaves = 11.7) More 11 C moved into plants with KHCO 3 than with NaHCO 3 . The (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced 11 C uptake and KNO 3 decreased it. This enhancement and competition indicated possibility of some uptake of HCO 3 - . In an experiment with Galenia pubescens (Eckl. and Zeyh.) Druce, the 11 C was more readily moved to stems and leaves than in bush bean indicating substantial uptake of HCO 3 - . (Auth.)

  7. Prosopis cineraria: a potential nootropic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bithu, Bhawani Singh; Reddy, N Ranga; Prasad, Satyendra K; Sairam, Krishnamurthy; Hemalatha, S

    2012-10-01

    Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (Leguminosae), a plant of the Thar Desert of India and Pakistan is used traditionally by local people for the treatment of memory disorders and to arrest wandering of the mind. The study includes scientific validation of P. cineraria for nootropic activity. To elucidate the possible mechanism, the anticholinesterase activity was also investigated in different parts of the brain. Methanol extract of P. cineraria stem bark (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight p.o.) was administered once in a day for 7 days to rats and these rats were then subjected to Morris water-maze (MWM) test for spatial reference memory (SRM) and spatial working memory (SWM) versions of memory testing. The inhibitory effect of the extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in discrete rat brain regions (prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus [HIP] and amygdala [AMY]) was also investigated using acetyl thiocholine iodide and dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid reagent. The oral administrations of methanol extract of P. cineraria in all doses tested, significantly (p nootropic activity in the MWM test which may be attributed to the inhibition of brain AChE.

  8. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  9. Notes on the genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 with description of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Pyrginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Belcastro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 includes about 23 species so far, all quite rare. In Evans’ Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae only 14 species were listed but, apart from a few newly discovered ones, some of the subspecies indicated over there have subsequently been raised to species level, although they look very similar in facies with previously recognised taxa. This article shows the presence of an unrecognised species similar to A. lucretia Druce, 1909 in West Africa, namely A. fabiana sp. n., and another one similar to both A. contigua Evans, 1937 and A. elegantula Mabille, 1890 in Central Africa, namely A. torbeni sp. n. The rarity in collections of almost all forest-dwelling Abantis spp. is reported as connected to their habit of flying high in the forest canopy, but the authors have no conclusive evidence of it. Most Abantis are hill-toppers, mud lovers and are attracted by dead animals (fish and turtles, although some of them are also flower-visiting.

  10. Effects of flooding and aging on phytoremediation of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments by Kandelia obovata seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Long; Liu, Bei-Bei; Zhu, Ya-Xian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of flooding and aging on the phytoremediation of naphthalene (Nap), anthracene (Ant) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mangrove sediment by Kandelia obovata (K. obovata) Druce seedlings. Flooding increased dissipation efficiency in the rhizosphere zone from 69.47% to 82.45%, 64.27% to 80.41%, and 61.55% to 78.31% for Nap, Ant and B[a]P, respectively. Aging decreased dissipation efficiency significantly. Further investigation demonstrated that increased enzyme activity was one of important factors for increasing PAHs dissipation rates in flooded mangrove sediments. Moreover, a novel method for in situ quantitative investigation of PAHs distribution in root tissues was established using microscopic fluorescence spectra analysis. Subsequently, the effects of flooding and aging on the distribution of PAHs in root tissues were evaluated using this established method. The order of bioavailable fractions of PAHs after phytoremediation was as follows: non-aging/non-flooding>flooding>aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  12. Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of two flavonoids isolated from limnophila plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Roy, Rajiv; Mandal, Lalan C; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Behera, Biswajit; Majhi, Sasadhar; Mondal, Avijit; Gangopadhyay, Arindam

    2011-06-01

    The antimicrobial potential of two bioflavonoids, i.e., 5,7-dihydroxy-4',6,8-trimethoxyflavone (1) and 5,6-dihydroxy-4',7,8-trimethoxyflavone (2), isolated from Limnophila heterophylla Benth. and L. indica (Linn.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae), respectively, were evaluated against the microbial strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Alternaria solani, and Candida albicans. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate but broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also against the fungal pathogens. Moreover, the mechanism of action of 1 and 2 on the cellular functions or structures of some of the microorganisms was studied. Compound 1 showed a bactericidal effect against E. coli and S. aureus (MICs of 200 and 250 μg/ml, resp.), while compound 2 was found to effectively kill B. subtilis by cell lysis. The growth of A. solani and C. albicans was inhibited by compounds 1 and 2, respectively. The effects of the flavonoids on the cellular structures and the carbohydrate metabolic pathways were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated cells and by assessing the specific activity of key enzymes of the pathways, respectively. At sublethal doses, they enhanced the activity of gluconeogenic fructose bisphosphatase, but decreased the activity of phosphofructokinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, the key enzymes of the EmbdenMeyerhofParnas pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  14. Species identification and sex determination of the genus Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkamul, Piya; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Tanee, Tawatchai

    2007-02-15

    Nepenthes species are well known for their ornamentally attractive pitchers. The species diversity was randomly surveyed in some conservation areas of Thailand and three species were found, namely N. gracilis Korth., N. mirabilis Druce. and N. smilesii Hemsl. Young plants as unknown species from Chatuchak market were added in plant sampled set. Thirty two Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were screened and 13 successful primers were used to produce DNA banding patterns for constructing a dendrogram. The dendrogram is potentially power tool to identify unknown species from Chatuchak market, differentiate species population, population by geographical areas and sex determination. The geographical area of N. mirabilis was specified to Southern and Northeastern regions and finally, subdivided into exact areas according to province. Male and female plants of N. gracilis at Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary and N. mirabilis at Bung Khonglong non-hunting area were determined. Two unknown species from Chatuchak market were analyzed to be N. mirabilis with the genetic similarities (S) 77.2 to 84.7. Be more sex specific in all sample studied, 37 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were investigated. The result shows that only one RAPD primer show high resolution results at about 750 bp specific male-related marker.

  15. [Homoisoflavanones and stilbenes from fresh bulb of Scilla scilloides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Min; Fan, Meng-Yang; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhi-Min; Gao, Hui-Min

    2014-10-01

    Mian-Zao-Er was collected from the bulbs of Scilla scilloides (Lindl. ) Druce, belonging to the Hyacinthaceae family. 17 compounds were obtained using various column chromatographies on macroporus resin (HPD100), silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS, as well as semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data as 2-hydroxy-7-methoxyscillascillin (1), scillascillin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyspiro 2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4.2.0 ] octa [1,3,5 ] -trien } -4-one (3), socialinone (4), 4-methylresveratrol (5), (E)-resveratrol (6), scillavoneA (7), 3,9-di- hydroeucomnalin (8), 3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (9), (3R)-5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyspiro (2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4, 2, 0] octa [1, 3, 5]-trien} -4-one (10), scillabene A (11), 2-hydroxyscillascillin (12), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (13), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzylidene) -5, 7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (14), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxychroman-4-one (15), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxychroman-4-one (16), and 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,8-hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-4-one (17). Among them, compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 13 and 15-17 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  16. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  17. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  18. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Yao

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P < 0.01. These results suggest that increasing the sample size in specialist habitats can improve measurements of intraspecific genetic diversity, and will have a positive effect on the application of the DNA barcodes in widely distributed species. The results of random sampling showed that when sample size reached 11 for Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, and Dysphania ambrosioides, 13 for Setaria viridis, and 15 for Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  20. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  1. Applicability Of A Semi-Automated Clinical Chemistry Analyzer In Determining The Antioxidant Concentrations Of Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L. Hilario

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that are protective against diseases associated to oxidative stress. There is a need for high throughput screening method that should be useful in determining the antioxidant concentration in plants. Such screening method should significantly simplify and speed up most antioxidant assays. This paper aimed at comparing the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Pointe Scientific MI USA with the traditional standard curve method and using a Vis spectrophotometer in performing the DPPH assay for antioxidant screening. Samples of crude aqueous leaf extract of kulitis Amaranthus viridis Linn and chayote Sechium edule Linn were screened for the Total Antioxidant Concentration TAC using the two methods. Results presented in mean SD amp956gdl were compared using unpaired Students t-test P0.05. All runs were done in triplicates. The mean TAC of A. viridis was 646.0 45.5 amp956gdl using the clinical chemistry analyzer and 581.9 19.4 amp956gdl using the standard curve-spectrophotometer. On the other hand the mean TAC of S. edule was 660.2 35.9 amp956gdl using the semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer and 672.3 20.9 amp956gdl using the spectrophotometer. No significant differences were observed between the readings of the two methods for A. viridis P0.05 and S. edible P0.05. This implies that the clinical chemistry analyzer can be an alternative method in conducting the DPPH assay to determine the TAC in plants. This study presented the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer in performing the DPPH assay. Further validation can be conducted by performing other antioxidant assays using this equipment.

  2. Induced mutagenesis in finger-millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) with gamma-rays and ethyl methane sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aradhya, R.S.; Madhavamenon, P.

    1979-01-01

    The seeds of CO-1 variety were treated with gamma-rays and EMS, each in 5 doses, 10 to 50 kR and 0.5 to 2.5% respectively. The chlorophyll mutation rate was characterized by linearity at low to medium doses and saturation as well as erratic behavior at high doses. As per mutation rate, estimated on the basis of M 2 plants, EMS induced as high frequency. The spectrum consisted of albina, chlorina zantha, albo-viridis, tigrina (3 types) and striata (2 types), with tigrina being predominant. The treatments varied in their spectrum, with 2.0% yielding the widest spectrum of mutants. (author)

  3. Ayahuasca: uma revisão dos aspectos farmacológicos e toxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Salum Pires; Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues Oliveira; Mauricio Yonamine

    2010-01-01

    A ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa originariamente utilizada em rituais de tribos indígenas da região amazônica. Esta bebida é preparada pela infusão de caules da Banisteriopsis caapi Morton, que contém β-carbolinas que são inibidoras da monoaminoxidase (MAO), e de folhas da Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavón, que contém o alucinógeno N,N-dimetiltriptamina (DMT). A enzima MAO degrada a DMT no fígado e intestino. No Brasil, a ayahuasca tem sido incorporada em rituais de grupos sincréticos re...

