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Sample records for anticarcinogenesis mechanisms iii

  1. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): A potential mechanism in anti-carcinogenesis of colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seher A Khan

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), has received widespread attention in the scientific community due to its beneficial effects, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti inflammatory effects in laboratory studies[1]. However, a well-defined mechanism by which this important plant food exerts its beneficial effects has not been elucidated. We present some of the latest findings on the plant's effects against colon cancer.

  2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): Mechanisms of anticarcinogenesis and drug resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joan S. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Alfred G. Knudson Chair of Cancer Research, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Jordan, V. Craig [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Alfred G. Knudson Chair of Cancer Research, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)]. E-mail: v.craig.jordan@fccc.edu

    2005-12-11

    Despite the beneficial effects of estrogens in women's health, there is a plethora of evidence that suggest an important role for these hormones, particularly 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), in the development and progression of breast cancer. Most estrogenic responses are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), either ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are ER ligands that in some tissues (i.e. bone and cardiovascular system) act like estrogens but block estrogen action in others. Tamoxifen is the first SERM that has been successfully tested for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women and is currently approved for the endocrine treatment of all stages of ER-positive breast cancer. Raloxifene, a newer SERM originally developed for osteoporosis, also appears to have preventive effect on breast cancer incidence. Numerous studies have examined the molecular mechanisms for the tissue selective action of SERMs, and collectively they indicate that different ER ligands induce distinct conformational changes in the receptor that influence its ability to interact with coregulatory proteins (i.e. coactivators and corepressors) critical for the regulation of target gene transcription. The relative expression of coactivators and corepressors, and the nature of the ER and its target gene promoter also affect SERM biocharacter. This review summarizes the therapeutic application of SERMs in medicine; particularly breast cancer, and highlights the emerging understanding of the mechanism of action of SERMs in select target tissues, and the inevitable development of resistance.

  3. Anticarcinogenesis effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr on tongue carcinogenesis in 4NQO-induced rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Agustina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr leaves have been long used as various cancers medication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated anticarcinogenesis of ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenesis of the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves on 4 nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Fifty six 4 week old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into 7 groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 were lingually induced by 4NQO for 8 weeks. In groups 2 and 3 the extract was given simultaneously with or after 4NQO induction finished, each for 10 weeks and 26 weeks, respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were induced by 4NQO for 16 weeks. However, in groups 5 and 6 the extract was given as well simultaneously with or after the 4NQO induction, each for 18 weeks, respectively. Group 7 served as the as untreated control group. The results from microscopical assessment showed that tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC developed in 100% (3/3 of group 1. However, only 33.3% (2/6 and 25% (2/8 of rats in groups 2 and 3, respectively demonstrated tongue SCC. Among groups 4, 5 and 6, no significant difference of tongue SCC incidence was observed. From these results it is apparent that the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves could inhibit the progression of 4NQOinduced rat tongue carcinogenesis in the initiation phase.

  4. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-05

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters.

  5. A buckling mechanism for ESCRT-III budding

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Martin; Joanny, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The ESCRT-III protein complex binds to the membrane of eukaryotic cells, causing it to bud into long tubes. Here we propose that this budding is akin to a buckling instability. We analyze the linear stability of flat ESCRT-III-dressed membranes and account for the formation of long tubes. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism is compatible with reasonable in vivo parameter values and we propose an experiment allowing its validation.

  6. Mechanism of Ribonuclease III Catalytic Regulation by Serine Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Swapna; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Paudyal, Samridhdi; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2016-05-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a conserved, gene-regulatory bacterial endonuclease that cleaves double-helical structures in diverse coding and noncoding RNAs. RNase III is subject to multiple levels of control, reflective of its global regulatory functions. Escherichia coli (Ec) RNase III catalytic activity is known to increase during bacteriophage T7 infection, reflecting the expression of the phage-encoded protein kinase, T7PK. However, the mechanism of catalytic enhancement is unknown. This study shows that Ec-RNase III is phosphorylated on serine in vitro by purified T7PK, and identifies the targets as Ser33 and Ser34 in the N-terminal catalytic domain. Kinetic experiments reveal a 5-fold increase in kcat and a 1.4-fold decrease in Km following phosphorylation, providing a 7.4–fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Phosphorylation does not change the rate of substrate cleavage under single-turnover conditions, indicating that phosphorylation enhances product release, which also is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a mechanism for facilitated product release, in which the Ser33 phosphomonoester forms a salt bridge with the Arg95 guanidinium group, thereby weakening RNase III engagement of product. The simulations also show why glutamic acid substitution at either serine does not confer enhancement, thus underscoring the specific requirement for a phosphomonoester.

  7. Inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-10-01

    The inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in vitro was discussed. The results from MALDI-TOF/MS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Tb(III) mainly interacts with the O-containing groups of the amides in the polypeptide chains of the HRP molecules and forms the complex of Tb(III)-HRP, and, in the complex, the molar ratio Tb(III)/HRP is 2 : 1. The results from CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the coordination effect between Tb(III) and HRP can lead to the conformation change in the HRP molecule, in which the contents of alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformation in the peptide of the HRP molecules is decreased, and the content of the random coil conformation is increased. Meanwhile, the coordination effect also leads to the decrease in the content of inter- and intrapeptide-chain H-bonds in the HRP molecules, resulting in the HRP molecular looseness and/or aggregation. Thus, the conformation change in the HRP molecules can significantly decrease the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2.

  8. Mechanisms of Eu(III) and Cm(III) Association With Chlorella Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Chlorella vulgaris and cellulose was studied by a batch method, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The kinetics study performed by a batch method showed that the maximum adsorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris was attained within three minutes of contact time, and afterwards the percentage adsorption decreased with time due to exudates released from C. vulgaris with affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). TRLFS showed that the short-term adsorption of Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was attributed to their coordination with the cell wall components comprised of cellulose. TRLFS also demonstrated that Eu(III) coordinated with the functional groups of cellulose very weakly in spite of the large distribution coefficients observed. EXAFS analysis showed the local structure around the Eu(III) adsorbed on cellulose and with C. vulgaris was similar. These results indicate that the reactions both at cell surfaces through the adsorption as well as in solution phases through chelation with the exudates are important in estimating the environmental behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) in aqueous environments.

  9. Mechanisms for chelator stimulation of microbial Fe(III) -oxide reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms by which nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) stimulated Fe(III) reduction in sediments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer were investigated in order to gain insight into how added Fe(III) chelators stimulate the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading, Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in these sediments, and how naturally occurring Fe(III) chelators might promote Fe(III) reduction in aquatic sediments. NTA solubilized Fe(III) from the aquifer sediments. NTA stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction did not appear to be the result of making calcium, magnesium, potassium, or trace metals more available to the microorganisms. Stimulation of Fe(III) reduction could not be attributed to NTA serving as a source of carbon or fixed nitrogen for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria as NTA was not degraded in the sediments. Studies with the Fe(III)-reducing microorganism, Geobacter metallireducens, and pure Fe(III)-oxide forms, demonstrated that NTA stimulated the reduction of a variety of Fe(III) forms, including highly crystalline Fe(III)-oxides such as goethite and hematite. The results suggest that NTA solubilization of insoluble Fe(III)-oxide is an important mechanism for the stimulation of Fe(III) reduction by NTA in aquifer sediments.

  10. The separation mechanism of Am(iii) from Eu(iii) by diglycolamide and nitrilotriacetamide extraction reagents using DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masashi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Matsumura, Tatsuro

    2016-11-01

    Relativistic density functional calculations were applied to study the separation behaviors of the Am(iii) ion from the Eu(iii) ion by diglycolamide (DGA) and nitrilotriacetamide (NTA) ligands in order to understand the difference in the separation mechanism of their reagents. The complexation reaction was modeled on the basis of previous experimental studies. The calculated energies based on stabilization by complex formation at the ZORA-B2PLYP/SARC level predicted that the DGA reagent preferably coordinated to the Eu(iii) ion when compared with the Am(iii) ion. In contrast, the NTA reagent selectively coordinated to the Am(iii) ion when compared with the Eu(iii) ion. These results reproduced the experimental selectivity of DGA and NTA ligands toward Eu(iii) and Am(iii) ions. Mulliken's population analyses implied that the difference in the contribution of the bonding property between the f-orbital of Am and donor atoms determined the comparative stability of Eu and Am complexes.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  12. Surface Leakage Mechanisms in III-V Infrared Barrier Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, D. E.; Savich, G. R.; Wicks, G. W.

    2016-09-01

    Infrared detector epitaxial structures employing unipolar barriers exhibit greatly reduced dark currents compared to simple pn-based structures. When correctly positioned within the structure, unipolar barriers are highly effective at blocking bulk dark current mechanisms. Unipolar barriers are also effective at suppressing surface leakage current in infrared detector structures employing absorbing layers that possess the same conductivity type in their bulk and at their surface. When an absorbing layer possesses opposite conductivity types in its bulk and at its surface, unipolar barriers are not solutions to surface leakage. This work reviews empirically determined surface band alignments of III-V semiconductor compounds and modeled surface band alignments of both gallium-free and gallium-containing type-II strained layer superlattice material systems. Surface band alignments are used to predict surface conductivity types in several detector structures, and the relationship between surface and bulk conductivity types in the absorbing layers of these structures is used as the basis for explaining observed surface leakage characteristics.

  13. Reaction route graphs. III. Non-minimal kinetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishtik, Ilie; Callaghan, Caitlin A; Datta, Ravindra

    2005-02-24

    The concept of reaction route (RR) graphs introduced recently by us for kinetic mechanisms that produce minimal graphs is extended to the problem of non-minimal kinetic mechanisms for the case of a single overall reaction (OR). A RR graph is said to be minimal if all of the stoichiometric numbers in all direct RRs of the mechanism are equal to +/-1 and non-minimal if at least one stoichiometric number in a direct RR is non-unity, e.g., equal to +/-2. For a given mechanism, four unique topological characteristics of RR graphs are defined and enumerated, namely, direct full routes (FRs), empty routes (ERs), intermediate nodes (INs), and terminal nodes (TNs). These are further utilized to construct the RR graphs. One algorithm involves viewing each IN as a central node in a RR sub-graph. As a result, the construction and enumeration of RR graphs are reduced to the problem of balancing the peripheral nodes in the RR sub-graphs according to the list of FRs, ERs, INs, and TNs. An alternate method involves using an independent set of RRs to draw the RR graph while satisfying the INs and TNs. Three examples are presented to illustrate the application of non-minimal RR graph theory.

  14. Mechanical design of the third FnIII domain of tenascin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Zhuang, Shulin; Wang, Meijia; Cao, Yi; Khor, Yuanai; Li, Hongbin

    2009-03-13

    By combining single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM), proline mutagenesis and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we investigated the mechanical unfolding dynamics and mechanical design of the third fibronectin type III domain of tenascin-C (TNfn3) in detail. We found that the mechanical stability of TNfn3 is similar to that of other constituting FnIII domains of tenascin-C, and the unfolding process of TNfn3 is an apparent two-state process. By employing proline mutagenesis to block the formation of backbone hydrogen bonds and introduce structural disruption in beta sheet, we revealed that in addition to the important roles played by hydrophobic core packing, backbone hydrogen bonds in beta hairpins are also responsible for the overall mechanical stability of TNfn3. Furthermore, proline mutagenesis revealed that the mechanical design of TNfn3 is robust and the mechanical stability of TNfn3 is very resistant to structural disruptions caused by proline substitutions in beta sheets. Proline mutant F88P is one exception, as the proline mutation at position 88 reduced the mechanical stability of TNfn3 significantly and led to unfolding forces of mechanical resistance for TNfn3. We used SMD simulations to understand the molecular details underlying the mechanical unfolding of TNfn3. The comparison between the AFM results and SMD simulations revealed similarities and discrepancies between the two. We compared the mechanical unfolding and design of TNfn3 and its structural homologue, the tenth FnIII domain from fibronectin. These results revealed the complexity underlying the mechanical design of FnIII domains and will serve as a starting point for systematically analyzing the mechanical architecture of other FnIII domains in tenascins-C, and will help to gain a better understanding of some of the complex features observed for the stretching of native tenascin-C.

  15. A disulfide-bond cascade mechanism for arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Packianathan, Charles; Ajees, A. Abdul; Dheeman, Dharmendra S.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kandavelu, Palani; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of the toxic metalloid arsenic is widespread in nature. Members of every kingdom have arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase enzymes, which are termed ArsM in microbes and AS3MT in animals, including humans. Trivalent arsenic(III) is methylated up to three times to form methylarsenite [MAs(III)], dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)] and the volatile trimethylarsine [TMAs(III)]. In microbes, arsenic methylation is a detoxification process. In humans, MAs(III) and DMAs(III) are more toxic and carcinogenic than either inorganic arsenate or arsenite. Here, new crystal structures are reported of ArsM from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508 (CmArsM) with the bound aromatic arsenicals phenylarsenite [PhAs(III)] at 1.80 Å resolution and reduced roxarsone [Rox(III)] at 2.25 Å resolution. These organoarsenicals are bound to two of four conserved cysteine residues: Cys174 and Cys224. The electron density extends the structure to include a newly identified conserved cysteine residue, Cys44, which is disulfide-bonded to the fourth conserved cysteine residue, Cys72. A second disulfide bond between Cys72 and Cys174 had been observed previously in a structure with bound SAM. The loop containing Cys44 and Cys72 shifts by nearly 6.5 Å in the arsenic(III)-bound structures compared with the SAM-bound structure, which suggests that this movement leads to formation of the Cys72–Cys174 disulfide bond. A model is proposed for the catalytic mechanism of arsenic(III) SAM methyltransferases in which a disulfide-bond cascade maintains the products in the trivalent state. PMID:25760600

  16. Outer-Sphere Mechanism in the Oxidation of Pyrrole-2- Carboxaldehyde by Hexacyanoferrate (III Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Alhakeem H. Abu-Nawwas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of base-catalyzed oxidation of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde with hexacyanoferrate (III is reported. The reaction showed first order with respect to aldahyde , alkali and hexaeyanoferrate(III. The kinetic data suggest that the oxidation involves the formation of an anion of the substrate undergoes oxidation with hexaeyanoferrate(III via outer sphere mechanism process. The free radical thus produced is further oxidized to form the final products. A suitable mechanism was proposed and rate law was derived as − d[Fe CN 6 ] 3− = 2k1k2 RC(OH2 [Fe CN 6 ] 3−[OH−] k−1 H2O

  17. Mechanism of electron transfer reaction of ternary dipicolinatochromium(III) complex involving oxalate as secondary ligand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hassan Amroun Ewais; Iqbal Mohamed Ibrhium Ismail

    2013-09-01

    Mechanism of electron transfer reaction of ternary Mechanism of the oxidation of [CrIII(DPA)(OX)(H2O)]− (DPA = dipicolinate and OX = oxalate) by periodate in aqueous acidic medium has been studied spectrophotometrically over the pH range of 4.45-5.57 at different temperatures. The reaction is first order with respect to both [IO$^{−}_{4}$] and the complex concentration, and it obeys the following rate law: $$d[{\\text Cr}^{\\text{VI}}]/dt = k_6K_4K_6[{\\text IO}^−_4][{\\text{Cr}}^{\\text{III}}]_{\\text{T}}/\\{([H^+] + K_4) + (K_5[H+] + K_6K_4)[{\\text{IO}}^{−}_{4}]\\}.$$ The rate of the reaction increases with increasing pH due to the deprotonation equilibria of the complex. The experimental rate law is consistent with a mechanism in which the deprotonated form [CrIII(DPA)(OX)(OH)]2− is more reactive than the conjugated acid. It is proposed that electron transfer proceeds through an inner-sphere mechanism via coordination of IO$^{−}_{4}$ to chromium(III). Thermodynamic activation parameters were calculated using the transition state theory equation.dipicolinatochromium(III) complex involving oxalate as secondary ligand

  18. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  19. Substrate complexes of human dipeptidyl peptidase III reveal the mechanism of enzyme inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Reithofer, Viktoria; Reisinger, Manuel; Wallner, Silvia; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Human dipeptidyl-peptidase III (hDPP III) is a zinc-dependent hydrolase cleaving dipeptides off the N-termini of various bioactive peptides. Thus, the enzyme is likely involved in a number of physiological processes such as nociception and is also implicated in several forms of cancer. We present high-resolution crystal structures of hDPP III in complex with opioid peptides (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, endomorphin-2) as well as with angiotensin-II and the peptide inhibitor IVYPW. These structures confirm the previously reported large conformational change of the enzyme upon ligand binding and show that the structure of the closed conformation is independent of the nature of the bound peptide. The overall peptide-binding mode is also conserved ensuring the correct positioning of the scissile peptide bond with respect to the catalytic zinc ion. The structure of the angiotensin-II complex shows, how longer peptides are accommodated in the binding cleft of hDPP III. Differences in the binding modes allow a distinction between real substrates and inhibitory peptides or “slow” substrates. The latter displace a zinc bound water molecule necessitating the energetically much less favoured anhydride mechanism as opposed to the favoured promoted-water mechanism. The structural data also form the necessary framework for the design of specific hDPP III inhibitors. PMID:27025154

  20. The Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III: Optics, mechanics and their performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viefhaus, Jens, E-mail: jens.viefhaus@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Scholz, Frank; Deinert, Sascha; Glaser, Leif; Ilchen, Markus; Seltmann, Jörn; Walter, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Siewert, Frank, E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-11

    The layout of the Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III is described with emphasis on selected examples of optics, mirrors and gratings. A precise characterization of the optics, their performance inside the holder and of the surrounding mechanics is presented. This also includes a detailed characterization of the different beamline mechanics as a whole (grating unit, exit slit unit, re-focusing unit) including the environment.

  1. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of L-Cystine by Hexacyanoferrate(III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Nowduri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of L-cystine by hexacyanoferrate(III was studied in alkaline medium at 30 °C. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically at λmax = 420 nm. The reaction was found to be first order dependence each on [HCF(III] and [cystine]. It was found that the rate of the reaction increases with increase in [OH-]. The oxidation product of the reaction was found to be cysteic acid. A plausible mechanism has been proposed to account for the experimental results.

  2. Molecular and cellular mechanism of the effect of La(III) on horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2010-09-01

    Horseradish is an important economic crop. It contains horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lots of nutrients, and has specific pungency. Lanthanum is one of the heavy metals in the environment. It can transfer through the food chain to humans. In this paper, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the toxic effects of La(III) on HRP in vivo was investigated with an optimized combination of biophysical, biochemical, and cytobiological methods. It was found that La(III) could interact with O and/or N atoms in the backbone/side chains of the HRP molecule in the cell membrane of horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III), leading to the formation of a new complex of La and HRP (La-HRP). The formation of the La-HRP complex causes the redistribution of the electron densities of atoms in the HRP molecule, especially the decrease in the electron density of the active center, Fe(III), in the heme group of the La-HRP molecule compared with the native HRP molecule in vivo. Therefore, the electron transfer and the activity of HRP in horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III) are obviously decreased compared with those of the native HRP in vivo. This is a possible molecular and cellular mechanism for the toxic effect of La(III) on HRP in vivo. It is suggested that the accumulation of La in the environment, especially the formation of the La-HRP complex in vivo, is harmful to organisms.

  3. Role of subunit III and its lipids in the molecular mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Ala-Vannesluoma, Pauliina; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Wikström, Mårten; Róg, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    The terminal respiratory enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) reduces molecular oxygen to water, and pumps protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, or the plasma membrane of bacteria. A two-subunit CcO harbors all the elements necessary for oxygen reduction and proton pumping. However, it rapidly undergoes turnover-induced irreversible damage, which is effectively prevented by the presence of subunit III and its tightly bound lipids. We have performed classical atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a three-subunit CcO, which show the formation of water wires between the polar head groups of lipid molecules bound to subunit III and the proton uptake site Asp91 (Bos taurus enzyme numbering). Continuum electrostatic calculations suggest that these lipids directly influence the proton affinity of Asp91 by 1-2pK units. We surmise that lipids bound to subunit III influence the rate of proton uptake through the D-pathway, and therefore play a key role in preventing turnover-induced inactivation. Atomistic MD simulations show that subunit III is rapidly hydrated in the absence of internally bound lipids, which is likely to affect the rate of O2 diffusion into the active-site. The role of subunit III with its indigenous lipids in the molecular mechanism of CcO is discussed.

  4. Single-molecule magnetism in three related {Co(III)2Dy(III)2}-acetylacetonate complexes with multiple relaxation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2013-06-17

    Three new heterometallic complexes with formulas of [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(acac)4(NO3)2] (1), [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OH)2(teaH)2(acac)4(NO3)2]·4H2O (2), and [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(mdea)2(acac)4(NO3)2] (3) were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and by dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements. All three complexes have an identical "butterfly"-type metallic core that consists of two Dy(III) ions occupying the "body" position and two diamagnetic low-spin Co(III) ions occupying the outer "wing-tips". Each complex displays single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior in zero applied magnetic field, with thermally activated anisotropy barriers of 27, 28, and 38 K above 7.5 K for 1-3, respectively, as well as observing a temperature-independent mechanism of relaxation below 5 K for 1 and 2 and at 3 K for 3, indicating fast quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). A second, faster thermally activated relaxation mechanism may also be active under a zero applied dc field as derived from the Cole-Cole data. Interestingly, these complexes demonstrate further relaxation modes that are strongly dependent upon the application of a static dc magnetic field. Dilution experiments that were performed on 1, in the {Y(III)2Co(III)2} diamagnetic analog, show that the slow magnetic relaxation is of a single-ion origin, but it was found that the neighboring ion also plays an important role in the overall relaxation dynamics.

  5. Insight into mechanism of lanthanum (III) induced damage to plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yueli; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    A great deal of literature is available regarding the environmental and ecological effects of rare earth element pollution on plants. These studies have shown that excess lanthanum (La) (III) in the environment can inhibit plant growth and even cause plant death. Moreover, inhibition of plant photosynthesis is known to be one of the physiological bases of these damages. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is still unclear. In this study, the mechanism of La(III)-induced damage to plant photosynthesis was clarified from the viewpoint of the chloroplast ultrastructure, the contents of chloroplast mineral elements and chlorophyll, the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits and chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, in which rice was selected as a study object. Following treatment with low level of La(III), the chloroplast ultrastructure of rice was not changed, and the contents of chloroplast mineral elements (Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) increased, but the chlorophyll content did not change significantly. Moreover, the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits, chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, the net photosynthetic rate and growth indices increased. Following treatment with high levels of La(III), the chloroplast ultrastructure was damaged, chloroplast mineral elements (except Cu and Zn) and chlorophyll contents decreased, and the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits, chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, the net photosynthetic rate and growth indices decreased. Based on these results, a possible mechanism of La(III)-induced damage to plant photosynthesis was proposed to provide a reference for scientific evaluation of the potential ecological risk of rare earth elements in the environment.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy and mechanism of magnetic relaxation in Er(III) single-ion magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Gupta, Tulika; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic anisotropy is a key component in the design of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) possessing a large barrier height for magnetization reversal. Lanthanide-based SMMs are the most promising candidates in this arena as they offer a large magnetic anisotropy due to the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Among lanthanides, Er(III) complexes are gaining attention in the area of SMMs, because of their intriguing magnetic properties and attractive blocking temperatures. Here, we have undertaken detailed ab initio calculations on four structurally diverse Er(III) SMMs to shed light on how the magnetic anisotropy is influenced by the role of symmetry and structural distortions. The employed CASSCF+RASSI calculations have offered rationale for the observed differences in the estimated Ueff values for the studied complexes and also offered hints to the mechanism of magnetic relaxation. The differences in the mechanism of magnetic relaxations are further analyzed based on the Er-ligand interactions, which is obtained by analyzing the charges, densities, luminescent behavior and the frontier molecular orbitals. Our calculations, for the first time, have highlighted the importance of high symmetry environment and ligand donor strength in obtaining large Ueff values for the Er(III) complexes. We have examined these possibilities by modeling several structures with variable coordination numbers and point group symmetry. These results signify the need of a detailed understanding on the shape of the anisotropy and the point group symmetry in order to achieve large Ueff values in Er(III) single-ion magnets.

  7. Mn(II) Oxidation by the Multicopper Oxidase Complex Mnx: A Coordinated Two-Stage Mn(II)/(III) and Mn(III)/(IV) Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Alexandra V; Romano, Christine A; Tao, Lizhi; Stich, Troy A; Casey, William H; Britt, R David; Tebo, Bradley M; Spiro, Thomas G

    2017-08-23

    The bacterial manganese oxidase MnxG of the Mnx protein complex is unique among multicopper oxidases (MCOs) in carrying out a two-electron metal oxidation, converting Mn(II) to MnO2 nanoparticles. The reaction occurs in two stages: Mn(II) → Mn(III) and Mn(III) → MnO2. In a companion study , we show that the electron transfer from Mn(II) to the low-potential type 1 Cu of MnxG requires an activation step, likely forming a hydroxide bridge at a dinuclear Mn(II) site. Here we study the second oxidation step, using pyrophosphate (PP) as a Mn(III) trap. PP chelates Mn(III) produced by the enzyme and subsequently allows it to become a substrate for the second stage of the reaction. EPR spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn(III) bound to the enzyme. The Mn(III) oxidation step does not involve direct electron transfer to the enzyme from Mn(III), which is shown by kinetic measurements to be excluded from the Mn(II) binding site. Instead, Mn(III) is proposed to disproportionate at an adjacent polynuclear site, thereby allowing indirect oxidation to Mn(IV) and recycling of Mn(II). PP plays a multifaceted role, slowing the reaction by complexing both Mn(II) and Mn(III) in solution, and also inhibiting catalysis, likely through binding at or near the active site. An overall mechanism for Mnx-catalyzed MnO2 production from Mn(II) is presented.

  8. Mechanisms for Electron Transfer Through Pili to Fe(III) Oxide in Geobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2015-03-09

    The purpose of these studies was to aid the Department of Energy in its goal of understanding how microorganisms involved in the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides sustain their activity in the subsurface. This information is required in order to incorporate biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship of contaminated sites. The proposed research was designed to elucidate the mechanisms for electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides in Geobacter species because Geobacter species are abundant dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms in a diversity of sites in which uranium is undergoing natural attenuation via the reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) or when this process is artificially stimulated with the addition of organic electron donors. This study investigated the novel, but highly controversial, concept that the final conduit for electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides are electrically conductive pili. The specific objectives were to: 1) further evaluate the conductivity along the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens and related organisms; 2) determine the mechanisms for pili conductivity; and 3) investigate the role of pili in Fe(III) oxide reduction. The studies demonstrated that the pili of G. sulfurreducens are conductive along their length. Surprisingly, the pili possess a metallic-like conductivity similar to that observed in synthetic organic conducting polymers such as polyaniline. Detailed physical analysis of the pili, as well as studies in which the structure of the pili was genetically modified, demonstrated that the metallic-like conductivity of the pili could be attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. Other potential mechanisms for conductivity, such as electron hopping between cytochromes associated with the pili were definitively ruled out. Pili were also found to be essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction in G. metallireducens. Ecological studies demonstrated

  9. Differential proteomic profiling unveils new molecular mechanisms associated with mitochondrial complex III deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Buera, Lorena; García-Bartolomé, Alberto; Morán, María; López-Bernardo, Elia; Cadenas, Susana; Hidalgo, Beatriz; Sánchez, Ricardo; Seneca, Sara; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Ugalde, Cristina

    2015-01-15

    We have analyzed the cellular pathways and metabolic adaptations that take place in primary skin fibroblasts from patients with mutations in BCS1L, a major genetic cause of mitochondrial complex III enzyme deficiency. Mutant fibroblasts exhibited low oxygen consumption rates and intracellular ATP levels, indicating that the main altered molecular event probably is a limited respiration-coupled ATP production through the OXPHOS system. Two-dimensional DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses unambiguously identified 39 proteins whose expression was significantly altered in complex III-deficient fibroblasts. Extensive statistical and cluster analyses revealed a protein profile characteristic for the BCS1L mutant fibroblasts that included alterations in energy metabolism, cell signaling and gene expression regulation, cytoskeleton formation and maintenance, and intracellular stress responses. The physiological validation of the predicted functional adaptations of human cultured fibroblasts to complex III deficiency confirmed the up-regulation of glycolytic enzyme activities and the accumulation of branched-chain among other amino acids, suggesting the activation of anaerobic glycolysis and cellular catabolic states, in particular protein catabolism, together with autophagy as adaptive responses to mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and ATP deficiency. Our data point to an overall metabolic and genetic reprogramming that could contribute to explain the clinical manifestations of complex III deficiency in patients. Despite considerable knowledge about their genetic origins, the pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the clinical manifestations of mitochondrial disorders remain poorly understood. We have investigated the molecular pathways and metabolic adaptations that take place in primary skin fibroblasts from patients with mutations in the BCS1L gene, a primary cause of mitochondrial complex III enzyme deficiency. Two-dimensional DIGE

  10. Role of dissolved Mn(III) in transformation of organic contaminants: Non-oxidative versus oxidative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Erdan; Zhang, Ya; Wu, Shuyan; Wu, Jun; Liang, Liyuan; He, Feng

    2017-03-15

    Mn(III) is a strong oxidant for one electron transfer, which may be important in the transformation of organic contaminants during water/wastewater treatment and biogeochemical redox processes. This study explored the reaction mechanisms of dissolved Mn(III) with organics. The role of dissolved Mn(III) either as a catalyst or an oxidant in reactions with organics was recognized. Aquo and/or hydroxo (or free) Mn(III), generated from the bisulfite activated permanganate process, facilitated efficient N-dealkylation of atrazine via a β-elimination mechanism, resulting no net redox reaction. In contrast, free Mn(III) degraded 4-chlorophenol via intramolecular redox processes, the same as hydroxyl radical (OH), resulting in dechlorination,OH substitution, ring-opening and mineralization. Mn(III)-pyrophosphate compounds did not react with atrazine because complexation by pyrophosphate rendered Mn(III) unable to bond with atrazine, thus the electron and proton transfers between the reactants couldn't occur. However, it degraded 4-chlorophenol at a slower rate compared to free Mn(III), due to its reduced oxidation potential. These results showed two distinct mechanisms on the degradation of organic contaminants and the insights may be applied in natural manganese-rich environments and water treatment processes with manganese compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Geoglobus ahangari via a direct contact mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Michael P; Reguera, Gemma; Kashefi, Kazem

    2013-08-01

    The microbial reduction of Fe(III) plays an important role in the geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, yet it is poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here we show that the obligate Fe(III)-reducing archaeon Geoglobus ahangari uses a direct-contact mechanism for the reduction of Fe(III) oxides to magnetite at 85°C. Alleviating the need to directly contact the mineral with the addition of a chelator or the electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) stimulated Fe(III) reduction. In contrast, entrapment of the oxides within alginate beads to prevent cell contact with the electron acceptor prevented Fe(III) reduction and cell growth unless AQDS was provided. Furthermore, filtered culture supernatant fluids had no effect on Fe(III) reduction, ruling out the secretion of an endogenous mediator too large to permeate the alginate beads. Consistent with a direct contact mechanism, electron micrographs showed cells in intimate association with the Fe(III) mineral particles, which once dissolved revealed abundant curled appendages. The cells also produced several heme-containing proteins. Some of them were detected among proteins sheared from the cell's outer surface and were required for the reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxides but not for the reduction of the soluble electron acceptor Fe(III) citrate. The results thus support a mechanism in which the cells directly attach and transfer electrons to the Fe(III) oxides using redox-active proteins exposed on the cell surface. This strategy confers on G. ahangari a competitive advantage for accessing and reducing Fe(III) oxides under the extreme physical and chemical conditions of hot ecosystems.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III)-catalyzed oxidation of formamidine derivative by hexacyanoferrate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AHMED FAWZY

    2016-05-01

    The catalytic effect of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of N,N-dimethyl-N-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) formamidine (ATF) by hexacyanoferrate(III) (HCF) was studied spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkalinemedium. Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions showed first order kinetics with respect to [HCF],whereas the reaction orders with respect to [ATF] and $[OH^{-}]$ were apparently less than unity over the concentrationrange studied. A first order dependence with respect to $[Ru^{III}]$ was obtained. Increasing ionic strengthincreased the rate of uncatalyzed reaction and decreased the rate of the catalyzed one Plausible mechanisticschemes of oxidation reactions have been proposed. In both cases, the final oxidation products are identifiedas aminotriazole, dimethyl amine and carbon dioxide. The rate laws associated with the reaction mechanismsare derived. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanisms were calculated. Theactivation and thermodynamic parameters have been computed and discussed.

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of t-Butylbenzylamine by Diperiodatoargentate(III in Aqueous Alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh A. Angadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available t-Butylbenzylamine (t-BA is used as a free base in the synthesis of salbutamol drug. Its mechanism of oxidation was proposed from kinetic studies. The kinetics of oxidation of t-butylbenzylamine by diperiodatoargentate(III (DPA was studied spectrophotometrically by monitoring decrease in absorbance of DPA. The reaction was found to be first order each in [DPA] and [t-BA]. The effect of alkali concentration in a wide range on rate of reaction was studied. The rate of reaction was found to be increased with increase in [OH–] in the lower range of [OH–], decreasing effect in the middle range and at higher range again increasing effect on rate of reaction was observed. The added periodate retarded the rate of reaction. The polymerization test revealed that oxidation was occurred with the intervention free radical. A suitable mechanism was proposed for a middle range of [OH–]. The active species of silver(III periodate for all the three different stages of [OH–] are assayed. Rate law was derived and verified. The oxidative product of t-BA was characterized by LC-ESI-MS spectra.

  14. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  15. DFT Investigation of the Mechanism of Action of Organoiridium(III) Complexes As Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Ida; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia

    2015-11-16

    The potential use of synthetic metal complexes able to catalyze chemical transformations in living organisms is currently attracting a great deal of attention. Recently, organometallic ruthenium and iridium complexes have revealed an unexpected ability to modulate the redox status of cancer cells. In particular, half-sandwich organoiridium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes of general formula [(η(5)-Cp(x))Ir(III)(X(∧)Y)Z](0/+), where Cp(x) = Cp*, Cp(xph) (tetramethyl-(phenyl)cyclopentadienyl) or Cp(xbiph) (tetramethyl(biphenyl)-cyclopentadienyl), X(∧)Y = bidentate ligand with nitrogen, oxygen, and/or carbon donor atoms, and Z = Cl, H2O, or pyridine (py) have shown promising antiproliferative activity toward cancer cells, higher potency than cisplatin, and a different mechanism of action due to the increase of the oxidative stress in cells. As such, complexes can belong to the class of DNA interacting compounds and attack on DNA can represent a secondary mechanism of action. We have explored here by means of density functional calculations (M06-L) and with the support of experimental observations for both [(η(5)-Cp(xbiph))Ir-(phpy) (Cl)], 1-Cl, and [(η(5)-Cp(xbiph))Ir-(phpy) (py)], 1-py, complexes the mechanistic aspects of the hydrolysis reaction, H2O2 ROS production by assisted hydride transfer from NADH to molecular oxygen, interaction with purine nucleobases adenine and guanine as well as gluthatione, that is highly abundant in cells, alongside the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of the formed sulfur-coordinated thiolate to the corresponding sulfenato complex. The comparison between kinetic and thermodynamic parameters calculated for all the involved processes shows that, according to the hypothesis based on experimental findings, the interaction with the tripeptide glutathione causes deactivation of 1-Cl, whereas 1-py, in both its aquated and nonaquated form, can induce cell apoptosis in a dual manner: DNA damage and H2O2 ROS production to increase

  16. Photochemistry of Fe(Iii)-Carboxylates in Polysaccharide-Based Materials with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giuseppe E.