  4. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  5. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santakumari, M.; Rama Das, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14 CO 2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO 2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  6. Padrão inverso - elemento indígena toma forma urbana - o caso da ayahuasca

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Pacheco

    2012-01-01

    O presente projeto tem como tema principal a "circularidade cultural” que existe em torno da ayahuasca, uma bebida produzida através da mistura de duas plantas amazônicas: a bannisteriopsis caapi, chamado cipó-mariri, e a psychotria viridis, popularmente conhecida como chacrona. A pesquisa pretende compreender a relação de circularidade entre a cultura popular (indígena) e a cultura erudita (ocidental) deste patrimônio imaterial, que parece seguir um caminho contrário ao processo comum seguid...

  7. Development of Environmental Guidelines for Multipurpose Range Complexes. Volume 2. Description of Field Tests, Sediment Yields, and Option Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    0.5 O.6 11.0 2.6 1.7 13.0 3.3 2.201C199t11 tuberosi Ascleplas viridi flora Aster Pricoides Aster piloaus Aster 19. Aitraqi1ui crIsitcar~n. 9arbarea...strigosus 4.0 1.0 0.5 15.0 3.11 7.1 19.0 4.9 2.9 Eujohoofii so. ’estuca etltior Festqci xctofloea 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.9 1.0 3.0 0.8 1.0 Fragaria virginiani

  8. Razlikovanje vrst jagodnjakov (Fragaria L.) v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Katja

    2017-01-01

    V slovenski naravi uspevajo tri vrste jagodnjakov: Fragaria viridis, Fragaria vesca in Fragaria moschata. Čeprav se vrste med seboj dobro ločijo, jih je po domačem določevalnem ključu Mala flora Slovenije (Martinčič idr., 2007) težko razlikovati. Zato sem na osnovi pregleda tuje literature in lastnih opažanj izdelala določevalni ključ, ki upošteva več razlikovalnih znakov in je uporaben za določanje tako svežih kot herbariziranih primerkov, ki so lahko nabrani tudi brez podzemnih delov in pri...

  9. Metabolitos secundarios, letalidad y actividad antimicrobiana de seis esponjas marinas de la Bahía de Mochima, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño-Ramos, Raul; Armas, Haydelba D'; Amaro, María; Martínez, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    ResumenEspecímenes de las esponjas Aplysina lacunosa, Aplysina fulva, Cliona varians, Cinachyrella kuekenthali, Amphimedon viridis y Aaptos pernucleata, se recolectaron en la Bahía de Mochima, Venezuela en octubre del 2009, con el propósito de identificar las familias de metabolitos secundarios y evaluar las propiedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas y letales en Artemia salina de las fracciones solubles en acetato de etilo. La evaluación química evidenció la presencia de alcaloides, esteroles...

  10. Novel genomes and genome constitutions identified by GISH and 5S rDNA and knotted1 genomic sequences in the genus Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meicheng; Zhi, Hui; Doust, Andrew N; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Jia, Guanqing; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ning; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-04-11

    The Setaria genus is increasingly of interest to researchers, as its two species, S. viridis and S. italica, are being developed as models for understanding C4 photosynthesis and plant functional genomics. The genome constitution of Setaria species has been studied in the diploid species S. viridis, S. adhaerans and S. grisebachii, where three genomes A, B and C were identified respectively. Two allotetraploid species, S. verticillata and S. faberi, were found to have AABB genomes, and one autotetraploid species, S. queenslandica, with an AAAA genome, has also been identified. The genomes and genome constitutions of most other species remain unknown, even though it was thought there are approximately 125 species in the genus distributed world-wide. GISH was performed to detect the genome constitutions of Eurasia species of S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria, with the known A, B and C genomes as probes. No or very poor hybridization signal was detected indicating that their genomes are different from those already described. GISH was also performed reciprocally between S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria genomes, but no hybridization signals between each other were found. The two sets of chromosomes of S. lachnea both hybridized strong signals with only the known C genome of S. grisebachii. Chromosomes of Qing 9, an accession formerly considered as S. viridis, hybridized strong signal only to B genome of S. adherans. Phylogenetic trees constructed with 5S rDNA and knotted1 markers, clearly classify the samples in this study into six clusters, matching the GISH results, and suggesting that the F genome of S. arenaria is basal in the genus. Three novel genomes in the Setaria genus were identified and designated as genome D (S. glauca), E (S. plicata) and F (S. arenaria) respectively. The genome constitution of tetraploid S. lachnea is putatively CCC'C'. Qing 9 is a B genome species indigenous to China and is hypothesized to be a newly identified species. The

  11. Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-03-01

    Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity.

  12. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  13. Studies on induced mutation frequency in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don by gamma rays and EMS individually and in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, M.; Susheelamma, B.N.; Kumar, P.; Subhash, K.

    1988-01-01

    Seeds of pink flowered (PF) and white flowered (WF) Catharanthus roseus were soaked in distilled water for 24 h and treated with gamma rays and 0.1% EMS separately and in combination. Six types of chlorophyll mutations, viz., xantha, albina, chlorina, viridis, maculata and tigrina were recovered to M 2 generation of both forms. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations was found to be dependent on the dose, of gamma rays and duration of treatment with EMS. Higher frequency of chlorophyll mutations was noticed in PF, which is mutagenically more sensitive than WF. It was also noticed that the combination treatments of gamma rays and EMS enhanced the frequency of chlorophyll mutations

  14. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Yadav, R.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M 1 and chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Radiation induced chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Mustafa, G.; Soomro, A.M.; Baloch, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Air dried grains of four local varieties of rice were treated with gamma-rays and fast neutrons for determining their mutagenic effectiveness through the occurence of chlorophyll mutations. Fast neutrons were more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations and the rice variety Basmati 370 produced maximum number of mutations followed by varieties Sonahri Sugdasi, Jajai 77 and Sada Gulab. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations was that of albina types followed by striata types. The xantha, viridis and tigrina types of mutations were less frequent. (authors)

  16. The C4 Model Grass Setaria Is a Short Day Plant with Secondary Long Day Genetic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Andrew N; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hodge, John G; Stromski, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod (day:night ratio) on flowering time was investigated in the wild species, Setaria viridis , and in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between foxtail millet ( S. italica ) and its wild ancestor green foxtail ( S. viridis ). Photoperiods totaled 24 h, with three trials of 8:16, 12:12 and 16:8 light:dark hour regimes for the RIL population, and these plus 10:14 and 14:10 for the experiments with S. viridis alone. The response of S. viridis to light intensity as well as photoperiod was assessed by duplicating photoperiods at two light intensities (300 and 600 μmol.m -2 .s -1 ). In general, day lengths longer than 12 h delayed flowering time, although flowering time was also delayed in shorter day-lengths relative to the 12 h trial, even when daily flux in high intensity conditions exceeded that of the low intensity 12 h trial. Cluster analysis showed that the effect of photoperiod on flowering time differed between sets of RILs, with some being almost photoperiod insensitive and others being delayed with respect to the population as a whole in either short (8 or 12 h light) or long (16 h light) photoperiods. QTL results reveal a similar picture, with several major QTL colocalizing between the 8 and 12 h light trials, but with a partially different set of QTL identified in the 16 h trial. Major candidate genes for these QTL include several members of the PEBP protein family that includes Flowering Locus T (FT) homologs such as OsHd3a, OsRFT1, and ZCN8/12. Thus, Setaria is a short day plant (flowering quickest in short day conditions) whose flowering is delayed by long day lengths in a manner consistent with the responses of most other members of the grass family. However, the QTL results suggest that flowering time under long day conditions uses additional genetic pathways to those used under short day conditions.

  17. The C4 Model Grass Setaria Is a Short Day Plant with Secondary Long Day Genetic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Doust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of photoperiod (day:night ratio on flowering time was investigated in the wild species, Setaria viridis, and in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis. Photoperiods totaled 24 h, with three trials of 8:16, 12:12 and 16:8 light:dark hour regimes for the RIL population, and these plus 10:14 and 14:10 for the experiments with S. viridis alone. The response of S. viridis to light intensity as well as photoperiod was assessed by duplicating photoperiods at two light intensities (300 and 600 μmol.m-2.s-1. In general, day lengths longer than 12 h delayed flowering time, although flowering time was also delayed in shorter day-lengths relative to the 12 h trial, even when daily flux in high intensity conditions exceeded that of the low intensity 12 h trial. Cluster analysis showed that the effect of photoperiod on flowering time differed between sets of RILs, with some being almost photoperiod insensitive and others being delayed with respect to the population as a whole in either short (8 or 12 h light or long (16 h light photoperiods. QTL results reveal a similar picture, with several major QTL colocalizing between the 8 and 12 h light trials, but with a partially different set of QTL identified in the 16 h trial. Major candidate genes for these QTL include several members of the PEBP protein family that includes Flowering Locus T (FT homologs such as OsHd3a, OsRFT1, and ZCN8/12. Thus, Setaria is a short day plant (flowering quickest in short day conditions whose flowering is delayed by long day lengths in a manner consistent with the responses of most other members of the grass family. However, the QTL results suggest that flowering time under long day conditions uses additional genetic pathways to those used under short day conditions.

  18. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  19. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the most studied species and A. spinosus being the species with the greatest allelopathic potential. Due to the large quantities of allelochemicals produced by Amaranthus spp. these plants stand out as future suppliers of chemical molecules for bioherbicides and semisynthetic herbicides.

  20. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera, Dolichopodidae from Central and North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During a 2016-2017 survey conducted in Isfahan, Lorestan, Markazi, North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan and Tehran provinces located in the Central and North-Eastern Iran, about 1000 specimens of Dolichopodidae were collected and identified. Eight dolichopodid species [Dolichopus jaxarticus Stackelberg, 1927, Hydrophorus viridis (Meigen, 1824, Medetera diadema (Linnaeus, 1767, M. lamprostoma Loew, 1871, M. roghii Rampini et Canzoneri, 1979, Tachytrechus kowarzi Mik, 1864, Tachytrechus sogdianus Loew, 1871, and Thinophilus flavipalpis (Zetterstedt, 1843] are recorded for the first time in Iran. Dolichopus subimmaculatus Kazerani, Pollet, Khaghaninia, 2017, is placed in synonymy with Dolichopus perversus Loew, 1871 (syn. nov.. Lectotype is designated for D. perversus.

  1. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  2. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  3. [Spread of hemoparasites in reptiles and amphibians in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, M

    1999-12-01

    Hemoparasites were harvested from 993 individuals belonging to 15 reptilian and 1 amphibian species, from various Italian localities. Hemogregarins were found in 10 reptilian species while a flagellate and microfilariae were found only in Tarentola mauritanica from Lampedusa. For each host species and place of origin the frequencies of hemogregarins are reported and discussed. Longitudinal studies with periodical thin smears were carried out on 5 Tarentola mauritanica, 4 Lacerta viridis, 26 Podarcis filfolensis, 10 Podarcis muralis, 38 Podarcis sicula, 8 Chalcides ocellatus. This material, whose study has not yet been completed, is made available by the author who strongly encourages further investigations on this subject.

  4. Mating opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna females: Costs and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Duran, Linda C.; Fajardo Medina, Gonzalo E.; Fuentes Quinter, Luz S.; Martin, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. Resumen En la naturaleza, hembras de varios taxa animal muestran una variación considerable en su sistema de apareamiento, esta variación involucra diferentes costos (energéticos, reproductivos, etc) y beneficios (aumento de la tasa reproductiva neta de la hembra, mayor longevidad, entre otros). En años recientes, muchos estudios se han enfocado en descubrir las potenciales ventajas y desventajas que las hembras podrían tener al aumentar su número de cópulas y las posibles consecuencias evolutivas que podrían resultar. Las mariposas y polillas son un sistema de estudio ideal, dada la facilidad para determinar y manipular experimentalmente su frecuencia de

  5. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  6. Molecular genetic studies on some irradiated medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam el-din, H.F.M

    2007-07-01

    This thesis aimed to study the molecular characterization , the phylogenetic relationships among the four mentha and the three ocimum species and to get some species-specific markers. twenty-one RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were used which showed high polymorphism among the species and detected 150 molecular markers for these genotypes (100 using RAPD and 50 by ISSR-analyses). detection of the phylogenetic relationships based on the three studied systems (RAPD,ISSR and their combined analyses ) indicated that these techniques succeeded in separating the seven species into two main clusters of the two mentha and ocimum genera. SDS-protein patterns characterized the seven genotypes based on presence/ absence and staining intensities of 14 polypeptide bands into two main groups.the effect of four doses of gamma irradiation on eight active components of volatile oils and SDS-protein pattern of stems of mentha viridis indicated that low levels of gamma irradiation could improve the value of some active components of medicinal plants such as menthol in mentha viridis.

  7. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Bleaching and recovery of a phototrophic bioeroding sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Joseph; Davy, Simon K.; Shaffer, Megan; Haris, Abdul; Bell, James J.

    2018-06-01

    In the Wakatobi region of Indonesia, a prolonged period of elevated water temperature in 2016 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Unusually, bleaching was also observed in the bioeroding sponge Cliona aff. viridis, with affected sponges expelling 99% of their Symbiodinium. Bleaching surveys of C. aff. viridis were conducted 6 weeks apart, coinciding with a 0.8 °C drop in water temperature. Over this period, bleaching prevalence dropped from 73.9% (± 9.9 SE) to 25.7% (± 5.8 SE), and bleaching severity dropped from 25.95% (± 4.5 SE) to 11.54% (± 1.9 SE) of sponge tissue. Over the same period, monitored bleached sponges showed an 81% drop in bleaching severity, but also a 13% reduction in overall sponge size. Our results show that while the clionaid- Symbiodinium relationship is susceptible to break down under thermal stress, rapid recovery can occur, although incurring some partial host mortality.

  9. Mean residence times for tritium in some terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Soman, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    Uptake of tritiated water from a single or multiple exposure, its fixation and elimination from 3 terrestrial plants, Raphanus sativus L., Amaranthus viridis L. and Phyllanthus fraternus Webster under experimental field conditions are described. Tissue free water tritium (TFWT) attains peak concentration within 4 hr after a single exposure in R. sativus and then decreases with a single component from both leaves and root, with a biological half-time of 36.4 +- 4.2 and 48.5 +- 7.2 hr respectively. TFWT in leaves of A. viridis reaches its peak value within 0.5 hr of exposure and its decay exhibits 2 component fall, one having a very short half-life of 2.4 +- 0.7 hr and the other a long half-time of 86.1 +- 2.0 hr. The two component decay of tritium in TFWT is well represented in P. fraternus. The long-lived components are nearly 8 times of the short-lived ones, both in leaves and stems respectively. Generally, the long -lived component accounts for 15% of the peak TFWT. Tissue bound tritium (TBT) reaches to 4% of TFWT in Phyllanthus sp. TBT elimination time is many times longer than the experimental periods employed in the present study. (author)

  10. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety. - Highlights: • Analyses of surface sediment and animal tissue samples from a tropical coastal system • Non-target screening enabled identification of a wide range of organic contaminants. • Comparison of contaminant patterns in surface sediments and animal tissue samples • Results illustrate compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. • Higher concentrations of all contaminants in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue

  11. The effect of chlorsulfurone and MCPB-Na on the enzymatic activity of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filimon Marioara Nicoleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available herbicides, have a broad spectrum effect on weeds, in relatively low doses and with a much reduced toxicity on livestock. In this study were used two herbicides: dacsulfuron with the active substance chlorsulfuron (0.005 - 0.035 μg/g soil and butoxone with the active substance MCPB-Na (0.005 - 0.035 mg/L/g soil. The samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm from chernozem soil. The effect of herbicide was estimated by measuring the activity of catalase, actual and potential dehydrogenase, urease and cellulase activities. All samples being incubated for 10 days at 27°C using Sapp medium for isolation and study of cellulosolytic bacteria. The inhibitory effect of the tested herbicides was the most intense for the urease and dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. The most resistant cellulosolytic bacteria to the effects of dacsulfuron were Cellfalcicula fusca, Cellfalcicula viridis, Cellvibrio fulvus and Fuseaux veris and for butoxone Cellfalcicula mucosa, C. viridis and C. fulvus.

  12. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Graham, Robert Leslie; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-01-01

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom

  13. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and its effect on quantitative traits in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ambavane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (12% moisture of two finger millet cultivar viz., Dapoli-1 and Dapoli Safed were irradiated with four doses of gamma-rays viz., 400 Gy, 500 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy at BARC, Mumbai. In laboratory test, root and shoot lengths of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma rays. Similarly, germination percentage and survival rate of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma irradiation during field study. In M1 generation, three types of chlorophyll mutations viz., albino, xantha and viridis were observed. Albino and xantha were observed in all treatments, whereas, viridis observed only in lower doses viz., 400 Gy and 500 Gy. Based on the chlorophyll mutation frequency on M1 plants, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were computed. In Dapoli-1 variety, two early maturing mutants and three high yielding mutants were isolated from 500 Gy dose and 600 Gy dose, respectively. In M2 generation, the mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing various types of chlorophyll and morphological macro mutants, few of those show significant change in flowering, maturity and plant height character and few of them have good breeding value.

  14. Metabolite comparisons and the identity of nutrients translocated from symbiotic algae to an animal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, L F; Douglas, A E

    2003-09-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium in symbiosis with marine animals release much of their photosynthetic carbon to the animal host. The compounds translocated to the host ('mobile compounds') were investigated by metabolite comparison as follows: a substrate was identified as a candidate mobile compound when comparable profiles of metabolites were generated from host metabolism of this substrate (supplied exogenously) and the endogenous mobile compounds. When the sea anemone Anemonia viridis was incubated with NaH14CO2 under photosynthesizing conditions, most of the radioactivity in the animal tissue was recovered from the low-molecular-mass fraction and distributed in the ratio 1:2:1 between the neutral, acidic and basic sub-fractions. Prominent 14C-labelled compounds included glucose, malate and glucose-6-phosphate. When the symbiosis was incubated with 14C-labelled glucose plus succinate or fumarate (but none of eight other substrate combinations tested), the 14C-labelled metabolites closely matched those obtained with NaH14CO2. These data suggest that glucose and succinate/fumarate (or metabolically allied compounds) may be important photosynthetic compounds transferred from the Symbiodinium cells to the tissues of A. viridis. Metabolite comparisons can be applied to study nutritional interactions in symbioses involving photosynthetic algae and, with appropriate modification, other associations between microorganisms and plants or animals.

  15. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E G; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-03-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants.