    We present the formulation and study of light-responsive materials based on carboxylate-containing polysaccharides. The functional groups in these natural polymers allow for strong interactions with transition metal ions such as Fe(III). The known photochemistry of hydroxycarboxylic acids in natural waters inspired us in exploring the visible light induced photochemistry of the carboxylates in these polysaccharides when coordinated to Fe(III) ions. Described in this dissertation are the design and characterization of the Fe(III)-polysaccharide materials, specifically the mechanistic aspects of the photochemistry and the effects that these reactions have on the structure of the polymer materials. We present a study of the quantitative photochemistry of different polysaccharide systems, where the presence of uronic acids was important for the photoreaction to take place. Alginate (Alg), pectate (Pec), hyaluronic acid (Hya), xanthan gum (Xan), and a polysaccharide extracted from the Noni fruit (NoniPs), were among the natural uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (UCPS) systems we analyzed. Potato starch, lacking of uronate groups, did not present any photochemistry in the presence of Fe(III); however, we were able to induce a photochemical response in this polysaccharide upon chemical manipulation of its functional groups. Important structure-function relationships were drawn from this study. The uronate moiety present in these polysaccharides is then envisioned as a tool to induce response to light in a variety of materials. Following this approach, we report the formulation of materials for controlled drug release, able to encapsulate and release different drug models only upon illumination with visible light. Furthermore, hybrid hydrogels were prepared from UPCS and non-responsive polymers. Different properties of these materials could be tuned by controlling the irradiation time, intensity and location. These hybrid gels were evaluated as scaffolds for tissue

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Leucine and Alanine by Ag(III Complex in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Song

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of leucine and alanine by Ag(III complex were studied spectrophotometrically in alkaline medium at constant ion strength. The reaction was in first order with respect to Ag(III complex and amino acids (leucine, alanine. The second-order rate constant, k−, decreased with the increasing in [OH−] and [IO4−]. A plausible mechanism was proposed from the kinetics study, and the rate equations derived from mechanism can explain all experimental phenomena. The activation parameters were calculated at 298.2 K.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of glycine by iron(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex in perchloric acid medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T V N Partha Sarathi; A Kalyan Kumar; K Krishna Kishore; P Vani

    2005-07-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of glycine by iron(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex has been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order with respect to iron(III) and glycine. An increase in (phenanthroline) increases the rate, while increase in [H+] decreases the rate. Hence it can be inferred that the reactive species of the substrate is the zwitterionic form and that of the oxidant is [Fe(phen)2(H2O)2]3+. The proposed mechanism leads to the rate law as elucidated.

  19. Uptake Mechanisms of Eu(III) on Hydroxyapatite: A Potential Permeable Reactive Barrier Backfill Material for Trapping Trivalent Minor Actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zheng, Tao; Yang, Shitong; Zhang, Linjuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Liu, Wei; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2016-04-05

    The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technique has attracted an increasing level of attention for the in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. In this study, the macroscopic uptake behaviors and microscopic speciation of Eu(III) on hydroxyapatite (HAP) were investigated by a combination of theoretical modeling, batch experiments, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) fitting, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The underlying removal mechanisms were identified to further assess the application potential of HAP as an effective PRB backfill material. The macroscopic analysis revealed that nearly all dissolved Eu(III) in solution was removed at pH 6.5 within an extremely short reaction time of 5 min. In addition, the thermodynamic calculations, desorption experiments, and PXRD and XAS analyses definitely confirmed the formation of the EuPO4·H2O(s) phase during the process of uptake of dissolved Eu(III) by HAP via the dissolution-precipitation mechanism. A detailed comparison of the present experimental findings and related HAP-metal systems suggests that the relative contribution of precipitation to the total Eu(III) removal increases as the P:Eu ratio decreases. The dosage of HAP-based PRB for the remediation of groundwater polluted by Eu(III) and analogous trivalent actinides [e.g., Am(III) and Cm(III)] should be strictly controlled depending on the dissolved Eu(III) concentration to obtain an optimal P:M (M represents Eu, Am, or Cm) ratio and treatment efficiency.

  20. Sensitisation of Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-based luminescence by Ir(III) units in Ir/lanthanide dyads: evidence for parallel energy-transfer and electron-transfer based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Daniel; Cankut, Ahmet J; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Stephenson, Andrew; Spall, Steven J P; Parker, Simon C; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D

    2014-05-07

    A series of blue-luminescent Ir(III) complexes with a pendant binding site for lanthanide(III) ions has been synthesized and used to prepare Ir(III)/Ln(III) dyads (Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd). Photophysical studies were used to establish mechanisms of Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer. In the Ir/Gd dyads, where direct Ir→Gd energy-transfer is not possible, significant quenching of Ir-based luminescence nonetheless occurred; this can be ascribed to photoinduced electron-transfer from the photo-excited Ir unit (*Ir, (3)MLCT/(3)LC excited state) to the pendant pyrazolyl-pyridine site which becomes a good electron-acceptor when coordinated to an electropositive Gd(III) centre. This electron transfer quenches the Ir-based luminescence, leading to formation of a charge-separated {Ir(4+)}˙-(pyrazolyl-pyridine)˙(-) state, which is short-lived possibly due to fast back electron-transfer (transfer pathway is again operative and leads to sensitisation of Eu-based and Tb-based emission using the energy liberated from the back electron-transfer process. In addition direct Dexter-type Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer occurs on a similar timescale, meaning that there are two parallel mechanisms by which excitation energy can be transferred from *Ir to the Eu/Tb centre. Time-resolved luminescence measurements on the sensitised Eu-based emission showed both fast and slow rise-time components, associated with the PET-based and Dexter-based energy-transfer mechanisms respectively. In the Ir/Tb dyads, the Ir→Tb energy-transfer is only just thermodynamically favourable, leading to rapid Tb→Ir thermally-activated back energy-transfer and non-radiative deactivation to an extent that depends on the precise energy gap between the *Ir and Tb-based (5)D4 states. Thus, the sensitised Tb(iii)-based emission is weak and unusually short-lived due to back energy transfer, but nonetheless represents rare examples of Tb(III) sensitisation by a energy donor that could be excited using visible

  1. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex - A kinetic study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Vani; K Krishna Kishore; R Rambabu; L S A Dikshitulu

    2001-08-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1, 10-phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species of the substrate is the zwitterionic form, that of the oxidant is [Fe(phen)2(H2O)2]3+. The proposed mechanism leads to the rate law $$\\dfrac{d[Fe(phen)^{2+}_3]}{dt} = \\dfrac{k_2 K_4 K_3 K^2_2 [Fe^{III}] [\\text{phen}^2] [\\text{Met}]}{(1+K_1 [H^+]) ([H^+]^2 + K_4 K_3 K^2_2[\\text{phen}]^2)}.$$

  2. Mechanical downsizing of a gadolinium(III)-based metal-organic framework for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Tanay; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Goswami, Arunava; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2014-08-11

    A Gd(III) -based porous metal-organic framework (MOF), Gd-pDBI, has been synthesized using fluorescent linker pDBI (pDBI=(1,4-bis(5-carboxy-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)benzene)), resulting in a three-dimensional interpenetrated structure with a one-dimensional open channel (1.9×1.2 nm) filled with hydrogen-bonded water assemblies. Gd-pDBI exhibits high thermal stability, porosity, excellent water stability, along with organic-solvent and mild acid and base stability with retention of crystallinity. Gd-pDBI was transformed to the nanoscale regime (ca. 140 nm) by mechanical grinding to yield MG-Gd-pDBI with excellent water dispersibility (>90 min), maintaining its porosity and crystallinity. In vitro and in vivo studies on MG-Gd-pDBI revealed its low blood toxicity and highest drug loading (12 wt %) of anticancer drug doxorubicin in MOFs reported to date with pH-responsive cancer-cell-specific drug release.

  3. [Anaerobic reduction of humus/Fe (III) and electron transport mechanism of Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Yang, Gui-qin; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shun-gui

    2014-09-01

    Humus and Fe(III) respiration are important extracellular respiration metabolism. Electron transport pathway is the key issue of extracellular respiration. To understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of a novel Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2, capacities of anaerobic humus/Fe(III) reduction and electron transport mechanisms with four electron acceptors were investigated in this study. The results of anaerobic batch experiments indicated that strain SgZ-2 had the ability to reduce humus analog [ 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS)], humic acids (HA), soluble Fe(III) (Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate) and Fe(III) oxides [hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)]. Fermentative sugars (glucose and sucrose) were the most effective electron donors in the humus/Fe(III) reduction by strain SgZ-2. Additionally, differences of electron carrier participating in the process of electron transport with different electron acceptors (i. e. , oxygen, AQS, Fe-EDTA and HFO) were investigated using respiratory inhibitors. The results suggested that similar respiratory chain components were involved in the reducing process of oxygen and Fe-EDTA, including dehydrogenase, quinones and cytochromes b-c. In comparison, only dehydrogenase was found to participate in the reduction of AQS and HFO. In conclusion, different electron transport pathways may be employed by strain SgZ-2 between insoluble and soluble electron acceptors or among soluble electron acceptors. Preliminary models of electron transport pathway with four electron acceptors were proposed for strain SgZ-2, and the study of electron transport mechanism was explored to the genus Fontibacter. All the results from this study are expected to help understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of the genus Fontibacter.

  4. Novel mesoporous FeAl bimetal oxides for As(III) removal: Performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zecong; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Lu, Jianwei; Tang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    In this study, novel mesoporous FeAl bimetal oxides were successfully synthesized, characterized, and employed for As(III) removal. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Fe/Al molar ratio, dosage, and initial solution pH values on As(III) removal. The results showed that the FeAl bimetal oxide with Fe/Al molar ratio 4:1 (shorten as FeAl-4) can quickly remove As(III) from aqueous solution in a wide pH range. The FeAl-4 before and after reaction with As(III) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The BET results showed that the original FeAl-4 with a high surface area of 223.9 m(2)/g was a mesoporous material. XPS analysis indicated that the surface of FeAl-4 possessed a high concentration of M-OH (where M represents Fe and Al), which was beneficial to the immobility of As(III). The excellent performance of FeAl-4 makes it a potentially attractive material for As(III) removal from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum mechanical treatment of As(3+)-thiol model compounds: implication for the core structure of As(III)-metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Roobee; Kaur, Narinder; Bansal, Mohinder Pal; Garg, Mohan Lal; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) is one of the major health concerns in several regions around the world. Binding of As(III) with thiols is central to the mechanisms related to its toxicity, detoxification, and therapeutic effects. Due to its high thiol content, metallothionein (MT) is presumed to play an important role in case of arsenic toxicity. Consequences of these As-thiol interactions are not yet clear due to various difficulties in the characterization of arsenic bound proteins by spectroscopic techniques. Computational modeling can be a reliable approach in predicting the molecular structures of such complexes. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on different As(III)-thiol model compounds conducted by both ab initio and DFT methods with different Gaussian type basis sets. Proficiency of these theoretical methods has been evaluated in terms of bond lengths, bond angles, free energy, partial atomic charges, computational cost, and comparison with the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G(3df) functional offers better accuracy in predicting the structure and the UV absorption spectra of As(III)-thiol complexes. The results of the present study also helps in defining the boundaries for the core of arsenic bound MT so that quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods can be employed to predict the structural and functional aspects of the protein. Graphical Abstract Optimized structural parameters of As(3+)-thiol model compounds.

  6. The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja Munoz, L; Purchase, D; Jones, H; Raab, A; Urgast, D; Feldmann, J; Garelick, H

    2016-06-01

    The response of Chlorella vulgaris when challenged by As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was assessed through experiments on adsorption, efflux and speciation of arsenic (reduction, oxidation, methylation and chelation with glutathione/phytochelatin [GSH/PC]). Our study indicates that at high concentrations of phosphate (1.62mM of HPO4(2-)), upon exposure to As(V), cells are able to shift towards methylation of As(V) rather than PC formation. Treatment with As(V) caused a moderate decrease in intracellular pH and a strong increase in the concentration of free thiols (GSH). Passive surface adsorption was found to be negligible for living cells exposed to DMA and As(V). However, adsorption of As(III) was observed to be an active process in C. vulgaris, because it did not show saturation at any of the exposure periods. Chelation of As(III) with GS/PC and to a lesser extent hGS/hPC is a major detoxification mechanism employed by C. vulgaris cells when exposed to As(III). The increase of bound As-GS/PC complexes was found to be strongly related to an increase in concentration of As(III) in media. C. vulgaris cells did not produce any As-GS/PC complex when exposed to As(V). This may indicate that a reduction step is needed for As(V) complexation with GSH/PC. C. vulgaris cells formed DMAS(V)-GS upon exposure to DMA independent of the exposure period. As(III) triggers the formation of arsenic complexes with PC and homophytochelatins (hPC) and their compartmentalisation to vacuoles. A conceptual model was devised to explain the mechanisms involving ABCC1/2 transport. The potential of C. vulgaris to bio-remediate arsenic from water appeared to be highly selective and effective without the potential hazard of reducing As(V) to As(III), which is more toxic to humans.

  7. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  9. Resumen del III Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingeniería mecánica // Summary of the III Iberoamerican Congress of Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Hernández Gutiérrez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Del 23 al 27 de septiembre de 1997 se efectúo en el Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría el III CongresoIberoamericano de Ingeniería Mecánica(CIDIM 97, con el auspicio de la Federación Iberoamericana de Ingeniería Mecánicay Unión Nacional de Ingenieros y Arquitectos de Cuba.Este prestigioso evento protagonizó una vez más la unión de la gran comunidad de Ingenieros Mecánicos, que desde diversoslugares del planeta tienen la misión de desarrollar esta profesión con muestra de ingenio, creatividad y talento.Después de un arduo trabajo y muchos frutos recogidos se presenta un informe técnico sobre los resultados más importantesdel Congreso._______________________________________________________________________AbstractThe 3rd Iberoamerican Congress of Mechanical Engineering was celebrated in the Higher Polytechnic Institute José AntonioEcheverría, on September 23 - 27 of 1997, sponsored by the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering and theCuban Engineers and Architects Union.This prestigious event protagonist once again the union of the great Mechanical Engineers community, that from variouscountries of the planet have the mission of developing this profession with genius, creativity and talent.After an arduous work and many good success is presented a technical report on the most important results of the Congress.

  10. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of gold(III chloride complexes with formic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacławski K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of kinetic studies of the redox reaction of gold(III chloride complexes ([AuCl4]- with formic acid, are presented. Obtained data suggest the complex character of the reaction which leads to the [AuCl2]- and [AuCl3(COOH]- ions formation as intermediates. In the pH range over 2.5, the final product of the reaction is metallic gold. From the analysis of kinetic data, the rate limiting step is found to be the gold metallic phase formation. The stage of Au(III reduction is relatively fast with the second-order rate constant equal to 61.8 M-1s-1 at temperature 50ºC. The rate of the studied reaction depends on the temperature, reactants concentration and chloride ions concentration. As a result of the data analysis, the scheme of the reaction path has been suggested. Also, the values of enthalpy and entropy of activation for the reaction have been determined.

  12. The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

    2012-10-01

    Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  14. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in the context of type-III Seesaw Mechanism at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091444

    2015-01-01

    The Seesaw Mechanism was introduced to explain why the masses of neutrinos are many orders of magnitude smaller than the other lepton masses. Considering neutrinos as Majorana particles, ``natural'' Yukawa couplings yield neutrinos with very small masses, along with heavy partners. Such particles may be observable at the LHC experiments. CMS searched for a fermionic triplet (type-III Seesaw Mechanism) by selecting events with three isolated leptons, jets and missing transverse energy in the final state. Backgrounds are due to events with leptons from electroweak processes either leptons coming from secondary vertices or ``fake leptons''. The estimate of fake leptons is a crucial point of the analysis. Results obtained with data collected in 2012, corresponding to 19.7~$\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ and $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV, show no evidence of signal, and so we have set lower limits on the masses of the fermionic triplet.

  15. Patterns of Selection of Human Movements III: Energy Efficiency, Mechanical Advantage, and Walking Gait

    OpenAIRE

    Hagler, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Human movements are physical processes combining the classical mechanics of the human body moving in space and the biomechanics of the muscles generating the forces acting on the body under sophisticated sensory-motor control. One way to characterize movement performance is through measures of energy efficiency that relate the mechanical energy of the body and metabolic energy expended by the muscles. We expect the practical utility of such measures to be greater when human subjects execute m...

  16. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part III. Finite Element Analysis in Nonlinear Solid Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, T.A.; Attaway, S.W.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1999-03-01

    This report outlines the application of finite element methodology to large deformation solid mechanics problems, detailing also some of the key technological issues that effective finite element formulations must address. The presentation is organized into three major portions: first, a discussion of finite element discretization from the global point of view, emphasizing the relationship between a virtual work principle and the associated fully discrete system, second, a discussion of finite element technology, emphasizing the important theoretical and practical features associated with an individual finite element; and third, detailed description of specific elements that enjoy widespread use, providing some examples of the theoretical ideas already described. Descriptions of problem formulation in nonlinear solid mechanics, nonlinear continuum mechanics, and constitutive modeling are given in three companion reports.

  17. Reaction between Chromium(III) and EDTA Ions: an Overlooked Mechanism of Case Study Reaction of Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerar, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Widely cited and accepted explanation of reaction mechanism of the case study reaction of chemical kinetics between Cr(III) ions and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) contradicts modern chromium(III) coordination chemistry data. Absorption UV and visible light spectra were recorded during the reaction between aqueous solution of Cr(NO(3))(3) and EDTA in order to obtain new information about this reaction. Analysis of the spectra showed that only very small fraction of intermediates may be present in solution during the course of the reaction. The reaction scheme was established and according to it calculations based on a simplified model were carried out. Literature data for constants were used if known, otherwise, adjusted values of their sound estimates were applied. Reasonable agreement of the model calculations with the experimental data was obtained for pH values 3.8 and 4.5 but the model failed to reproduce measured rate of reaction at pH 5.5, probably due to the use of the oversimplified model.

  18. Replicative Homeostasis III: implications for antiviral therapy and mechanisms of response and non-response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallie Richard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While improved drug regimens have greatly enhanced outcomes for patients with chronic viral infection, antiviral therapy is still not ideal due to drug toxicities, treatment costs, primary drug failure and emergent resistance. New antiviral agents, alternative treatment strategies and a better understanding of viral pathobiology, host responses and drug action are desperately needed. Interferon (IFN and ribavirin, are effective drugs used to treat hepatitis C (HCV, but the mechanism(s of their action are uncertain. Error catastrophe (EC, or precipitous loss of replicative fitness caused by genomic mutation, is postulated to mediate ribavirin action, but is a deeply flawed hypothesis lacking empirical confirmation. Paradoxically ribavirin, a proven RNA mutagen, has no impact on HCV viraemia long term, suggesting real viruses, replicating in-vitro, as opposed to mathematical models, replicating in-silico, are likely to resist EC by highly selective replication of fit (~consensus sequence genomes mediated, in part, by replicative homeostasis (RH, an epicyclic mechanism that dynamically links RNApol fidelity and processivity and other viral protein functions. Replicative homeostasis provides a rational explanation for the various responses seen during treatment of HCV, including genotype-specific and viral load-dependent differential response rates, as well as otherwise unexplained phenomena like the transient inhibition and rebound of HCV viraemia seen during ribavirin monotherapy. Replicative homeostasis also suggests a primarily non-immunological mechanism that mediates increased immune responsiveness during treatment with ribavirin (and other nucleos(tide analogues, explicating the enhanced second-phase clearance of HCV ribavirin promotes and, thus, the apparent immunomodulatory action of ribavirin. More importantly, RH suggests specific new antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  19. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species.

  20. Bonding principles of the Passivation Mechanism at III-V -- oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John

    2012-02-01

    It has always been much more difficult to make FETs from GaAs than Si, because of `Fermi level pinning' and the difficulty of passivating its surfaces and interfaces. These issues have been discussed from the early days of PCSI by Spicer et al [1] with their ``unified defect model.'' Hasegawa [2] introduced the idea of ``Disorder Induced Gap states'' (DIGS). Since 1997 it has been possible to make inverted MOSFETs on GaAs using the epitaxial Gadolinium gallium oxide [3], but the main impetuous has been since 2003 to use atomic layer dpeosition to make scalable FETs, as recently acheived by Intel [4]. The obvious question is why GaAs is so much more difficult to passivate than Si. The early answer was that the native oxide was poor. But since the advent of good deposited ALD oxides on Si such as HfO2 or Al2O3, this answer is no good, as they should also work on GaAs. They do to an extent, but the interfacial density of states is still too large and the CV p lots are distorted. The cause of the defects is cannot be due to stress. The reason must be some underlying chemical reason. I show that the reason is the polar nature of bonding in GaAa and other III-Vs, and the driving force to keep the Fermi level in a gap. The electron counting rule of Pashley [5] that describes surface reconstruction is shown to be a variant of auto-compensation, and it is proposed to work more generally, at each layer deposition or growth on GaAs [6]. This leads to a continuous generation of defects if it is not satisfied. So the answer is to deposit oxide layers that meet this rule, and also break up any surface reconstructions that would lead to As-As dimers [6]. [4pt] [1] W E Spicer, Phys Rev Lett 44 420 (1980)[0pt] [2] H Hasegawa, J Vac Sci Technol B 5 1097 (1987)[0pt] [3] M Hong et al, Science 283 1897 (1997)[0pt] [4] M Radosavljevic, et al, IEDM (2009) p13.1[0pt] [5] M D Pashley, Phys Rev B 40 10481 (1989)[0pt] [6] J Robertson, L Lin, App Phys Letts (submitted), App Phys Lett 98

  1. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of 2-amino-1-butanol by diperiodatoargentate(III in alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huan Shan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of 2-amino-1-butanol (AB by diperiodatoargentate(III (DPA has been studied spectrophotometrically in alkaline media in the temperature range 288.2-303.2 K. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPA] and fractional order with respect to [AB]. The observed rate constant (kobs decreased with increasing [IO4-] and increased with increasing [OH-]. Increasing ionic strength of the media decreased the rate. The rate and equilibrium constants involved in the mechanism were calculated. There is good agreement between the observed and calculated rate constants under varying experimental conditions. The activation parameters for the slow step were computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities were also determined.

  2. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Tsang, C.F. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Div.; Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Kautzky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project

  3. Radiation induced oxidative degradation of polymers—III. Effect of radiation on mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Arakawa, Kazuo; Ito, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Machi, Sueo

    The changes of mechanical properties of various kinds of polyethylene (PE) and ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR) with the irradiation in air, in oxygen of 10 atm, and under vacuum were investigated. The decrease in the elongation ( E b) and the tensile strength ( T b) of PE by the irradiation in oxygen is larger than under vacuum. The changes of E b well reflect the degradation of PE. In case of EPR, the T b decreases sharply with dose in any environments, and the E b decreases under vacuum to a larger extent than in oxygen. The modulus at 200% elongation of EPR increases with dose under vacuum, but decreases in oxygen. When the samples were irradiated in air, the changes of the mechanical properties were the intermediate between oxygen and vacuum and dependent on the ratio of oxidation and non-oxidation layers in the film. The antioxidant (Irganox 1010 or DPPD) mixed in polymers was found to retard effectively the polymer degradation by the irradiation in oxygen.

  4. Inhibition of urease by bismuth(III): implications for the mechanism of action of bismuth drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Mulrooney, Scott B; Leung, Andy F K; Zeng, Yibo; Ko, Ben B C; Hausinger, Robert P; Sun, Hongzhe

    2006-10-01

    Bismuth compounds are widely used for the treatment of peptic ulcers and Helicobacter pylori infections. It has been suggested that enzyme inhibition plays an important role in the antibacterial activity of bismuth towards this bacterium. Urease, an enzyme that converts urea into ammonia and carbonic acid, is crucial for colonization of the acidic environment of the stomach by H. pylori. Here, we show that three bismuth complexes exhibit distinct mechanisms of urease inhibition, with some differences dependent on the source of the enzyme. Bi(EDTA) and Bi(Cys)(3) are competitive inhibitors of jack bean urease with K(i) values of 1.74 +/- 0.14 and 1.84 +/- 0.15 mM, while the anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) is a non-competitive inhibitor with a K (i) value of 1.17 +/- 0.09 mM. A (13)C NMR study showed that Bi(Cys)(3) reacts with jack bean urease during a 30 min incubation, releasing free cysteines from the metal complex. Upon incubation with Bi(EDTA) and RBC, the number of accessible cysteine residues in the homohexameric plant enzyme decreased by 5.80 +/- 0.17 and 11.94 +/- 0.13, respectively, after 3 h of reaction with dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Kinetic analysis showed that Bi(EDTA) is both a competitive inhibitor and a time-dependent inactivator of the recombinant Klebsiella aerogenes urease. The active C319A mutant of the bacterial enzyme displays a significantly reduced sensitivity toward inactivation by Bi(EDTA) compared with the wild-type enzyme, consistent with binding of Bi(3+) to the active site cysteine (Cys(319)) as the mechanism of enzyme inactivation.

  5. Macro- and microspectroscopic study of Nd (III) uptake mechanisms in hardened cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaliev, Peter; Dähn, Rainer; Wehrli, Bernhard; Wieland, Erich

    2009-11-01

    Cement is an important component in repositories for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Nd uptake by hardened cement paste (HCP) has been investigated with the aim of developing a mechanistic understanding of the immobilization processes of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in HCP on the molecular level. Information on the microstructure of HCP, the Nd distribution in the cement matrix, and the coordination environment of Nd in these matrices was gained from the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF), micro-X-ray (micro-XAS), and bulk-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (bulk-XAS) on Nd doped cement samples. The samples were reacted over periods of time between 15 min and 200 days. SEM and micro-XRF investigations suggest preferential Nd accumulation in rims around "inner"-calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The EXAFS data indicate that the coordination environment of Nd taken up by HCP was dependent on reaction time. Changes in the structural parameters derived from EXAFS support the idea of Nd incorporation into the structure of C-S-H phases. The Nd binding mechanisms proposed in this study have implication for an overall assessment of the safe disposal of trivalent actinides in cement-based repositories for radioactive waste.

  6. Effect of iron(III) nitrate concentration on tungsten chemical-mechanical-planarization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae-Hyung [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Hyung [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jea-Gun, E-mail: parkjgL@hanyang.ac.kr [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Investigating the catalytic effect of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} on the performance of tungsten (W) chemical mechanical planarization in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-based acidic slurries, we found that the trend of the polishing rate with increasing Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} concentration was divided into two regions. The polishing rate in region I (<0.10 wt%) increased rapidly because of the increase of the WO{sub 3} layer formed by the reaction of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The polishing rate in region II (>0.10 wt%), on the other hand, increased only slightly with increasing Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} concentration. We suggest the excess ferric ions in the slurry were rapidly supplied to the W surface. Consequently, the addition of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} resulted in the rapid formation of the WO{sub 3} layer because of the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into O{sub 2} by Fe{sup 3+} ion, and polishing rate increased with the Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} concentration. This polishing trend was explained through the opposite trend of static etch rate, the confirmation of the surface morphology, the trend of the WO{sub 3} content on the W surface, and the trend of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density.

  7. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in the context of type III seesaw mechanism in 2012 LHC CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzelino, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis the analysis performed for the search for seesaw mechanism with heavy fermionweak triplets mediators (type III) is presented. The search is based on the process of seesaw mediators via virtual charged boson with the subsequent decay in real vector boson and standardcharged leptons. The considered final states host exactly three charged standard leptons andmissing transverse energy, which displays indirectly standard neutrinos, and jets. The investigated electric charge sum of three leptons has unit value, both signs. The analyzed data sample has been recorded by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN LargeHadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland, during the 2012 proton-proton collisions datataking period. The data sample consists of a total integrated luminosity of 19.7 f b−1 at center ofmass energy 8 TeV. The selected trigger algorithms require two charged leptons (dilepton) withtransverse momentum above thresholds of 17 GeV and 8 GeV, respectively. The backgroundcontribu...

  8. Kinetics and Mechanism of Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Butanone and Uncatalyzed Oxidation of Cychlohexanone by Cerium(IV) in Acid Sulphate Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Hemkar, Shalini; Khandelwal, C. L.; Sharma, P. D. [Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2012-02-15

    The kinetics of ruthenium(III) chloride catalyzed oxidation of butanone and uncatalyzed oxidation of cyclohexanone by cerium(IV) in sulphuric acid medium have been studied. The kinetic rate law(I) in case of butanone conforms to the proposed mechanism. Kinetics and activation parameters have been evaluated conventionally. Kinetically preferred mode of reaction is via ketonic and not the enolic forms.

  9. Resumen del III Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingeniería mecánica // Summary of the III Iberoamerican Congress of Mechanical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Del 23 al 27 de septiembre de 1997 se efectúo en el Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría el III CongresoIberoamericano de Ingeniería Mecánica(CIDIM 97), con el auspicio de la Federación Iberoamericana de Ingeniería Mecánicay Unión Nacional de Ingenieros y Arquitectos de Cuba.Este prestigioso evento protagonizó una vez más la unión de la gran comunidad de Ingenieros Mecánicos, que desde diversoslugares del planeta tienen la misión de desarrollar esta profesión con muestra de ...

  10. Radical polymerization of styrene controlled by half-sandwich Mo(III)/Mo(IV) couples: all basic mechanisms are possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grognec, E; Claverie, J; Poli, R

    2001-10-03

    Density functional calculations of bond dissociation energies (BDEs) have been used as a guide to the choice of metal system suitable for controlling styrene polymerization by either the stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) or the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanism. In accord with the theoretical prediction, CpMo(eta(4)-C(4)H(6))(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2), 2, is not capable of yielding SFRP of styrene. Still in accord with theoretical prediction, CpMo(eta(4)-C(4)H(6))Cl(2), 1, CpMo(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2), 3, and CpMo(dppe)Cl(2) (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), 4, yield controlled styrene polymerization by the SFRP mechanism in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). This arises from the generation of a putative Mo(IV) alkyl species from the AIBN-generated radical addition to the Mo(III) compound. The controlled nature of the polymerizations is indicated by linear M(n) progression with the conversion in all cases and moderate polydispersity indices (PDIs). Controlled polymerization of styrene is also given by compounds 3 and 4 in combination with alkyl bromides. These complexes then operate by the ATRP mechanism, again in accord with the theoretical predictions. Controlled character is revealed by linear increase of M(n) versus conversion, low PDIs, a stop-and-go experiment, and (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF analyses of the polymer end groups. The same controlled polymerization is given by a "reverse" ATRP experiment, starting from AIBN and CpMo(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)Br, 5. On the other hand, when compound 1 or 2 is used in combination with an alkyl bromide (as for an ATRP experiment), the isolated polystyrene shows by M(n), (1)H NMR, and MALDI-TOF analyses that catalytic chain transfer (CCT) radical polymerization takes place in this case. Kinetics simulations underscore the conditions regulating the radical polymerization mechanism and the living character of the polymerization. The complexes herein described are ineffective at controlling the

  11. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  12. Reaction mechanism for the highly efficient catalytic decomposition of peroxynitrite by the amphipolar iron(III) corrole 1-Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Gross, Zeev

    2015-07-21

    The amphipolar iron(III) corrole 1-Fe is one of the most efficient catalysts for the decomposition of peroxynitrite, the toxin involved in numerous diseases. This research focused on the mechanism of that reaction at physiological pH, where peroxynitrite is in equilibrium with its much more reactive conjugated acid, by focusing on the elementary steps involved in the catalytic cycle. Kinetic investigations uncovered the formation of a reaction intermediate in a process that is complete within a few milliseconds (k1 ∼ 3 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at 5 °C, about 7 orders of magnitude larger than the first order rate constant for the non-catalyzed process). Multiple evidence points towards iron-catalyzed homolytic O-O bond cleavage to form nitrogen dioxide and hydroxo- or oxo-iron(iv) corrole. The iron(iv) intermediate was found to decay via multiple pathways that proceed at similar rates (k2 about 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)): reaction with nitrogen dioxide to form nitrate, nitration of the corrole macrocyclic, and dimerization to binuclear iron(iv) corrole. Catalysis in the presence of substrates affects the decay of the iron intermediate by either oxidative nitration (phenolic substrates) or reduction (ascorbate). A large enough excess of ascorbate accelerates the catalytic decomposition of PN by 1-Fe by orders of magnitude, prevents other decay routes of the iron intermediate, and eliminates nitration products as well. This suggests that the beneficial effect of the iron corrole under the reducing conditions present in most biological media might be even larger than in the purely chemical system. The acquired mechanistic insight is of prime importance for the design of optimally acting catalysts for the fast and safe decomposition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

  13. The study on the interaction between Tb(III) and ligand in Tb-acetylsalicylic acid complex and fluorescence mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wenru; Rong Yuzhi; Zhao Bo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Sun Peipei, E-mail: sunpeipei@njnu.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Huang Xiaohua, E-mail: huangxiaohua@njnu.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a luminescent complex of terbium-acetylsalicylic acid (Tb-ASA) was studied for the first time using combination of the quantum chemical calculation, fluorescence spectroscopic method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results from the quantum chemical calculation indicated that it is possible for the energy-transfer from ASA to Tb (III); Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that there is an intramolecular energy-transfer from ASA to Tb with the efficiency (III) of about 87.9% under an excitation at 308 nm. The XPS indicated that the coordinate covalent bond between Tb and O existed in the complex of Tb-ASA leads to the effective energy transfer from ASA to Tb (III) because the energy transfer rate may be improved with reducing the distance between the ligand and Tb (III). The results will have important values for the studies of this type of complexes.

  14. The absence of core fucose up-regulates GnT-III and Wnt target genes: a possible mechanism for an adaptive response in terms of glycan function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Ayako; Kitazume, Shinobu; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Kazuki; Oka, Ritsuko; Fujinawa, Reiko; Korekane, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Wada, Yoshinao; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2014-04-25

    Glycans play key roles in a variety of protein functions under normal and pathological conditions, but several glycosyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit no or only mild phenotypes due to redundancy or compensation of glycan functions. However, we have only a limited understanding of the underlying mechanism for these observations. Our previous studies indicated that 70% of Fut8-deficient (Fut8(-/-)) mice that lack core fucose structure die within 3 days after birth, but the remainder survive for up to several weeks although they show growth retardation as well as emphysema. In this study, we show that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Fut8(-/-) mice, another N-glycan branching structure, bisecting GlcNAc, is specifically up-regulated by enhanced gene expression of the responsible enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III). As candidate target glycoproteins for bisecting GlcNAc modification, we confirmed that level of bisecting GlcNAc on β1-integrin and N-cadherin was increased in Fut8(-/-) MEFs. Moreover using mass spectrometry, glycan analysis of IgG1 in Fut8(-/-) mouse serum demonstrated that bisecting GlcNAc contents were also increased by Fut8 deficiency in vivo. As an underlying mechanism, we found that in Fut8(-/-) MEFs Wnt/β-catenin signaling is up-regulated, and an inhibitor against Wnt signaling was found to abrogate GnT-III expression, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin is involved in GnT-III up-regulation. Furthermore, various oxidative stress-related genes were also increased in Fut8(-/-) MEFs. These data suggest that Fut8(-/-) mice adapted to oxidative stress, both ex vivo and in vivo, by inducing various genes including GnT-III, which may compensate for the loss of core fucose functions.