  16. Are Niemann-Pick type C proteins key players in cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbioses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Vincent; Ganot, Philippe; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cecile

    2014-09-01

    The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians, such as corals and sea anemones, and the unicellular algae Symbiodinium is regulated by yet poorly understood cellular mechanisms, despite the ecological importance of coral reefs. These mechanisms, including host-symbiont recognition and metabolic exchange, control symbiosis stability under normal conditions, but also lead to symbiosis breakdown (bleaching) during stress. This study describes the repertoire of the sterol-trafficking proteins Niemann-Pick type C (NPC1 and NPC2) in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We found one NPC1 gene in contrast to the two genes (NPC1 and NPC1L1) present in vertebrate genomes. While only one NPC2 gene is present in many metazoans, this gene has been duplicated in cnidarians, and we detected four NPC2 genes in A. viridis. However, only one gene (AvNPC2-d) was upregulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic sea anemones and displayed higher expression in the gastrodermis (symbiont-containing tissue) than in the epidermis. We performed immunolabelling experiments on tentacle cross sections and demonstrated that the AvNPC2-d protein was closely associated with symbiosomes. In addition, AvNPC1 and AvNPC2-d gene expression was strongly downregulated during stress. These data suggest that AvNPC2-d is involved in both the stability and dysfunction of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. X-ray microanalysis of elements present in the matrix of cnidarian nematocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardent, P; Zierold, K; Klug, M; Weber, J

    1990-01-01

    The composition and concentration of elements, in particular those of metallic cations, present in the intracapsular matrix and the wall of nematocysts of various cnidarian species have been recorded by means of X-ray microanalysis performed on 100nm thick cryosections. The predominant cation detected in the nematocyst matrix of the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea (medusa), the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (scyphopolyp) and the anthozoan Calliactis parasitica (tentacles and acontia) is K(+). Mg(2+) prevails in tentacular cysts of Anthopleura elegantissima, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis, whereas, the acrorhagial cysts of A. elegantissima and A. equina contain Ca(2+) instead of Mg(2+). The acrorhagial cysts of A. viridis contain Mg(2+) like those of the tentacles. In the tentacular nematocysts of Podocoryne carnea polyps (Hydrozoa) on the other hand ambiguous element contents were found indicating that the cysts of this species has no preference for a particular cation. The high values of sulfur recorded in the matrix and particularly the wall of all the cysts are reflecting the presence of numerous protein disulfide bonds within the structural components (wall, shaft, tubule) of the nematocysts.

  18. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, N.; Irshad, M.; Hussain, F.; Mahmood, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  19. Spatial Distribution and a Retrospective Analysis of the Herpetofauna in the City of Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the contemporary status and distribution of theamphibians and reptiles in the city of Plovdiv. To track changes in the status ofamphibians and reptiles in the research area through time, a retrospective analysis wasmade based on available literary data. During the past 100 years four species ofamphibians (Triturus karelinii, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina bombina, B. variegata and fourspecies of reptiles (Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus, Elaphe sauromates, Viperaammodytes probably have disappeared from the study area; one amphibian species (Bufobufo and one reptile (Natrix natrix have not changed their status, one amphibian(Pelobates syriacus and two reptile species (Ablepharus kitaibelii, Podarcis muralis havereduced their localities and four amphibian species (Epidalea viridis, Rana dalmatina,Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla arborea and seven species of reptiles (Mediodactylus kotschyi,Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Emys orbicularis, Dolichophis caspius,Natrix tessellata have increased their localities and frequency of occurrence. The recordsof the two tortoise species (Testudo hermanni and T. graeca in the city, and the presence ofthe Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans should be considered as accidental.Important Herpetological Areas (IHA in the study region are also identified.

  20. Assessing the Influence of the Automobile Traffic on the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (NE Bulgaria were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve "Srebarna". For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.

  1. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  2. Time dependent genetic analysis links field and controlled environment phenotypes in the model C4 grass Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J Feldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical growth of plants is a dynamic process that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and has a pronounced effect on overall plant architecture and biomass composition. We have performed six controlled growth trials of an interspecific Setaria italica x Setaria viridis recombinant inbred line population to assess how the genetic architecture of plant height is influenced by developmental queues, water availability and planting density. The non-destructive nature of plant height measurements has enabled us to monitor height throughout the plant life cycle in both field and controlled environments. We find that plant height is reduced under water limitation and high density planting and affected by growth environment (field vs. growth chamber. The results support a model where plant height is a heritable, polygenic trait and that the major genetic loci that influence plant height function independent of growth environment. The identity and contribution of loci that influence height changes dynamically throughout development and the reduction of growth observed in water limited environments is a consequence of delayed progression through the genetic program which establishes plant height in Setaria. In this population, alleles inherited from the weedy S. viridis parent act to increase plant height early, whereas a larger number of small effect alleles inherited from the domesticated S. italica parent collectively act to increase plant height later in development.

  3. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time dependent genetic analysis links field and controlled environment phenotypes in the model C4 grass Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Max J; Paul, Rachel E; Banan, Darshi; Barrett, Jennifer F; Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Jiang, Hui; Lipka, Alexander E; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R; Leakey, Andrew D B; Baxter, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Vertical growth of plants is a dynamic process that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and has a pronounced effect on overall plant architecture and biomass composition. We have performed six controlled growth trials of an interspecific Setaria italica x Setaria viridis recombinant inbred line population to assess how the genetic architecture of plant height is influenced by developmental queues, water availability and planting density. The non-destructive nature of plant height measurements has enabled us to monitor height throughout the plant life cycle in both field and controlled environments. We find that plant height is reduced under water limitation and high density planting and affected by growth environment (field vs. growth chamber). The results support a model where plant height is a heritable, polygenic trait and that the major genetic loci that influence plant height function independent of growth environment. The identity and contribution of loci that influence height changes dynamically throughout development and the reduction of growth observed in water limited environments is a consequence of delayed progression through the genetic program which establishes plant height in Setaria. In this population, alleles inherited from the weedy S. viridis parent act to increase plant height early, whereas a larger number of small effect alleles inherited from the domesticated S. italica parent collectively act to increase plant height later in development.

  5. Studies on the variations in the settlement of macrofoulants in Kalpakkam coastal waters, east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Gouri; Prasad, M.V.R.; Satpathy, K.K.; Biswas, S.; Selvanaygam, M.

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling studies in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam were carried out with an aim to delineate the present seasonal succession and fouling potential of macrofoulants, the dominant species and their breeding period. Three series (weekly, monthly and cumulative at 30 d interval observations) of teak wood panels were exposed to coastal waters from a jetty. A marked variation was observed in the colonization of the biofoulers on the weekly panels during the present study. The highest and lowest numbers of organisms observed were 136 and 1 per sq. cm respectively. Dominance of barnacles (12.4 - 99 %) on weekly panels was found throughout the study period. A climax community of green mussels (Perna viridis) was observed in the cumulative observations. Biofouling biomass of weekly panels varied between 1 and 11 g. (100 cm) -2 , however, a steep increase in biomass was observed in 28 d (77 g. (100 cm) -2 ), 56 d (97 g. (100 cm) -2 ), 112 d (185 g. (100 cm) -2 ) and 150 d (648 g. (100 cm) -2 ) old panels. In the present study, the biomass values found to be significantly higher than those of the earlier reported values (33 and 52 g. (100 cm) -2 in 43 d and 128 d exposure respectively). Interestingly, a visible shift in the peak settlement period of green mussels (Perna viridis) was observed in the present investigation, as compared to the earlier study. (author)

  6. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  7. Toxic metal tolerance in native plant species grown in a vanadium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Aikelaimu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an; Li, Tianran; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xutong

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium (V) has been extensively mined in China and caused soil pollution in mining area. It has toxic effects on plants, animals and humans, posing potential health risks to communities that farm and graze cattle adjacent to the mining area. To evaluate in situ phytoremediation potentials of native plants, V, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations in roots and shoots were measured and the bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation (TF) efficiencies were calculated. The results showed that Setaria viridis accumulated greater than 1000 mg kg -1 V in its shoots and exhibited TF > 1 for V, Cr, Zn and BAF > 1 for Cu. The V accumulation amount in the roots of Kochia scoparia also surpassed 1000 mg kg -1 and showed TF > 1 for Zn. Chenopodium album had BAF > 1 for V and Zn and Daucus carota showed TF > 1 for Cu. Eleusine indica presented strong tolerance and high metal accumulations. S. viridis is practical for in situ phytoextractions of V, Cr and Zn and phytostabilisation of Cu in V mining area. Other species had low potential use as phytoremediation plant at multi-metal polluted sites, but showed relatively strong resistance to V, Cr, Cu and Zn toxicity, can be used to vegetate the contaminated soils and stabilise toxic metals in V mining area.

  8. Gas chromatographic analysis of dimethyltryptamine and beta-carboline alkaloids in ayahuasca, an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana Paula Salum; De Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Moura, Sidnei; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Silva, Wagner Abreu E; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Ayahuasca is obtained by infusing the pounded stems of Banisteriopsis caapi in combination with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. P. viridis is rich in the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine, whereas B. caapi contains substantial amounts of beta-carboline alkaloids, mainly harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine, which are monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Because of differences in composition in ayahuasca preparations, a method to measure their main active constituents is needed. To develop a gas chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of dimethyltryptamine and the main beta-carbolines found in ayahuasca preparations. The alkaloids were extracted by means of solid phase extraction (C(18)) and detected by gas chromatography with nitrogen/phosphorous detector. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.02 mg/mL for all analytes. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.02-4.0 mg/mL (r(2 )> 0.99). The method was also precise (RSD ayahuasca was developed and validated. The method can be useful to estimate administered doses in animals and humans for further pharmacological and toxicological investigations of ayahuasca. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, Vânia C S; do Amaral, Fernanda P; Santos, Karina F D N; Agtuca, Beverly; Xu, Youwen; Schueller, Michael J; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Stacey, Gary; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria can promote plant growth; however, it is controversial whether biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) from associative interaction contributes to growth promotion. The roots of Setaria viridis, a model C4 grass, were effectively colonized by bacterial inoculants resulting in a significant enhancement of growth. Nitrogen-13 tracer studies provided direct evidence for tracer uptake by the host plant and incorporation into protein. Indeed, plants showed robust growth under nitrogen-limiting conditions when inoculated with an ammonium-excreting strain of Azospirillum brasilense. (11)C-labeling experiments showed that patterns in central carbon metabolism and resource allocation exhibited by nitrogen-starved plants were largely reversed by bacterial inoculation, such that they resembled plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Adoption of S. viridis as a model should promote research into the mechanisms of associative nitrogen fixation with the ultimate goal of greater adoption of BNF for sustainable crop production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Landfill is known as a potential source of atmospheric Hg and an important component of the local or regional atmospheric Hg budget. This study investigated the gaseous elemental Hg surface-air fluxes under differing conditions at a typical municipal solid waste landfill site, highlighting the interactive effects of plant coverage and meteorological conditions. The results indicated that Hg fluxes exhibited a feature represented by diel variation. In particular, Hg deposition was observed under a condition of Kochia sieversiana coverage, whereas emission that occurred after K. sieversiana was removed. Hg emission was the dominant mode under conditions of Setaria viridis coverage and its removal; however, the average Hg emission flux with the S. viridis coverage was nearly four times lower than after its removal. These findings verified that the plant coverage should be a key factor influencing the Hg emission from landfills. In addition, Hg fluxes were correlated positively with solar radiation and air/soil temperature and correlated inversely with relative humidity under all conditions, except K. sieversiana coverage. This suggested that the interactive effects of meteorological conditions and plant coverage played a jointly significant role in the Hg emission from landfills. It was established that K. sieversiana can inhibit Hg emission efficiently, and therefore, it could potentially be suitable for use as a plant-based method to control Hg pollution from landfills.

  12. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Wei, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Hong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  13. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95 das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em solo de textura franco-argiloarenosa (20% de argila e 1,9 de matéria orgânica, e as doses dos herbicidas alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 e trifluralin 600 foram aplicadas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura das plantas daninhas. Avaliou-se o controle das plantas daninhas após a permanência dos herbicidas no solo por períodos de 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias depois da aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. A atividade residual de alachlor e prometryne, na dose C95, não foi suficiente para o controle eficiente (>80% das espécies por períodos de até 30 DAA. Quanto ao alachlor, o emprego da dose recomendada não se refletiu em aumento considerável da atividade residual, exceto em relação a A. viridis. A dose recomendada de prometryne proporcionou controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. hybridus. A dose recomendada de oxyfluorfen controlou eficientemente A. hybridus e A. spinosus até 30 DAA, espécies estas que não haviam sido eficientemente controladas pela dose C95. Trifluralin 450 promoveu controle residual eficiente de 30 DAA somente em relação a A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 foi eficiente no controle de A. hybridus e A. viridis até os 30 DAA e até 29 e 28 DAA para A. lividus e A. spinosus, respectivamente. Clomazone não promoveu controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin e S

  14. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  15. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuqin; Pan, Xu; Cui, Qingguo; Hu, Yukun; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs) on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis) were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1) BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2) effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3) plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  16. Abejas englosinas de Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae I. Claves ilustradas Abejas englosinas de Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae I. Claves ilustradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eight euglossine bee species are registered for Colombia, distributed in five genera: Aglae (1, Eufriesea (30, Euglossa (60, Eulaema (13 and Exaerete (4. New records for Colombia include: Eufriesea auripes, Ef. dressleri, Ef. fragrocara, Ef. xantha, Euglossa viridis, Eg. azureoviridis, Eg. cognata, Eg. singularis, EI. boliviensis, EI. seabrai and EI mocsaryi. Keys are given for males and females of Aglae, Exaerete, Eulaema and Eufriesea and for males of Euglossa of the 108 Colombian euglossines. A key for the subgenera of Euglossa is presented by the first time. Revisando diferentes fuentes de literatura y colecciones de abejas en Colombia y el exterior se encontró para Colombia un total de 108 especies de abejas de la subfamilia Euglossinae repartidas en 5 géneros: Aglae (1 especie, Eufriesea (30 especies, Euglossa (60 especies, Eulaema (13 especies y Exaerete (4 especies. Se registran por primera vez para Colombia 11 especies de abejas euglosinas: Eufriesea auripes, Ef. fragrocara, Ef. dressleri, Ef. xantha, Euglossa viridis, Eg. cognata, Eg. singularis, Eg. azureoviridis, Eulaema boliviensis, EI. seabrai y EI. mocsaryi. Se presentan claves para las 108 especies de los 5 géneros así, machos y hembras de Eufriesea, Exaerete y Aglae y los machos de Euglossa y por primera vez una clave para los subgéneros de Euglossa.

  17. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.

  18. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2015-01-01

    Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented.

  19. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins in snake venoms using monoclonal antibodies against Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E E; García, C; Pérez, J C; De La Zerda, S J

    1998-10-01

    Most snakes and a few warm-blooded animals have a resistance to snake venoms because of naturally occurring antihemorrhagins found in their sera. The antihemorrhagins in serum of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) neutralize hemorrhagic activity by binding to hemorrhagins in snake venoms. The binding characteristic of antihemorrhagins in D. virginiana serum was used to develop a five-step western blot. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins were measured indirectly with antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum and with DV-2LD#2, a monoclonal antibody specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. Snake venoms were separated by native-PAGE, transferred to a Millipore Immobilon-P membrane and then incubated with crude Virginia opossum serum. The hemorrhagins in snake venom bind to antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum which react with DV-2LD#2 a monoclonal antibody that is specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody inhibits antihemorrhagic activity in Virginia opossum serum when mixed in equal amounts. The inhibition of antihemorrhagins by DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody suggests specificity. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody does not recognize antihemorrhagins in gray woodrat (Neotoma micropus) serum. The five-step western blot reveals two well-defined bands which represent hemorrhagins found in Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom. Venoms from 15 different snake species were examined to determine the usefulness of the five-step western blot. Other hemorrhagic venoms (Great Basin rattlesnake (C. viridis lutosus), Prairie rattlesnake (C. viridis viridis), Tancitaran dusky rattlesnake (C. pusillus), Northern Mojave rattlesnake (C. scutulatus scutulatus type B) and Northern Pacific rattlesnake (C. v. oreganus)) had one single band in the five-step western blot. DV-2LD#2 did not bind to the non-hemorrhagic venoms and reacted with 50% of the hemorrhagic venoms used in this study. The monoclonal antibody, CAH

  20. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liqiang; Xie Ping; Ozawa, Kazuhiko; Honma, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Park, Ho-Dong

    2004-01-01

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 μg g -1 DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 μg g -1 DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 μg g -1 DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes

  1. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho (Zea mays L. por meio de herbicidas Weed control in maize (Zea mays L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. L. dos Santos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a ação do butylate, aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com atrazine, no controle de plantas daninhas da cultura do milho, foi instalado um experimento de campo em solo fino areno-argiloso. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: butylate a 2,80; 3,60 e 4,32 kg/ha (p.p.i.; butylate + atrazine a 3,24 + 0,80; 3,24 + 1,20 e 3,60 + 0,96 kg/ha (p.p.i.; atrazine a 3,00 kg/ha e atrazine + metolachlor a 1,40 + 2,10 kg/ha, ambos aplicados em pré-emergência e empregados como herbicidas padrão para a cultura. As plantas daninhas encontradas foram: tiririca - Cyperus rotundus L., carurú comum - .:maranthus viridis L., capim de colchão - Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. e capim pé-de-galinha Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate nas três doses apresentou-se bem contra C. rotundus e E. indica; nas doses de 3,60 e 4,32 kg foram obtidos bons resultados sobre D. sanguinalis. Butylate + atrazine controlou, nas três doses, todas as espécies incidentes, o mesmo ocorrendo com a mistura atrazine + metolachlor. Atrazine foi mais eficiente para A. viridis e E. indica. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas foi prejudicial para a cultura.Butylate at 2.80; 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha and butylate + atrazine at. 3.24 + 0.80; 3.24 + 1.20 and 3.60 + 0.96 kg, were applied in preplant incorporated; atrazine at 3.00 kg and atrazine + metolachlor at 1.40 + 2.10 kg were applied in preemergence on corn. The weeds were represented by Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate + atrazine, in all rates, atrazine + metolachlor and atrazine gave good control of the weeds in general. Butylate, in the three rates, controlled C. rotundus and E. indica; at 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha controlled well D. sanguinalis. The herbicides did not cause injuries to the crop.

  2. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

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    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Hydrodynamic control of phytoplankton loss to the benthos in an estuarine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicole L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments were undertaken to measure the influence of hydrodynamics on the removal of phytoplankton by benthic grazers in Suisun Slough, North San Francisco Bay. Chlorophyll a concentration boundary layers were found over beds inhabited by the active suspension feeders Corbula amurensis and Corophium alienense and the passive suspension feeders Marenzellaria viridis and Laonome sp. Benthic losses of phytoplankton were estimated via both the control volume and the vertical flux approach, in which chlorophyll a concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. The rate of phytoplankton loss to the bed was positively correlated to the bed shear stress. The maximum rate of phytoplankton loss to the bed was five times larger than estimated by laboratory-derived pumping rates for the active suspension feeders. Reasons for this discrepancy are explored including a physical mechanism whereby phytoplankton is entrained in a near-bed fluff layer where aggregation is mediated by the presence of mucus produced by the infaunal community.