  15. Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

    2014-02-15

    The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (μM). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 μM. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lake

  16. Mechanisms in Ruthenium(II) photochemistry and Iron(III) catalyzed oxidations : Photochemical, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unjaroen, Duenpen

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, photochemical, electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of Ru(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III) complexes are described. The overall goal in this studies was to understanding process that occur during oxidation catalysis and photo irradiation and especially the changes in the structure that

  17. Mechanism of -O-O- bond activation and catalysis by RuIII-pac complexes (pac = polyaminocarboxylate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debabrata Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the mechanistic aspects of the -O-O- bond activation by the Ru-pac (pac = polyaminocarboxylate) complex leading to the formation of various catalytic active species, viz. [RuIII(pac)(OOH)]2−, [RuIV(pac)(OH)]− and [RuV(pac)(O)]−, and their reactivity towards oxidation of a few organic compounds.

  18. Search for evidence of the type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-08-26

    A search for a signal consistent with the type-III seesaw mechanism in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample consists of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 inverse femtobarns. Selection criteria based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs are used to distinguish the signal from the standard model background. The observations are consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to place limits on the production of heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model as a function of the branching ratio to each lepton flavor. In the scenario of equal branching fractions to each lepton flavor, heavy fermions with masses below 840 GeV are excluded. This is the most sensitive probe to date of the type-III seesaw mechanism.

  19. Search for evidence of the type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Biggio, Carla; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Benaglia, Andrea; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    A search for a signal consistent with the type-III seesaw mechanism in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample consists of proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. Selection criteria based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs are used to distinguish the signal from the standard model background. The observations are consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to place limits on the production of heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model as a function of the branching ratio to each lepton flavor. In the scenario of equal branching fractions to each lepton flavor, heavy fermions with masses below 840 GeV are excluded. This is the most sensitive probe to date of the type-III seesaw mechanism.

  20. Mechanisms of Loss in Internal Quantum Efficiency in III-Nitride-based Blue-and Green-Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li

    The overarching goals of the research conducted for this dissertation have been to understand the scientific reasons for the losses in the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in Group III-nitride-based blue and especially green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) containing a multi-quantum well (MQW) active region and to simultaneously develop LED epitaxial structures to ameliorate these losses. The p-type AlGaN EBL was determined to be both mandatory and effective in the prevention of electron overflow from the MQW region into the p-type cladding layer and the resultant lowering of the IQE. The overflow phenomenon was partially due to the low concentration (˜ 5 x 1017 cm-3) and mobility (˜ 10 cm2/(V•s)) of the holes injected into the active region. Electroluminescence (EL) studies of LEDs without an EBL revealed a dominant emission from donor-acceptor pair recombination in the p-type GaN layer. The incorporation of a 90 nm compositionally graded In0-0.1 Ga1-0.9N buffer layer between each MQW and n-GaN cladding layer grown on an Al/SiC substrate resulted in an increase in the luminescence intensity and a blue-shift in the emission wavelength, as observed in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The graded InGaN buffer layer reduced the stress and thus the piezoelectric field across the MQW; this improved the electron/hole overlap that, in turn, resulted in an enhanced radiative recombination rate and an increase in efficiency. A direct correlation was observed between an increase in the IQE measured in temperature-dependent PL (TDPL) and an increase in the roughness of all the upper InGaN QW/GaN barrier interfaces, as determined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the MQW. These results agreed in general with the average surface roughness values of the pit-free region on the top GaN barrier determined via atomic force microscopy and the average roughness values of all the interfaces in the MQW calculated from the FWHM of the emission peak in the PL

  1. One-pot synthesis of Mn-doped TiO2 grown on graphene and the mechanism for removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengping; Li, Yaru; Guo, Meng; Xu, Fengyun; Wang, Peng; Du, Yu; Na, Ping

    2016-06-05

    Mn-doped TiO2 grown on reduced graphene oxide(rGO) was synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method and the photocatalytic removal of Cr by the material was investigated under sunlight. The materials were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cr(total) removal efficiency of the material is 97.32% in 30min and 99.02% in 60min under sunlight irradiation, as the initial concentration of Cr(VI) is 20mg/L. The high photocatalytic activity under visible light is considered mainly due to the Mn-doping, and rGO plays an important role in the synergetic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis to sustain the high efficient removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Cr(VI) adsorbed on the surface of rGO is reduced to Cr(III) by photo electrons which are transported through rGO, and the reaction product Cr(III) continues to be adsorbed. The process contributes to the release of abundant photocatalytic sites of Mn-TiO2 and improves photocatalytic efficiency. The excellent adsorption and photocatalytic effect with the explanation of the synergetic mechanism are very useful not only for fundamental research but also for the potential practical applications.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation on kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism for electron transfer reaction of iron(III) complex with sulphur centered radical in stimulated biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepalakshmi, S; Sivalingam, A; Kannadasan, T; Subramaniam, P; Sivakumar, P; Brahadeesh, S T

    2014-04-24

    Electron transfer reactions of biological organic sulphides with several metal ions to generate sulphide radical cations are a great concern in biochemical process. To understand the mechanism, a stimulated biological system having model compounds, iron(III)-bipyridyl complex with thio-diglycolic acid (TDGA) was investigated. Spectroscopic study reveals the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction in aqueous perchloric acid medium. The reaction follows first and fractional order of 0.412 with respect to [Fe(bpy)3](3+) and TDGA, respectively. The oxidation is insensitive to variation in [H(+)] but slightly decreases with increase in ionic strength ([I]). Addition of acrylamide, a radical scavenger has no effect on the rate of the reaction. The high negative value of ΔS(#) (-74.3±1.09 J K(-1) mol(-1)) indicates the complex formed has a definite orientation higher than the reactants. Based on the above results, a suitable reaction mechanism for this reaction is proposed.

  3. First-Principles Study of Structural, Electronic, Mechanical, Thermal, and Phonon Properties of III-Phosphides (BP, AlP, GaP, and InP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S.; Kanjouri, F.; Tashakori, H.; Esmailian, A.

    2017-10-01

    Based on first-principles calculations with generalized gradient approximation as exchange-correlation functional, the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and phonon properties of III-phosphide binary compounds, namely BP, AlP, GaP, and InP, with cubic zincblende structure have been investigated. The calculations were performed in the framework of density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) implemented in the Quantum ESPRESSO package. The results obtained for the structural and electronic properties are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results. The results of our electronic calculations indicate semiconducting properties for these binary compounds. Furthermore, the frequency bandgaps and phonon density of states were also investigated. The computed mechanical constants predict that BP, AlP, GaP, and InP are elastically stable. Finally, we determined the heat capacity and entropy for these binary compounds within a quasiharmonic Debye model using DFPT for comparison.

  4. EFFICACY OF KALTENBORN GRADE III MOBILIZATIONS, MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUES AND THEIR COMBINATION TO IMPROVE RANGE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN ADULTS WITH MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is an essentialtreatment in the management of Mechanical Neck ache, still there was lack of literature seen supporting the effectiveness of Physiotherapy interventions with their doses targeting specific group of population. The focus of study was to see the effectiveness of Kaltenborn Grade III mobilization, Muscle Energy Techniques and their combination to improve range and functional ability in patients with Mechanical Neck ache. Methods: 72 patients with Mechanical Neck achewere randomly categorized in 3 groups (Mobilization, METs and Combination group. NDI scale and goniometry was used as an assessment tool to measure the outcome before and after treatment (follow up 1 week. Results: According to the results there was significant improvement seen in Combination group (Mobilization and METs in terms of pain, which decreased from 7.70±0.69 to 1.25±1.93 (p=0.00, gain in ROM e.g. Cervical Flexion (27.29±2.38 to 37.54±3.14. Whereas, marked significance (p=0.00 was seen in the NDI score and percentage of Combination group. ANOVA tells us that difference was significant in all three groups in categories of pain (VAS, gain in cervical ranges and NDI score and percentage as p=0.00. Combination group had significant difference within the groups then METs and Mobilization group in all categories of VAS, Cervical ranges, NDI score and percentage. Conclusion: Combination of (Grade III Kaltenborn and METs was seen more effective in terms of improving Mechanical Neck Pain, in smaller treatment session (7 days only.

  5. Crystal structures of the SAM-III/S[subscript MK] riboswitch reveal the SAM-dependent translation inhibition mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.; Smith, A.M.; Fuchs, R.T.; Ding, F.; Rajashankar, K.; Henkin, T.M.; Ke, A. (Cornell); (OSU)

    2010-01-07

    Three distinct classes of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-responsive riboswitches have been identified that regulate bacterial gene expression at the levels of transcription attenuation or translation inhibition. The SMK box (SAM-III) translational riboswitch has been identified in the SAM synthetase gene in members of the Lactobacillales. Here we report the 2.2-{angstrom} crystal structure of the Enterococcus faecalis SMK box riboswitch. The Y-shaped riboswitch organizes its conserved nucleotides around a three-way junction for SAM recognition. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence, which is sequestered by base-pairing with the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence in response to SAM binding, also directly participates in SAM recognition. The riboswitch makes extensive interactions with the adenosine and sulfonium moieties of SAM but does not appear to recognize the tail of the methionine moiety. We captured a structural snapshot of the SMK box riboswitch sampling the near-cognate ligand S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) in which SAH was found to adopt an alternative conformation and fails to make several key interactions.

  6. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Timothy, Ginn R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 µM. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5 M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and

  7. DENSIFICATION OF WOOD VENEERS COMBINED WITH OIL-HEAT TREATMENT. PART III: CELL WALL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES DETERMINED BY NANOINDENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecillia Bustos Avila,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Compression under the effect of heat and steam, also called thermo-hygromechanical (THM densification, can increase wood density and therefore improve its strength, stiffness, and hardness. Oil-heat treatment (OHT is also known to reduce wood’s hygroscopicity and improve dimensional stability. A combination of both treatments can therefore produce wood with improved mechanical properties and dimensional stability. The objective of this project was to determine cell wall mechanical properties of THM-densified and OHT wood. Trembling aspen veneers were densified by a THM process and subsequently treated in canola oil at 200 and 220°C. Nanoindentations were performed in earlywood cell walls. The results show that cell wall longitudinal modulus of elasticity increased significantly from 13.5 GPa for the control to a maximum of 18.2 GPa for THM densified wood with or without OHT. Cell wall hardness increased from 0.27 GPa to a maximum of 0.43 GPa. Both THM densification and OHT significantly increased cell wall hardness. Therefore, the increase in mechanical properties of THM-densified and OHT wood can be due to an increase in wood density resulting from a reduction in porosity but also to an increase in the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

  8. Genome Scale Mutational Analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals Distinct Molecular Mechanisms for Respiration and Sensing of Poised Electrodes versus Fe(III) Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Ho; Levar, Caleb E; Jiménez-Otero, Fernanda; Bond, Daniel R

    2017-10-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens generates electrical current by coupling intracellular oxidation of organic acids to the reduction of proteins on the cell surface that are able to interface with electrodes. This ability is attributed to the bacterium's capacity to respire other extracellular electron acceptors that require contact, such as insoluble metal oxides. To directly investigate the genetic basis of electrode-based respiration, we constructed Geobacter sulfurreducens transposon-insertion sequencing (Tn-Seq) libraries for growth, with soluble fumarate or an electrode as the electron acceptor. Libraries with >33,000 unique insertions and an average of 9 insertions/kb allowed an assessment of each gene's fitness in a single experiment. Mutations in 1,214 different genomic features impaired growth with fumarate, and the significance of 270 genes unresolved by annotation due to the presence of one or more functional homologs was determined. Tn-Seq analysis of -0.1 V versus standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) electrode-grown cells identified mutations in a subset of genes encoding cytochromes, processing systems for proline-rich proteins, sensory networks, extracellular structures, polysaccharides, and metabolic enzymes that caused at least a 50% reduction in apparent growth rate. Scarless deletion mutants of select genes identified via Tn-Seq revealed a new putative porin-cytochrome conduit complex (extABCD) crucial for growth with electrodes, which was not required for Fe(III) oxide reduction. In addition, four mutants lacking components of a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis-cyclic dinucleotide sensing network (esnABCD) were defective in electrode colonization but grew normally with Fe(III) oxides. These results suggest that G. sulfurreducens possesses distinct mechanisms for recognition, colonization, and reduction of electrodes compared to Fe(III) oxides.IMPORTANCE Since metal oxide electron acceptors are insoluble, one hypothesis is that cells sense and reduce

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of L-leucine by alkaline diperiodatocuprate(III)—A free radical intervention, deamination and decarboxylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keerti M Naik; Sharanappa T Nandibewoor

    2012-07-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of L-leucine by diperiodatocuprate (III) (DPC) in aqueous alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.10mol dm-3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between L-leucine and DPC in alkaline medium exhibits 1:4 stoichiometry (L-leucine: DPC). The reaction is of first order in [DPC] and has less than unit order in both [L-leucine] and [alkali]. However, the order in [Lleucine] and [alkali] changes from first order to zero order as their concentration increase. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. Increase in periodate concentration decreased the rate. The oxidation reaction in alkaline medium has been shown to proceed via a monoperiodatocuprate (III) - L-leucine complex, which decomposed slowly in a rate-determining step followed by other fast steps to give the products. The main oxidative products were identified by spot test and GC-MS. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism were calculated.

  10. Session III: Mechanisms of age-related cognitive change and targets for intervention: inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Suzanne; Foster, Thomas C; Landfield, Philip W; Maier, Steven F; Resnick, Susan M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing evidence from basic science and human epidemiological studies that inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic abnormalities are associated with age-related cognitive decline and impairment. This article summarizes selected research on these topics presented at the Cognitive Aging Summit II. Speakers in this session presented evidence highlighting the roles of these processes and pathways on age-related cognitive decline, pointing to possible targets for intervention in nondemented older adults. Specific areas discussed included age differences in the production of cytokines following injury or infection, mechanisms underlying oxidative stress-induced changes in memory consolidation, insulin effects on brain signaling and memory, and the association between metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline in older adults. These presentations emphasize advances in our understanding of mechanisms and modifiers of age-related cognitive decline and provide insights into potential targets to promote cognitive health in older adults.

  11. Towards an interpretation of the mechanism of the actinides(III)/lanthanides(III) separation by synergistic solvent extraction with nitrogen-containing polydendate ligands; Vers une interpretation des mecanismes de la separation actinides(III)/lanthanides(III) par extraction liquide-liquide synergique impliquant des ligands polyazotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, N. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France); Universite Henri Poincare, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2000-07-01

    In the field of the separation of long-lived radionuclides from the wastes produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, aromatic nitrogen-containing polydendate ligands are potential candidates for the selective extraction, alone or in synergistic mixture with acidic extractants, of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides. The first part of this work deals with the complexation of trivalent f cations with various nitrogen-containing ligands (poly-pyridine analogues). Time-resolved laser-induced fluorimetry (TRLIF) and UV-visible spectrophotometry were used to determine the nature and evaluate the stability of each complex. Among the ligands studied, the least basic Me-Btp proved to be highly selective towards americium(III) in acidic solution. In the second part, two synergistic systems (nitrogen-containing polydendate ligand and lipophilic carboxylic acid) are studied and compared in regard to the extraction and separation of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III). TRLIF and gamma spectrometry allowed the nature of the extracted complexes and the optimal conditions of efficiency of both systems to be determined. Comparison between these different studies showed that the selectivity of complexation of trivalent f cations by a given nitrogen-containing polydendate ligand could not always be linked to the Am(III)Eu(III) selectivity reached in synergistic extraction. The latter depends on the 'balance' between the acid-basic properties on the one hand, and on the hard-soft characteristics on the other hand, of both components of synergistic system. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of diabetic autoimmunity: II--Is diabetes a central or peripheral disorder of effector and regulatory cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir

    2016-02-01

    Two competing hypotheses aiming to explain the onset of autoimmune reactions are discussed in the context of genetic and environmental predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The first hypothesis has evolved along characterization of the mechanisms of self-discrimination and attributes diabetic autoimmunity to escape of reactive T cells from central regulation in the thymus. The second considers frequent occurrence of autoimmune reactions within the immune homunculus, which are adequately suppressed by regulatory T cells originating from the thymus, and occasionally, insufficient suppression results in autoimmunity. Besides thymic dysfunction, deregulation of both effector and suppressor cells can in fact result from homeostatic aberrations at the peripheral level during initial stages of evolution of adaptive immunity. Pathogenic cells sensitized in the islets are efficiently expanded in the target tissue and pancreatic lymph nodes of lymphopenic neonates. In parallel, the same mechanisms of peripheral sensitization contribute to tolerization through education of naïve/effector T cells and expansion of regulatory T cells. Experimental evidence presented for each individual mechanism implies that T1D may result from a primary effector or suppressor immune abnormality. Disturbed self-tolerance leading to T1D may well result from peripheral deregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, with variable contribution of central thymic dysfunction.

  13. Effects of flavonoids on anti-carcinogenesis and immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerenberg PA; Garssen J; Beems RB; Dortant PM; Kranen HJ van; Kreyl CF van; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Gruyl FR de; Vos JG; Loveren H van; LPI; LEO; CCM; AZU/Dermatologie

    1998-01-01

    In this study flavonoid-rich diets and tea extracts were investigated. These diets were studied for their putative protective effect on UV induced skin tumors and tumors in the small intestine and colon. Moreover , the same diets were studied in UV induced immunosuppression. The results show that

  14. A novel Fe(III) dependent bioflocculant from Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08: culture conditions optimization and flocculation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Tang, Qing-wen; Zhang, Yu-jia; Chen, Rong-ping; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Wei-chuan; Li, Wen-wei; Ruan, Hong-hua; Song, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of cultivation factors on the flocculation efficiency (FE) of bioflocculant P-GS408 from Klebsiella oxytoca was optimized by the response surface methodology. The most significant factor, i.e. culture time, was determined by gray relational analysis. A total of 240 mg of purified P-GS408 was prepared from 1 liter of culture solution under the optimal conditions. GC-MS analysis results indicated that the polysaccharide of P-GS408 mainly contains Rhamnose and Galactose, and the existence of abundant hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups was evidenced by FTIR and XPS analyses. With the aid of Fe3+, the FE of kaolin solution by P-GS408 could achieve 99.48% in ten minutes. Functional groups of polysaccharide were involved in the first adsorption step and the zeta potential of kaolin solution changed from −39.0 mV to 43.4 mV in the presence of Fe3+ and P-GS408. Three-dimensional excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectra demonstrates that the trivalent Fe3+ and Al3+ can bind efficiently with P-GS408, while those univalent and divalent cations cannot. With the help of SEM images, FTIR, zeta potential and EEM spectra, we proposed the P-GS408 flocculation mechanism, which consists of coordination bond combination, charge neutrality, adsorption and bridging, and net catching. PMID:27713559

  15. The charge percolation mechanism and simulation of Ziegler–Natta polymerizations Part III. Oxidation states of transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKA PILIC

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation state of the transition metal (Mt active centre is the most disputable question in the polymerization of olefins by Ziegler–Natta (ZN and metallocene complexes. In this paper the importance and the changes of the Mt active centres are presented and discussed on the basis of a charge percolation mechanism (CPM of olefin polymerization. Mt atoms can exist in different oxidation states and can be easily transformed from one to another state during activation. In all cases, the Mt atoms are present in several oxidation states, i.e., Mt+(n-1, Mt+(n to Mt+(n+1, producing an irregular charge distribution over the support surface. There is a tendency to equalize the oxidation states by a charge transfer from Mt+(n–1 (donor toMt+(n+1 (acceptor. This cannot occur since the different oxidation states are highly separated on the support. However, monomer molecules are adsorbed on the support producing clusters with stacked p-bonds, making a p-bond bridge between a donor and an acceptor. Once a bridge is formed (percolation moment, charge transfer occurs. The donor and acceptor equalize their oxidation states simultaneously with the polymerization of the monomer. The polymer chain is desorbed from the support, freeing the surface for subsequent monomer adsorption. The whole process is repeated with the oxidation-reduction of other donor-acceptor ensembles.

  16. Mechanism and Regioselectivity of Rh(III)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Annulation of Aryl-Substituted Diazenecarboxylates and Alkenes: DFT Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2016-02-05

    The mechanism of Rh-catalyzed intermolecular annulation of aryl-substituted diazenecarboxylates and alkenes was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) (PCM-M062X/6-311+G(d,p)//M062X/6-31G(d)). The acetate ligand (OAc)-assisted C-H activation via the formation of a five-membered rhodacycle (I-TS1; ΔG‡ = 19.4 kcal/mol) is more favorable compared to that via a four-membered intermediate (II-TS1; ΔG‡ = 27.8 kcal/mol). Our results also revealed that the seven-membered intermediate (I-3, ΔGrel = -6.8 kcal/mol) formed after the alkene insertion could undergo a coordination switch with the adjacent nitrogen atom (via TScs; ΔG‡ = 16.5 kcal/mol) to produce a thermodynamically stable six-membered intermediate (II-3, ΔGrel = -10.4 kcal/mol), eventually leading to a cyclization process followed by a barrierless ligand-assisted protonation to yield the final product. The β-hydride elimination product was found to be kinetically and thermodynamically undesirable. The rate-determining step is identified as the initial C-H activation, consistent with the previous kinetic studies. Notably, DFT studies offered important insights on the ability of the substrate (diazene carboxylate) to promote the switchable coordination site selectivity during the reaction to achieve a lower energy pathway. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  18. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2B/2C Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Robin N. [Bechtel SAlC Company, Las Vegas (US)] (comp.)

    2005-02-15

    , ENRESA and NRC teams. All teams discretized the DST test area into two-dimensional vertical cross sections through the center of the heated drift and derived material properties suitable for their respective modeling approaches using the site testing data from Yucca Mountain project reports. The generally good agreement between simulated and measured temperature, displacements, and changes in air permeability shows that the numerical models and underlying conceptual models are adequate for simulating coupled THM processes at the DST. From the analyses and discussions presented, the following specific conclusions were drawn: i) A continuum model approach is adequate for simulating relevant coupled THM processes at the DST; ii) TM-induced rock deformations are generally well simulated using an elastic model, although some individual displacements appear to be captured using an elasto-plastic model; iii) The highest potential for inelastic deformation in the form of fracture shear slip occurs near the drift wall and in a zone of thermal stress decrease located more than 15 m above the heated drift and iv) Despite potential shear slip along fractures, fracture closure/opening caused by change in normal stress across fractures is the dominant mechanism for TM-induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant at the DST. This conclusion indicates that TM-induced changes in permeability at the DST, which are within one order of magnitude, tend to be reversible.

  19. Investigation of Pd-catalyzed Co(III-EDTA/hypophosphite inhibition reaction kinetics, mechanism and the evaluation of its analytical application possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AKCAY

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between Co(III-EDTA and hypophosphite ion, catalyzed by Pd(II was chosen as the indicator reaction. The inhibition kinetics of this catalytic reaction have been investigated by a mechanistic approach in the presence of some inhibitors. Catalysts other than PdCl2, that is Pt, Au, Ni salts, did not exhibit any effect on the reaction. An original reaction mechanism is proposed based on the experimental data. The important variables were optimized for maximum sensitivity. The calibration graph, which was prepared following the inhibition kinetic method, showed a linear relationship (r = – 0.9878 between the initial rate and iodide in the concentration range of 2–35 ng/cm3 I- with a detection limit of 1.2 ng/cm3 I- (3Sb/m criterion. The RSDs of the method, (N = 5 for 7 and 14 ng/cm3 were 1.19 and 0.81 %, respectively, depended on iodide concentration. The method was only applied to the determination of iodide in water, urine, iodized table salt and some drug samples and was compared with the modified Sandell–Kolthoff method.

  20. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.

  1. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  2. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  3. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton-proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 inverse femtobarns. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  4. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton-proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.

    2012-12-01

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb-1. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  5. Role of citrate and phosphate anions in the mechanism of iron(III) sequestration by ferric binding protein: kinetic studies of the formation of the holoprotein of wild-type FbpA and its engineered mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Katherine D; Gabricević, Mario; Anderson, Damon S; Adhikari, Pratima; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-07-27

    Ferric binding protein A (FbpA) plays a central role in the iron acquisition processes of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. FbpA functions as an iron shuttle within the periplasmic space of these Gram-negative human pathogens. Iron is picked up by FbpA at the periplasmic aspect of the outer membrane with concomitant acquisition of a synergistic anion. Here we report the kinetics and mechanisms involved with loading of iron(III) into iron-free FbpA using iron(III) citrate as an iron source in the presence of excess citrate or phosphate (physiologically available anions) at pH 6.5. In the presence of excess phosphate, iron(III) citrate loads into apo-FbpA in three kinetically distinguishable steps, while in the presence of excess citrate, only two steps are discernible. A stable intermediate containing iron(III) citrate-bound FbpA is observed in each case. The observation of an additional kinetic step and moderate increase in apparent rate constants suggests an active role for phosphate in the iron insertion process. To further elucidate a mechanism for iron loading, we report on the sequestration kinetics of iron(III) citrate in the presence of phosphate with binding site mutant apo-FbpAs, H9E, E57D, E57Q, Q58A, Y195F, and Y196H. Tyrosine mutations drastically alter the kinetics and hamper iron sequestration ability. H9E, E57D, and E57Q have near native iron sequestration behavior; however, iron binding rates are altered, enabling assignment of sequential side chain interactions. Additionally, this investigation elaborates on the function of FbpA as a carrier for iron chelates as well as "naked" or free iron as originally proposed.

  6. Tomo III

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad, hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Animal. Tomo III. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Primera Parte Prólogo Artículo 1°De los cuadrúpedos útiles al hombre a varios usos y a su sustento. Vaca Caballos Carneros de la tierra, especie de camellos Vicuña Guanacos Puercos monteses Artículo 2...

  7. EGFR and EGFRvIII undergo stress- and EGFR kinase inhibitor-induced mitochondrial translocalization: A potential mechanism of EGFR-driven antagonism of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Osman Francis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR plays an essential role in normal development, tumorigenesis and malignant biology of human cancers, and is known to undergo intracellular trafficking to subcellular organelles. Although several studies have shown that EGFR translocates into the mitochondria in cancer cells, it remains unclear whether mitochondrially localized EGFR has an impact on the cells and whether EGFRvIII, a constitutively activated variant of EGFR, undergoes mitochondrial transport similar to EGFR. Results We report that both receptors translocate into the mitochondria of human glioblastoma and breast cancer cells, following treatments with the apoptosis inducers, staurosporine and anisomycin, and with an EGFR kinase inhibitor. Using mutant EGFR/EGFRvIII receptors engineered to undergo enriched intracellular trafficking into the mitochondria, we showed that glioblastoma cells expressing the mitochondrially enriched EGFRvIII were more resistant to staurosporine- and anisomycin-induced growth suppression and apoptosis and were highly resistant to EGFR kinase inhibitor-mediated growth inhibition. Conclusions These findings indicate that apoptosis inducers and EGFR-targeted inhibitors enhance mitochondrial translocalization of both EGFR and EGFRvIII and that mitochondrial accumulation of these receptors contributes to tumor drug resistance. The findings also provide evidence for a potential link between the mitochondrial EGFR pathway and apoptosis.

  8. Co{sup 2+}-exchange mechanism of birnessite and its application for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} and As(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hui; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Liu, Mingming; Tan, Wenfeng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Qiu, Guohong, E-mail: qiugh@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn(IV) on the surface of birnessite was the electron sink of Co{sup 2+} oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn(III) was the main reduction product of Co{sup 2+} oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The content of hydroxyl groups in Co-containing birnessites gradually decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb{sup 2+} adsorption capacity of birnessite was reduced after Co{sup 2+}-ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As(III) oxidation capacity of birnessite was enhanced by Co{sup 2+}-ion exchange. - Abstract: Co-containing birnessites were obtained by ion exchange at different initial concentrations of Co{sup 2+}. Ion exchange of Co{sup 2+} had little effect on birnessite crystal structure and micromorphology, but resulted in an increase in specific surface areas from 19.26 to 33.35 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and a decrease in both crystallinity and manganese average oxidation state. It was due to that Mn(IV) in the layer structure was reduced to Mn(III) during the oxidation process of Co{sup 2+} to Co(III). The hydroxyl groups on the surface of Co-containing birnessites gradually decreased with an increase of Co/Mn molar ratio owing to the occupance of Co(III) into vacancies and the location of large amounts of Co{sup 2+/3+} and Mn{sup 2+/3+} above/below the vacant sites. This greatly accounted for the monotonous reduction in Pb{sup 2+} adsorption capacity, from 2538 mmol kg{sup -1} for the unmodified birnessite to 1500 mmol kg{sup -1} for the Co{sup 2+} ion-exchanged birnessite with a Co/Mn molar ratio of 0.16. The amount of As(III) oxidized by birnessite was enhanced after ion exchange, but the apparent initial reaction rate was greatly decreased. The present work demonstrates that Co{sup 2+} ion exchange has great influence on the adsorption and oxidation behavior of inorganic toxic metal ions by birnessite in water envrionments.

  9. Multiple-path dissociation mechanism for mono- and dinuclear tris(hydroxamato)iron(III) complexes with dihydroxamic acid ligands in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa, H; Crumbliss, A L

    2000-09-18

    Linear synthetic dihydroxamic acids ([CH3N(OH)C=O)]2(CH2)n; H2Ln) with short (n = 2) and long (n = 8) hydrocarbon-connecting chains form mono- and dinuclear complexes with Fe(III) in aqueous solution. At conditions where the formation of Fe2(Ln)3 is favored, complexes with each of the two ligand systems undergo [H+]-induced ligand dissociation processes via multiple sequential and parallel paths, some of which are common and some of which are different for the two ligands. The pH jump induced ligand dissociation proceeds in two major stages (I and II) where each stage is shown to be comprised of multiple components (Ix, where x = 1-3 for L2 and L8, and IIy, where y = 1-3 for L2 and y = 1-4 for L8). A reaction scheme consistent with kinetic and independent ESI-MS data is proposed that includes the tris-chelated complexes (coordinated H2O omitted for clarity) (Fe2(Ln)3, Fe2(L2)2(L2H)2, Fe(LnH)3, Fe(L8)(L8H)), bis-chelated complexes (Fe2(Ln)2(2+), Fe(LnH)2+, Fe(L8)+), and monochelated complexes (Fe(LnH)2+). Analysis of kinetic data for ligand dissociation from Fe2(Ln)(LnH)3+ (n = 2, 4, 6, 8) allows us to estimate the dielectric constant at the reactive dinuclear Fe(III) site. The existence of multiple ligand dissociation paths for the dihydroxamic acid complexes of Fe(III) is a feature that distinguishes these systems from their bidentate monohydroxamic acid and hexadentate trihydroxamic acid counterparts and may be a reason for the biosynthesis of dihydroxamic acid siderophores, despite higher environmental molar concentrations necessary to completely chelate Fe(III).

  10. Precise investigation of the axial ligand substitution mechanism on a hydrogenphosphato-bridged lantern-type platinum(III) binuclear complex in acidic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Satoshi; Mizushima, Chiho; Morimoto, Naoyuki; Muranaka, Shinji; Ishihara, Koji; Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2005-10-31

    Detailed equilibrium and kinetic studies on axial water ligand substitution reactions of the "lantern-type" platinum(III) binuclear complex, [Pt(2)(mu-HPO(4))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](2)(-), with halide and pseudo-halide ions (X(-) = Cl(-), Br(-), and SCN(-)) were carried out in acidic aqueous solution at 25 degrees C with I = 1.0 M. The diaqua Pt(III) dimer complex is in acid dissociation equilibrium in aqueous solution with -log K(h1) = 2.69 +/- 0.04. The consecutive formation constants of the aquahalo complex () and the dihalo complex () were determined spectrophotometrically to be log = 2.36 +/- 0.01 and log = 1.47 +/- 0.01 for the reaction with Cl(-) and log = 2.90 +/- 0.04 and log = 2.28 +/- 0.01 for the reaction with Br(-), respectively. In the kinetic measurements carried out under the pseudo-first-order conditions with a large excess concentration of halide ion compared to that of Pt(III) dimer (C(X)()- > C(Pt)), all of the reactions proceeded via a one-step first-order reaction, which is a contrast to the consecutive two-step reaction for the amidato-bridged platinum(III) binuclear complexes. The conditional first-order rate constant (k(obs)) depended on C(X)()- as well as the acidity of the solution. From kinetic analyses, the rate-limiting step was determined to be the first substitution process that forms the monohalo species, which is in rapid equilibrium with the dihalo complex. The reaction with 4-penten-1-ol was also kinetically investigated to examine the reactivity of the lantern complex with olefin compounds.

  11. Search for evidence of Type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for a type-III seesaw signal in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample corresponds to $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016. The signal is sought after in final states with at least three leptons, and has diverse kinematic properties. The primary selection is based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs, and helps discriminate the signal against the standard model background. The final optimization for the type-III seesaw signal is based on the sum of leptonic transverse momenta and missing transverse energy, as well as the transverse mass. The observations are consistent with expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to exclude heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model with masses below $850~\\mathrm{GeV}$ for the lepton-flavor democratic scenario.

  12. Adsorption of iron(III), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) on activated carbon derived from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull: mechanisms, kinetics and influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hao, Yinan; Wang, Ximing; Chen, Zhangjing

    2017-04-01

    Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull activated carbon (XSA) was prepared and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The ability of XSA as an adsorbent was investigated for the removal of the iron group ions Fe(III), Co(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Optimum adsorption parameters were determined based on the initial concentrations of the iron group ions, pH, adsorption temperature, and adsorption time in adsorption studies. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities were 241.13 mg/g for Fe(III), 126.05 mg/g for Co(II), and 187.96 mg/g for Ni(II), respectively. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the adsorption process best fitted the nonlinear pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, and the affinity of the ions for XSA decreased as follows: Fe(III) > Ni(II) > Co(II). Regeneration studies indicated that XSA could be used after several consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles using HNO3. Fourier transform infrared and EDX spectra revealed the chemical adsorption value of XSA as an adsorbent for removing iron group ions from aqueous solutions.