  4. Data in support of intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Odahara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “Intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures” [1]. The data regarding variation of absorption spectra is used as an indicator of the duration of Rp. viridis PRU and RC, Rb. sphaeroides RC and LH2, and Rb. capsulatus LH2 in the native state in the presence of NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG mixture. The data about minimum concentrations of salt and PEG whose aqueous phases are mutually separated presents information on additional influence of Tris buffer and N-octyl-β-d-glucoside on the salt–PEG phase separation.

  5. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  6. Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis Felipe Lima E; Souza, Douglas C DE; Resende, Luciane V; Nassur, Rita DE Cássia M R; Samartini, Carolina Q; Gonçalves, Wilson M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B). The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA). All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.

  7. Influence of single and combination treatments of physical and chemical mutagen on chlorophyll mutations in Finger Millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Binod; Mahto, Jaylal; Haider, Z.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma rays, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and their combined treatments influenced differently in producing chlorophyll mutations. A good number of chlorophyll mutants with varied frequencies were recorded in M 2 generation. The frequency of chlorophyll mutants was higher at lower doses of gamma rays, EMS and their combination treatments. The most frequently observed mutant was Albino type. The other chlorophyll mutants isolated were Xantha, Viridis, Striata and Tigrina. The frequency of tigrina and striata was lowest in variety A-404 and Hr-374, respectively. The efficiency and effectiveness was high at the lower doses of mutagens in both the varieties. EMS (0.2%) was more effective than the corresponding lower dose of gamma rays for both the varieties. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

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    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  9. Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yao; Wu Zhongxing; Yu Boshi; Peng Xin; Yu Gongliang; Wei Zhihong; Wang Guoxiang; Li Renhui

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that several morphospecies of Microcystis, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (Kuetzing) Lemmermann and Microcystis viridis (A. Brown) Lemmermann can produce hepatotoxic microcystins. However, previous studies gave contradictory conclusions about microcystin production of Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek. In the present study, ten Microcystis morphospecies were identified in waterblooms of seven Chinese waterbodies, and Microcystis wesenbergii was shown as the dominant species in these waters. More than 250 single colonies of M. wesenbergii were chosen, under morphological identification, to examine whether M. wesenbergii produce hepatotoxic microcystin by using multiplex PCR for molecular detection of a region (mcyA) of microcystin synthesis genes, and chemical analyses of microcystin content by ELISA and HPLC for 21 isolated strains of M. wesenbergii from these waters were also performed. Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that M. wesenbergii from Chinese waters did not produce microcystin. - Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that Microcystis wesenbergii was not a microcystin producer in Chinese waters

  10. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  11. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  12. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

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    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  14. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

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    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  15. Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil

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    LUIS FELIPE LIMA E SILVA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA. All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.

  16. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TSIAMIS

    2015-07-01

    The new records of alien species include: the red algae Antithamnionella elegans and Palisada maris-rubri, found for the first time in Israel and Greece respectively; the green alga Codium parvulum reported from Turkey (Aegean Sea; the first record of the alien sea urchin Diadema setosum in Greece; the nudibranch Goniobranchus annulatus reported from South-Eastern Aegean Sea (Greece; the opisthobranch Melibe viridis found in Lebanon; the new records of the blue spotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii in the Alicante coast (Eastern Spain; the alien fish Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus in Lipsi Island, Dodecanese (Greece; the first record of Stephanolepis diaspros from the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (western Sicily; a northward expansion of the alien pufferfish Torquigener flavimaculosus along the southeastern Aegean coasts of Turkey; and data on the occurrence of the Lessepsian immigrants Alepes djedaba, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Fistularia commersonii in Zakynthos Island (SE Ionian Sea, Greece.

  17. Patrones de forrajeo en dos especies de peces intermareales herbívoros de las costas de Chile: Efecto de la abundancia y composición química del alimento Foraging patterns of two species of intertidal herbivorous fishes: Effect of food abundance and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN W. CACERES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Los peces herbívoros son organismos que deben suplir los requerimientos de su economía energética a partir de una fuente de alimento con un bajo contenido de nutrientes y energía. Dos de las interrogantes más importantes en relación con la herbivoría por peces son: i ¿cuáles son los factores que influyen en la selección o rechazo de un determinado item dietario? y ii ¿son capaces los peces herbívoros de extraer los nutrientes y energía necesarios para suplir sus requerimientos energéticos en base a una dieta de macroalgas?. En este trabajo se estudiaron en dos especies de peces herbívoros, Scartichthys viridis y Girella laevifrons, los patrones de selectividad dietaria en terreno y laboratorio, la eficiencia de asimilación y la relación entre los patrones encontrados con la composición química del alga. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que la dieta de estos organismos se compone en más del 90% de macroalgas bentónicas. En terreno ambas especies presentan una conducta trófica no selectiva en verano y selectiva en invierno, prefiriendo el consumo de algas verdes. En los experimentos de selección dietaria ambas especies presentan un patrón similar caracterizado por la preferencia de algas verdes y rojas por sobre algas pardas. Los resultados de los experimentos de asimilación, indican que Girella laevifrons presenta tasas de asimilación mayores que Scartichthys viridis, siendo en la primera las algas verde Ulva y Enteromorpha las que presentan una mayor eficiencia de asimilación. Los resultados sugieren una fuerte relación entre el patrón de selección trófica observado en estas especies y la relación entre composición del alimento y características digestivasHerbivores are organisms that must meet their energy and nutrients requirements from a food source that typically has been characterized as having low nutritional value given their low concentration of nutrients and energy. Two of the most important questions

  18. Marine Longilenes, Oxasqualenoids with Ser-Thr Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cen-Pacheco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+-longilene peroxide (1, longilene (2, and (+-prelongilene (3 that were isolated from this alga, in addition to other substances, 4 and 5, resulting from their acid-mediated degradation. The effect of compounds 1 and 3 against Ser-Thr protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A was evaluated, showing that (+-longilene peroxide (1 inhibited PP2A (IC50 11.3 μM. In order to explain the interaction between PP2A and compounds 1 and 3, molecular docking simulations onto the PP2A enzyme-binding region were used.

  19. Ports and pests: Assessing the threat of aquatic invasive species introduced by maritime shipping activity in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charleen E; Johnston, Matthew W; Kerstetter, David W

    2017-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) are biological pollutants that cause detrimental ecological, economic, and human-health effects in their introduced communities. With increasing globalization through maritime trade, ports are vulnerable to AIS exposure via commercial vessels. The Cuban Port of Mariel is poised to become a competitive transshipment hub in the Caribbean and the intent of this study was to evaluate present and potential impacts AIS pose with the likely future increase in shipping activity. We utilized previous assessment frameworks and publicly accessible information to rank AIS by level of threat. Fifteen AIS were identified in Cuba and one, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758), had repeated harmful economic impacts. Five species associated with trade partners of Port Mariel were considered potentially detrimental to Cuba if introduced through shipping routes. The results presented herein identify species of concern and emphasize the importance of prioritizing AIS prevention and management within Cuba. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  1. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Schmutz, Jeremy [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Wang, Hao [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Percifield, Ryan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hawkins, Jennifer [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Pontaroli, Ana C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Estep, Matt [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Feng, Liang [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaughn, Justin N [ORNL; Grimwood, Jane [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Jenkins, Jerry [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lindquist, Erika [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wang, Xuewen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Wu, Xiaomei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mitros, Therese [University of California, Berkeley; Triplett, Jimmy [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita [Oklahoma State University; Wang, Lin [Cornell University; Li, Pinghua [Cornell University; Sharma, Manoj [University of California, Davis; Sharma, Rita [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Panaud, Olivier [Universite de Perpignan, Perpignan, France; Kellogg, Elizabeth A. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Brutnell, Thomas P. [Cornell University; Doust, Andrew N. [Oklahoma State University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Devos, Katrien M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  2. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  3. A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Huang, Xuehui; Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Wenjun; Chai, Yang; Yang, Lifang; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Guo, Yunli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Hao, Hangfei; Liu, Hongkuan; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yuhui; Guo, Erhu; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Suying; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Wenfei; Chen, Guoqiu; Zhang, Baojin; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Jiayang; Diao, Xianmin; Han, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly correlated with early and late flowering times. We phenotyped the 916 varieties under five different environments and identified 512 loci associated with 47 agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies. We performed a de novo assembly of deeply sequenced genomes of a Setaria viridis accession (the wild progenitor of S. italica) and an S. italica variety and identified complex interspecies and intraspecies variants. We also identified 36 selective sweeps that seem to have occurred during modern breeding. This study provides fundamental resources for genetics research and genetic improvement in foxtail millet.

  4. Initiation of Setaria as a model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmin DIAO,James SCHNABLE,Jeffrey L. BENNETZEN,Jiayang LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa have proven essential for efficient scientific discovery and development of new methods. With the diversity of plant lineages, some important processes such as C4 photosynthesis are not found in either Arabidopsis or rice, so new model species are needed. Due to their small diploid genomes, short life cycles, self-pollination, small adult statures and prolific seed production, domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (S. viridis, have recently been proposed as novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae, especially for study of C4 photosynthesis. This review outlines the development of these species as model organisms, and discusses current challenges and future potential of a Setaria model.

  5. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  6. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Abrunhosa

    Full Text Available The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L-1. The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4 cell.mL-1. Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1 solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports.

  7. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  8. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Márcio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Rocha, Guaracy T

    2003-03-01

    Phenotypic sexual dimorphism seems to be rare in the Ramphastidae family, except in Pteroglossus viridis and in the genus Selenidera. Many breeders of wild birds believe that specimens of Ramphastos toco can be sexed using bill characteristics. In this study, various discriminant phenotypic variables were analyzed in birds which were sexed cytogenetically. Fifty-one specimens of R. toco and 20 R. dicolorus were studied. The statistically significant parameters which served to distinguish the sex in these species were the length of the culmen and tomium, length of the lower corneous beak and the cloaca. Using these parameters, captive bird breeders can determine sex of R. toco specimens by phenotypic analysis and form breeding couples more quickly.