  13. Expectations of analgesia do not affect spinal nociceptive R-III reflex activity: an experimental study into the mechanism of placebo-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, J; ter Riet G; Peters, M L; Kessels, A G; Reulen, J P; Menheere, P P

    2000-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether placebo analgesia is mediated by the release of beta-endorphin. In addition to subjective pain reports, we included an objective physiological parameter of nociception reflected by the opioid sensitive nociceptive R-III reflex. Placebo consisted of strong suggestions of pain relief and an intravenous injection of saline. Forty minutes after placebo, either the opioid antagonist naloxone or saline was administered intravenously without subjects noticing (hidden). Sixty healthy males, aged 18-30 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomized into one of four groups: group 1 received placebo and hidden naloxone, group 2 received hidden naloxone only, group 3 received placebo and hidden saline and group 4 received hidden saline only. Pain was induced by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve and evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, changes in the magnitude of the nociceptive R-III reflex activity were assessed. We determined to what extent R-III reflex activity and subjective pain reports were decreased by placebo and we investigated whether these placebo-induced changes in reflex activity and subjective pain reports were naloxone reversible. Furthermore, we measured the degree of association between pain relief as measured on VAS and changes in R-III reflex activity. Finally, the role of beta-endorphin was assessed by measuring plasma endorphin levels before and after the administration of placebo. This study could not demonstrate a placebo effect as measured on VAS and R-III responses. The administration of placebo did not appear to have an effect on the release of beta-endorphins. Consistently, the antagonizing effects of naloxone were negligible. A subgroup analysis of those who did show a placebo response as indicated on the VAS did not support the supposition that beta-endorphin is released due to placebo suggestion. It is suggested that intensified stimuli and

  14. Luminescence enhancement of terbium(III) perchlorate by 2,2'-dipyridyl on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and luminescence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-Yan; Li, Wen-Xian; Guo, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Fang

    2014-11-01

    A novel ternary complex, Tb(2)L4 · L'·(ClO4)6 · 8H2O, has been synthesized using bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane as the first ligand L and 2,2'-dipyridyl as the second ligand L'. The ternary complex was characterized by element analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, infrared, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric and ultraviolet spectra. The results indicated that the composition of the complex was Tb2 L4 · L'·(ClO4)6 · 8H2O (L = C(6)H(5)CH(2) SOCH(2)SOCH(2)C(6)H(5); L' = Dipy). Fourier transform infrared results revealed that the perchlorate group was bonded with the Tb(III) ion by the oxygen atom, and the coordination was bidentate. The fluorescent spectra illustrated that the complex displayed characteristic fluorescence in the solid state. After the introduction of the second ligand, 2,2-dipyridyl, the relative emission intensity and fluorescence lifetime of the ternary complex Tb(2)L(4) · L'·(ClO(4))(6) · 8H2O were enhanced compared to the binary complex TbL(2.5)(ClO4)3 · 3H2O. This indicated that the presence of both organic ligand bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane and the second ligand 2,2-dipyridyl could sensitize the fluorescence intensity of Tb(III) ion, and introduction of the 2,2-dipyridyl group resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence of the Tb(III) ternary rare earth complex. The strongest characteristic fluorescence emission intensity of the ternary complex was 9.36 times that of the binary complex. The phosphorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the complex were also measured.

  15. Fluorescence enhancement of europium (III) perchlorate by 1,10-phenanthroline on the 1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulthio)ethanone complex and luminescence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xian; Xin, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Shu-Yan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Bo-Yang; Li, Ying-Jie

    2014-11-01

    A novel ligand, 1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulthio)ethanone was synthesized using a new method and its two europium (Eu) (III) complexes were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, coordination titration analysis, molar conductivity, infrared, thermo gravimetric analyzer-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), (1)H NMR and UV spectra. The composition was suggested as EuL5 · (ClO4)3 · 2H2O and EuL4 · phen(ClO4)3 · 2H2O (L = C(10)H(7)COCH(2)SOC(6)H(5)). The fluorescence spectra showed that the Eu(III) displayed strong characteristic metal-centered fluorescence in the solid state. The ternary rare earth complex showed stronger fluorescence intensity than the binary rare earth complex in such material. The strongest characteristic fluorescence emission intensity of the ternary system was 1.49 times as strong as that of the binary system. The phosphorescence spectra were also discussed.

  16. Utilization of subsurface microbial electrochemical systems to elucidate the mechanisms of competition between methanogenesis and microbial iron(III)/humic acid reduction in Arctic peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Angenent, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    High-latitude peat soils are a major carbon reservoir, and there is growing concern that previously dormant carbon from this reservoir could be released to the atmosphere as a result of continued climate change. Microbial processes, such as methanogenesis and carbon dioxide production via iron(III) or humic acid reduction, are at the heart of the carbon cycle in Arctic peat soils [1]. A deeper understanding of the factors governing microbial dominance in these soils is crucial for predicting the effects of continued climate change. In previous years, we have demonstrated the viability of a potentiostatically-controlled subsurface microbial electrochemical system-based biosensor that measures microbial respiration via exocellular electron transfer [2]. This system utilizes a graphite working electrode poised at 0.1 V NHE to mimic ferric iron and humic acid compounds. Microbes that would normally utilize these compounds as electron acceptors donate electrons to the electrode instead. The resulting current is a measure of microbial respiration with the electrode and is recorded with respect to time. Here, we examine the mechanistic relationship between methanogenesis and iron(III)- or humic acid-reduction by using these same microbial-three electrode systems to provide an inexhaustible source of alternate electron acceptor to microbes in these soils. Chamber-based carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured from soil collars with and without microbial three-electrode systems over a period of four weeks. In addition, in some collars we simulated increased fermentation by applying acetate treatments to understand possible effects of continued climate change on microbial processes in these carbon-rich soils. The results from this work aim to increase our fundamental understanding of competition between electron acceptors, and will provide valuable data for climate modeling scenarios. 1. Lipson, D.A., et al., Reduction of iron (III) and humic substances plays a major

  17. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transfer of the cloned Salmonella SPI-1 type III secretion system and characterization of its expression mechanisms in Gram negative bacteria in comparison with cloned SPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Chris; Hannagan, Susan; Santiago, Clayton P; Wilson, James W

    2015-11-01

    Cloned type III secretion systems have much potential to be used for bacterial engineering purposes involving protein secretion and substrate translocation directly into eukaryotic cells. We have previously cloned the SPI-1 and SPI-2 type III systems from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome using plasmid R995 which can conveniently capture large genomic segments for transfer between bacterial strains. However, though expressed and functional in Salmonella strains, cloned SPI-1 was previously observed to have a serious expression defect in other Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. Here we show that cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion can be detected in the secretion preps from E. coli and Citrobacter indicating the first observation of non-Salmonella SPI-1 expression. We describe a compatible plasmid system to introduce engineered SPI-1 substrates into cloned SPI-1 strains. However, a SPI-1 translocation defect is still observed in E. coli, and we show that this is likely due to a defect in SipB expression/secretion in this species. In addition, we also examined the requirement for the hilA and ssrAB regulators in the expression of cloned SPI-1 and SPI-2, respectively. We found a strict requirement for hilA for full cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion. However, though we found that ssrAB is required for full cloned SPI-2 expression in a range of media across different bacteria, it is not required for cloned SPI-2 expression in MgM8 inducing media in S. Typhimurium. This suggests that under SPI-2 inducing conditions in S. Typhimurium, other factors can substitute for loss of ssrAB in cloned SPI-2 expression. The results provide key foundational information for the future use of these cloned systems in bacteria.

  19. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C. Murphy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in younger (age < 50 populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute’s Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n=6,862. Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age < 50 and older (age 50–69, age ≥ 70 CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13% and Hispanic (15% than patients aged 50–69 years (11% and 10%, resp. and ≥70 years (7% each. A larger proportion of young white (41% and Hispanic (33% patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%. The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%. Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  20. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET as a Tool for Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms for Maturation of the Shigella Type III Secretion Needle Tip Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Picking

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET provides a powerful tool for monitoring intermolecular interactions and a sensitive technique for studying Å-level protein conformational changes. One system that has particularly benefited from the sensitivity and diversity of FRET measurements is the maturation of the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA needle tip complex. The Shigella T3SA delivers effector proteins into intestinal cells to promote bacterial invasion and spread. The T3SA is comprised of a basal body that spans the bacterial envelope and a needle with an exposed tip complex that matures in response to environmental stimuli. FRET measurements demonstrated bile salt binding by the nascent needle tip protein IpaD and also mapped resulting structural changes which led to the recruitment of the translocator IpaB. At the needle tip IpaB acts as a sensor for host cell contact but prior to secretion, it is stored as a heterodimeric complex with the chaperone IpgC. FRET analyses showed that chaperone binding to IpaB’s N-terminal domain causes a conformational change in the latter. These FRET analyses, with other biophysical methods, have been central to understanding T3SA maturation and will be highlighted, focusing on the details of the FRET measurements and the relevance to this particular system.

  1. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  2. Studies on protein synthesis by protoplasts of saccharomyces carlsbergensis III. Studies on the specificity and the mechanism of the action of ribonuclease on protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.R. de; Dam, G.J.W. van; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1962-01-01

    In this paper, the experimental results are presented of a continued study on the specificity and the mechanism of the inhibition by ribonuclease of protein synthesis in protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. By comparing the effects of native pancreatic ribonuclease with those of heat-denatur

  3. Studies on protein synthesis by protoplasts of saccharomyces carlsbergensis III. Studies on the specificity and the mechanism of the action of ribonuclease on protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.R. de; Dam, G.J.W. van; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1962-01-01

    In this paper, the experimental results are presented of a continued study on the specificity and the mechanism of the inhibition by ribonuclease of protein synthesis in protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. By comparing the effects of native pancreatic ribonuclease with those of

  4. Probing the Mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis [beta]-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III mtFabH: Factors Influencing Catalysis and Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alistair K.; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Kremer, Laurent; Lindenberg, Sandra; Dover, Lynn G.; Sacchettini, James C.; Besra, Gurdyal S. (TAM); (Birmingham); (CNRS)

    2010-11-30

    Mycolic acids are the dominant feature of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. These {alpha}-alkyl, {beta}-hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the condensation of two fatty acids, a long meromycolic acid and a shorter C{sub 24}-C{sub 26} fatty acid. The component fatty acids are produced via a combination of type I and II fatty acid synthases (FAS) with FAS-I products being elongated by FAS-II toward meromycolic acids. The {beta}-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III encoded by mtfabH (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acyl-CoA chain length specificity of mtFabH was assessed in vitro; the enzyme extended longer, physiologically relevant acyl-CoA primers when paired with AcpM, its natural partner, than with Escherichia coli ACP. The ability of the enzyme to use E. coli ACP suggests that a similar mode of binding is likely with both ACPs, yet it is clear that unique factors inherent to AcpM modulate the substrate specificity of mtFabH. Mutation of proposed key mtFabH residues was used to define their catalytic roles. Substitution of supposed acyl-CoA binding residues reduced transacylation, with double substitutions totally abrogating activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 46} revealed its more critical role in malonyl-AcpM decarboxylation than in the acyl-CoA binding role. Interestingly, this effect was suppressed intragenically by Arg{sup 161} {yields} Ala substitution. Our structural studies suggested that His{sup 258}, previously implicated in malonyl-ACP decarboxylation, also acts as an anchor point for a network of water molecules that we propose promotes deprotonation and transacylation of Cys{sup 122}.

  5. Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John

    2014-05-01

    Part 1. The Winning of the Principles: 1. Introduction; 2. The beginnings of statics. Archimedes. Problem of the lever and of the centre of gravity; 2. Experimental verification and applications of the principle of the lever; 3. The centre of gravity; 4. The balance; 5. Stevinus of Bruges. The principle of the inclined plane; 6. The parallelogram of forces; 7. The principle of virtual work; 8. Review of the principles of statics; 9. The beginnings of dynamics. Galileo. The problem of falling bodies; 10. Huyghens. The problem of uniform motion in a circle. 'Centrifugal force'; 11. Final statement of the principles of dynamics. Extension to the motions of the heavenly bodies. The law of universal gravitation. Newton; Part II. Mathematical Statement of the Principles: Introduction; 12. Kinematics; 13. Kinetics of a particle moving in a straight line. The laws of motion; 14. Experimental verification of the laws of motion. Atwood's machine; 15. Work and energy; 16. The parallelogram law; 17. The composition and resolution of forces. Resultant. Component. Equilibrium; 18. Forces in one plane; 19. Friction; Part III. Application to Various Problems: 20. Motion on an inclined plane. Brachistochrones; 21. Projectiles; 22. Simple harmonic motion; 23. The simple pendulum; 24. Central forces. The law of gravitation; 25. Impact and impulsive forces; Part IV. The Elements of Rigid Dynamics: 26. The compound pendulum. Huyghens' solution; 27. D'alembert's principle; 28. Moment of inertia; 29. Experimental determination of moments of inertia; 30. Determination of the value of gravity by Kater's pendulum; 31. The constant of gravitation, or weighing the Earth. The Cavendish experiment; Answers to the examples; Index.

  6. One-pot synthesis of Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} grown on graphene and the mechanism for removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zengping; Li, Yaru; Guo, Meng; Xu, Fengyun; Wang, Peng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Du, Yu [China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co., Ltd., Yunnan 651600 (China); Na, Ping, E-mail: naping@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • rGO-Mn-TiO{sub 2} is synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal method. • Cr(total) removal effectiveness reaches to 97.32% in 30 min under visible light, as the initial concentration of Cr(VI) is 20 mg/L. • Mn-TiO{sub 2} and rGO synergistically contribute to the adsorption and photocatalytic reduction of Cr. • Cr(III) being adsorbed by rGO helps to the release of abundant photocatalytic sites of Mn-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} grown on reduced graphene oxide(rGO) was synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method and the photocatalytic removal of Cr by the material was investigated under sunlight. The materials were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cr(total) removal efficiency of the material is 97.32% in 30 min and 99.02% in 60 min under sunlight irradiation, as the initial concentration of Cr(VI) is 20 mg/L. The high photocatalytic activity under visible light is considered mainly due to the Mn-doping, and rGO plays an important role in the synergetic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis to sustain the high efficient removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Cr(VI) adsorbed on the surface of rGO is reduced to Cr(III) by photo electrons which are transported through rGO, and the reaction product Cr(III) continues to be adsorbed. The process contributes to the release of abundant photocatalytic sites of Mn-TiO{sub 2} and improves photocatalytic efficiency. The excellent adsorption and photocatalytic effect with the explanation of the synergetic mechanism are very useful not only for fundamental research but also for the potential practical applications.

  7. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) in the presence of different Fe(III) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang; Hu, Xingyun

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity and mobility of antimony (Sb) are strongly influenced by the redox processes associated with Sb. Dissolved iron (Fe) is widely distributed in the environment as different species and plays a significant role in Sb speciation. However, the mechanisms of Sb(III) oxidation in the presence of Fe have remained unclear because of the complexity of Fe and Sb speciation. In this study, the mechanisms of Sb(III) photooxidation in the presence of different Fe species were investigated systematically. The photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred over a wide pH range, from 1 to 10. Oxygen was not a predominant or crucial factor in the Sb(III) oxidation process. The mechanism of Sb(III) photooxidation varied depending on the Fe(III) species. In acidic solution (pH 1-3), dichloro radicals (radCl2-) and hydroxyl radicals (radOH) generated by the photocatalysis of FeCl2+ and FeOH2+ were the main oxidants for Sb(III) oxidation. Fe(III) gradually transformed into the colloid ferric hydroxide (CFH) and ferrihydrite in circumneutral and alkaline solutions (pH 4-10). Photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred through electron transfer from Sb(III) to Fe(III) along with the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) through a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) process. The photocatalysis of different Fe(III) species may play an important role in the geochemical cycle of Sb(III) in surface soil and aquatic environments.

  8. DFT computations support the σ-complex assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) mechanism for the 1,4-Rh shift of Cp*Rh(III)-(η(1)-β-styryl) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yougui; He, Gang; Kantchev, Eric Assen B

    2014-11-28

    DFT calculations support the σ-complex assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) mechanism recently proposed for the first 1,4-Rh shift of a Rh(III) complex rather than the oxidative addition/reductive elimination pathway characteristic of Rh(i). A single, concerted TS (ΔG(‡) = 27-34 kcal mol(-1)) was found and its electronic structure characterized by Bader's AIM analysis. The 4-centered TS is characterized by a enhanced charge separation (Rh and H atoms - positive, both C atoms - negative) relative to the σ-vinyl Rh starting material and the σ-aryl-Rh product. The AIM topological analysis of the electron density reveals a network of interactions: Rh with H as well as both Rh and H with both C(vinyl) and C(aryl) in the TS and confirms the C(vinyl)-Rh agnostic interaction observed experimentally in the σ-aryl-Rh product.

  9. Structural and dynamical aspects of the unsymmetric hydration of Sb(III): an ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Len Herald V; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Asam, S Sikander; Hofer, Thomas S; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2010-03-01

    An ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulation was performed to investigate the behavior of the Sb(3+) ion in aqueous solution. The simulation reveals a significant influence of the residual valence shell electron density on the solvation structure and dynamics of Sb(3+). A strong hemidirectional behavior of the ligand binding pattern is observed for the first hydration shell extending up to the second hydration layer. The apparent domain partitioned structural behavior was probed by solvent reorientational kinetics and three-body distribution functions. The three-dimensional hydration space was conveniently segmented such that domains having different properties were properly resolved. The approach afforded a fair isolation of localized solvent structural and dynamical motifs that Sb(3+) seems to induce to a remarkable degree. Most intriguing is the apparent impact of the lone pair electrons on the second hydration shell, which offers insight into the mechanistic aspects of hydrogen bonding networks in water. Such electronic effects observed in the hydration of Sb(3+) can only be studied by applying a suitable quantum mechanical treatment including first and second hydration shell as provided by the QMCF ansatz.

  10. CyberStorm III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; et al

    2010-01-01

    Projectteam Cyber Storm III - De Verenigde Staten organiseerden de afgelopen jaren een reeks grootschalige ICT-crisisoefeningen met de naam Cyber Storm. Cyber Storm III is de derde oefening in de reeks. Het scenario van Cyber Storm III staat in het teken van grootschalige ICT-verstoringen, waarbij n

  11. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms; Sorption des ions U(VI) et Eu(III) a l`interface solution - solides phosphates: Etude structurale et mechanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drot, Romuald [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-18

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} which allow to study the effect of PO{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} presents only one single site (P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups) whereas Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} admit two types of sites (PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and PO{sub 4}/oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO{sub 3} 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} et de UO{sub 2}NO{sup +}{sub 3} species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO{sup 2+}{sub 3}). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid

  12. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...program provides Precise Positioning Service (PPS) to military operations and force enhancement. It also provides increased anti-jam power to the earth ...to be modified . On January 31, 2016, USD(AT&L) signed the GPS III revised APB. This Change 1 to the APB was due to both cost and schedule breaches

  13. Application of acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) as a pharmaceutical additive. III. AYC aqueous coating onto granules and film formation mechanism of AYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hiroshi; Kaneshige, Junichi; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kasai, Takahide; Eguchi, Takahiro; Ishiwaki, Naomu

    2002-04-26

    From the viewpoint of effective utilization of natural resources and development of new pharmaceutical materials, acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) was prepared via a novel approach involving acidification of brewers' yeast cell wall. AYC aqueous dispersion containing 5% (w/v) AYC and 0.5% (w/v) glycerol was prepared. Subsequently, AYC was coated onto core granules containing acetaminophen (AAP). Spray mist size under various spray conditions and viscosity of the AYC aqueous dispersion at various AYC concentrations were measured. AYC spray mists were optically observed. The surface of AYC cast film and AYC-coated granules were observed with a confocal scanning laser microscope. We attempted to show the utility of AYC as a novel material for granule coating, following the tablet coating in our previous report. In addition, the film formation mechanism of AYC was investigated. A smooth surface of the AYC-coated granules was obtained at a coating ratio of only 5%, which generally requires approximately 15-30% coating against the core granule weight, with no aggregation. These results are attributable to the fact that the granules were coated with a large number of small mists of AYC and the coating progressed efficiently, and the thin film layer of AYC was formed on the granules by mutual tangling of the hydrogel layers of AYC polysaccharides. AAP release from AYC-coated granules was obviously rapid, suggesting the high utility of AYC as a coating material for the rapidly releasing granules.

  14. Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S; Carey, Elizabeth; Burns, Justin L; Fennessey, Christine M; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell density. Anaerobic Fe(III) solubilization activity is detected with either Fe(III) oxides or Fe(III) citrate, suggesting that the organic ligand produced is strong enough to destabilize Fe(III) from soluble or solid Fe(III) substrates. Results also demonstrate that Fe(III) oxide dissolution is not controlled by the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the Fe(III) oxides. Instead, the chemical reaction between the endogenous organic ligand is only affected by the number of reactive surface sites available to S. putrefaciens. This report describes the first application of voltammetric techniques to demonstrate production of soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes by any Fe(III)-reducing microorganism and is the first report of a Fe(III)-solubilizing ligand generated by a metal-reducing member of the genus Shewanella.

  15. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  16. Deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts with high mechanical contrasts. Core analysis revealing strain concentrations and the development of fracturing and folding into a tectonic mélange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    In fully developed evaporite cycles, effective viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude are possible between different layers, but the structures and mechanics in evaporites with such extreme mechanical stratification are not well understood. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt We analyzed a unique carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) - and bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) - rich drill core from the Zechstein III-1b subunit in the Veendam Pillow in the Netherlands, which has a complex tectonic history with multiple phases of extension and compression as shown by seismic reflection data. Salt withdrawal followed by convergent flow into the salt pillow produced ruptures and folds in the underlying ZIII- Anhydrite-Carbonate Stringer and formed the outer shape of the soft ZIII-1b layer. The slabbed core was analyzed by macroscale photography, bulk chemical methods, XRD and optical microscopy. Results show high strain in the weaker bischofite- and carnallite- rich layers, with associated dynamic recrystallization at very low differential stress, completely overprinting the original texture. Stronger layers formed by alternating beds of halite and carnallite show complex recumbent folding on different scales commonly interrupted by sub-horizontal shear zones with brittle deformation, veins and boudinage. We attribute this tectonic fragmentation to be associated with a softening of the complete ZIII-1b subunit during its deformation. The result is a tectonic mélange with cm - to 10m size blocks with internal folds and boudinage. We infer that these structures and

  17. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...

  18. The Nature of the intermediates in the reactions of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-microperoxidase-8 with H2O2 : a rapid kinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primus, J.L.; Grunenwald, S.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Albrecht-Gary, A.M.; Mandon, D.; Veeger, C.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic studies were performed with microperoxidase-8 (Fe(III)MP-8), the proteolytic breakdown product of horse heart cytochrome c containing an octapeptide linked to an iron protoporphyrin IX. Mn(III) was substituted for Fe(III) in Mn(III)MP-8.The mechanism of formation of the reactive metal-oxo

  19. The Nature of the intermediates in the reactions of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-microperoxidase-8 with H2O2 : a rapid kinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primus, J.L.; Grunenwald, S.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Albrecht-Gary, A.M.; Mandon, D.; Veeger, C.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic studies were performed with microperoxidase-8 (Fe(III)MP-8), the proteolytic breakdown product of horse heart cytochrome c containing an octapeptide linked to an iron protoporphyrin IX. Mn(III) was substituted for Fe(III) in Mn(III)MP-8.The mechanism of formation of the reactive metal-oxo an

  20. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions.

  1. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  2. Temperature effects on the interaction mechanisms between the europium (III) and uranyl ions and zirconium diphosphate; Effets de la temperature sur les mecanismes d'interaction entre les ions europium (3) et uranyle et le diphosphate de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finck, N

    2006-10-15

    Temperature should remain higher than 25 C in the near field environment of a nuclear waste repository for thousands years. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the temperature influence on the interaction mechanisms between europium (III) and uranyl ions and zirconium diphosphate, as well as the influence of a complexing medium (nitrate) on the sorption of the lanthanide. The experimental definition of the equilibria was achieved by combining a structural investigation with the macroscopic sorption data. Surface complexes were characterized at all temperatures (25 C to 90 C) by TRLFS experiments carried out on dry and in situ samples using an oven. This characterization was completed by XPS experiments carried out at 25 C on samples prepared at 25 C and 90 C. The reaction constants (surface hydration and cations sorption) were obtained by simulating the experimental data with the constant capacitance surface complexation model. The reaction constants temperature dependency allowed one to characterize thermodynamically the different reactions by application of the van't Hoff relation. The validity of this law was tested by performing microcalorimetric measurements of the sorption heat for both cations. (author)

  3. Detection of the Sn(III) intermediate and the mechanism of the Sn(IV)/Sn(II) electroreduction reaction in bromide media by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinho; Bard, Allen J

    2014-01-08

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were used to investigate the reduction of Sn(IV) as the hexabromo complex ion in a 2 M HBr-4 M NaBr medium. CV at scan rates to 100 V/s and SECM indicated the reaction pathway involves ligand-coupled electron transfer via an ECEC-DISP process: (1) one-electron reduction of Sn(IV)Br6(2-) to Sn(III)Br6(3-); (2) bromide dissociation of the reduced Sn(III)Br6(3-) to Sn(III)Br5(2-); (3) disproportionation of the reduced 2Sn(III)Br5(2-) to Sn(IV)Br5(-) and Sn(II)Br5(3-); (4) one-electron reduction of Sn(III)Br5(2-) to Sn(II)Br5(3-); (5) bromide dissociation from Sn(II)Br5 to Sn(II)Br4(2-). The intermediate Sn(III) species was confirmed by SECM(3-), where the Sn(III) generated at the Au tip was collected on a Au substrate in the tip generation/substrate collection mode when the distance between the tip and substrate was a few hundred nanometers.

  4. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  5. Aluminum(III) interferes with the structure and the activity of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1): a new mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Liu, Ji; Lin, Tao; Han, Yong-Guang; Luo, Yue; Xi, Lei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2013-09-01

    The enzyme peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) may play an important role in preventing the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The structural and functional stability of Pin1 is extremely important. Previously, we have determined the stability of Pin1 under stressed conditions, such as thermal treatment and acidic-pH. Considering that aluminum (Al(III)) is well known for its potential neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of AD, we examined whether Al(III) affects the structure and function of Pin1, by means of a PPIase activity assay, intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, FTIR, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence measurements mainly show that Al(III) may bind to the clusters nearby W11 and W34 in the WW domain of Pin1, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of the two tryptophan residues, which possibly results in the decreased binding affinity of Pin1 to substrates. The secondary structural analysis as revealed by FTIR and CD measurements indicate that Al(III) induces the increase in β-sheet and the decrease in α-helix in Pin1. Furthermore, the changes of the thermodynamic parameters for Pin1 as monitored by DSC confirm that the thermal stability of Pin1 significantly increases in the presence of Al(III). The Al(III)-induced structural changes of Pin1 result in a sharp decrease of the PPIase activity of Pin1. To some extent, our research is suggestive that Al(III) may inhibit the isomerization activity of Pin1 in vivo, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  6. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in TEHDGA-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, G.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Kalpakkam (India). Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in the solvent impregnated resins containing extractants such as tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of TEHDGA+HDEHP. The rate of extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 M nitric acid and the effect of various parameters, such as the concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and concentration of TEHDGA and HDEHP in resin phase, on the distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in HDEHP-impregnated resin decreased and that in TEHDGA-impregnated resin increased, with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. However, in (TEHDGA+HDEHP) - impregnated resin, synergic extraction was observed at lower nitric acid concentration and antagonism at higher nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction in the combined resin was investigated by slope analysis method. The extraction of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste was studied. The separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was studied using citrate-buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution.

  7. Mechanical implications of the domain structure of fiber-forming collagens: comparison of the molecular and fibrillar flexibilities of the alpha1-chains found in types I-III collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Frederick H; Horvath, Istvan; Foran, David J

    2002-05-21

    Fibrillar collagens store, transmit and dissipate elastic energy during tensile deformation. Results of previous studies suggest that the collagen molecule is made up of alternating rigid and flexible domains, and extension of the flexible domains is associated with elastic energy storage. In this study, we model the flexibility of the alpha1-chains found in types I-III collagen molecules and microfibrils in order to understand the molecular basis of elastic energy storage in collagen fibers by analysing the areas under conformational plots for dipeptide sequences. Results of stereochemical modeling suggest that the collagen triple helix is made up of rigid and flexible domains that alternate with periods that are multiples of three amino acid residues. The relative flexibility of dipeptide sequences found in the flexible regions is about a factor of five higher than that found for the flexibility of the rigid regions, and the flexibility of types II and III collagen molecules appears to be higher than that found for the type I collagen molecule. The different collagen alpha1-chains were compared by correlating the flexibilities. The results suggest that the flexibilities of the alpha1-chains of types I and III collagen are more closely related than the flexibilities of the alpha1-chains in types I and II and II and III collagen. The flexible domains found in the alpha1-chains of types I-III collagen were found to be conserved in the microfibril and had periods of about 15 amino acid residues and multiples thereof. The flexibility profiles of types I and II collagen microfibrils were found to be more highly correlated than those for types I and III and II and III. These results suggest that the domain structure of the alpha1-chains found in types I-III collagen is an efficient means for storage of elastic energy during stretching while preserving the triple helical structure of the overall molecule. It is proposed that all collagens that form fibers are designed to

  8. Wizlaw III og minnesangen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Artikel om den sidste slaviske Rügenfyrste, Wizlaw III (1265/68-1325), der traditionelt har været identificeret med minnesangeren Wizlaw den Unge. Om de bevarede sange og om minnesangens rolle ved det rügenske fyrstehof.......Artikel om den sidste slaviske Rügenfyrste, Wizlaw III (1265/68-1325), der traditionelt har været identificeret med minnesangeren Wizlaw den Unge. Om de bevarede sange og om minnesangens rolle ved det rügenske fyrstehof....

  9. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  10. Mechanism of a strongly anisotropic MoIII-CN-MnII spin-spin coupling in molecular magnets based on the [Mo(CN)(7)](4-) heptacyanometalate: a new strategy for single-molecule magnets with high blocking temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir S; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2003-08-13

    Unusual spin coupling between Mo(III) and Mn(II) cyano-bridged ions in bimetallic molecular magnets based on the [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) heptacyanometalate is analyzed in terms of the superexchange theory. Due to the orbital degeneracy and strong spin-orbit coupling on Mo(III), the ground state of the pentagonal-bipyramidal [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) complex corresponds to an anisotropic Kramers doublet. Using a specially adapted kinetic exchange model we have shown that the Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) superexchange interaction is extremely anisotropic: it is described by an Ising-like spin Hamiltonian JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) for the apical pairs and by the J(z)S(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) + J(xy)(Sx(Mo) Sx(Mn) + Sy(Mo) Sy(Mn)) spin Hamiltonian for the equatorial pairs (in the latter case J(z) and J(xy) can have opposite signs). This anisotropy resulted from an interplay of several Ising-like (Sz(Mo) Sz(Mn)) and isotropic (S(Mo)S(Mn)) ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions originating from metal-to-metal electron transfers through the pi and sigma orbitals of the cyano bridges. The Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) exchange anisotropy is distinct from the anisotropy of the g-tensor of [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-); moreover, there is no correlation between the exchange anisotropy and g-tensor anisotropy. We indicate that highly anisotropic spin-spin couplings (such as the Ising-like JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn)) combined with large exchange parameters represent a very important source of the global magnetic anisotropy of polyatomic molecular magnetic clusters. Since the total spin of such clusters is no longer a good quantum number, the spin spectrum pattern can differ considerably from the conventional scheme described by the zero-field splitting of the isotropic spin of the ground state. As a result, the spin reorientation barrier of the magnetic cluster may be considerably larger. This finding opens a new way in the strategy of designing single-molecule magnets (SMM) with unusually high blocking temperatures. The use of

  11. Characterization of the biochemical properties of Campylobacter jejuni RNase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nabila; Saramago, Margarida; Matos, Rute G; Prévost, Hervé; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2013-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen, which is now considered as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The information regarding ribonucleases in C. jejuni is very scarce but there are hints that they can be instrumental in virulence mechanisms. Namely, PNPase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) was shown to allow survival of C. jejuni in refrigerated conditions, to facilitate bacterial swimming, cell adhesion, colonization and invasion. In several microorganisms PNPase synthesis is auto-controlled in an RNase III (ribonuclease III)-dependent mechanism. Thereby, we have cloned, overexpressed, purified and characterized Cj-RNase III (C. jejuni RNase III). We have demonstrated that Cj-RNase III is able to complement an Escherichia coli rnc-deficient strain in 30S rRNA processing and PNPase regulation. Cj-RNase III was shown to be active in an unexpectedly large range of conditions, and Mn2+ seems to be its preferred co-factor, contrarily to what was described for other RNase III orthologues. The results lead us to speculate that Cj-RNase III may have an important role under a Mn2+-rich environment. Mutational analysis strengthened the function of some residues in the catalytic mechanism of action of RNase III, which was shown to be conserved.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of a class III chitinase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... encoded by VvChiF III showed a high identity to that of a class III ... gene corresponds to the Glyco-hydro-18 super family that consisting of a signal peptide with the ..... broad-spectrum plant defence mechanism has been well.

  13. Spa32 interaction with the inner-membrane Spa40 component of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri is required for the control of the needle length by a molecular tape measure mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botteaux, Anne; Sani, Musa; Kayath, Christian A.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaim; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2008-01-01

    The effectors of enterocyte invasion by Shigella are dependent on a type III secretion system that contains a needle whose length average does not exceed 50 nm. Previously, we reported that Spa32 is required for needle length control as well as to switch substrate specificity from MxiH to Ipa

  14. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Implications of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling on the Near-Field Safety of a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Homogeneous Rock Mass. Report of BMT1B/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the second phase (BMT1B) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for re-saturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. Six teams participated in BMT1B: IRSN/CEA (France), CNSC (Canada), ANDRA/INERIS (France), JNC (Japan), BGR/ISEB-ZAG (Germany) and SKI/KTH (Sweden). All teams used FEM approach except the ANDRA/INERIS team who used the FDM approach, with different codes. All research teams except ISEB/ZAG used models with full THM coupling capabilities. The governing equations in these models were derived within the framework of Biot's theory of consolidation and have for primary unknown variables: temperature, pore fluid pressure and displacements of the solid skeleton. Since the original Biot's theory of consolidation is applicable to saturated materials and isothermal conditions, the research teams have to extend Biot's theory in order to deal with thermal effects and

  15. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  16. The Structure of the SlrP-hTrx1 Complex Sheds Light on the Autoinhibition Mechanism of the Type-III Secretion System Effectors of the NEL Family

    OpenAIRE

    Zouhir, Samira; Bernal-Bayard, Joaquín; Cordero-Alba, Mar; Cardenal Muñoz, Elena; Guimaraes, Beatriz,; Lazar, Noureddine; Ramos Morales, Francisco; Nessler, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infections are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the European Union. Antimicrobial therapy is often administered to treat the infection but increasing isolates are being detected that demonstrate resistance to multiple antibiotics. Salmonella enterica contains two virulence related type-III secretion systems (T3SS): one promotes invasion of the intestine and the other one mediates systemic disease. Both of them secrete the SlrP prot...

  17. Diglycolamic acid anchored on polyamine matrix for the mutual separation of Eu(III) and Am(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Syamala, K.V.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-04-01

    Diglycolamic acid was anchored on a polyamine matrix and the product (PA-DGAH) was characterized by ion-exchange capacity measurement, TG-DTA and FT-IR spectroscopy. The extraction behavior of Am(III) and Eu(III) in PA-DGAH was studied from dilute nitric acid medium to examine the feasibility using the anchored adsorbent for their mutual separation. The effect of various parameters such as the duration of equilibration, concentration of europium, nitric acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in aqueous phase on the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient decreased with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. Rapid extraction of metal ions in the initial stages of equilibration followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred within 4 h. The data on the rate of uptake of Am(III) and Eu(III) were fitted into pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order rate equation. The extraction isotherm was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and the apparent europium extraction capacity was determined. The mechanism of extraction was elucidated and the conditions needed for efficient separation of Am(III) from Eu(III) was optimized using DTPA. The study indicated the possibility of using PA-DGAH for the separation of Eu(III) from Am(III) with high separation factors.