  10. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan

    2014-10-01

    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  11. Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lourdes Chamorro

    Full Text Available This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

  12. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...

  13. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  14. Guatemalan plants extracts as virucides against HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Luis M; Alvarez, Amparo; Bermejo, Mercedes; González, Nuria; Beltrán, Manuela; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Cruz, Sully M; Gaitán, Isabel; del Olmo, Esther; Escarcena, Ricardo; García, Pablo A; Cáceres, Armando; San Feliciano, Arturo; Alcamí, José

    2008-06-01

    Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo.

  15. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  16. First report of scuticociliatosis caused by Uronema sp. in ornamental reef fish imported into Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Magalhães Cardoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Scuticociliatosis, which is caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema sp., which was found to be parasitizing three species of marine reef fish imported into Brazil and maintained in quarantine: Vanderbilt’s Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti, blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis, and sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis. During the quarantine period, some fish presented with behavioral disorders and hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis showed hemorrhages, inflammation comprising mononuclear and granular cells in the skeletal muscle, and necrosis of the skin and the secondary lamellae of the gills, and parasites were also observed in the renal capsule. The absence of transboundary measures available to prevent the occurrence of ornamental fish diseases is also discussed.

  17. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  18. The isolation, characterization and evaluation of Frankia strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P.; Lalonde, M.; Fortin, J.A.; Chatarpaul, L.

    1984-01-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO/sub 4/) was used as the sterilizing agent to isolate the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Frankia from nodules of host plants. This treatment resulted in a pure culture collection of 250 Frankia isolates from several species of Alnus (crispa, rugosa, viridis, glutinosa, and serrulata) and from other actinorhizal species from Quebec. Frankia isolates from A. viridis and S. canadensis are reported in this document for the first time. Sugars from whole-cell hydrolysates of the organisms were analysed by gas liquid chromatography to identify strains previously screened on the basis of morphology and infectivity. This technique proved especially useful for those isolates whose morphology was atypical (ACN8, ArgN22, SCN9, and SCN10). It was demonstrated that sugar analysis (2-O-methy-D-mannose, in particular) can be important in resolving the taxonomy of Frankia. The nitrogen-fixing efficiency of some Frankia strains was evaluated by inoculating A. crispa. It was found that the efficiency of organisms was not influenced by the host from which they were first isolated. However, significant differences between some isolates of the same provenance occurred. It was also found that those strains of Frankia which do not sporulate were more effective in fixing nitrogen than those which do. It is proposed that the terms type P and type N be used to designate spore positive (Sp/sup +/) and spore negative (Sp/sup -/) Frankia strains, respectively. Further, it is recommended that sporulation type be used as a valid basis for species definition in the genus Frankia. 118 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. UNTAGGED MUTATION IN RICE GAL4/VP16 TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATOR FACILITATED-ENHANCER TRAP LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Koerniati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An enhancer trap system is an insertional mutagenesis based upon gene expression, instead of gene knock-out, so its insertion in genome is  expected not linked to any dramatic changes in plant phenotypes. Gene  knock-out, leading to lossof- function (LoF mutation, is a dominant  approach for rice functional genomic studies. The objective of this study was to find out whether Transcriptional Activator-Facilitated Enhancer Trap (TAFET T-DNA insertion inducing mutant phenotypes in rice TAFET population. Materials used in this experiment were T1 generation of 270 rice TAFET lines. Eight plants of each were grown in the greenhouse and observed for any mutant phenotypes. Phenotypic, histochemical, Southernblot analyses were carried out to define a mutant of pSKC66.1- 8e. Result showed that about 10% of the 270 lines produced chlorophyll-deficient  leaves, ranged from yellowish green (viridis, white stripe green zebra-like stripe to completely white (albino. Albino plants died after two weeks,  whilst white stripe or viridis mutants became normal in the next generation(T2. Another mutant was pSKC66.1-8e line which had floral dramatic phenotype change with various spikelet shapes and number of organs, and had a single twisted culm. The flower of mutant also had gus gene expression. Plants with wild type did not express gus gene and had six or more straight culms. Molecular, histochemical and phenotypic analyses of this particular line for three generations indicated that mutant phenotype was not due to the T-DNA insertion. Since there was approved that Tos17 is activated during tissue culture and induced mutant phenotype, this line might relate to Tos17 insertion, but it needs further investigation to gain such conclusion.

  20. Androgenic and Estrogenic Response of Green Mussel Extracts from Singapore’s Coastal Environment Using a Human Cell-Based Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore’s coastal waters. P. viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore’s coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β) using a reporter gene bio-assay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r = 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  1. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  2. Crovirin, a snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP with promising activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M Adade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania.Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8 column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10-2.38 µg/ml. A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells.This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases.

  3. The Impact of Epifaunal Predation on the Structure of Macroinfaunal Invertebrate Communities of Tidal Saltmarsh Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardá, R.; Foreman, K.; Werme, C. E.; Valiela, I.

    1998-05-01

    The impact of epibenthic predators foraging on macroinfaunal communities was analysed in Great Sippewissett salt marsh (MA, U.S.A.) by installing experimental cages in the most productive sediments of the marsh (77 g dry weight m -2year -1). The most productive macroinfaunal species in these sediments were Marenzelleria viridis(43·1 g dry weight m -2year -1) Heteromastus filiformis(13·7 g dry weight m -2year -1) and Neanthes arenaceodonta(7·6 g dry weight m -2year -1). Macroinfaunal densities peaked in June following the spring recruitment. Density and biomass inside the cages were significantly higher during the growing season, however, density declined in July and August following the seasonal cycle observed outside cages, while biomass did not suffer this decline. The absence of epibenthic predators favored growth and accumulation of larger organisms, especially M. viridis, and included higher presence of predaceous infauna ( Glycera americana, Neanthes succinea, Neanthes virens, Eteone heteropodaand Nemerteans). At the end of the experiment, there was 22·2 g dry weight m -2more macroinfaunal biomass in the complete cages than in ambient sediments. The absence of epibenthic predators also increased secondary production; M. viridisdoubled production in the sediments inside cages compared with outside cages. The most common benthic predaceous fishes in the marsh were the killifishes, Fundulus heteroclitusand Fundulus majalis, and some seasonal invasive fishes ( Gasterosteus aculeatus, Tautoga onitis, Centropristes striatusand Pleuronectes americanus). While invasive fishes preyed mainly on benthic invertebrates and grew faster, resident fishes shifted their diets through the season. The values of macroinfaunal secondary production obtained in these sediments can support the energy requirements of the predators of the marsh; in this way the pulse of secondary production created by the macroinfaunal populations travels up the saltmarsh food web.

  4. Rapid screening and identification of ACE inhibitors in snake venoms using at-line nanofractionation LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladic, Marija; de Waal, Tessa; Burggraaff, Lindsey; Slagboom, Julien; Somsen, Govert W; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Manjunatha Kini, R; Kool, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an analytical method for the screening of snake venoms for inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and a strategy for their rapid identification. The method is based on an at-line nanofractionation approach, which combines liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS), and pharmacology in one platform. After initial LC separation of a crude venom, a post-column flow split is introduced enabling parallel MS identification and high-resolution fractionation onto 384-well plates. The plates are subsequently freeze-dried and used in a fluorescence-based ACE activity assay to determine the ability of the nanofractions to inhibit ACE activity. Once the bioactive wells are identified, the parallel MS data reveals the masses corresponding to the activities found. Narrowing down of possible bioactive candidates is provided by comparison of bioactivity profiles after reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and after hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) of a crude venom. Additional nanoLC-MS/MS analysis is performed on the content of the bioactive nanofractions to determine peptide sequences. The method described was optimized, evaluated, and successfully applied for screening of 30 snake venoms for the presence of ACE inhibitors. As a result, two new bioactive peptides were identified: pELWPRPHVPP in Crotalus viridis viridis venom with IC 50  = 1.1 μM and pEWPPWPPRPPIPP in Cerastes cerastes cerastes venom with IC 50  = 3.5 μM. The identified peptides possess a high sequence similarity to other bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), which are known ACE inhibitors found in snake venoms.

  5. Содержание холина в растениях земляники зелёной Южного Предуралья

    OpenAIRE

    Гусев, Николай; Петрова, Галина; Докучаева, Юлия; Немерешина, Ольга

    2013-01-01

    Изучено содержание азотсодержащих веществ основного характера в листьях Fragaria viridis ( Duch. ) Weston. Южного Предуралья. Установлено, что алкалоидность Fragaria viridis ( Duch. ) Weston. обусловлена присутствием азотистого вещества холина (2оксиэтилтриметилааммоний), относящегося к витаминам группы В. Более высокое содержание холина установлено на участках с повышенной инсоляцией....

  6. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L. in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1 identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2 modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3 simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2 and (3 to 4 locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix, Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9. Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29% would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2% and Alnus viridis (4.8%. The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the

  7. Concerted evolution of sea anemone neurotoxin genes is revealed through analysis of the Nematostella vectensis genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Sullivan, James C; Reitzel, Adam M; Finnerty, John R; Gurevitz, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Gene families, which encode toxins, are found in many poisonous animals, yet there is limited understanding of their evolution at the nucleotide level. The release of the genome draft sequence for the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of a gene family whose neurotoxin products affect voltage-gated sodium channels. All gene family members are clustered in a highly repetitive approximately 30-kb genomic region and encode a single toxin, Nv1. These genes exhibit extreme conservation at the nucleotide level which cannot be explained by purifying selection. This conservation greatly differs from the toxin gene families of other animals (e.g., snakes, scorpions, and cone snails), whose evolution was driven by diversifying selection, thereby generating a high degree of genetic diversity. The low nucleotide diversity at the Nv1 genes is reminiscent of that reported for DNA encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 2 hsp70 genes from Drosophila, which have evolved via concerted evolution. This evolutionary pattern was experimentally demonstrated in yeast rDNA and was shown to involve unequal crossing-over. Through sequence analysis of toxin genes from multiple N. vectensis populations and 2 other anemone species, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina, we observed that the toxin genes for each sea anemone species are more similar to one another than to those of other species, suggesting they evolved by manner of concerted evolution. Furthermore, in 2 of the species (A. viridis and A. equina) we found genes that evolved under diversifying selection, suggesting that concerted evolution and accelerated evolution may occur simultaneously.

  8. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Philippe; Moya, Aurélie; Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  9. Diverse profiles of N-acyl-homoserine lactone molecules found in cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Emma; Munn, Colin B; Halliday, Nigel; Cámara, Miguel; Tait, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Many marine habitats, such as the surface and tissues of marine invertebrates, including corals, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms, which are thought to play a role in the health of their hosts and influence mutualistic and competitive interactions. Investigating the presence and stability of quorum sensing (QS) in these ecosystems may shed light on the roles and control of these bacterial communities. Samples of 13 cnidarian species were screened for the presence and diversity of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs; a prevalent type of QS molecule) using thin-layer chromatography and an Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 biosensor. Ten of 13 were found to harbour species-specific, conserved AHL profiles. AHLs were confirmed in Anemonia viridis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To assess temporal role and stability, AHLs were investigated in A. viridis from intertidal pools over 16 h. Patterns of AHLs showed conserved profiles except for two mid-chain length AHLs, which increased significantly over the day, peaking at 20:00, but had no correlation with pool chemistry. Denaturing gel electrophoresis of RT-PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA showed the presence of an active bacterial community that changed in composition alongside AHL profiles and contained a number of bands that affiliate with known AHL-producing bacteria. Investigations into the quorum sensing-controlled, species-specific roles of these bacterial communities and how these regulatory circuits are influenced by the coral host and members of the bacterial community are imperative to expand our knowledge of these interactions with respect to the maintenance of coral health. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergey; Grishin, Eugene

    2011-01-31

    Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  11. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  12. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishin Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Results Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. Conclusions The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  13. Imaging intracellular pH in a reef coral and symbiotic anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Lotto, S; Zoccola, D; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2009-09-29

    The challenges corals and symbiotic cnidarians face from global environmental change brings new urgency to understanding fundamental elements of their physiology. Intracellular pH (pHi) influences almost all aspects of cellular physiology but has never been described in anthozoans or symbiotic cnidarians, despite its pivotal role in carbon concentration for photosynthesis and calcification. Using confocal microscopy and the pH sensitive probe carboxy SNARF-1, we mapped pHi in short-term light and dark-incubated cells of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata and the symbiotic anemone Anemonia viridis. In all cells isolated from both species, pHi was markedly lower than the surrounding seawater pH of 8.1. In cells that contained symbiotic algae, mean values of pHi were significantly higher in light treated cells than dark treated cells (7.41 +/- 0.22 versus 7.13 +/- 0.24 for S. pistillata; and 7.29 +/- 0.15 versus 7.01 +/- 0.27 for A. viridis). In contrast, there was no significant difference in pHi in light and dark treated cells without algal symbionts. Close inspection of the interface between host cytoplasm and algal symbionts revealed a distinct area of lower pH adjacent to the symbionts in both light and dark treated cells, possibly associated with the symbiosome membrane complex. These findings are significant developments for the elucidation of models of inorganic carbon transport for photosynthesis and calcification and also provide a cell imaging procedure for future investigations into how pHi and other fundamental intracellular parameters in corals respond to changes in the external environment such as reductions in seawater pH.

  14. A novel peptide from the ACEI/BPP-CNP precursor in the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Shigesada; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Saguchi, Ken-ichi; Ohi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Yoshiaki; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Lahlou, Saad; Aird, Steven D

    2006-10-01

    In crotaline venoms, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs, also known as bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs)], are products of a gene coding for an ACEI/BPP-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor. In the genes from Bothrops jararaca and Gloydius blomhoffii, ACEI/BPP sequences are repeated. Sequencing of a cDNA clone from venom glands of Crotalus durissus collilineatus showed that two ACEIs/BPPs are located together at the N-terminus, but without repeats. An additional sequence for CNP was unexpectedly found at the C-terminus. Homologous genes for the ACEI/BPP-CNP precursor suggest that most crotaline venoms contain both ACEIs/BPPs and CNP. The sequence of ACEIs/BPPs is separated from the CNP sequence by a long spacer sequence. Previously, there was no evidence that this spacer actually coded any expressed peptides. Aird and Kaiser (1986, unpublished) previously isolated and sequenced a peptide of 11 residues (TPPAGPDVGPR) from Crotalus viridis viridis venom. In the present study, analysis of the cDNA clone from C. d. collilineatus revealed a nearly identical sequence in the ACEI/BPP-CNP spacer. Fractionation of the crude venom by reverse phase HPLC (C(18)), and analysis of the fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) indicated a component of 1020.5 Da. Amino acid sequencing by MS/MS confirmed that C. d. collilineatus venom contains the peptide TPPAGPDGGPR. Its high proline content and paired proline residues are typical of venom hypotensive peptides, although it lacks the usual N-terminal pyroglutamate. It has no demonstrable hypotensive activity when injected intravenously in rats; however, its occurrence in the venoms of dissimilar species suggests that its presence is not accidental. Evidence suggests that these novel toxins probably activate anaphylatoxin C3a receptors.

  15. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  16. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  17. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae cultivada em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added daily to the culture. The larvae moulted seven times progressing through the zoea VIII. Megalopa stage was not achieved. The intermoulting period of each stage averaged from eight to 12 days. Morphological comparisons with previous reports are briefly discussed.Os estágios iniciais da lagosta tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 foram descritos e ilustrados a partir de espécimes cultivados em laboratório. Fêmeas ovígeras foram capturadas em seu habitat, na profundidade cerca de 15 metros e transportadas para o laboratório. As larvas foram cultivadas em tanques de água recirculante por aproximadamente 15 dias e, então transferidas para quatro aquários (capacidade 10 litros. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. recém eclodidos. A microalga Dunaliella viridis AUTOR foi diariamente adicionada no cultivo. As larvas mudaram sete vezes alcançando o zoea VIII. O estágio megalopa não foi obtido. O período de intermuda de cada estágio variou de cerca de oito a 12 dias. Comparações morfológicas com trabalhos anteriores são brevemente discutidas.

  18. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  19. Use of resistant ACCase mutants to screen for novel inhibitors against resistant and susceptible forms of ACCase from grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Amit; Nycholat, Corwin; Subramanian, Mani V; Anderson, Richard J; Devine, Malcolm D

    2004-08-11

    The aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid (AOPP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides inhibit the first committed enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). The frequent use of AOPP and CHD herbicides has resulted in the development of resistance to these herbicides in many grass weed species. New herbicides that inhibit both the susceptible and resistant forms of ACCase in grass weeds would have obvious commercial appeal. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify molecules that target both the herbicide-sensitive and -resistant forms of ACCase. Seven experimental compounds, either CHD-like or AOPP-CHD hybrids, were synthesized and assayed against previously characterized susceptible and resistant forms of ACCase. All seven compounds inhibited ACCase from sensitive biotypes of Setaria viridis and Eleusine indica (I50 values from 6.4 to >100 microM) but were not particularly potent compared to some commercialized herbicides (I50 values of 0.08-5.6 microM). In almost all cases, the I50 values for each compound assayed against the resistant ACCases were higher than those against the corresponding sensitive ACCase, indicating reduced binding to the resistant ACCases. One compound, a CHD analogue, was almost equally effective against the resistant and susceptible ACCases, although it was not a very potent ACCase inhibitor per se (I50 of 51 and 76 microM against susceptible ACCase from S. viridis and E. indica, respectively). The AOPP-CHD hybrid molecules also inhibited some of the resistant ACCases, with I50 values ranging from 6.4 to 50 microM. These compounds may be good leads for developing ACCase inhibitors that target a wider range of ACCase isoforms, including those found in AOPP- and CHD-resistant weed biotypes.

  20. Interferência entre espécies de planta daninha e duas cultivares de feijoeiro em duas épocas de semeadura Interference between weed species and two bean cultivars in two times of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de feijão, mas a interferência das plantas daninhas pode causar reduções de produtividade entre 15% e 80%, devido a fatores como cultivar de feijoeiro e espécies de plantas daninhas presentes na área. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de seis espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, em duas safras. Observou-se que as plantas eudicotiledôneas causam maior interferência na cultura, principalmente Amaranthus viridis e Raphanus raphanistrum. Todas causam perdas na produção do feijoeiro, exceto Eleusine indica, a menos competitiva. A cultivar ´Rubi´ é mais produtiva e mais competitiva que a ´Carioca´, e a maior produtividade é atingida na safra da seca. A escolha da cultivar e da data correta para a semeadura podem ser estratégias de manejo no controle de invasoras.Brazil is the world's largest producer of bean, but weed interference can cause yield losses between 15 to 80% due several factors such as bean cultivar and weed species in the area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weed species on growth and productivity of two bean cultivars, in two sowing seasons. It was observed that the dicot plants cause more interference in the crop, especially Amaranthus viridis and Raphanus raphanistrum. All cause losses in bean yield except Eleusine indica that was less competitive. The ´Rubi´ bean cultivar is more productive and competitive than ´Carioca´, and the higher production is achieved during the drought sowing season. The choice of cultivar and correct season for sowing may be management strategy as in weeds control.