  18. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. Current working estimate. Phase III and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) executed a contract with Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW) which requires MLGW to perform process analysis, design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, and evaluation of a plant which will demonstrate the feasibility of converting high sulfur bituminous coal to industrial fuel gas with a heating value of 300 +- 30 Btu per standard cubic foot (SCF). The demonstration plant is based on the U-Gas process, and its product gas is to be used in commercial applications in Memphis, Tenn. The contract specifies that the work is to be conducted in three phases. The Phases are: Phase I - Program Development and Conceptual Design; Phase II - Demonstration Plant Final Design, Procurement and Construction; and Phase III - Demonstration Plant Operation. Under Task III of Phase I, a Cost Estimate for the Demonstration Plant was completed as well as estimates for other Phase II and III work. The output of this Estimate is presented in this volume. This Current Working Estimate for Phases II and III is based on the Process and Mechanical Designs presented in the Task II report (second issue) and the 12 volumes of the Task III report. In addition, the capital cost estimate summarized in the appendix has been used in the Economic Analysis (Task III) Report.

  19. Anomalia de Classe III

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução: A anomalia de classe III, é uma má oclusão que afeta os indivíduos psicologicamente, pois hoje em dia, a estética é socialmente valorizada. Deste modo, o diagnóstico deve ser executado precocemente para que os indivíduos portadores desta anomalia, possam ser acompanhados desde criança, pelos profissionais área da Medicina...

  20. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  1. Stability constants of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes with N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) p-toluene sulphonamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, S.C.; Mathur, K.C. (Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-01-01

    The dissociation constants of the ligand and stability constants of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes with N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) p-toluene sulphonamide have been determined potentiometrically using Calvin-Bjerrum pH titration technique at 30 +- 1deg C and ..mu.. = 0.1 M (NaClO/sub 4/) in aqueous medium. The stability constants of these metal complexes are found to follow the order Dy > Tb > Gd > Sm > Nd > Pr > La.

  2. Population III Hypernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Smidt, Joseph; Even, Wesley; Wiggins, Brandon; Johnson, Jarrett L; Fryer, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. But until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic lighthouses at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25 - 50 M$_{\\odot}$ hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10 - 15 to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and z = 4 - 5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, a superluminous event will occur that may be se...

  3. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  4. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  5. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  6. Oxymatrinium tetrachloridoferrate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong He

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C15H25N2O2[FeCl4], contains a tetrachloridoferrate(III anion and a oxymatrinium cation [oxymatrine is (4R,7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS-dodecahydro-1H,5H,10H-dipyrido[2,1-f:3′,2′,1′-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one 4-oxide]. The conformation of oxymatrine is similar to that of matrine with one ring having a half-chair conformation, while the others have chair conformations. Chiral chains of cations along the c axis are formed by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. III.— Documents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    III/1 inventaire de l’orangerie du château d’Ivry, 1770 • Inventaire après décès du marquis de Béringhen (extrait), AN M.C. LXXXVIII, 723, 28 février 1770 « [f° 113 v°] Dudit jour samedi seize du présent mois de juin huit heures du matin à même requête qualité et preuve que dessus, ainsi que le tout a été ci-devant établi, va être par les conseillers du roi notaires au Châtelet de Paris [f° 114 r°] soussignés procédé à la continuation du présent inventaire de la manière et ainsi qu’il suit. S...

  8. Pseudo Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance "modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow," some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  9. Protein-water dynamics in antifreeze protein III activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Meister, Konrad; Bischak, Connor G.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2016-03-01

    We combine Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for the antifreeze activity of one class of antifreeze protein, antifreeze protein type III (AFP-III) with a focus on the collective water hydrogen bond dynamics near the protein. After summarizing our previous work on AFPs, we present a new investigation of the effects of cosolutes on protein antifreeze activity by adding sodium citrate to the protein solution of AFP-III. Our results reveal that for AFP-III, unlike some other AFPs, the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate does not affect the hydrogen bond dynamics at the protein surface significantly, as indicated by concentration dependent THz measurements. The present data, in combination with our previous THz measurements and molecular simulations, confirm that while long-range solvent perturbation is a necessary condition for the antifreeze activity of AFP-III, the local binding affinity determines the size of the hysteresis.

  10. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory W; Kravitz, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask.

  11. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  12. Blood-brain barrier impairment in MPS III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Mirtyl, Santhia; Sallot, Sebastian A; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Haller, Edward; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-11-13

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of a specific enzyme leading to heparan sulfate (HS) accumulation within cells and to eventual progressive cerebral and systemic organ abnormalities. Different enzyme deficiencies comprise the MPS III subcategories (A, B, C, D). Since neuropathological manifestations are common to all MPS III types, determining blood-brain barrier (BBB) condition may be critical to understand potential additional disease mechanisms. We investigated BBB integrity in various brain structures of post-mortem tissues from an eleven year old Caucasian female with MPS III A and from a twenty four year old Caucasian female with MPS III D. Control tissues were obtained post-mortem from three Caucasians without neurological deficits: a twelve year old male, a twenty four year old female, and a twenty seven year old female. BBB capillary ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and capillary functional integrity (IgG leakage, tight junction proteins, and lysosomal accumulation within endothelium) were examined. Compromised BBB integrity was found in both MPS III cases. Major study findings were: (1) capillary endothelial and pericyte cell damage; (2) mucopolysaccharide bodies in a majority of endothelial cells and pericytes rupturing cell membranes; (3) severe extracellular edema; (4) IgG microvascular leakage and reductions of occludin and claudin-5 with variations between MPS III types; (5) extensive lysosomal accumulation in capillary endothelium. These new findings of BBB structural and functional impairment, although from only two cases, MPS III A and III D, may have implications for disease pathogenesis and should be considered in treatment development for MPS III.

  13. Early Treatment Protocol for Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Oltramari-Navarro,Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira CONTI; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes,Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment...

  14. Gold(III) complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Pedro Ivo da Silva; Deflon, Victor M; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A number of gold(III) compounds has been designed with the objective of overcoming the disadvantages associated with the platinum-based drugs for cancer treatment. Compounds of a remarkable structural manifold show significant antiproliferative effects in vitro against a number of cancer cells, including cisplatin resistant ones. The target of most of them is, unlike that of cisplatin, not the DNA. Although the mechanisms of action displayed by the gold compounds in biological media are still under investigation, many studies show evidence that the cellular targets are mitochondria-based. Recent advances in gold(III) medicinal chemistry also recommend such compounds for other pharmacological applications such as the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. The radioactive isotopes (198)Au and (199)Au present potential in radiotherapy.

  15. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  16. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R; Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P

    2004-01-01

    Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction has an important influence on the geochemistry of modern environments, and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, most notably those in the Geobacteraceae family, can play an important role in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with organic or metal contaminants. Microorganisms with the capacity to conserve energy from Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction are phylogenetically dispersed throughout the Bacteria and Archaea. The ability to oxidize hydrogen with the reduction of Fe(III) is a highly conserved characteristic of hyperthermophilic microorganisms and one Fe(III)-reducing Archaea grows at the highest temperature yet recorded for any organism. Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to oxidize a wide variety of organic compounds, often completely to carbon dioxide. Typical alternative electron acceptors for Fe(III) reducers include oxygen, nitrate, U(VI) and electrodes. Unlike other commonly considered electron acceptors, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, the most prevalent form of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in most environments, are insoluble. Thus, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms face the dilemma of how to transfer electrons derived from central metabolism onto an insoluble, extracellular electron acceptor. Although microbiological and geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) reduction may have been the first form of microbial respiration, the capacity for Fe(III) reduction appears to have evolved several times as phylogenetically distinct Fe(III) reducers have different mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction. Geobacter species, which are representative of the family of Fe(III) reducers that predominate in a wide diversity of sedimentary environments, require direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them. In contrast, Shewanella and Geothrix species produce chelators that solubilize Fe(III) and release electron-shuttling compounds that transfer electrons from the cell surface to

  17. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Asao; Amandine Sambira Marekani; Jessica VanCleave; Amy E. Rothberg

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food...

  18. Prominent role of exopeptidase DPP III in estrogen-mediated protection against hyperoxia in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sobočanec

    2016-08-01

    We find that DPP III accumulates in the nucleus in response to hyperoxia. Further, we show that combined induction of hyperoxia and E2 administration have an additive effect on the nuclear accumulation of DPP III. The level of nuclear accumulation of DPP III is comparable to nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2 in healthy female mice exposed to hyperoxia. In ovariectomized females exposed to hyperoxia, supplementation of E2 induced upregulation of DPP III, Ho-1, Sirt-1 and downregulation of Ppar-γ. While other cytoprotective mechanisms cannot be excluded, these findings demonstrate a prominent role of DPP III, along with Sirt-1, in the E2-mediated protection against hyperoxia.

  19. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  20. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  1. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  2. Celestine III and the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår pave Cølestin IIIs forhold til de nordiske kongeriger i perioden 1191-1198. Artiklen viser, at paven, som i forskningen traditionelt år har stået i skyggen af sin berømte, energiske og især: yngre efterfølger, Innocens III, har været på forkant med udviklingen i de nordiske rig...

  3. Separation by liquid-liquid extraction of actinides(III) from lanthanides(III) using new molecules: the picolinamides; Separation par extraction liquide-liquide des actinides(III) des lanthanides(III) par de nouvelles molecules: les picolinamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P.Y. [CEA Marcoule, Departement de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)]|[Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1996-07-01

    In the field of long-lived radionuclides separation from waste generated during spent fuel reprocessing, the picolinamides have been chosen as potential extractants for the selective extraction of actinides (III) from lanthanides (III). The first studies initiated on the most simple molecule of the picolinamide family, namely 2-pyridinecarboxamide, pointed out that in an aqueous media the complexation stability constant between this ligand and Am(III) is roughly 10 times higher than the ones corresponding to Ln(III). The synthesis of lipophilic derivatives of 2-pyridinecarboxamide leaded to extraction experiments. The extraction of metallic cation by lipophilic picolinamides, according to a solvatation mechanism, is strongly dependent on the nature of the amide function: a primary amide function (group I) leads to a good extraction; on the contrary, there is a decrease for secondary (group II) and tertiary (group III) amide functions. From a theoretical point of view, this work leads finally to the following conclusions: confirmation of the importance of the presence of soft donor atoms within the extractants (nitrogen in our case) for An(III)/Ln(III). Also, sensitivity of this soft donor atom regarding the protonation reaction; prevalence in our case of the affinity of the extractant for the metallic cation over the lipophilia of the extractant to ensure good distribution coefficients. The extraction and Am(III)/Ln(III) separation performances of the picolinamides from pertechnetic media leads to the design of a possible flowsheet for the reprocessing of high level liquid waste, with the new idea of an integrated technetium reflux. (author) 105 refs.

  4. Chemical Properties And Toxicity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-19

    The status of Cr(III) as an essential micronutrient for humans is currently under question. No functional Cr(III)-containing biomolecules have been definitively described as yet, and accumulated experience in the use of Cr(III) nutritional supplements (such as [Cr(pic){sub 3}], where pic = 2-pyridinecarboxylato) has shown no measurable benefits for nondiabetic people. Although the use of large doses of Cr(III) supplements may lead to improvements in glucose metabolism for type 2 diabetics, there is a growing concern over the possible genotoxicity of these compounds, particularly of [Cr(pic){sub 3}]. The current perspective discusses chemical transformations of Cr(III) nutritional supplements in biological media, with implications for both beneficial and toxic actions of Cr(III) complexes, which are likely to arise from the same biochemical mechanisms, dependent on concentrations of the reactive species. These species include: (1) partial hydrolysis products of Cr(III) nutritional supplements, which are capable of binding to biological macromolecules and altering their functions; and (2) highly reactive Cr(VI/V/IV) species and organic radicals, formed in reactions of Cr(III) with biological oxidants. Low concentrations of these species are likely to cause alterations in cell signaling (including enhancement of insulin signaling) through interactions with the active centers of regulatory enzymes in the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm, while higher concentrations are likely to produce genotoxic DNA lesions in the cell nucleus. These data suggest that the potential for genotoxic side-effects of Cr(III) complexes may outweigh their possible benefits as insulin enhancers, and that recommendations for their use as either nutritional supplements or antidiabetic drugs need to be reconsidered in light of these recent findings.

  5. Updating quasar bolometric luminosity corrections - III. [O iii] bolometric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Alison; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Brotherton, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    We present quasar bolometric corrections using the [O III] λ 5007 narrow emission line luminosity based on the detailed spectral energy distributions of 53 bright quasars at low to moderate redshift (0.0345 diversity, introduces scatter into the L_{[O III]}-Liso relationship. We found that the {[O III]} bolometric correction can be significantly improved by adding a term including the equivalent width ratio R_{Fe II} ≡ EW_{{Fe II}}/EW_{Hβ }, which is an EV1 indicator. Inclusion of R_{Fe II} in predicting Liso is significant at nearly the 3σ level and reduces the scatter and systematic offset of the luminosity residuals. Typically, {[O III]} bolometric corrections are adopted for Type 2 sources where the quasar continuum is not observed and in these cases, R_{Fe II} cannot be measured. We searched for an alternative measure of EV1 that could be measured in the optical spectra of Type 2 sources but were unable to identify one. Thus, the main contribution of this work is to present an improved {[O III]} bolometric correction based on measured bolometric luminosities and highlight the EV1 dependence of the correction in Type 1 sources.

  6. Fusion protein of retinol-binding protein and albumin domain III reduces liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongsik; Jeong, Hyeyeun; Park, Sangeun; Yoo, Wonbaek; Choi, Soyoung; Choi, Kyungmin; Lee, Min-Goo; Lee, Mihwa; Cha, DaeRyong; Kim, Young-Sik; Han, Jeeyoung; Kim, Wonkon; Park, Sun-Hwa; Oh, Junseo

    2015-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in liver fibrosis, and inactivating HSCs has been considered a promising therapeutic approach. We previously showed that albumin and its derivative designed for stellate cell-targeting, retinol-binding protein-albumin domain III fusion protein (referred to as R-III), inactivate cultured HSCs. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of albumin/R-III in HSCs and examined the anti-fibrotic potential of R-III in vivo. R-III treatment and albumin expression downregulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling which was involved in HSC activation. RA receptor agonist and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase overexpression abolished the anti-fibrotic effect of R-III and albumin, respectively. R-III uptake into cultured HSCs was significantly decreased by siRNA-STRA6, and injected R-III was localized predominantly in HSCs in liver. Importantly, R-III administration reduced CCl4- and bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis. R-III also exhibited a preventive effect against CCl4-inducd liver fibrosis. These findings suggest that the anti-fibrotic effect of albumin/R-III is, at least in part, mediated by downregulation of RA signaling and that R-III is a good candidate as a novel anti-fibrotic drug. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Aspectos da Reologia e da Estabilidade de Suspensões Cerâmicas. Parte III: Mecanismo de Estabilização Eletroestérica de Suspensões com Alumina Aspects of Rheology and Stability of Ceramic Suspensions. Part III: Electrosteric Stabilization Mechanism of Alumina Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Ortega

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta terceira e última parte da revisão sobre os aspectos reológicos e de estabilização de suspensões com pós cerâmicos vem reunir a aplicação dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas primeiras duas partes publicadas anteriormente. Aqui, os fenômenos eletrostático devido à dupla camada elétrica, e estérico, relacionado à adsorção de moléculas poliméricas, são combinados para explicar o mecanismo eletroestérico de estabilização de suspensões cerâmicas. Os defloculantes que atuam através desse mecanismo abrangem uma classe específica de polímero denominada polieletrólitos, a qual é constituída por macromoléculas ionizáveis quando em solução. O estudo da forma com que os polieletrólitos atuam justifica-se devido à larga utilização desta classe de polímeros na indústria cerâmica. Os ácidos poliacrílico (PAA e polimetacrílico (PMAA são exemplos de polieletrólitos amplamente utilizados no processo de materiais à base de alumina. Dá-se destaque à influência do pH do meio e da presença de íons, sendo novamente aqui importante o conceito de força iônica da suspensão. Como aplicação prática, apresenta-se a estabilidade do sistema alumina-PMAA, reportando-se sobre o comportamento da viscosidade e da efetiva defloculação da suspensão. Este estudo é concluído apresentando resultados do efeito do peso molecular sobre a viscosidade, chamando atenção para o fato de que não basta definir apenas a classe de polímero a ser usada, sendo também fundamental especificar o peso molecular médio do polímero selecionado.The third and last part of this review about stabilization and rheological aspects of ceramic suspension gathers the knowledge in the two parts previously published. Here, the electrostatic and steric phenomena, related to the electrical double layer and polymeric molecules adsorption, respectively, are combined to explain the electrosteric stabilization mechanism of ceramic suspensions. The

  8. Ruthenium(III Catalysis in Perborate Oxidation of 5-Oxoacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shree Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III catalyzes perborate oxidation of substituted 5-oxoacids in acidic solution. The catalyzed oxidation is first order with respect to the oxidant and catalyst. The rate of ruthenium(III catalyzed oxidation displays the Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the reductant and is independent of [H+] of the medium. Hydrogen peroxide is the reactive species of perborate and the kinetic results reveal formation of ruthenium(III peroxo species-5-oxoacid complex. Electron-releasing substituents accelerate the reaction rate and electron-withdrawing substituents retard it. The order of reactivity among the studied 5-oxoacids is p-methoxy ≫  p-methyl > p-phenyl > −H > p-chloro > p-bromo > m-nitro. Activation parameters are evaluated using Arrhenius and Eyring’s plots. A mechanism consistent with the observed kinetic data is proposed and discussed. A suitable rate law is derived based on the mechanism.

  9. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    It is typically expected that if a mechanism is truthful, then the agents would, indeed, truthfully report their private information. But why would an agent believe that the mechanism is truthful? We wish to design truthful mechanisms, whose truthfulness can be verified efficiently (in...... the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  10. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  11. The START III bargaining space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  12. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  13. Trigger efficiencies at BES III

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Liu, Z A; Jin, D P; Xu, H; Gong, W X; Wang, K; Cao, G F

    2010-01-01

    Trigger efficiencies at BES III were determined for both the J/psi and psi' data taking of 2009. Both dedicated runs and physics datasets are used; efficiencies are presented for Bhabha-scattering events, generic hadronic decay events involving charged tracks, dimuon events and psi' -> pi+pi-J/psi, J/psi -> l+l- events (l an electron or muon). The efficiencies are found to lie well above 99% for all relevant physics cases, thus fulfilling the BES III design specifications.

  14. First Stars III Conference Summary

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W; Heger, Alexander; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  15. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  16. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  17. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  18. Thermal decomposition of potassium bis-oxalatodiaquaindate(III) monohydrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tesfahun Kebede; Karri V Ramana; M S Prasada Rao

    2001-08-01

    Indium (III) is precipitated with oxalic acid in the presence of potassium nitrate maintaining an overall concentration of 0 125 M in HNO3. Chemical analysis of the complex salt obtained indicates the formula, K[In(C2O4)2] 3H2O. Thermal decomposition studies show that the compound decomposes first to the anhydrous potassium indium oxalate and then to the final mixture of the oxides through formation of potassium carbonate and indium (III) oxide as intermediates. Isothermal study, X-ray diffraction pattern and IR spectral data support the proposed thermal decomposition mechanism.

  19. Class III peroxidases in plant defence reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, L; Gómez Ros, L V; Belchi-Navarro, S; Bru, R; Ros Barceló, A; Pedreño, M A

    2009-01-01

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, they defend themselves with an arsenal of defence mechanisms, both passive and active. The active defence responses, which require de novo protein synthesis, are regulated through a complex and interconnected network of signalling pathways that mainly involve three molecules, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), and which results in the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Microbe or elicitor-induced signal transduction pathways lead to (i) the reinforcement of cell walls and lignification, (ii) the production of antimicrobial metabolites (phytoalexins), and (iii) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Among the proteins induced during the host plant defence, class III plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; hydrogen donor: H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase, Prxs) are well known. They belong to a large multigene family, and participate in a broad range of physiological processes, such as lignin and suberin formation, cross-linking of cell wall components, and synthesis of phytoalexins, or participate in the metabolism of ROS and RNS, both switching on the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed host cell death at the infection site associated with limited pathogen development. The present review focuses on these plant defence reactions in which Prxs are directly or indirectly involved, and ends with the signalling pathways, which regulate Prx gene expression during plant defence. How they are integrated within the complex network of defence responses of any host plant cell will be the cornerstone of future research.

  20. The nature of the intermediates in the reactions of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-microperoxidase-8 with H(2)O(2): a rapid kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Jean-Louis; Grunenwald, Sylvie; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Albrecht-Gary, Anne-Marie; Mandon, Dominique; Veeger, Cees

    2002-02-20

    Kinetic studies were performed with microperoxidase-8 (Fe(III)MP-8), the proteolytic breakdown product of horse heart cytochrome c containing an octapeptide linked to an iron protoporphyrin IX. Mn(III) was substituted for Fe(III) in Mn(III)MP-8. The mechanism of formation of the reactive metal-oxo and metal-hydroperoxo intermediates of M(III)MP-8 upon reaction of H(2)O(2) with Fe(III)MP-8 and Mn(III)MP-8 was investigated by rapid-scan stopped-flow spectroscopy and transient EPR. Two steps (k(obs1) and k(obs2)) were observed and analyzed for the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with both catalysts. The plots of k(obs1) as function of [H(2)O(2)] at pH 8.0 and pH 9.1 for Fe(III)MP-8, and at pH 10.2 and pH 10.9 for Mn(III)MP-8, exhibit saturation kinetics, which reveal the accumulation of an intermediate. Double reciprocal plots of 1/k(obs1) as function of 1/[H(2)O(2)] at different pH values reveal a competitive effect of protons in the oxidation of M(III)MP-8. This effect of protons is confirmed by the linear dependence of 1/k(obs1) on [H(+)] showing that k(obs1) increases with the pH. The UV-visible spectra of the intermediates formed at the end of the first step (k(obs1)) exhibit a spectrum characteristic of a high-valent metal-oxo intermediate for both catalysts. Transient EPR of Mn(III)MP-8 incubated with an excess of H(2)O(2), at pH 11.5, shows the detection of a free radical signal at g approximately equal to 2 and of a resonance at g approximately equal to 4 characteristic of a Mn(IV) (S = 3/2) species. On the basis of these results, the following mechanism is proposed: (i) M(III)MP-8-OH(2) is deprotonated to M(III)MP-8-OH in a rapid preequilibrium step, with a pK(a) = 9.2 +/- 0.9 for Fe(III)MP-8 and a pK(a) = 11.2 +/- 0.3 for Mn(III)MP-8; (ii) M(III)MP-8-OH reacts with H(2)O(2) to form Compound 0, M(III)MP8-OOH, with a second-order rate constant k(1) = (1.3 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M(-1) x s(-1) for Fe(III)MP-8 and k(1) = (1.6 +/- 0.9) x 10(5) M(-1) x s(-1) for Mn(III

  1. Computational Exploration of Rh(III)/Rh(V) and Rh(III)/Rh(I) Catalysis in Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation Reactions of N-Phenoxyacetamides with Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Fang; Houk, K N; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The selective rhodium-catalyzed functionalization of arenes is greatly facilitated by oxidizing directing groups that act both as directing groups and internal oxidants. We report density functional theory (B3LYP and M06) investigations on the mechanism of rhodium(III)-catalyzed redox coupling reaction of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes. The results elucidated the role of the internal oxidizing directing group, and the role of Rh(III)/Rh(I) and Rh(III)/Rh(V) catalysis of C-H functionalizations. A novel Rh(III)-Rh(V)-Rh(III) cycle successfully rationalizes recent experimental observations by Liu and Lu et al. ( Liu , G. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013 , 52 , 6033 ) on the reactions of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes in different solvents. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the identity of Rh(V) intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  2. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the lattice: III. Simulations and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartner, David

    2015-01-01

    In the fermion loop formulation the contributions to the partition function naturally separate into topological equivalence classes with a definite sign. This separation forms the basis for an efficient fermion update algorithm using a fluctuating open fermion string. It guarantees sufficient tunnelling between the topological sectors, and hence provides a solution to the fermion sign problem affecting systems with broken supersymmetry. Moreover, the algorithm shows no critical slowing down even in the massless limit and can hence handle the massless Goldstino mode emerging in the supersymmetry broken phase. In this paper -- the third in a series of three -- we present the details of the simulation algorithm and demonstrate its efficiency by means of a few examples.

  3. Selectivity and proofreading both contribute significantly to the fidelity of RNA polymerase III transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Nazif; Ayoub, Nayla; Landrieux, Emilie; Favry, Emmanuel; Baudouin-Cornu, Peggy; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We examine here the mechanisms ensuring the fidelity of RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Misincorporation could only be observed by using variants of Pol III deficient in the intrinsic RNA cleavage activity. Determination of relative rates of the reactions producing correct and erroneous transcripts at a specific position on a tRNA gene, combined with computational methods, demonstrated that Pol III has a highly efficient proofreading activity increasing its transcriptional fidelity by a factor of 103 over the error rate determined solely by selectivity (1.8 × 10−4). We show that Pol III slows down synthesis past a misincorporation to achieve efficient proofreading. We discuss our findings in the context of transcriptional fidelity studies performed on RNA Pols, proposing that the fidelity of transcription is more crucial for Pol III than Pol II. PMID:17553959

  4. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  5. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  6. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Tainer, John A; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-18

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation.

  7. EGFRvIII escapes down-regulation due to impaired internalization and sorting to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandal, Michael V; Zandi, Roza; Pedersen, Mikkel W; Willumsen, Berthe M; van Deurs, Bo; Poulsen, Hans S

    2007-07-01

    EGFRvIII is a mutant variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) found exclusively in various cancer types. EGFRvIII lacks a large part of the extracellular domain and is unable to bind ligands; however, the receptor is constitutively phosphorylated and able to activate downstream signaling pathways. Failure to attenuate signaling by receptor down-regulation could be one of the major mechanisms by which EGFRvIII becomes oncogenic. Using a cell system expressing either EGFR or EGFRvIII with no expression of other EGFR family members and with endogenous levels of key degradation proteins, we have investigated the down-regulation of EGFRvIII and compared it to that of EGFR. We show that, in contrast to EGFR, EGFRvIII is inefficiently degraded. EGFRvIII is internalized, but the internalization rate of the mutated receptor is significantly less than that of unstimulated EGFR. Moreover, internalized EGFRvIII is recycled rather than delivered to lysosomes. EGFRvIII binds the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl via Grb2, whereas binding via phosphorylated tyrosine residue 1045 seems to be limited. Despite c-Cbl binding, the receptor fails to become effectively ubiquitinylated. Thus, our results suggest that the long lifetime of EGFRvIII is caused by inefficient internalization and impaired sorting to lysosomes due to lack of effective ubiquitinylation.

  8. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  9. Mechatronic systems and materials III

    CERN Document Server

    Gosiewski, Zdzislaw

    2009-01-01

    This very interesting volume is divided into 24 sections; each of which covers, in detail, one aspect of the subject-matter: I. Industrial robots; II. Microrobotics; III. Mobile robots; IV. Teleoperation, telerobotics, teleoperated semi-autonomous systems; V. Sensors and actuators in mechatronics; VI. Control of mechatronic systems; VII. Analysis of vibration and deformation; VIII. Optimization, optimal design; IX. Integrated diagnostics; X. Failure analysis; XI. Tribology in mechatronic systems; XII. Analysis of signals; XIII. Measurement techniques; XIV. Multifunctional and smart materials;

  10. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  11. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  12. Novel synergism by complex ligands in solvent extraction of rare earth metals(III) with {beta}-diketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, H. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)]. E-mail: imura@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Ebisawa, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Kato, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ohashi, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    The extraction of rare earth metals(III) (RE) with hexafluoroacetylacetone (Hhfa) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied in the presence of some cobalt(III) chelates such as tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt(III), tris(4-isopropyltropolonato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinethiolato)cobalt(III), and tris(diethyldithiocarbamato)cobalt(III) in benzene or toluene. The synergistic enhancement of the extraction of RE, especially of lanthanum(III) was found in all the systems. Therefore, those cobalt(III) chelates act as synergists or complex ligands. The equilibrium analysis and IR spectroscopic study were performed to evaluate the present synergistic mechanism. It was found that the RE-{beta}-diketone chelates form 1:1 adducts, i.e., binuclear complexes, with the cobalt(III) chelates in the organic phase. The formation constants ({beta} {sub s,1}) were determined and compared with those reported previously. The spectroscopic studies demonstrated that adducts have two different structures with inner- and outer-sphere coordination. In the former the cobalt(III) chelate directly coordinated to the RE ion and displaced the coordinated water molecules. In the latter the hydrogen-bonding was formed between the coordinating oxygen or sulfur atoms of cobalt(III) chelate and hydrogen atoms of the coordinated water molecules in the RE-{beta}-diketone chelate. The types of the adducts are mainly due to the steric factors of the RE-{beta}-diketone chelates and the cobalt(III) chelates.

  13. Antithrombin III and the nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, K A; Stoffersen, E

    1979-05-01

    Plasma and urinary antithrombin III (AT-III) was measured in 15 cases of nephrotic syndrome. Plasma AT-III correlated well with serum albumin, but poorly with proteinuria, whereas urinary AT-III correlated well to proteinuria. The plasma AT-III level had a mean similar to 25 healthy controls, but the range was significantly wider. A case with nephrotic syndrome and left renal vein thrombosis is reported. The urinary output of AT-III rose and the plasma level fell with the activity of the disease. Although AT-III and albumin have similar molecule weight, their renal clearance was found to be different. It is suggested that urinary loss of AT-III plays a role in the hypercoagulable state sometimes found in the nephrotic syndrome.

  14. The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    A review of Peter Byrne's biography of Hugh Everett III, "The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family", (Oxford University Press, 2010).

  15. Global regulatory functions of the Staphylococcus aureus endoribonuclease III in gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimia Lioliou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III, a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo. Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within the coding region of its own mRNA. Moreover, we identified a positive effect of RNase III on protein synthesis based on novel mechanisms. RNase III-mediated cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR enhanced the stability and translation of cspA mRNA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved overlapping 5'UTRs of divergently transcribed genes to generate leaderless mRNAs, which constitutes a novel way to co-regulate neighboring genes. In agreement with recent findings, low abundance antisense RNAs covering 44% of the annotated genes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation with RNase III mutant proteins. Thus, in addition to gene regulation, RNase III is associated with RNA quality control of pervasive transcription. Overall, this study illustrates the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNase III.

  16. Simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of As(III) from water by cerium modified chitosan ultrafine nanobiosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingfan [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Research Center of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu, Tianyi [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Xin, E-mail: liuxin@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: zhwqing@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • A novel ultrafine nanobiosorbent of cerium modified chitosan (Ce-CNB) was prepared. • The Ce-CNB possessed properties for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption As(III). • Adsorption of As(III) by Ce-CNB was in high efficiency. • Mechanisms for As(III) adsorption on Ce-CNB were elucidated. - Abstract: Since most existing arsenic removal adsorbents are difficult to effectively remove arsenite (As(III)), an urgent need is to develop an efficient adsorbent for removing As(III) from contaminated water. In this study, a novel ultrafine nanobiosorbent of cerium modified chitosan (Ce-CNB) with simultaneous oxidation and adsorption As(III) performance has been successfully developed. The resulting Ce-CNB with or without As(III) adsorption was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, EMI and XPS analysis. Batch of adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effects of various conditions on the As(III) adsorption. The adsorption behaviors were well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the maximum adsorption capacities of 57.5 mg g{sup −1}. The adsorption mechanisms for As(III) were (i) formed monodentate and bidentate complexes between hydroxyl groups and arsenite; and (ii) partial As(III) oxidized to As(V) followed by simultaneously adsorbed on the surface of Ce-CNB. This novel nanocomposite can be reused while maintaining a high removal efficiency and can be applied to treat 5.8 L of As(III)-polluted water with the effluent concentration lower than the World Health Organization standard, which suggests its great potential to remove As(III) from contaminated water.

  17. BIOSORPTION OF Cr(III) ION ON ALGAE Eucheuma spinosum BIOMASSA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiarta, I. Wayan; Diantariani, Ni Putu

    2010-01-01

    Studies on biosorption and desorption of Cr(III) on algae (Eucheuma spinosum) adsorbent have been carried out. These studies included determination of biosorbent acidity, optimum pH, contact time of biosorption, isoterm and biosorption capacity, and mechanisms of interaction between Cr(III) and algae (E. spinosum) biosorben. Mechanisms of interaction were evaluated by sequential desorption of Cr(III) on algae biosorben by using aquadest, 1 M HCl and 0.05 M Na2EDTA. The result showed that the ...

  18. Mechanistic study of ruthenium (III) catalysed oxidation of L-lysine by diperiodatoargentate (III) in aqueous alkaline medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R R Hosamani; S T Nandibewoor

    2009-05-01

    The kinetics of Ru(III) catalysed oxidation of L-lysine by diperiodatoargentate (III) (DPA) in alkaline medium at 298 K and a constant ionic strength of 0.50 mol dm-3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The oxidation products are aldehyde (5-aminopentanal) and Ag (I). The stoichiometry is i.e. [L-lysine] : [DPA] = 1 : 1. The reaction is of first order in [Ru(III)] and [DPA] and is less than unit order in both [L-lys] and [alkali]. Addition of periodate had a retarding effect on the reaction. The oxidation reaction in alkaline medium has been shown to proceed via a Ru(III)-L-lysine complex, which further reacts with one molecule of monoperiodatoargentate(III) (MPA) in a rate determining step followed by other fast steps to give the products. The main products were identified by spot test, IR, GC-MS studies. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed and thermodynamic quantities are also determined. The active species of catalyst and oxidant have been identified.

  19. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in CMPO-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, K.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities (India). Kalpakkam Reproscessing Plants; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic resin containing extractants such as octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of extractants (CMPO + HDEHP) in an acrylic polymer matrix was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) over a range of nitric acid concentration. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and the concentration of CMPO and HDEHP in the resin phase was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the impregnated resin increased with increased in the concentration of nitric acid for CMPO-impregnated resin, whereas a reverse trend was observed in HDEHP impregnated resin. In case of resin containing both the extractants, synergism was observed at low nitric acid concentration and antagonism at high nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of extraction was probed by slope analysis method at 0.01 and 2 M nitric acid concentrations. Citrate-buffered DTPA was used for the selective separation of Am(III), and a separation factor of 3-4 was obtained at pH 3.

  20. Outer cell surface components essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction by Geobacter metallireducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica A; Lovley, Derek R; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2013-02-01

    Geobacter species are important Fe(III) reducers in a diversity of soils and sediments. Mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction have been studied in detail in Geobacter sulfurreducens, but a number of the most thoroughly studied outer surface components of G. sulfurreducens, particularly c-type cytochromes, are not well conserved among Geobacter species. In order to identify cellular components potentially important for Fe(III) oxide reduction in Geobacter metallireducens, gene transcript abundance was compared in cells grown on Fe(III) oxide or soluble Fe(III) citrate with whole-genome microarrays. Outer-surface cytochromes were also identified. Deletion of genes for c-type cytochromes that had higher transcript abundance during growth on Fe(III) oxides and/or were detected in the outer-surface protein fraction identified six c-type cytochrome genes, that when deleted removed the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Several of the c-type cytochromes which were essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction in G. metallireducens have homologs in G. sulfurreducens that are not important for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Other genes essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction included a gene predicted to encode an NHL (Ncl-1-HT2A-Lin-41) repeat-containing protein and a gene potentially involved in pili glycosylation. Genes associated with flagellum-based motility, chemotaxis, and pili had higher transcript abundance during growth on Fe(III) oxide, consistent with the previously proposed importance of these components in Fe(III) oxide reduction. These results demonstrate that there are similarities in extracellular electron transfer between G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens but the outer-surface c-type cytochromes involved in Fe(III) oxide reduction are different.

  1. Oxidative study of gabapentin by alkaline hexacyanoferrate(III) in room temperature in presence of catalytic amount of Ru(III) a mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Timy P.; Angadi, Mahantesh A.; Salunke, Manjalee S.; Tuwar, Suresh M.

    2008-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of gabapentin by hexacyanoferrate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.5 mol dm -3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction is of first order in [HCF(III)] and of less than unit order in [alkali]. The reaction rate is independent upon [gabapentin]. Effects of added products, ionic strength and dielectric constant of the reaction medium have been investigated. Oxidative product of gabapentin was identified. A suitable mechanism has been proposed. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of mechanism are calculated. The activation parameters of the mechanism are computed and discussed .

  2. Nitrile hydration by thiolate- and alkoxide-ligated Co-NHase analogues. Isolation of Co(III)-amidate and Co(III)-iminol intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rodney D; Coggins, Michael K; Kaminsky, Werner; Kovacs, Julie A

    2011-03-23

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases) are thiolate-ligated Fe(III)- or Co(III)-containing enzymes, which convert nitriles to the corresponding amide under mild conditions. Proposed NHase mechanisms involve M(III)-NCR, M(III)-OH, M(III)-iminol, and M(III)-amide intermediates. There have been no reported crystallographically characterized examples of these key intermediates. Spectroscopic and kinetic data support the involvement of a M(III)-NCR intermediate. A H-bonding network facilitates this enzymatic reaction. Herein we describe two biomimetic Co(III)-NHase analogues that hydrate MeCN, and four crystallographically characterized NHase intermediate analogues, [Co(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(MeCN)](2+) (1), [Co(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(OH)](+) (3), [Co(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(NHC(O)CH(3))](+) (2), and [Co(III)(O(Me2)N(4)(tren))(NHC(OH)CH(3))](2+) (5). Iminol-bound 5 represents the first example of a Co(III)-iminol compound in any ligand environment. Kinetic parameters (k(1)(298 K) = 2.98(5) M(-1) s(-1), ΔH(‡) = 12.65(3) kcal/mol, ΔS(‡) = -14(7) e.u.) for nitrile hydration by 1 are reported, and the activation energy E(a) = 13.2 kcal/mol is compared with that (E(a) = 5.5 kcal/mol) of the NHase enzyme. A mechanism involving initial exchange of the bound MeCN for OH- is ruled out by the fact that nitrile exchange from 1 (k(ex)(300 K) = 7.3(1) × 10(-3) s(-1)) is 2 orders of magnitude slower than nitrile hydration, and that hydroxide bound 3 does not promote nitrile hydration. Reactivity of an analogue that incorporates an alkoxide as a mimic of the highly conserved NHase serine residue shows that this moiety facilitates nitrile hydration under milder conditions. Hydrogen-bonding to the alkoxide stabilizes a Co(III)-iminol intermediate. Comparison of the thiolate versus alkoxide intermediate structures shows that C≡N bond activation and C═O bond formation proceed further along the reaction coordinate when a thiolate is incorporated into the coordination sphere.

  3. Nitrile Hydration by Thiolate–and Alkoxide–Ligated Co-NHase Analogues. Isolation of Co(III)-Amidate and Co(III)–Iminol Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rodney D.; Coggins, Michael K.; Kaminsky, Werner; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases) are thiolate–ligated Fe(III)- or Co(III)-containing enzymes, which convert nitriles to the corresponding amide under mild conditions. Proposed NHase mechanisms involve M(III)–NCR, M(III)–OH, M(III)–iminol and M(III)–amide intermediates. Spectroscopic and kinetic data support the involvement of a M(III)–NCR intermediate. A H–bonding network facilitates this enzymatic reaction. There have been no reported crystallographically characterized examples of these key intermediates. Herein we describe two biomimetic Co(III)–NHase analogues that hydrate MeCN. Four key crystallographically characterized NHase intermediate anaologues, [CoIII(SMe2N4(tren))(MeCN)]2+ (1), [CoIII(SMe2N4(tren))(OH)]+ (3), [CoIII(SMe2N4(tren))(NHC(O)CH3)]+ (2), and [CoIII(OMe2N4(tren))(NHC(OH)CH3)]2+ (5) are described. Iminol–bound 5 represents the first example of a Co(III)-iminol compound in any ligand environment. Kinetic parameters (k1(298 K)= 2.98(5) M−1s−1, ΔH‡ = 12.65(3) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −14(7) e.u.) for nitrile hydration by 1 are reported, and the activation energy Ea= 13.2 kcal/mol is compared with that (Ea= 5.5 kcal/mol) of the NHase enzyme. A mechanism involving initial exchange of the bound MeCN for OH− is ruled out by the fact that nitrile exchange from 1 (kex(300 K)= 7.3(1) x10−3 s−1) is two orders of magnitude slower than nitrile hydration, and that hydroxide bound 3 does not promote nitrile hydration. Reactivity of an analogue that incorporates an alkoxide as a mimic of the highly conserved NHase serine residue shows that this moiety facilitates nitrile hydration under milder conditions. Hydrogen-bonding to the alkoxide stabilizes a Co(III)-iminol intermediate. Comparison of the thiolate versus alkoxide intermediate structures shows that C≡N bond activation and C=O bond formation proceed further along the reaction coordinate when a thiolate is incorporated into the coordination sphere. PMID:21351789

  4. Optical properties of the Eu(III)-La(III)-complex-doped polyolefine film and rod samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogreb, Roman; Popov, Oleg; Lirtsman, Vlad; Pyshkin, Oleg; Kazachkov, Alexander; Musin, Albina; Finkelshtein, Binyamin; Shmukler, Yuri; Davidov, Dan; Bormashenko, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The work is devoted to luminescent properties of trivalent lanthanide complexes dispersed in thermoplastic host matrices. Polyethylene-based film and polypropylene-based rod both doped with these complexes were manufactured using an extrusion technique. Two kinds of dopants were used: Eu(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)) and Eu(III)-La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)-La(III)). Comparison was made between these samples regarding absorption, excitation, emission and a lifetime of luminescence. Dependence of emission intensity on the excitation energy was determined. Emission spectra of the films were studied at room and helium temperatures. Optical properties of Eu(III) samples are different from Eu(III)-La(III) samples. Significant difference in spectra of these two types of samples may be attributed to the La(III) action.

  5. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  6. The essential function of B. subtilis RNase III is to silence foreign toxin genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Durand

    Full Text Available RNase III-related enzymes play key roles in cleaving double-stranded RNA in many biological systems. Among the best-known are RNase III itself, involved in ribosomal RNA maturation and mRNA turnover in bacteria, and Drosha and Dicer, which play critical roles in the production of micro (mi-RNAs and small interfering (si-RNAs in eukaryotes. Although RNase III has important cellular functions in bacteria, its gene is generally not essential, with the remarkable exception of that of Bacillus subtilis. Here we show that the essential role of RNase III in this organism is to protect it from the expression of toxin genes borne by two prophages, Skin and SPβ, through antisense RNA. Thus, while a growing number of organisms that use RNase III or its homologs as part of a viral defense mechanism, B. subtilis requires RNase III for viral accommodation to the point where the presence of the enzyme is essential for cell survival. We identify txpA and yonT as the two toxin-encoding mRNAs of Skin and SPβ that are sensitive to RNase III. We further explore the mechanism of RNase III-mediated decay of the txpA mRNA when paired to its antisense RNA RatA, both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Reduction of Fe(III) colloids by Shewanella putrefaciens: A kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Steeve; Behrends, Thilo; van Cappellen, Philippe; Hyacinthe, Christelle; Röling, Wilfred F. M.

    2006-12-01

    A kinetic model for the microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide colloids in the presence of excess electron donor is presented. The model assumes a two-step mechanism: (1) attachment of Fe(III) colloids to the cell surface and (2) reduction of Fe(III) centers at the surface of attached colloids. The validity of the model is tested using Shewanella putrefaciens and nanohematite as model dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria and Fe(III) colloidal particles, respectively. Attachment of nanohematite to the bacteria is formally described by a Langmuir isotherm. Initial iron reduction rates are shown to correlate linearly with the relative coverage of the cell surface by nanohematite particles, hence supporting a direct electron transfer from membrane-bound reductases to mineral particles attached to the cells. Using internally consistent parameter values for the maximum attachment capacity of Fe(III) colloids to the cells, Mmax, the attachment constant, KP, and the first-order Fe(III) reduction rate constant, k, the model reproduces the initial reduction rates of a variety of fine-grained Fe(III) oxyhydroxides by S. putrefaciens. The model explains the observed dependency of the apparent Fe(III) half-saturation constant, Km∗, on the solid to cell ratio, and it predicts that initial iron reduction rates exhibit saturation with respect to both the cell density and the abundance of the Fe(III) oxyhydroxide substrate.

  8. Study of extraction kinetics of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III) nitrates by the molecule N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dibutyl, tetradecylmalonamide; Etude des cinetiques d'extraction des nitrates de lanthanides (III) et d'actinides (III) par le malonamide N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dibutyl, tetradecylmalonamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldon, M

    1999-07-01

    The kinetics of extraction of lanthanides (III) and actinides (III) nitrates by the molecule N, N'-dimethyl - N, N'-dibutyl tetra-decyl malonamide has been investigated. This study was realised with a new constant interfacial-area-stirred cell. During the qualification step of the device it appears that the reduction of the device can lead to hydrolytic perturbations. The main conclusions are: - after the determination of conditions which provide kinetics regime (diffusion of species neglectable), partial orders of the kinetics law have been obtained and lead to the establishment of the law J = k [Nd{sup 3+}] [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]{sup 3} [diamide]{sup 1}, - interfacial tension measurements and kinetics study in presence of surface-active compounds proved that the chemical limiting reaction for Nd(III) is interfacial, - the results allow to propose an adsorption-desorption reaction mechanism, - a comprehensive study of the extraction kinetics of the lanthanides(III) series and also Am(III) and Cm(III) nitrates has been realised. The lighter lanthanides (La, Ce and Pr) exhibit higher kinetics rate of extraction than the others, which differs from the tendency observed with distribution coefficients which exhibit tetrad effect. The kinetics rate of extraction of Am(III) and Cm(III) is closed to the value of Eu(III). (author)

  9. Simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of As(III) from water by cerium modified chitosan ultrafine nanobiosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingfan; Zhu, Tianyi; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Wenqing

    2016-05-05

    Since most existing arsenic removal adsorbents are difficult to effectively remove arsenite (As(III)), an urgent need is to develop an efficient adsorbent for removing As(III) from contaminated water. In this study, a novel ultrafine nanobiosorbent of cerium modified chitosan (Ce-CNB) with simultaneous oxidation and adsorption As(III) performance has been successfully developed. The resulting Ce-CNB with or without As(III) adsorption was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, EMI and XPS analysis. Batch of adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effects of various conditions on the As(III) adsorption. The adsorption behaviors were well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the maximum adsorption capacities of 57.5 mg g(-1). The adsorption mechanisms for As(III) were (i) formed monodentate and bidentate complexes between hydroxyl groups and arsenite; and (ii) partial As(III) oxidized to As(V) followed by simultaneously adsorbed on the surface of Ce-CNB. This novel nanocomposite can be reused while maintaining a high removal efficiency and can be applied to treat 5.8L of As(III)-polluted water with the effluent concentration lower than the World Health Organization standard, which suggests its great potential to remove As(III) from contaminated water.

  10. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-04-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process for transforming traditional III-V materials based electronics into flexible one. The thesis reports releasing 200 nm of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) from 200 nm GaAs / 300 nm Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes that contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelengths) observed. Fabrication of metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAPs) on GaAs is followed by releasing it to have devices on flexible 200 nm GaAs. Similarly, flexible GaSb and InP fabrication process is also reported to transform traditional electronics into large-area flexible electronics.

  11. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  12. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  13. Type III restriction endonucleases translocate DNA in a reaction driven by recognition site-specific ATP hydrolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meisel, A.; Mackeldanz, P; Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H; Schroeder, C.

    1995-01-01

    Type III restriction/modification systems recognize short non-palindromic sequences, only one strand of which can be methylated. Replication of type III-modified DNA produces completely unmethylated recognition sites which, according to classical mechanisms of restriction, should be signals for restriction. We have shown previously that suicidal restriction by the type III enzyme EcoP15I is prevented if all the unmodified sites are in the same orientation: restriction by EcoP15I requires a pa...

  14. Cobalt (III) complexes as novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoun [Sungshin Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We have synthesized a series of novel MMP-9 inhibitors containing cobalt(III) complexes. The synthesized cobalt(III) complexes are effective as enzyme inhibitors and the attachment of a biphenyl group enhanced the efficiency of enzyme inhibition up to 6-fold. When compared to the reported non-hydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the synthesized complexes showed comparable in vitro potency. The enzyme assay showed that the cobalt(III) complex can disrupt the zinc binding active site of MMP-9 and is proposed to work via a ligand exchange mechanism. Since histidine residues are essential for the catalytic activity of a large percentage of enzymes and zinc finger proteins, these cobalt(III) complexes can serve as a prototype inhibitor towards various zinc containing enzymes and proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc binding endopeptidases that play crucial roles in various physiological processes and diseases such as embryogenic growth, angiogenesis, arthritis, skin ulceration, liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Because of their implications in a wide range of diseases, MMPs are considered as intriguing drug targets. The majority of MMP inhibitors are organic small molecules containing a hydroxamate functionality for the zinc binding group. This hydroxamate group binds to a zinc(II) center in a bidentate fashion and creates a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry.

  15. Type III restriction-modification enzymes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Desirazu N; Dryden, David T F; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases interact with DNA at specific sites leading to cleavage of DNA. Bacterial DNA is protected from restriction endonuclease cleavage by modifying the DNA using a DNA methyltransferase. Based on their molecular structure, sequence recognition, cleavage position and cofactor requirements, restriction-modification (R-M) systems are classified into four groups. Type III R-M enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in inversely repeated head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location (25-27 bp downstream of one of the recognition sites). Like the Type I R-M enzymes, Type III R-M enzymes possess a sequence-specific ATPase activity for DNA cleavage. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites before cleavage. Different models, based on 1D diffusion and/or 3D-DNA looping, exist to explain how the long-distance interaction between the two recognition sites takes place. Type III R-M systems are found in most sequenced bacteria. Genome sequencing of many pathogenic bacteria also shows the presence of a number of phase-variable Type III R-M systems, which play a role in virulence. A growing number of these enzymes are being subjected to biochemical and genetic studies, which, when combined with ongoing structural analyses, promise to provide details for mechanisms of DNA recognition and catalysis.

  16. Figuras III, de Gerard Genette

    OpenAIRE

    Castany Prado, Bernat

    2008-01-01

    Borges decía que son clásicos aquellos libros que uno conoce antes de haberlos leído. Quizás en este sentido (sin duda en muchos otros) podemos afirmar que Figuras III, de Gérard Genette ,es un clásico. Se trata, sin embargo, de un libro de lectura lenta y, en ocasiones, confusa que quizás sea necesario resumir y sistematizar. El propósito de esta reseña, claro está, no es sustituir la lectura individual del mismo, sino , en todo caso, como si de una guía de viajes se tratase, introducir y an...

  17. Gd(III)-induced Supramolecular Hydrogelation with Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Performance for Enzyme Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongquan; Pu, Guojuan; Ou, Caiwen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Ling; Sun, Jiangtao; Yang, Zhimou; Chen, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a supramolecular hydrogel based on Gd(III)-peptide complexes with dramatically enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) performance. The hydrogelations were formed by adding Gd(III) ion to the nanofiber dispersion of self-assembling peptides naphthalene-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (Nap-GFFYGRGD) or naphthalene-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu (Nap-GFFYGRGE). We further showed that, by adjusting the molar ratio between Gd(III) and the corresponding peptide, the mechanical property of resulting gels could be fine-tuned. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of the Nap-GFFYGRGE-Gd(III) was 58.9 mM‑1 S‑1, which to our knowledge is the highest value for such peptide-Gd(III) complexes so far. Such an enhancement of r1 value could be applied for enzyme detection in aqueous solutions and cell lysates.

  18. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Paul Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  19. Photocatalytic Oxygenation of Substrates by Dioxygen with Protonated Manganese(III) Corrolazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Neu, Heather M; Leeladee, Pannee; Siegler, Maxime A; Ohkubo, Kei; Goldberg, David P; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-04-04

    UV-vis spectral titrations of a manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(TBP8Cz)] with HOTf in benzonitrile (PhCN) indicate mono- and diprotonation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) to give Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] with protonation constants of 9.0 × 10(6) and 4.7 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. The protonated sites of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] were identified by X-ray crystal structures of the mono- and diprotonated complexes. In the presence of HOTf, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H))] acts as an efficient photocatalytic catalyst for the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene and thioanisole by O2 to the corresponding alcohol and sulfoxide with 563 and 902 TON, respectively. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis measurements of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] in the presence of O2 revealed the formation of a tripquintet excited state, which was rapidly converted to a tripseptet excited state. The tripseptet excited state of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) reacted with O2 with a diffusion-limited rate constant to produce the putative Mn(IV)(O2(•-))(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), whereas the tripseptet excited state of [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] exhibited no reactivity toward O2. In the presence of HOTf, Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can oxidize not only HMB but also mesitylene to the corresponding alcohols, accompanied by regeneration of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)). This thermal reaction was examined for a kinetic isotope effect, and essentially no KIE (1.1) was observed for the oxidation of mesitylene-d12, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism is operative in this case. Thus, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex, Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), acts as an efficient photocatalyst for the oxidation of HMB by O2 to the alcohol.

  20. Microbial Reducibility of Fe(III Phases Associated with the Genesis of Iron Ore Caves in the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceth W. Parker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The iron mining regions of Brazil contain thousands of “iron ore caves” (IOCs that form within Fe(III-rich deposits. The mechanisms by which these IOCs form remain unclear, but the reductive dissolution of Fe(III (hydroxides by Fe(III reducing bacteria (FeRB could provide a microbiological mechanism for their formation. We evaluated the susceptibility of Fe(III deposits associated with these caves to reduction by the FeRB Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to test this hypothesis. Canga, an Fe(III-rich duricrust, contained poorly crystalline Fe(III phases that were more susceptible to reduction than the Fe(III (predominantly hematite associated with banded iron formation (BIF, iron ore, and mine spoil. In all cases, the addition of a humic acid analogue enhanced Fe(III reduction, presumably by shuttling electrons from S. oneidensis to Fe(III phases. The particle size and quartz-Si content of the solids appeared to exert control on the rate and extent of Fe(III reduction by S. oneidensis, with more bioreduction of Fe(III associated with solid phases containing more quartz. Our results provide evidence that IOCs may be formed by the activities of Fe(III reducing bacteria (FeRB, and the rate of this formation is dependent on the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Fe(III phases of the surrounding rock.

  1. Study on the sensitive and selective adsorption voltammetry of vanadium with antipyrylazo III (APA III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jinkui (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie); Neeb, R. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie)

    1994-07-01

    The sensitive and selective adsorption voltammetric determination of the vanadium(V)-antipyrylazoIII complex in HAc-NaAc solution is investigated. The V-complex is strongly adsorbed onto a stationary Hg-electrode and is reduced at a potential more negative than that corresponding to the reduction of its ligand. The conditions for determining vanadium are investigated and the mechanism of the reduction peak of the vanadium complex is discussed, as also the influence of foreign ions on the determination of vanadium. And at least 20-fold excess of foreign ions does not cause any interference. The detection limit is 4 x 10[sup -10] mol/l V with 3 min enrichment time. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella.

  3. Malocclusion class III treatment in teething decidua.

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica, Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    According as age increases, growth decreases and Class III skeletal patterns become more stable. The objective of Class III malocclusion’s treatment in primary dentition is to get a favorable environment to achieve a better dentofacial development. This article’s objective is to give a theorical summary about treatment of Class III malocclusions in primary dentition, and to present a case report. A medida que aumenta la edad, la cuantía de crecimiento disminuye y las clases III esquelética...

  4. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface.

  5. Electronic Modulation of the SOMO-HOMO Energy Gap in Iron(III) Complexes towards Unimolecular Current Rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Lanka D; Mazumder, Shivnath; Kpogo, Kenneth K; Staples, Richard J; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Verani, Cláudio N

    2016-07-25

    Amphiphilic five-coordinate iron(III) complexes with {N2 O2 Cl} and {N2 O3 } coordination spheres are studied to elucidate the roles of electronic structure on the mechanisms for current rectification. The presence of an apical chlorido or phenolato ligand plays a crucial role, and the [Fe(III) {N2 O2 Cl}] species supports an asymmetric mechanism while its [Fe(III) {N2 O3 }] counterpart seems to allow for unimolecular mechanism. The effects of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents in the ligand frameworks are also considered.

  6. Heterotrimetallic coordination polymers: {Cu(II)Ln(III)Fe(III)} chains and {Ni(II)Ln(III)Fe(III)} layers: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Visinescu, Diana; Andruh, Marius; Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2015-03-27

    The use of the [Fe(III) (AA)(CN)4](-) complex anion as metalloligand towards the preformed [Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III)](3+) or [Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) ](3+) heterometallic complex cations (AA=2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenathroline (phen); H2 valpn=1,3-propanediyl-bis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxyphenol)) allowed the preparation of two families of heterotrimetallic complexes: three isostructural 1D coordination polymers of general formula {[Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III) (H2O)3 (μ-NC)2 Fe(III) (phen)(CN)2 {(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3}]NO3 ⋅7 H2O}n (Ln=Gd (1), Tb (2), and Dy (3)) and the trinuclear complex [Cu(II) (valpn)La(III) (OH2 )3 (O2 NO)(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3 ]⋅NO3 ⋅H2O⋅CH3 CN (4) were obtained with the [Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III)](3+) assembling unit, whereas three isostructural heterotrimetallic 2D networks, {[Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) (ONO2 )2 (H2 O)(μ-NC)3 Fe(III) (bipy)(CN)]⋅2 H2 O⋅2 CH3 CN}n (Ln=Gd (5), Tb (6), and Dy (7)) resulted with the related [Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) ](3+) precursor. The crystal structure of compound 4 consists of discrete heterotrimetallic complex cations, [Cu(II) (valpn)La(III) (OH2)3 (O2 NO)(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3 ](+), nitrate counterions, and non-coordinate water and acetonitrile molecules. The heteroleptic {Fe(III) (bipy)(CN)4} moiety in 5-7 acts as a tris-monodentate ligand towards three {Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III)} binuclear nodes leading to heterotrimetallic 2D networks. The ferromagnetic interaction through the diphenoxo bridge in the Cu(II)-Ln(III) (1-3) and Ni(II)-Ln(III) (5-7) units, as well as through the single cyanide bridge between the Fe(III) and either Ni(II) (5-7) or Cu(II) (4) account for the overall ferromagnetic behavior observed in 1-7. DFT-type calculations were performed to substantiate the magnetic interactions in 1, 4, and 5. Interestingly, compound 6 exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization with maxima of the out-of-phase ac signals below 4.0 K in the lack of a dc field, the values of the pre

  7. Luminescent chemosensors for amines and ammonia based on Eu(III) chelate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander A.; Voznesenskiy, Sergey S.; Petrochenkova, Nataliya V.; Shishov, Alexander S.; Leonov, Andrei A.; Emelina, Tatiana B.; Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Kulchin, Yuri N.

    2016-11-01

    Here we report a novel luminescent sensor for amines and ammonia based on Eu(III) tris-β-benzoylacetonate complexes obtained in various conditions. It has been revealed that interaction of Eu(III) tris-β-benzoylacetonate with analyte vapor results in increase of the Eu(III) luminescence intensity. Exposure of Eu(III) complexes to ammonia and methylamine vapors results in a rapid increase of the emission and excitation spectra intensity and a rapid recovery, almost to the initial value, when the sample is exposed to air. Moreover, luminescence decay time value of Eu(III) complexes is in dependence on analyte presence and increase in ammonia atmosphere and decrease under purging of pure air. The dependences of sensor response features upon preparation conditions were shown. The mechanism of the analyte vapors effect on Eu(III) luminescence intensification has been suggested using the data of IR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. The mechanism of luminescence sensitization consists in bonding of an analyte molecule with a water molecule into the coordination sphere of Eu(III). As a result, the bond of a water molecule with the luminescence center weakens and the blockage of the quenching of luminescence on OH-vibrations takes place. The obtained data can be used for development of sensor materials with selective optical sensitivity to ecologically harmful vapours of organic and inorganic compounds.

  8. SAGE III on ISS Lessons Learned on Thermal Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument - the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere - is currently scheduled for delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2016. The Instrument Adapter Module (IAM), one of many SAGE III subsystems, continuously dissipates a considerable amount of thermal energy during mission operations. Although a portion of this energy is transferred via its large radiator surface area, the majority must be conductively transferred to the ExPRESS Payload Adapter (ExPA) to satisfy thermal mitigation requirements. The baseline IAM-ExPA mechanical interface did not afford the thermal conductance necessary to prevent the IAM from overheating in hot on-orbit cases, and high interfacial conductance was difficult to achieve given the large span between mechanical fasteners, less than stringent flatness specifications, and material usage constraints due to strict contamination requirements. This paper will examine the evolution of the IAM-ExPA thermal interface over the course of three design iterations and will include discussion on design challenges, material selection, testing successes and failures, and lessons learned.

  9. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  10. Photoluminescence profile imaging of Eu(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III)/Tb(III)-doped yttrium oxide nanosheets and nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Insu [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: jgkang@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305764 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: youngkusohn@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Eu(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III)/Tb(III)-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanosheets and nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and post-thermal treatment. Their morphology, crystallinity, photoluminescence and UV–visible absorption profiles were fully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography, photoluminescence imaging and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The as-prepared samples commonly showed the crystal structure of Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3}, which crystallized to cubic phase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} after 550 °C-thermal annealing. The sharp emissions of Eu(III) between 580 and 720 nm were attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0,1,2,3,4) transitions, and those of Tb(III) between 450 and 720 nm were attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=6,5,4,3) transitions. Energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) was confirmed by the photoluminescence decay dynamics. In the cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure, Eu(III) was embedded at the C{sub 2} symmetry site and dominated by the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. Conversely, Tb(III) was oxidized to non-luminescent Tb(IV) in the cubic structure. - Highlights: • Eu(III), Tb(III)-doped and codoped Y complex nanorods and nanosheets prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Eu(III), Tb(III)-doped and codoped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and nanosheets prepared by a post-annealing method. • Photoluminescence imaging profiles were fully obtained. • Tb(III) oxidized to Tb(IV) upon thermal annealing in cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix.

  11. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Marcel Robischon; Ciera Martinez; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, ...

  12. RNase III-Independent Autogenous Regulation of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase via Translational Repression

    OpenAIRE

    Carzaniga, T.; Dehò, G; Briani, F.

    2015-01-01

    The complex posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of the Escherichia coli pnp gene, which encodes the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), involves two endoribonucleases, namely, RNase III and RNase E, and PNPase itself, which thus autoregulates its own expression. The models proposed for pnp autoregulation posit that the target of PNPase is a mature pnp mRNA previously processed at its 5′ end by RNase III, rather than the primary pnp transcript (RNase I...

  13. Molecular Simulation study of Alkyl Monolayers on Si(III) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of eight-carbon monolayers on the H-terminated Si(III) surface was investigated by molecular simulation method. The best substitution percent 50% for octene or octyne-derived monolayer can be obtained using molecular mechanics calculation. And the densely packed, well-ordered monolayer on Si(III) surface can be shown through energy minimization in the suitable-size simulation cell.

  14. Large monochromator systems at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbach, J., E-mail: Jan.Horbach@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Degenhardt, M.; Hahn, U.; Heuer, J.; Peters, H.B.; Schulte-Schrepping, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Donat, A.; Luedecke, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    For the beamlines of the new synchrotron radiation source PETRA III, fixed exit double crystal monochromators with specific features were developed. To achieve a compact arrangement of the canted undulator beamlines at Sectors 2 and 6, it is necessary to shift one of the two beamlines in vertical direction. This is done by Large Offset Monochromators (LOM). One of these monochromators (LOM500, installed at beamline P03) is cooled with liquid nitrogen as it accepts the white beam. LOM1250 (installed at beamline P08) accepts a monochromatic beam and therefore needs no cooling system. The challenge with this monochromator is its large beam offset by 1.25 m. The energy range in combination with this large vertical beam offset demands for a relative crystal movement of roughly 3 m along the beam direction. This is solved by translating each crystal by up to 1.5 m. LOM1250 is equipped with a laser-based stabilisation, which allows compensating the thermal drift of the mechanical components involved in the positioning of the crystals. This is done by piezo actors below the crystals using the laser beam position after passing each crystal as feedback. With this approach we provide a closed loop system without attenuation of the X-ray beam by position monitors. The third monochromator at beamline P06 shifts the beam only by 21 mm upwards but has a linear travel of one crystal by 3.9 m. This is due to its large energy range of 4.4-90 keV using multilayer crystals. The technical design and mechanical engineering issues of the three Large Monochromator Systems at beamlines P03, P06 and P08 are highlighted in this article.

  15. Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs. We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  16. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  17. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  19. Iron(III) spin crossover compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Maeda, Y; Oshio, H

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, selected results obtained so far on Fe(III) spin crossover compounds are summarized and discussed. Fe(III) spin transition materials of ligands containing chalcogen donor atoms are considered with emphasis on those of N,N-disubstituted-dithiocarbamates, N,N-disubstituted-XY-carbamat

  20. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside lysosomes, including mucolipidosis III gamma , are called lysosomal storage disorders. The signs and symptoms of mucolipidosis III gamma are most likely due to the shortage of digestive enzymes inside lysosomes and the effects these enzymes have outside the cell. Learn more ...

  1. Explorations: Title III ESEA Programs in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Seventy projects funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, and providing the funds to public school districts to demonstrate the feasibility of educational innovations, are described in this document about Iowa Title III exemplary programs. Projects are subdivided according to planning grants, operational grants, guidance…

  2. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  3. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  4. QM/MM MD simulations of La(III)-phosphopeptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Christoph B; Bonn, Günther K; Hofer, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Several bioanalytical enrichment techniques are based on the interactions of phosphopeptides with Ln(III) ions. In order to gain an improved understanding of these complexes and the respective ion-peptide interactions, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of La(III) coordinating to the phosphopeptide VPQLEIVPNSpAEER were conducted. Simulations of di- as well as monoanionic phosphate groups were carried out. The La(III) ion and its first hydration layer, including the sidechain of the phosphoserine residue were treated quantum mechanically at RI-MP2/triple zeta level, whereas the remaining part of the system was treated with classical potentials. The simulation of the dianionic phosphopeptide revealed a 9-fold coordinated La(III) ion, with the phosphopeptide binding bi- as well as monodentate. The mean residence times (τ) of the first shell water molecules were 82 ps and 37 ps for the bi- and monodentate complexes, respectively, which is much higher compared to free La(III) in aqueous solution (τ=17 ps). The simulation of the monoanionic La(III)-phosphopeptide complex revealed a bidentate coordination throughout the 80 ps sampling period. An intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the phosphate group and the backbone was observed and a τ value of 14 ps was obtained, which is much lower as for the dianionic complex.

  5. Subcellular location of horseradish peroxidase in horseradish leaves treated with La(III), Ce(III) and Tb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yaxin; Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Zhou, Qing; Guo, Shaofen

    2008-11-01

    The agricultural application of rare-earth elements (REEs) would promote REEs inevitably to enter in the environment and then to threaten the environmental safety and human health. Therefore, the distribution of the REEs ion, (141)Ce(III) and effects of La(III), Ce(III) and Tb(III) on the distribution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in horseradish mesophyll cells were investigated with electron microscopic radioautography and transmission electron microscopic cytochemistry. It was found for the first time that REEs ions can enter into the mesophyll cells, deposit in both extra and intra-cellular. Compared to the normal condition, after the horseradish leaves treated with La(III) or Tb(III), HRP located on the tonoplast is decreased and HRP is mainly located on the cell wall, while HRP is mainly located on the plasma membrane after the horseradish leaves were treated with Ce(III). This also indicated that REEs ions may regulate the plant growth through changing the distribution of enzymes.

  6. Solidity of viscous liquids. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    It is suggested that the omega^{-1/2} high-frequency decay of the alpha loss in highly viscous liquids, which appears to be generic, is a manifestation of a negative long-time tail as typically encountered in stochastic dynamics. The proposed mechanism requires that the coherent diffusion constan...

  7. Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Introduction; Part I. Non-relativistic: 1. Mathematical prelude; 2. Classical mechanics; 3. Quantum mechanics; 4. Single particle; 5. Many particles; 6. Statistical mechanics; Part II. Relativistic: 7. Relativity; 8. Scalar particles and fields; 9. Electrons and photons; 10. Field theory on a manifold; Part III. Probabilistic Methods: 11. Path integrals; 12. Fields as random variables; 13. A nonlinear field theory; Appendices; References; Index.

  8. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Zenko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Gillow, Jeffrey B.; Francis, Arokiasamy J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Adsorption behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum was investigated. Both microorganisms showed almost identical pH dependence on the distribution ratio (K{sub d}) of the metals examined, i.e., K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH. The coordination state of Eu(III) adsorbed on the microorganisms was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The coordination states of Eu(III) adsorbed on the B. subtilis and H. salinarum was of different characteristics. H. salinarum exhibited more outer-spherical interaction with Eu(III) than B. subtilis. (author)

  9. Lanthanide(III and Yttrium(III Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III Complex on Germination of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III and yttrium(III nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1 H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [ Ln 3 ( BIA 2 ( NO 3 7 ( H 2 O 4 ]⋅3 H 2 O where Ln=La(III, Pr(III, Nd(II, Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, and Y(III. The effect of La(III complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods.

  10. Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by the marine microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, E.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the marine microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans to reduce Fe(III) was investigated because of its close phylogenetic relationship with the freshwater dissimilatory Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Washed cell suspensions of the type strain of D. acetoxidans reduced soluble Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III) complexed with nitriloacetic acid. The c-type cytochrome(s) of D. acetoxidans was oxidized by Fe(III)- citrate and Mn(IV)-oxalate, as well as by two electron acceptors known to support growth, colloidal sulfur and malate. D. acetoxidans grew in defined anoxic, bicarbonate-buffered medium with acetate as the sole electron donor and poorly crystalline Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and siderite (FeCO3) were the major end products of Fe(III) reduction, whereas rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was the end product of Mn(IV) reduction. Ethanol, propanol, pyruvate, and butanol also served as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. In contrast to D. acetoxidans, G. metallireducens could only grow in freshwater medium and it did not conserve energy to support growth from colloidal S0 reduction. D. acetoxidans is the first marine microorganism shown to conserve energy to support growth by coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV). Thus, D. acetoxidans provides a model enzymatic mechanism for Fe(III) or Mn(IV) oxidation of organic compounds in marine and estuarine sediments. These findings demonstrate that 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyses can suggest previously unrecognized metabolic capabilities of microorganisms.

  11. Nuclear EGFRvIII resists hypoxic microenvironment induced apoptosis via recruiting ERK1/2 nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Jinfeng; Xing, Wenjing; Dong, Yucui [Dept. of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Key Lab Infection & Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China); Ren, Huan, E-mail: renhuan@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [Dept. of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Key Lab Infection & Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Its interaction with the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor progression. Furthermore, GBM bearing expression of EGFRvIII displays more adaptation to tumor microenvironment related stress. But the mechanisms were poorly understood. Here, we presented evidence that in the human U87MG glioblastoma tumor model, EGFRvIII overexpression led aberrant kinase activation and nuclear translocation of EGFRvIII/ERK1/2 under hypoxia, which induced growth advantage by resisting apoptosis. Additionally, EGFRvIII defective in nuclear entry impaired this capacity in hypoxia adaptation, and partially interrupted ERK1/2 nuclear translocation. Pharmacology or genetic interference ERK1/2 decreased hypoxia resistance triggered by EGFRvIII expression, but not EGFRvIII nuclear translocation. In summary, this study identified a novel role for EGFRvIII in hypoxia tolerance, supporting an important link between hypoxia and subcellular localization alterations of the receptor. - Highlights: • Nuclear translocation of EGFRvIII contributes to GBM cell apoptotic resistance by hypoxia. • Nuclear ERK1/2 facilitates EGFRvIII in hypoxia resistance. • EGFRvIII nuclear translocation is not dependent on ERK1/2.

  12. The mass distribution of Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, M.; Casey, A. R.; Gilmore, G.; Heger, A.; Chan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in EMP stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the chemistry of EMP stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed abundances of 53 EMP stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function (IMF) to a subset of 29 of the inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well represented by a power-law IMF with exponent α = 2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is M_{max} = 87^{+13}_{-33} M⊙, and we find no evidence in our sample for a contribution from stars with masses above ˜120 M⊙. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the IMF of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

  13. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  14. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  15. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University, Florida (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(III) species are lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other trivalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is mainly used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  16. III-V semiconductor materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, R J

    1989-01-01

    The main emphasis of this volume is on III-V semiconductor epitaxial and bulk crystal growth techniques. Chapters are also included on material characterization and ion implantation. In order to put these growth techniques into perspective a thorough review of the physics and technology of III-V devices is presented. This is the first book of its kind to discuss the theory of the various crystal growth techniques in relation to their advantages and limitations for use in III-V semiconductor devices.

  17. [Napoleon III's urogenital disease (1808-1873)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G

    2000-02-01

    We tried through this paper to reconstitute the evolution of the urologic illness of Napoleon III, last emperor of France, the first symptoms of which appeared many years before the fatal war of 1870, which led to the dismembering of France. In this connection, we present Napoleon III's physicians and his cures, along with the diagnostic and therapeutic errors. The case of Napoleon III is a typical example of the influence the bad health of a sovereign can exercise on the destiny of his country.

  18. Solubility and transport of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil - Evidence of a rapidly reacting dimeric Cr(III) organic matter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löv, Åsa; Sjöstedt, Carin; Larsbo, Mats; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Cornelis, Geert; Kleja, Dan B

    2017-09-20

    Chromium is a common soil contaminant and, although it has been studied widely, questions about its speciation and dissolutions kinetics remain unanswered. We combined information from an irrigation experiment performed with intact soil columns with data from batch experiments to evaluate solubility and mobilization mechanisms of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil (>65 years). Particulate and colloidal Cr(III) forms dominated transport in this soil, but their concentrations were independent of irrigation intensity (2-20 mm h(-1)). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicated that Cr(III) associated with colloids and particles, and with the solid phase, mainly existed as dimeric hydrolyzed Cr(III) bound to natural organic matter. Dissolution kinetics of this species were fast (≤1 day) at low pH (<3) and slightly slower (≤5 days) at neutral pH. Furthermore, it proved possible to describe the solubility of the dimeric Cr(III) organic matter complex with a geochemical equilibrium model using only generic binding parameters, opening the way for use of geochemical models in risk assessments of Cr(III)-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-molecule magnet behavior for an antiferromagnetically superexchange-coupled dinuclear dysprosium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jérôme; Habib, Fatemah; Lin, Po-Heng; Korobkov, Ilia; Enright, Gary; Ungur, Liviu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murugesu, Muralee

    2011-04-13

    A family of five dinuclear lanthanide complexes has been synthesized with general formula [Ln(III)(2)(valdien)(2)(NO(3))(2)] where (H(2)valdien = N1,N3-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)diethylenetriamine) and Ln(III) = Eu(III)1, Gd(III)2, Tb(III)3, Dy(III)4, and Ho(III)5. The magnetic investigations reveal that 4 exhibits single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with an anisotropic barrier U(eff) = 76 K. The step-like features in the hysteresis loops observed for 4 reveal an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two dysprosium ions. Ab initio calculations confirm the weak antiferromagnetic interaction with an exchange constant J(Dy-Dy) = -0.21 cm(-1). The observed steps in the hysteresis loops correspond to a weakly coupled system similar to exchange-biased SMMs. The Dy(2) complex is an ideal candidate for the elucidation of slow relaxation of the magnetization mechanism seen in lanthanide systems.

  20. Kinetics of Microbial Fe(III) Reduction: From the Laboratory to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, S.; van Cappellen, P.; Behrends, T.; Hyacinthe, C.

    2005-12-01

    A kinetic model for the direct microbial reduction of Fe(III)solids in the presence of excess electron donor is presented. The model assumes a two-step mechanism: (i) mutual attachment of Fe(III) solids and cells, and (ii) reduction of Fe(III) centers at the surface of attached mineral particles. The validity of the model is tested using Shewanella putrefaciens and nanohematite as model dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria and Fe(III) solid, respectively. The results demonstrate that the iron reduction rates correlate linearly with the relative coverage of the cell surface by nanohematite, hence supporting a direct electron transfer from membrane-bound reductases to the mineral surface. The model is extended to the reduction by S. putrefaciens of other Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, as well as Fe(III)-rich natural sediments. The maximum reduction rates per cell of Fe(III)oxyhydroxides are shown to correlate with the solubility of the solid phases, while the half-saturation constants depend on the solid to cell ratio. The implications of the laboratory-based kinetics for including microbial iron reduction in reactive transport models of natural porous media are discussed.

  1. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in natural soils and the impact on mobility of inorganic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosson, David S.; Cowan, Robert M.; Young, Lily Y.; Hacherl, Eric L.; Scala, David J.

    2002-10-03

    Inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, can adhere to insoluble Fe(III) minerals resulting in decreased mobility of these contaminants through subsurface environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB), by reducing insoluble Fe(III) to soluble Fe(II), may enhance contaminant mobility. The Savannah River Site, South Carolina (SRS), has been subjected to both heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the release of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are bound to solid phase soil Fe complexes and to elucidate the mechanisms for mobilization of these contaminants that can be associated with microbial Fe(III) reduction. This is being accomplished by (i) using uncontaminated and contaminated soils from SRS as prototype systems, (ii) evaluating the diversity of DIRBs within the samples and isolating cultures for further study, (iii) using batch microcosms to evaluate the bioavailability of Fe(III) from pure minerals and SRS soils, (iv) developing kinetic and mass transfer models that reflect the system dynamics, and (v) carrying out soil column studies to elucidate the dynamics and interactions amongst Fe(III) reduction, remineralization and contaminant mobility.

  2. Adsorption characteristics of bio-adsorbent on chromium(III) in industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhufeng; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Jiayou; Yuan, Lixia; Zhu, Lianwen

    2015-01-01

    The removal of chromium(III) (Cr(III)) from industrial wastewater by various low-cost methods has been widely investigated. In this paper, a type of bio-adsorbent was prepared using rice straw modified by fermentation and simple chemical treatment. The aim is to detect the adsorption mechanism and characteristics on Cr(III) ions. The analysis shows that the bio-adsorbent possesses four modified characteristics for Cr(III) adsorption. The first one is the acquired physical adsorption involving concave and convex structures. The second one is the effects of the hydrogen bonding surface hydroxyl groups and the metal chromium ion with complexation. The third one is mainly caused by hydrophilic active groups that possess carboxyl and hydroxyl groups during microbial degradation to combine with ions. The final one is the bio-adsorbent had high adsorption for low concentration of Cr(III) ions. The highest removal of around 97.45% was obtained at pH 5.0, bio-adsorption dosage of 0.5 g L(-1), and initial Cr(III) concentration of 20 mg L(-1). The adsorption process followed the pseudo second-order model (R(2) > 0.99), while the isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich equation (68.1926 mg g(-1)), mainly by chemical adsorption. This study demonstrates the potential of using this biosorbent to remove Cr(III) from both synthetic and industrial wastewater.

  3. Finite element modeling and experimental studies on mixed mode-I/III fracture specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, finite element modeling and experimental studies on a mode-I/III specimen similar to the compact tension specimen are presented. By using bolts, the specimen is attached to two loading apparatus that allow different levels of mode-I/III loading by changing the loading holes. Specimens having two different thicknesses are analyzed and tested. Modeling, meshing and the solution of the problem involving the whole assembly, i.e., loading devices, bolts and the specimen, with contact mechanics are performed using ANSYSTM. Then, the mode-I/III specimen is analyzed separately using a submodeling approach, in which threedimensional enriched finite elements are used in FRAC3D solver to calculate the resulting stress intensity factors along the crack front. In all of the analyses, it is clearly shown that although the loading is in the mode-I and III directions, mode-II stress intensity factors coupled with mode-III are also generated due to rotational relative deformations of crack surfaces. The results show that the mode-II stress intensity factors change sign along the crack front and their magnitudes are close to the mode-III stress intensity factors. It is also seen that magnitudes of the mode-III stress intensity factors do not vary much along the crack front. Fracture experiments also performed and, using the stress intensity factors from the analyses and crack paths and surfaces are shown.

  4. Cleavage mechanoluminescence in elemental and III-V semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, B P; Gour, A S; Chandra, V K; Gupta, R K

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the theory of mechanoluminescence (ML) produced during cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. It seems that the formation of crack-induced localized states is responsible for the ML excitation produced during the cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. According to this mechanism, as the atoms are drawn away from each other in an advancing crack tip, the decreasing wave function overlap across the crack may result in localized states which is associated with increasing electron energy. If the energy of these localized states approach that of the conduction band, transition to the conduction band via tunnelling would be possible, creating minority carriers, and consequently the electron-hole recombination may give rise to mechanoluminescence. When an elemental or III-V semiconductor is cleaved, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a peak value I sub m at the time t sub m corresponding to completion of the cleavage of the semiconductor, and then it d...

  5. Electrochemistry of ytterbium (III) in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolenski, V.; Novoselova, A. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Science, Ekaterinburg, 620219 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk Region, 433010 (Russian Federation); Caravaca, C. [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Cordoba, G. de [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: g.cordoba@ciemat.es

    2008-12-30

    This work presents the electrochemical study of Yb(III) ions in molten alkali metal chlorides in the temperature range 723-1073 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep, cyclic and square wave voltammetry, and potentiometry at zero current have been used to investigate the reduction mechanism, transport parameters and thermodynamic properties of the reaction YbCl{sub 2} + 1/2Cl{sub 2} = YbCl{sub 3} The results obtained show that the reduction reaction Yb(III) + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Yb(II) is reversible being controlled by the rate of the mass transfer. The diffusion coefficient of [YbCl{sub 6}]{sup 3-} complex ions has been determined at different temperatures in the fused eutectic LiCl-KCl, the equimolar NaCl-KCl and the CsCl media. The apparent standard potential of the soluble-soluble redox system Yb(III)/Yb(II) has been obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of the nature of the solvent on the electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of ytterbium compounds is discussed.

  6. Extraction chromatographic separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) by TPEN-immobilized gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, K. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 157-8550 (Japan); Ogata, T.; Oaki, H.; Inaba, Y. [Solutions Research Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Mori, A. [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yaita, T. [Tokai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Koyama, S.I. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. 4002 Narita, Oarai-cho, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A TPEN derivative with 4 vinyl groups, N,N,N',N' -tetrakis-(4-propenyloxy-2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPPEN) was synthesized for the separation of trivalent minor actinides (Am(III)) and lanthanides (Eu(III)). A co-polymer gel with TPPEN and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) showed a high separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) (SF[Am/Eu]), which was evaluated to be 26 at pH=5. Thin film of NIPA-TPPEN gel (average thickness: 2-40 nm) was immobilized on the pore surface in porous silica particles (particle diameter : 50 μm, average pore diameter : 50 and 300 nm) and a chromatographic column (diameter: 6 mm, height: 11 mm) packed with the gel-coated particles was prepared. A small amount of weakly acidic solution (pH=4) containing Am(III) and Eu(III) was supplied in the column and the elution tests of Am(III) and Eu(III) were carried out. Eu(III) was recovered separately by a weakly acidic eluent (pH=4) at 313 K and Am(III) by a highly acidic eluent (pH=2) at 298 K. These results suggest that the contentious separation of minor actinides and lanthanides is attainable by a new extraction chromatographic process with two columns adjusted to 298 K and 313 K. (authors)

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Population III Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Kenji; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Bromm, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are ideal probes of the epoch of the first stars and galaxies. We review the recent theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of the first (so-called Population III) stars, in light of their viability of providing GRB progenitors. We proceed to discuss possible unique observational signatures of such bursts, based on the current formation scenario of long GRBs. These include signatures related to the prompt emission mechanism, as well as to the afterglow radiation, where the surrounding intergalactic medium might imprint a telltale absorption spectrum. We emphasize important remaining uncertainties in our emerging theoretical framework.

  8. Gamma-ray bursts and Population III stars

    CERN Document Server

    Toma, Kenji; Bromm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are ideal probes of the epoch of the first stars and galaxies. We review the recent theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of the first (so-called Population III) stars, in light of their viability of providing GRB progenitors. We proceed to discuss possible unique observational signatures of such bursts, based on the current formation scenario of long GRBs. These include signatures related to the prompt emission mechanism, as well as to the afterglow radiation, where the surrounding intergalactic medium might imprint a telltale absorption spectrum. We emphasize important remaining uncertainties in our emerging theoretical framework.

  9. Kriston Erikson learns about the MGM-III experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, explains the MGM experiment to Kristen Erickson, acting deputy associate administrator in NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. A training model of the test cell is at right. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  10. Sorption behavior of europium(III) and curium(III) on the cell surfaces of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Yoshida, Z. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J. [Environmental Sciences Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the association of europium(III) and curium(III) with the microorganisms Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, and Halobacterium halobium. We determined the kinetics and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption at pH 3-5 by batch experiments, and evaluated the number of water molecules in the inner-sphere (N{sub H{sub 2}O}) and the degree of strength of ligand field (R{sub E/M}) for Eu(III) by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Exudates from C. vulgaris, Halomonas sp., and H. halobium had an affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). The log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) showed that their sorption was not fully due to the exchange with three protons on the functional groups on cell surfaces. The halophilic microorganisms (Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, H. halobium) showed almost no pH dependence in log K{sub d}, indicating that an exchange with Na{sup +} on the functional groups was involved in their sorption. The {delta}N{sub H{sub 2}O} (= 9 - N{sub H{sub 2}O}) for Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was 1-3, while that for the other microorganisms was over 3, demonstrating that the coordination of Eu(III) with C. vulgaris was predominantly an outer-spherical process. The R{sub E/M} for Eu(III) on halophilic microorganisms was 2.5-5, while that for non-halophilic ones was 1-2.5. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu(III) on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones. (orig.)

  11. Deformylation Reaction by a Nonheme Manganese(III)-Peroxo Complex via Initial Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Prasenjit; Upadhyay, Pranav; Faponle, Abayomi S; Kumar, Jitendra; Nag, Sayanta Sekhar; Kumar, Devesh; Sastri, Chivukula V; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-09-05

    Metal-peroxo intermediates are key species in the catalytic cycles of nonheme metalloenzymes, but their chemical properties and reactivity patterns are still poorly understood. The synthesis and characterization of a manganese(III)-peroxo complex with a pentadentate bispidine ligand system and its reactivity with aldehydes was studied. Manganese(III)-peroxo can react through hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions instead of the commonly proposed nucleophilic addition reaction. Evidence of the mechanism comes from experiments which identify a primary kinetic isotope effect of 5.4 for the deformylation reaction. Computational modeling supports the established mechanism and identifies the origin of the reactivity preference of hydrogen-atom abstraction over nucleophilic addition.

  12. Extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chloride solutions with N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide as new extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.A. Mowafy; D. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) in 75 vol.% n-dodecane-25 vol.% n-octanol as agents for the extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chlo-ride solution was investigated. Different extraction behaviors were obtained towards rare earth elements (REE) studied and Fe(III), Ni(II) and Cs(I). Efficient separation of Nd(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) from Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) was achieved by TEHDGA, depending on the HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4 concentration. A systematic investigation was carried out on the detailed extraction prop-erties of Nd(III), Sm(III), and Dy(III) with TEHDGA from chloride media. The IR spectra of the extracted species were investi-gated.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a disorder that affects many parts ...

  14. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  15. III Advanced Ceramics and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Rainer; Mitic, Vojislav; Obradovic, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This is the Proceedings of III Advanced Ceramics and Applications conference, held in Belgrade, Serbia in 2014. It contains 25 papers on various subjects regarding preparation, characterization and application of advanced ceramic materials.

  16. Tris(η5-cyclopentadienylhafnium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Burlakov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C5H53], three cyclopentadienyl ligands surround the HfIII atom in a trigonal–planar geometry. The molecule lies on a sixfold inversion axis.

  17. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  18. Mode III effects on interface delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    mode III has an effect. Subsequently, the focus is on crack growth along an interface between an elastic-plastic solid and an elastic substrate. The analyses are carried out for conditions of small-scale yielding, with the fracture process at the interface represented by a cohesive zone model. Due......For crack growth along an interface between dissimilar materials the effect of combined modes I, II and III at the crack-tip is investigated. First, in order to highlight situations where crack growth is affected by a mode III contribution, examples of material configurations are discussed where...... to the mismatch of elastic properties across the interface the corresponding elastic solution has an oscillating stress singularity, and this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. For several combinations of modes I, II and III crack growth resistance curves...

  19. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S

    2014-07-15

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH(*), ΔS(*) and ΔG(*) were estimated from the DTG curves.

  20. Isolatable organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheider, Andreas; Chivers, Tristram; Schön, Oliver; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2014-01-13

    A new structural arrangement Te3 (RP(III) )3 and the first crystal structures of organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles are presented. The heterocycles can be stabilized and structurally characterized by the appropriate choice of substituents in Tem (P(III) R)n (m=1: n=2, R=OMes* (Mes*=supermesityl or 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl); n=3, R=adamantyl (Ad); n=4, R=ferrocene (Fc); m=n=3: R=trityl (Trt), Mesor by the installation of a P(V) 2 N2 anchor in RP(III) [TeP(V) (tBuN)(μ-NtBu)]2 (R=Ad, tBu).

  1. Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. O.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis. (GS)

  2. Kinetic of liquid-liquid extraction for uranyl nitrate and actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates by amide extractants; Cinetique d`extraction liquide-liquide du nitrate d`uranyle et des nitrates d`actinides (III) et de lanthanides (III) par des extractants a fonction amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement

    1995-12-20

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction by amide extractants have been investigated for uranyl nitrate (monoamide extractants), actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates (diamide extractants). The transfer of the metallic species from the aqueous phase to the organic phase was studied using two experimental devices: ARMOLLEX (Argonne Modified Lewis cell for Liquid Liquid Extraction) and RSC (Rotating Stabilized Cell). The main conclusions are: for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by DEHDMBA monoamide, the rate-controlling step is the complexation of the species at the interface of the two liquids. Thus, an absorption-desorption (according to Langmuir theory) reaction mechanism was proposed; for the extraction of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates in nitric acid media by DMDBTDMA diamide, the kinetic is also limited by interfacial reactions. The behavior of Americium and Europium is very similar as fare as their reaction kinetics are concerned. (author). 89 refs.

  3. Decameter type III bursts with positive and negative frequency drift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2013-09-01

    We report about observations of decameter type III bursts whose frequency drift rates vary their signs from negative to positive. Moreover drift rates of some bursts vary the sign some times. Positive drift rates for some bursts are changed from 0.44 MHz/s to 12 MHz/s. At the same time the negative drift rates of these bursts are standard values for decameter type III bursts. A possible interpretation of such phenomenon on the base of plasma mechanism of type III burst generation is discussed. The sense of this interpretation is that group velocity of type III electromagnetic waves generated by fast electrons at some conditions can be smaller than velocity of these electrons.

  4. CRONICA: FIESTA FUNERAL: LUMBALÚ PARA BATA III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Luis Muñoz Vélez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se inspira en las conversaciones con Paulino Salgado Valdez. Entrevistas con Batata III en Bogotá, 1998 y en Cartagena en el 2000 en el marco del Encuentro de los países andinos. Batata III nace el 29 de mayo de 1927 en el Palenque de San Basilio en el departamento de Bolívar, muere en Bogotá el viernes 23 de enero del 2004.

  5. Population III stars around the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop~III) stars, born of the primordial gas. Pop~III stars with masses below $0.8 M_\\odot$ should survive to date though are not observed yet, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [Fe/H]$ < -5$ in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop~III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop~III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from the surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press--Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop~III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are also escap...

  6. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  7. THE METHOD OF REMOVAL YTTRIUM (III AND YTTERBIUM (III FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lobacheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium (III and ytterbium (III cations ion flotation from diluted aqueous solutions in the presence of chloride ions using sodium dodecyl sulfate as collector agent were studied. Y (III and Yb (III distribution and recovery coefficients as a function of aqueous phase рН value at different sodium chloride concentrations were received. Yttrium (III and ytterbium (III chloro and hydroxo complexes instability constants were calculated. The calculation of separation coefficient at рН specified values depending on chloride ion concentration was conducted. Maximum separation coefficient was observed when chloride concentration of 0.01 M is 50 at рН 7.8. Ksep is minimal in nitrate medium ans is 3 at рН 7.0. At sodium chloride concentration of 0.05 М Ksep is 9 at рН 7.8.

  8. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  9. Cyanido-bridged Fe(III)-Mn(III) heterobimetallic materials built from Mn(III) Schiff base complexes and di- or tri-cyanido Fe(III) precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Tapas; Pichon, Céline; Ababei, Rodica; Mathonière, Corine; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2012-03-19

    The reaction of [Fe(III)L(CN)(3)](-) (L being bpca = bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amidate, pcq = 8-(pyridine-2-carboxamido)quinoline) or [Fe(III)(bpb)(CN)(2)](-) (bpb = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate) ferric complexes with Mn(III) salen type complexes afforded seven new bimetallic cyanido-bridged Mn(III)-Fe(III) systems: [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)Mn(saltmen)(CH(3)OH)]·CH(3)OH (1), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(3-MeO-salen)(OH(2))]·CH(3)OH·H(2)O (2), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(salpen)] (3), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(saltmen)] (4), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(5-Me-saltmen)]·2CHCl(3) (5), [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)Mn(5-Me-saltmen)]·2CH(3)OH·0.75H(2)O (6), and [Fe(bpb)(CN)(2)Mn(saltmen)]·2CH(3)OH (7) (with saltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(salicylideneiminato) dianion, salpen(2-) = N,N'-propylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion, salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion). Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for all these compounds indicating that compounds 1 and 2 are discrete dinuclear [Fe(III)-CN-Mn(III)] complexes while systems 3-7 are heterometallic chains with {-NC-Fe(III)-CN-Mn(III)} repeating units. These chains are connected through π-π and short contact interactions to form extended supramolecular networks. Investigation of the magnetic properties revealed the occurrence of antiferromagnetic Mn(III)···Fe(III) interactions in 1-4 while ferromagnetic Mn(III)···Fe(III) interactions were detected in 5-7. The nature of these Mn(III)···Fe(III) magnetic interactions mediated by a CN bridge appeared to be dependent on the Schiff base substituent. The packing is also strongly affected by the nature of the substituent and the presence of solvent molecules, resulting in additional antiferromagnetic interdinuclear/interchain interactions. Thus the crystal packing and the supramolecular interactions induce different magnetic properties for these systems. The dinuclear complexes 1 and 2, which possess a paramagnetic S(T) = 3/2 ground state, interact

  10. Luminescense properties of new complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with heterotopic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patroniak, Violetta; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Grochowska, Agnieszka M.; Stefankiewicz, Artur R.

    2006-07-01

    As a result of coordination between ligands L and L' and europium(III) and terbium(III) ions, the new architectures were formed. The formulae of the complexes have been assigned on the basis of the spectroscopic data in solution and microanalyses. The europium complexes show excellent luminescence properties with high quantum yield ( 1b-Eu 3L2) and effective intramolecular energy transfer from the ligand to the Eu(III) ions.

  11. Methods of Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III)

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Paul D.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Sostman, H. Dirk; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Fowler, Sarah E.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Kanal, Emanuel; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Nadich, David P.; Sak, Daniel J.; Tapson, Victor F; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Weg, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The methods of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III) are described in detail. PIOPED III is a multicenter collaborative investigation sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The purpose is to determine the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA) in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography (Gd-MRV) for the diagnosis for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A composite reference standard bas...

  12. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120 e adultos (N = 52 residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80. Além disso, a investigação da validade fatorial identifica a presença clara de apenas um componente. Este componente explica 81% e 64% para o WISC-III e WAIS-III, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as adaptações a que se procedeu não afetaram a estrutura fatorial das escalas. Deste modo, os profissionais poderão utilizar as escalas modificadas para avaliar a inteligência de pessoas cegas.Frente a la escasez de investigaciones nacionales asi como la ausencia de tests psicológicos que evaluen personas ciegas, se ha desarrollado un estudio psicometrico com la escalas verbales del WISC-III y WAIS-III. Posteriormente a las adaptaciones de algunos estímulos y de las instrucciones, las escalas fueron aplicadas a una muestra de niños (n=120 y de adultos (n=52 residentes en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte-Brasil. Los resultados indican que las escalas verbales modificadas presentan una alta fiabilidad (alpha >0,80 asi como la presencia clara de un unico componente responsable por 81% y 64% de la variancia del WIC-III e WAIS-III respectivamente. Se ha concluido que las modificaciones efectuadas no han comprometido la estructura factorial de las escalas verbales. Por tanto, los profesionales psicólogos pueden utilizar las escalas modificadas para la evaluación de la inteligencia de personas portadoras de ceguera.Owing to the almost lack of a national research on psychological testing for the evaluation of blind people, a psychometric study has been developed with the WISC-III and WAIS-III

  13. Molecular characterization of EGFR and EGFRvIII signaling networks in human glioblastoma tumor xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hannah; Del Rosario, Amanda M; Bryson, Bryan D; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; White, Forest M

    2012-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant primary brain tumor with a mean survival of 15 months with the current standard of care. Genetic profiling efforts have identified the amplification, overexpression, and mutation of the wild-type (wt) epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR) in ≈ 50% of GBM patients. The genetic aberration of wtEGFR is frequently accompanied by the overexpression of a mutant EGFR known as EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII, de2-7EGFR, ΔEGFR), which is expressed in 30% of GBM tumors. The molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis driven by EGFRvIII overexpression in human tumors have not been fully elucidated. To identify specific therapeutic targets for EGFRvIII driven tumors, it is important to gather a broad understanding of EGFRvIII specific signaling. Here, we have characterized signaling through the quantitative analysis of protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation across a panel of glioblastoma tumor xenografts established from patient surgical specimens expressing wtEGFR or overexpressing wtEGFR (wtEGFR+) or EGFRvIII (EGFRvIII+). S100A10 (p11), major vault protein, guanylate-binding protein 1(GBP1), and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) were identified to have significantly increased expression in EGFRvIII expressing xenograft tumors relative to wtEGFR xenograft tumors. Increased expression of these four individual proteins was found to be correlated with poor survival in patients with GBM; the combination of these four proteins represents a prognostic signature for poor survival in gliomas. Integration of protein expression and phosphorylation data has uncovered significant heterogeneity among the various tumors and has highlighted several novel pathways, related to EGFR trafficking, activated in glioblastoma. The pathways and proteins identified in these tumor xenografts represent potential therapeutic targets for this disease.

  14. ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng [Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Zheng, Yanmei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Qingbiao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Wang, Yuanpeng, E-mail: wypp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from the biogas residue of pig manure showed an excellent ability to remove As(III). • ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar had a large BET surface area and well-distributed pore structure. • Zinc played a dominant role in the removal of As(III) by forming Zn-O-As(III). - Abstract: Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm{sup 2}/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL{sup −1} solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R{sup 2} > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R{sup 2} > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  15. WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles of mildly to severely brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D C; Ledbetter, M F; Cohen, N J; Marmor, D; Tulsky, D S

    2000-01-01

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III; The Psychological Corporation, 1997) scores of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI, n = 23) to moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (M-S TBI, n = 22) were compared to those of 45 matched normal control patients. WAIS-III results revealed that IQ and index scores of MTBI patients did not significantly differ from those of controls, whereas M-S TBI patients received significantly lower mean scores on all measures. All M-S TBI patients' WMS-III index scores also revealed significantly lower scores in comparison to those of control participants, with the exception of Delayed Auditory Recognition. MTBI patients showed significantly lower mean index scores compared to normal controls on measures of immediate and delayed auditory memory, immediate memory, visual delayed memory, and general memory. Eta-squared analyses revealed that WMS-III visual indexes and WAIS-III processing speed showed particularly large effect sizes. These results suggest that symptomatic MTBI patients obtain some low WMS-III test scores comparable to those of more severely injured patients.

  16. Apolipoprotein C-III Levels and Incident Coronary Artery Disease Risk: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Yang, Xiaohong; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Stroes, Erik S G; Witztum, Joseph L; Hovingh, G Kees; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2017-06-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoC-III levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apoC-III increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apoC-III plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apoC-III and CAD risk. Plasma apoC-III levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The study comprised 2711 apparently healthy study participants, of whom 832 subsequently developed CAD. We studied the association of baseline apoC-III levels with incident CAD risk, lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and inflammatory biomarkers. ApoC-III levels were significantly associated with CAD risk (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.48 for highest compared with lowest quintile), retaining significance after adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.94). ApoC-III levels were positively correlated with triglyceride levels, (r=0.39), particle numbers of very-low-density lipoprotein (r=0.25), intermediate-density lipoprotein (r=0.23), small dense low-density lipoprotein (r=0.26), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=0.15), whereas an inverse correlation was observed with large low-density lipoprotein particle number (r=-0.11), PC-reactive protein. ApoC-III levels are significantly associated with incident CAD risk. Elevated levels of remnant lipoproteins, small dense low-density lipoprotein, and low-grade inflammation may explain this association. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Synthetic, structural and antifungal studies of coordination compounds of Ru(III, Rh(III and Ir(III with tetradentate Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANKITA SRIVASTAVA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of octahedral Ru(III, Rh(III and Ir(III complexes have been prepared with tetradentate Schiff bases derived by condensing isatin with 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,2-diaminobenzene and 1,3-diaminobenzene. The obtained complexes were characterized on the basis of their elemental analyses, magnetic moment, conductance, IR, electronic, 1HNMR and FAB mass spectra, as well as thermal analyses. The Ru(III complexes are low spin paramagnetic, while Rh(III and Ir(III behave as diamagnetic complexes. The IR spectral data revealed that all the Schiff bases behave as tetradentate and are coordinated to Ru(III, Rh(III and Ir(III via nitrogen and oxygen. Antifungal studies of the ligands as well as their complexes were carried out by the agar plate method.

  18. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  19. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  20. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  1. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  2. Perubahan Posisi Mandibula pada Perawatan Kamuflase Maloklusi Kelas III Skeletal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2013-12-01

    treatment principle is the mechanism of differential force using light and continuous force. The use of inter-maxillary elastic Class III causes the extrusion of upper molars, retrusion of lower incisors, clockwise rotation of the mandible and changing of condyle position. This research aims to determine the linear changing and angular position of the mandible on the camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion after orthodontic treatment with Begg technique. The research was conducted on 20 pairs of lateral cephalogram of men and women aged 18-25 years who met the research criteria. All subjects were treated with Begg technique with extraction of two lower first premolars. The changing of mandibular position is determined by changing the point Pg and Pg. to X axis and Y axis, while the angular changing is determined by looking at the changing of Y-axis. The obtained data were analysed with paired t test analysis. The results show that there are significant changes in mandibular position after camouflage orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance of Begg technique (p<0,05. Pg point is shifted towards the posterior and inferior, and Y-axis angle increases. It means that the clockwise rotation has happened.

  3. COX7A2L Is a Mitochondrial Complex III Binding Protein that Stabilizes the III2+IV Supercomplex without Affecting Respirasome Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; Lobo-Jarne, Teresa; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Bratic, Ana; García-Bartolomé, Alberto; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Cadenas, Susana; Delmiro, Aitor; García-Consuegra, Inés; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Ugalde, Cristina

    2016-08-30

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I, III, and IV associate into a variety of supramolecular structures known as supercomplexes and respirasomes. While COX7A2L was originally described as a supercomplex-specific factor responsible for the dynamic association of complex IV into these structures to adapt MRC function to metabolic variations, this role has been disputed. Here, we further examine the functional significance of COX7A2L in the structural organization of the mammalian respiratory chain. As in the mouse, human COX7A2L binds primarily to free mitochondrial complex III and, to a minor extent, to complex IV to specifically promote the stabilization of the III2+IV supercomplex without affecting respirasome formation. Furthermore, COX7A2L does not affect the biogenesis, stabilization, and function of the individual oxidative phosphorylation complexes. These data show that independent regulatory mechanisms for the biogenesis and turnover of different MRC supercomplex structures co-exist.

  4. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  5. Population III Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Mészáros, P.

    Population III stars are theoretically expected to be prominent around redshifts z ˜ 20, consisting of mainly very massive stars (VMSs) with M_* ∼ 100;M_⊙, but there is no direct observational evidence for these objects. They may produce collapsar gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with jets driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes, whose total isotropic-equivalent energy could be as high as E_iso ∼ 1057;erg over a cosmological-rest-frame duration of t_d ∼ 104;s, depending on the progenitor mass. The detection of a burst with such a high total energy and a long duration would be a strong evidence for a VMS progenitor. We calculate the prompt emission and afterglow spectra of such Pop. III GRBs based on the standard models, and show that they will be detectable with the Swift BAT/XRT and Fermi LAT instruments. We also show that the late-time radio afterglows of Pop. III GRBs for typical parameters, despite the large distances, can be very bright: ≃ 140;mJy at 1;GHz, which may lead to a constraint on the Pop. III GRB rate from the current radio survey data, and ≃ 2.4;mJy at 70;MHz, which implies that Pop. III GRB radio afterglows could be interesting background source candidates for 21 cm absorption line detections.

  6. RNase III-Independent Autogenous Regulation of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase via Translational Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Dehò, Gianni; Briani, Federica

    2015-06-01

    The complex posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of the Escherichia coli pnp gene, which encodes the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), involves two endoribonucleases, namely, RNase III and RNase E, and PNPase itself, which thus autoregulates its own expression. The models proposed for pnp autoregulation posit that the target of PNPase is a mature pnp mRNA previously processed at its 5' end by RNase III, rather than the primary pnp transcript (RNase III-dependent models), and that PNPase activity eventually leads to pnp mRNA degradation by RNase E. However, some published data suggest that pnp expression may also be regulated through a PNPase-dependent, RNase III-independent mechanism. To address this issue, we constructed isogenic Δpnp rnc(+) and Δpnp Δrnc strains with a chromosomal pnp-lacZ translational fusion and measured β-galactosidase activity in the absence and presence of PNPase expressed by a plasmid. Our results show that PNPase also regulates its own expression via a reversible RNase III-independent pathway acting upstream from the RNase III-dependent branch. This pathway requires the PNPase RNA binding domains KH and S1 but not its phosphorolytic activity. We suggest that the RNase III-independent autoregulation of PNPase occurs at the level of translational repression, possibly by competition for pnp primary transcript between PNPase and the ribosomal protein S1. In Escherichia coli, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) posttranscriptionally regulates its own expression. The two models proposed so far posit a two-step mechanism in which RNase III, by cutting the leader region of the pnp primary transcript, creates the substrate for PNPase regulatory activity, eventually leading to pnp mRNA degradation by RNase E. In this work, we provide evidence supporting an additional pathway for PNPase autogenous regulation in which PNPase acts as a translational repressor independently of RNase III

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Teachers' Guide to Music Appreciation III A and III B in the Senior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Mark; Dawkins, Barbara R.

    This guide to music appreciation courses was developed for use in senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. Music Appreciation III A examines the development of music, from the Gothic period through the Classical period. Music Appreciation III B examines the development of music from the Romantic period through the 1970s.…

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetism of iron(III) and manganese(III) dipicolinates with pyridinemethanols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrecký, Róbert; Pavlik, Ján; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Dlháň, Ľubor; Koman, Marian; Boča, Roman; Moncoľ, Ján

    2014-11-01

    Four ionic iron(III) and manganese(III) dipicolinato complexes of the formula (2-pymeH) [FeIII(dipic)2]ṡ[FeIII(H2O)2Cl(dipic)]ṡ2H2O, (3-pymeH)[MnIII(dipic)2]ṡ1.5H2O, (4-pymeH)[FeIII(dipic)2]ṡ2H2O and (4-pymeH)[MnIII(dipic)2]ṡ2H2O, where H2dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, 2-pyme = 2-pyridinemethanol, 3-pyme = 3-pyridinemethanol, 4-pyme = 4-pyridinemethanol, have been prepared and characterized by the single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The magnetic data were fitted to a zero-field splitting model revealing a slight magnetic anisotropy for Mn(III) systems. The molecular field correction was consistently formulated and included in the analysis for both, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data.

  10. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2016-01-01

    Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Using coronal radio events above 100 MHz exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited long-standing questions: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts. What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities. What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz. We analysed data from 2002 to 2011 starting with coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used RHESSI X-ray data greater than 6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28 percent of the initial sample of type III events. We examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and any interplanetary radio signature. For...

  11. Psychometric Testing of the FACES III with Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Bette; Dingmann, Colleen; Cuevas, Elizabeth; Meehan, Maurita

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the validity and reliability of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) in two samples of rural adolescents. The underlying theory is the linear 3-D circumplex model. The FACES III was administered to 1,632 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 in two counties in a rural western state. The FACES III Scale and the…

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  13. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of neodymium (III) and praeseodymium (III) compounds in molten chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H.; Sharrad, C. [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M139PL (United Kingdom); Claux, B.; Soucek, P.; Malmbeck, R. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A novel spectroscopic furnace has been developed for the in situ acquisition of UV-visible absorption spectra in high temperature molten salts. The furnace has been used to obtain spectra of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) trichloride in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 Celsius degrees over various Ln(III) concentrations. The major absorption peaks for both for Nd(III) and Pr(III) in the UV-visible region of the spectrum have been identified and the molar absorbances quantified for each of these absorption maxima. The neodymium and praseodymium were then precipitated by adding respectively, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O to the salt and monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. In both cases the precipitate has been identified as the relevant LnOCl by powder XRD. (authors)

  15. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  16. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, Núria; Escudero, Carlos; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes were used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were designed to obtain Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption data. The mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by the two vegetable wastes, has been investigated. Fourier transform infrared rays (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on solid phase were performed to determine the main functional groups that might be involved in metal uptake and to confirm the presence of Cr(III) on the sorbent, respectively. Results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form.

  17. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  18. Effect of fibronectin on the binding of antithrombin III to immobilized heparin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byun, Youngro; Jacobs, Harvey A.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1996-01-01

    An objective of this research is to verify the mechanism of anticoagulant activity of surface-immobilized heparin in the presence of plasma proteins. The competition and binding interaction between immobilized heparin and antithrombin III (ATIII)/thrombin have been described in vitro. However, the s

  19. Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-Based Conversion Coatings on Zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2005-01-01

    With the aims of understanding the protective mechanism of chromate conversion coatings and developing alternatives to chromate treatments, the physical natures and corrosion properties of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) treated zinc have been investigated in this work. The Cr(VI) treatments were carried out in

  20. Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-Based Conversion Coatings on Zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2005-01-01

    With the aims of understanding the protective mechanism of chromate conversion coatings and developing alternatives to chromate treatments, the physical natures and corrosion properties of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) treated zinc have been investigated in this work. The Cr(VI) treatments were carried out in

  1. ZnCl2-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan; Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2016-07-01

    Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl2-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm2/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL-1 solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl2-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R2 > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl2-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R2 > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl2-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  2. Hydrogen Evolution from Water Coupled with the Oxidation of As(III) in a Photocatalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Ping; Wu, Dan-Dan; Bao, Shao-Kui; Luo, Jinming; Luo, Xu-Biao; Lei, Si-Liang; Liu, Hui-Long; Du, Hong-Mei; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Au, Chak-Tong; Suib, Steven L

    2015-12-30

    A series of heterostructured CdS/Sr2(Nb17/18Zn1/18)2O7-δ composites with excellent photocatalytic ability for simultaneous hydrogen evolution and As(III) oxidation under simulated sunlight were synthesized and characterized. Among them, 30% CdS/Sr2(Nb17/18Zn1/18)2O7-δ (30CSNZO) has the highest in activity, exhibiting a H2 production rate of 1669.1 μmol·h(-1)·g(-1) that is higher than that of many photocatalysts recently reported in the literature. At pH 9, As(III) is completely oxidized to As(V) over 30CSNZO in 30 min of irradiation of simulated sunlight. In the photocatalytic system, H2 production rate decreases with the increase of As(III) concentration, and the recycle experiments show that 30CSNZO exhibits excellent stability, durability, and recyclability for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and As(III) oxidation. We propose a mechanism in which superoxide radical (·O2(-)) is the active species for As(III) oxidation and the oxidation of As(III) has an effect on hydrogen evolution. For the first time, it is demonstrated that simultaneous hydrogen evolution and arsenite oxidation is possible in a photocatalytic system.

  3. Fe(III-Citrate-Complex-Induced Photooxidation of 3-Methylphenol in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seraghni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation process of m-cresol (3-methylphenol, induced by Fe(III-Cit complex, was investigated upon irradiation at 365 nm in natural water. The composition and photochemical properties of Fe(III-Cit complex were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrophotometer for optimizing the stoichiometry of the complex and photolysis under irradiation at 365 nm, respectively. A dark investigation of the system was performed before studying the photochemical behavior. The photooxidation efficiencies of m-cresol were dependent on the pH value, optimized at pH 2.86, oxygen, initial concentrations of Fe(III-Cit complex, and m-cresol. Additionally, to look into the mechanism of m-cresol degradation using Fe(III-Cit, tertiobutanol alcohol was used as scavenger for hydroxyl radicals and the result suggested that hydroxyl radical attack was the main pathway of m-cresol degradation. Besides, oxygen can enhance the photolysis of Fe(III-Citrate complex by trapping the electron on the carbon centered radical formed after the photoredox process. Then O2•− formed reacts rapidly leading finally to formation of •OH radical. In absence of oxygen, less reactive species are formed; consequently the disappearance of m-cresol was strongly inhibited. Our work shows that the presence of Fe(III-Citrate complex could have a considerable impact on the fate of organic pollutant in aquatic environment.

  4. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miranda, Sarai; Salazar-Enriquez, Diana G.; Muñiz, Jesus; Ramirez-Archila, Mario V.; Sanchez-Pastor, Enrique A.; Andrade, Felipa; Soñanez-Organis, Jose G.; Moran-Palacio, Edgar F.; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum. PMID:25147829

  5. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Limon-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I and collagen III (Col III mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum.

  6. Antithrombin III: biodistribution in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knot, E A; de Jong, E; ten Cate, J W; Gie, L K; van Royen, E A

    1987-12-18

    Five healthy volunteers were injected intravenously with 73-90 uCi purified human 131I-Antithrombin III (AT III), specific biological activity 5.6 U/mg. The tracer data were analysed using a three compartment model. The plasma radioactivity half life was 66.2 +/- 1.2 (sem) h, the fractional catabolic rate constant of the plasma pool was 0.025 +/- 0.002 (sem) h-1. These data were comparable with those described in the literature. Because of the difficulty in translating the mathematical analysis of various compartments into the biological model, biodistribution was monitored by a gamma camera linked to a DEC PDP 11/34 computer system. Dynamic and static images were obtained at fixed time intervals following the injection of 131I-AT III. Whole body scanning at intervals between the time of injection (t = 0) and t = 24.5 h showed 131I-AT III distribution over the heart, lungs, liver, spleen and great vessels. Dynamic scanning was performed over the heart, spleen and liver. Overlayed frames in the first ten minutes after the 131I-AT III injection showed the following radioactivity expressed as percentage of the injected dose; 5.9% +/- 0.3 (sem) over the heart, 10.6% +/- 0.9 (sem) over the liver and 1.1% +/- 0.1 (sem) over the spleen. A slower decline of the radioactivity between t = 0 and t = 24 h; (19%) was measured over the liver compared with the radioactivity disappearance over the heart region. This shows, in combination with the fact that the radioactivity disappearance over the heart was identical with the radioactivity decline measured in the plasma samples that retention of 131I-AT III occurred in the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  8. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  9. A subcomplex of RNA polymerase III subunits involved in transcription termination and reinitiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieux, Emilie; Alic, Nazif; Ducrot, Cécile; Acker, Joël; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    While initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) has been thoroughly investigated, molecular mechanisms driving transcription termination remain poorly understood. Here we describe how the characterization of the in vitro transcriptional properties of a Pol III variant (Pol IIIΔ), lacking the C11, C37, and C53 subunits, revealed crucial information about the mechanisms of Pol III termination and reinitiation. The specific requirement for the C37–C53 complex in terminator recognition was determined. This complex was demonstrated to slow down elongation by the enzyme, adding to the evidence implicating the elongation rate as a critical determinant of correct terminator recognition. In addition, the presence of the C37–C53 complex required the simultaneous addition of C11 to Pol IIIΔ for the enzyme to reinitiate after the first round of transcription, thus uncovering a role for polymerase subunits in the facilitated recycling process. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the role of C11 in recycling was independent of its role in RNA cleavage. The data presented allowed us to propose a model of Pol III termination and its links to reinitiation. PMID:16362040

  10. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) in the Aqueous Solutions of Fe(III)- Dicarboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, K.; Arakaki, T.

    2007-12-01

    Although there have been many studies reporting the photochemical formation of Fe(II) in various aqueous-phase such as rain, cloud waters, seawater and aerosols, the detailed formation mechanisms are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms of Fe(II) formation, we attempted to determine the molar absorptivity and the quantum yield of Fe(II) photoformation for individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. The concentrations of Fe(II) and total dissolved Fe were measured by a Ferrozine-HPLC method. The Visual MINTEQ computer program was used to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of chemical species in the solutions of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complexes. The molar absorptivity and the product of the quantum yield and the molar absorptivity of Fe(III)- dicarboxylate complex can be analysed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and photochemical experiments, and these experimental data were combined with the calculated equilibrium Fe(III) speciation to determine individual molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) photoformation for a specific Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complex. Preliminary results, using an oxalate whose quantum yield has been previously reported, indicate that this approach gives lower quantum yield values in air saturated solutions than previously reported.

  11. Luminescence studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in NaSCN/DHDECMP extraction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D Y; Kimura, T

    1999-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in the NaSCN/DHDECMP solvent extraction system were carried out. Luminescence lifetimes were measured to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution and in the DHDECMP phase. The hydration number of Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution decreased linearly with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The hydration numbers of Sm(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the DHDECMP phase decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The water molecules in the inner coordination sphere of Sm(III) and Dy(III) extracted into the DHDECMP were not completely removed at low sodium thiocyanate concentration but decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. However, in the case of Cm(III) extracted into the DHDECMP phase from the sodium thiocyanate solution, there was no water in the inner coordination sphe...

  12. Exceptional Oxygen Sensing Properties of New Blue Light-Excitable Highly Luminescent Europium(III) and Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Sergey M.; Fischer, Roland; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    New europium(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyphenalenone antenna combine efficient absorption in the blue part of the spectrum and strong emission in polymers at room temperature. The Eu(III) complexes show characteristic red luminescence whereas the Gd(III) dyes are strongly phosphorescent. The luminescence quantum yields are about 20% for the Eu(III) complexes and 50% for the Gd(III) dyes. In contrast to most state-of-the-art Eu(III) complexes the new dyes are quenched v...

  13. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology.

  14. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  15. Interpreting change on the WAIS-III/WMS-III in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, G L

    2001-02-01

    Clinicians should note that there is considerable variability in the reliabilities of the index and subtest scores derived from the third editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The purpose of this article is to review these reliabilities and to illustrate how they can be used to interpret change in patients' performances from test to retest. The WAIS-III IQ and Index scores are consistently the most reliable scores, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The most internally consistent WAIS-III subtests are Vocabulary, Information, Digit Span, Matrix Reasoning, and Arithmetic. Information and Vocabulary have the highest test-retest reliability. On the WMS-III, the Auditory Immediate Index, Immediate Memory Index, Auditory Delayed Index, and General Memory Index are the most reliable, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Logical Memory I and Verbal Paired Associates I subtests are the most reliable. Data from three clinical groups (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, chronic alcohol abuse, and schizophrenia) were extracted from the Technical Manual [Psychological Corporation (1997). WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace] for the purpose of calculating reliable change estimates. A table of confidence intervals for test-retest measurement error is provided to help the clinician determine if patients have reliably improved or deteriorated on follow-up testing.

  16. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  17. Alkylcobalt(III) compounds with ammine ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    Amminecobalt(III) compounds with a coordinated primary alkyl group (ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-aminopropyl) have been prepared using monoalkylhydrazines as alkylating agents. The identities have been established using solution 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis...

  18. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  19. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  20. Naturintegration i Vandmiljøplan III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Fredshavn, J. R.; Krabbe, D.

    Denne rapport er udarbejdet som en del af forarbejdet til Vandmiljøplan III. På foranledning af Fødevareministeriet og Skov- og Naturstyrelsen er der nedsat en teknisk undergruppe, F-7, til at beskrive tiltag, der ud over at mindske næringssalttilførsel til vandområder fra landbrugs-drift også vil...

  1. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons l...

  2. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  3. De Nederlandstalige WAIS-III na hernormering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Hamel, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the validity of the Dutch version of the WAIS-III after re-norming is assessed. The structure of the factorial design, the subtest-intercorrelations, the convergent validity, the criterion validity and the new test norms are used as indicators. It is concluded that the validity of the

  4. DRDC Support to Exercise Cyber Storm III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    d’intervention fédéraux portant sur les incidents cybernétiques sont encore relativement peu élaborés et insuffisamment développés et un examen des plans examinés...9 2.7 CSIII Ethics Protocol...30 Annex C .. Exercise Cyber Storm III Ethics

  5. Naturintegration i Vandmiljøplan III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Fredshavn, J. R.; Krabbe, D.

    Denne rapport er udarbejdet som en del af forarbejdet til Vandmiljøplan III. På foranledning af Fødevareministeriet og Skov- og Naturstyrelsen er der nedsat en teknisk undergruppe, F-7, til at beskrive tiltag, der ud over at mindske næringssalttilførsel til vandområder fra landbrugs-drift også vil...

  6. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  7. Colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Velikov, K. P.; Philipse, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate is a widely used material in the area of mineral fortification but its synthesis and properties in colloidal form are largely unknown. In this article, we report on the synthesis and characterisation of colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate particles with potential for application a

  8. Sex Bias, Diagnosis, and DSM-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sandra; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five clinical psycholgists independently diagnosed 18 written case histories on the basis of 110 DSM-III categories. Females were rated significantly more histrionic than males exhibiting identical histrionic symptoms, but males were not rated as more antisocial than females. The findings suggest that vague diagnostic descriptions promote…

  9. Weill receives Edward A. Flinn III award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Robert C.; Weill, Daniel F.

    Daniel F. Weill was awarded the Flinn III Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 8 December 2002, in San Francisco, California. The award is given to an individual who personifies the Union's motto of unselfish cooperation in research through their facilitating, coordinating, and implementing activities.

  10. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride induces apoptosis and damages DNA in murine sarcoma 180 cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aliny Pereira De Lima; Flávia De Castro Pereira; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra De Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Wagner Batista Dos Santos; Elisângela De Paula Silveira-Lacerda

    2010-09-01

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are increasingly attracting the interest of researchers due to their promising pharmacological properties. Recently, we reported that the cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride compound has cytotoxic effects on murine sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for their cytotoxicity, study we investigated the genotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and induction of apoptosis caused by cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride in S-180 tumour cells. cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced significant DNA damage in S-180 cells, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. In the cell cycle analysis, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride caused an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase, accompanied by a decrease in the S and G2 phases after 24 h of treatment. In contrast, the cell cycle distribution of S-180 cells treated with cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride for 48 h showed a concentration-dependent increase in the sub-G1 phase (indicating apoptosis), with a corresponding decrease in cells in the G1, S and G2 phases. In addition, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, as observed by the increased numbers of annexin V-positive cells. Taken together, these findings strongly demonstrate that DNA damage, cell cycle changes and apoptosis may correlate with the cytotoxic effects of cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride on S-180 cells.

  11. OmcB, a c-Type Polyheme Cytochrome, Involved in Fe(III) Reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae are the predominant Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in a variety of subsurface environments in which Fe(III) reduction is an important process, but little is known about the mechanisms for electron transport to Fe(III) in these organisms. The Geobacter sulfurreducens genome was found to contain a 10-kb chromosomal duplication consisting of two tandem three-gene clusters. The last genes of the two clusters, designated omcB and omcC, encode putative o...

  12. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  13. The role of the enzyme alpha-amylase in binding of An(III)/Ln(III) by oral ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, A.; Bernhard, G. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Division of Radiochemistry and Resource Ecology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, A. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In case of incorporation, radionuclides represent a serious health risk to humans due to their (radio-)toxicity. Thus, the determination of their speciation and transport on a molecular level is crucial for the understanding of the transport, metabolism, deposition and elimination in the human organisms. In case of oral ingestion of contaminated food or radioactive substances the first contact medium in the mouth is the aqueous bio-fluid saliva which contains inorganic ions (mainly Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) and numerous biomolecules, mainly proteins. One of the major proteins in saliva is the digestive enzyme α-amylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-1,4 glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides like starch or glycogen. [1] In this study the speciation of curium(III) and europium(III) in saliva as the first contact medium at oral incorporation was investigated with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). For TRLFS measurements, fresh saliva samples from human sources have been spiked in vitro with Eu(III) or Cm(III). The identification of the dominant species was achieved by a comparison of the spectroscopic data with reference spectra obtained from synthetic saliva and the main single components of the bio-fluid. In the pH range from 6.8 to 7.4 similar spectra were obtained. With respect to reference data, the spectra indicate the formation of a ternary metal complex containing phosphate and carbonate anions and, in addition, a coordination of organic matter, namely α-amylase, to the central metal cation is suggested. To get more information about the binding behavior of α-amylase various investigations with Eu(III) as inactive analog for An(III) were carried out with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) which serves as model system for various α-amylase species. Sorption experiments showed a high affinity of Eu(III) to α-amylase in a wide pH range, namely between pH 4 and 8

  14. A DFT/B3LYP study of the mechanisms of the O2 formation reaction catalyzed by the [(terpy)(H2O)Mn(III)(O)2Mn(IV)(OH2)(terpy)](NO3)3 complex: A paradigm for photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, Eduardo M

    2017-02-20

    We present a theoretical study of the reaction pathway for dioxygen molecular formation catalyzed by the [(terpy)(H2O)Mn(III)(O)2Mn(IV)(OH2) (terpy)](NO3)3 (terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) complex based on DFT-B3LYP calculations. In the initial state of the reaction, a partial oxido radical (0.44 spins) is formed ligated to Mn. This radical is involved in a nucleophylic attack by bulk water in the OO bond reaction formation step, in which the oxido fractional unpaired electron is delocalized toward the outermost Mn of the μ-oxo bridge, instead of the ligated Mn center. The reaction then follows with a series of proton-coupled electron transfer steps, in which the oxidation state, as well as the bond strength of the OO moiety increase, while the OOMn(1) bond gets weaker until O2 is released. In this model, basic acetate ions from the buffer solution capture protons in the proton-transfer steps. In each step there is reduction of the OOMn(1) binding strength, with concomitant increase of the OO bond strength, which culminates with the release of O2 in the last step. This last step is entropy driven, while formation of hydroperoxide and superoxide moieties is enthalpy driven. According with experiments, the rate-limiting step is the double oxidation of Mn(IV,III) or peroxymonosulfate binding, which occur prior to the OO bond formation step. This supports our findings that the barriers of all intermediate steps are below the experimental barrier of 19-21kcal/mol. The implications of these findings for understanding photosynthetic water-splitting catalysis are also discussed.

  15. Type III Radio Bursts and the Structure of the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Type III solar radio bursts provide important information on the origin, acceleration, and propagation of particles associated with solar flares and coronal shocks. Since these radio emissions are generated by the plasma emission mechanism, observations of these solar radio transients also provide remote sensing of the plasma conditions in the corona and of the magnetic and plasma structure of the inner heliosphere. In this talk I will review the progress of type III research from their discovery in the late 40s to the most recent advances from low-frequency spacecraft observations, primarily from ISEE-3, Wind and Ulysses.

  16. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sugar alcohols by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.

  17. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature Tsub has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. N-rich conditions lead to nanowire growth and Tsub has an important influence. For GaN an increase of Tsub enhances the Ga desorption, thus lo...

  18. Potentiometric studies on the complex formation of some Ln(III) ions with 4-nitrocatechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, B.C.; Dubey, S.N. (Kurukshetra Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-07-01

    The interaction of La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III) and Y(III) with 4-nitrocatechol has been investigated potentiometrically in aqueous medium at 25deg and at ionic strengths of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2M (KNO/sub 3/). The proton-ligand formation constants and metal-ligand formation constants have been calculated using the Calvin-Bjerrum titration technique as modified by Irving and Rossotti. The thermodynamic formation constants have also been determined. The order of stabilities of the lanthanide complexes with the above ligand is found to be: La(III) < Ce(III) approximately Pr(III) < Nd(III) < Sm(III) < Gd(III) < Y(III) < Tb(III) < Dy(III) < Ho(III).

  19. Inhibition of HTLV-III by exogenous oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodchild, J.; Zamecnik, P.C.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described of detecting the presence of HTLV-III virus in a sample by demonstrating inhibition of replication of the virus in cells which are normally killed by the HTLV-III virus after the cells have been (a) combined with the sample and an oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication and capable of hybridizing with at least the highly conserved region, the highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome being a nucleotide sequence present in the genomes of HTLV-III isolates and the oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication being complementary to a region of the HTLV-III genome.

  20. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Sobral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who carry a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extra-oral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook, until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse Curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  1. Hydroxo-bridged dicopper(II,III) and -(III,III) complexes: models for putative intermediates in oxidation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvagar, Mohammad Reza; Solntsev, Pavlo V; Lim, Hyeongtaek; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O; Solomon, Edward I; Cramer, Christopher J; Tolman, William B

    2014-05-21

    A macrocyclic ligand (L(4-)) comprising two pyridine(dicarboxamide) donors was used to target reactive copper species relevant to proposed intermediates in catalytic hydrocarbon oxidations by particulate methane monooxygenase and heterogeneous zeolite systems. Treatment of LH4 with base and Cu(OAc)2·H2O yielded (Me4N)2[L2Cu4(μ4-O)] (1) or (Me4N)[LCu2(μ-OH)] (2), depending on conditions. Complex 2 was found to undergo two reversible 1-electron oxidations via cyclic voltammetry and low-temperature chemical reactions. On the basis of spectroscopy and theory, the oxidation products were identified as novel hydroxo-bridged mixed-valent Cu(II)Cu(III) and symmetric Cu(III)2 species, respectively, that provide the first precedence for such moieties as oxidation catalysis intermediates.

  2. Extraction and separation studies of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III using the neutral organophosphorous extractant, Cyanex-923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. DHADKE

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The neutral extractant, Cyanes-923 has been used for the extraction and separation of gallium(III, indium(III and thallium(III from acidic solution. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the pH range 4.5–5.5, 5.0–6.5 and 1.5–3.0, respectively, and from the organic phase they can be stripped with 2.0 mol dm-3 HNO3, 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3 and 3.0 mol dm-3 HCl, respectively. The effect of pH equilibration period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agents on the extraction of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III has been studied. The stroichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined on the basis of the slope analysis method. The reaction proceed by solvation and the probable extracted species found were [MCl3. 3Cyanex-923] [where M = Ga(III or In(III ] and [HTlCl4. 3Cyanex-923]. Based on these results a sequential procedure for the separation of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III from each other was developed.

  3. A XAFS study of plain and composite iron(III) and chromium(III) hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassiopi, N; Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Antipas, G S E; Christou, C; Xenidis, A; Paloura, E C

    2014-09-01

    Reduction of hexavalent Cr(VI) to the trivalent state is the common strategy for remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated waters and soils. In the presence of Fe the resulting compounds are usually mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) phases, while, under iron-free conditions, reduction leads to formation of plain Cr(III) hydroxides. Environmental stability of these compounds depends on their structure and is important to understand how different precipitation conditions affect the local atomic order of resulting compounds and thus their long term stability. In current study, typical Cr(VI) environmental remediation products, i.e. plain and mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides, were synthesized by hydrolysis and redox reactions and their structure was studied by X ray diffraction and X ray absorption fine structure techniques. Plain Cr(III) hydroxide was found to correspond to the molecular formula Cr(OH)3·3H2O and was identified as crystalline in XRD. However, the same compound when examined by EXAFS did not exhibit any clear local order in the range of EXAFS detectable distances, i.e. between 0 and 5Å. Namely, EXAFS spectroscopy detected only contribution from the first nearest neighboring (Cr-O) shell, suggesting that CrO6 octahedra interconnection is loose, in accordance with the suggested anti-bayerite structure of this compound. Mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) systems resembled 2-line ferrihydrite irrespective of the synthesis route. Analysis of Fe-K-EXAFS and Cr-K-EXAFS spectra indicated that FeO6 octahedra are bonded by sharing both edges and corners, while CrO6 octahedra seem to prefer edge sharing linkage. EXAFS data also suggest that Fe-Cr hydroxide produced by hydrolysis presents a better arrangement of CrO6 octahedra compared to the redox product.

  4. Ovicidal and insect sterilizing activity of some iron (III) and cobalt (III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, M.; Datta, S.; Koner, D.; Bhattacharya, P.K.; Gangopadhya, A.; Dey, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ovicidal and insect sterilizing activity of some newly synthesized cobalt (III) and iron (III) complexes were examined on the early fifth instar nymphs of Dysdercus Koenigii. Initial mortality after treatment was negligible and maximum number of adults emerged without any morphogenic defects. Several adults in each treatment were paired and their reproductive potential up to two consecutive generations was studied. Some significant results have been obtained as a result of this study.

  5. Mutual separation of americium(III) and europium(III) using glycolamic acid and thioglycolamic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Syamala, K.V.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    The extractants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamicacid (HDEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexy)thiodiglycolamic acid (HDEHSDGA) were synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. The extraction behaviour of {sup (152+154})Eu(III) and {sup 241}Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of HDEHDGA (or HDEHSDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied for the mutual separation of actinides and lanthanides. The effect of various parameters such as the pH, concentrations of HDEHDGA, HDEHSDGA, sodium nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the separation factor (SF) of americium(III) over europium(III) and vice versa was studied, and the conditions needed for the preferential separation were optimised. The results show that HDEHDGA exhibits higher extraction for {sup (152+154)}Eu(III) and HDEHSDGA shows the superior selectivity for {sup 241}Am(III). (orig.)

  6. Intrinsic acidity of aluminum, chromium (III) and iron (III) μ 3-hydroxo functional groups from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, James R.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2000-05-01

    Density functional calculations are performed on M 3(OH) 7(H 2O) 62+ and M 3O(OH) 6(H 2O) 6+ clusters for MAl, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the μ 3-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, Fe 3OH and Al 3OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while Cr 3OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe 3OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. [ J. R. Rustad et al. (1996)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1563]. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The AlOH 2 site is more acidic than the Al 3OH site, whereas the Cr 3OH site is more acidic than the CrOH 2 site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.

  7. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases.

  8. Effect of NADPH on formation and decay of human metarhodopsin III at physiological temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szundi, I; Lewis, J W; van Kuijk, F J; Kliger, D S

    2000-01-01

    Difference absorption spectra were recorded during the formation and decay of metarhodopsin III after sonicated membrane suspensions of rhodopsin were bleached at 37 degrees C. The data were analyzed using SVD, spectral decomposition and global exponential fitting. By comparison of the results in the presence or absence of 70 microM NADPH and those for bovine or human rhodopsin, a single comprehensive scheme was fit to all the data, including reduction of retinal to retinol by the intrinsic retinol dehydrogenase. On the time scale studied the mechanism involves two 382 nm absorbing species and two 468 nm, absorbing species, supporting the notion that human metarhodopsin III is not a homogeneous species. The results confirm that metarhodopsin III forms and persists sufficiently long in the human retina under physiological conditions that it could undergo secondary photoisomerization.

  9. The Unexpected Influence of Precursor Conversion Rate in the Synthesis of III-V Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Daniel; Harris, Daniel K; Xie, Lisi; Jensen, Klavs F; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-11-23

    Control of quantum dot (QD) precursor chemistry has been expected to help improve the size control and uniformity of III-V QDs such as indium phosphide and indium arsenide. Indeed, experimental results for other QD systems are consistent with the theoretical prediction that the rate of precursor conversion is an important factor controlling QD size and size distribution. We synthesized and characterized the reactivity of a variety of group-V precursors in order to determine if precursor chemistry could be used to improve the quality of III-V QDs. Despite slowing down precursor conversion rate by multiple orders of magnitude, the less reactive precursors do not yield the expected increase in size and improvement in size distribution. This result disproves the widely accepted explanation for the shortcoming of current III-V QD syntheses and points to the need for a new generalizable theoretical picture for the mechanism of QD formation and growth.

  10. Translational regulation of Yersinia enterocolitica mRNA encoding a type III secretion substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaskie, Karyl S; Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-12-06

    Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion machines transport YopQ and other Yop effectors into host immune cells. YopD and its chaperone LcrH are essential components of the Yersinia type III pathway, enabling effector translocation into host cells. YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 also regulate yop expression post-transcriptionally in response to environmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms for this regulation and Yop secretion are unknown. We show here that YopD associates with 30 S ribosomal particles in a manner requiring LcrH. When added to ribosomes, YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 block the translation of yopQ mRNA. We propose a model whereby LcrH-dependent association of YopD with 30 S ribosomal particles enables YscM1 to block yopQ translation unless type III machines are induced to secrete the effector.

  11. Modeling of III-nitride light-emitting diodes: progress, problems, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Sergey Yu.

    2011-02-01

    Recent progress in III-nitride LED modeling is reviewed with the focus on physical models that provide a better understanding of such hot issues, as factors limiting the internal quantum efficiency of light emission and high-current efficiency droop, polarization doping in graded-composition III-nitride alloys and its utilization in LEDs, current crowding in LED dice and its impact on the light extraction efficiency, and optimal light conversion in white LED lamps. Specific features of III-nitride materials, their impact on the LED operation, and models accounting for these features are considered. Insufficient understanding of transport mechanisms of non-equilibrium electrons and holes and their localization in InGaN inhomogeneous active regions are discussed along with other still unsolved problems. Influence of technological factors on LED heterostructures and their operation is argued in the context of further model developments.

  12. Growth, morphology, and structural properties of group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-Optoelectronique de Montpellier (CEM2), Universite Montpellier II, UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez, G.; Griol, A.; Sanchez, B. [Nanophotonics Technology Centre, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The growth conditions to achieve group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanocolumnar heterostructures by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The evolution of the nanocolumnar morphology with the growth conditions is determined for (Ga,Al)N and (In,Ga)N nanocolumns. The mechanisms behind the nanocolumnar growth under high N-rich conditions are clarified in the sense that no seeding or catalysts are required, as it is the case in the vapour-liquid-solid model that applies to most nanocolumns grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition, either with group-III nitrides, II-VI or III-V compounds. Some examples of nanocolumnar heterostructures are given, like quantum disks and cylindrical nanocavities. Preliminary results on the growth of arrays of ordered GaN nanocolumns are reported. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  14. Iron(III)-siderophore coordination chemistry: Reactivity of marine siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alison; Theisen, Roslyn M

    2010-02-01

    Two remarkable features of many siderophores produced by oceanic bacteria are the prevalence of an α-hydroxy-carboxylic acid functionality either in the form of the amino acid β-hydroxy aspartic acid or in the form of citric acid, as well as the predominance of amphiphilic siderophores. This review will provide an overview of the photoreactivity that takes place when siderophores containing β-hydroxy aspartic acid and citric acid are coordinated to iron(III). This photoreactivity raises questions about the role of this photochemistry in microbial iron acquisition as well as upper-ocean iron cycling. The self-assembly of amphiphilic siderophores and the coordination-induced phase-change of the micelle-to-vesicle transformation will also be reviewed. The distinctive photosensitive and self-assembly properties of marine siderophores hint at possibly new microbial iron acquisition mechanisms.

  15. Ortho-surgical treatment of Class III dentofacial deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Anisio Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III facial pattern is characterized by a negative sagittal lineament and has been one of the greatest challenges in orthodontics. This is due to the poor prognosis of this type of malocclusion. The treatment of this malocclusion, in adulthood, involves orthodontic mechanics combined with orthognathic surgery. In general, the facial aspect is greatly compromised, and this is precisely what encourages the patient to seek treatment in most cases. This study is based on a clinical case whose treatment consisted of two surgical steps: Palatal disjunction followed by procedures in the mandible (osteotomy for bilateral sagittal split and mentoplasty and maxilla (Le Fort I. In the cases of major maxillomandibular discrepancies, surgical-orthodontic treatment is indicated, considering that none of specialties alone show functional and aesthetically satisfactory results.

  16. Spatial signal correlation from an III-nitride synaptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Bingcheng; Shi, Zheng; Yuan, Jialei; Jiang, Yuan; Shen, Xiangfei; Cai, Wei; Yang, Yongchao; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-10-01

    The mechanism by which the external environment affects the internal nervous system is investigated via the spatial correlation of an III-nitride synaptic device, which combines in-plane and out-of-plane illumination. The InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well collector (MQW-collector) demonstrates a simultaneous light emission and light detection mode due to the unique property of the MQW-diode. The MQW-collector absorbs the internal incoming light and the external illumination at the same time to generate an integration of the excitatory postsynaptic voltages (EPSVs). Signal cognition can be distinctly decoded from the integrated EPSVs because the signal differences are maintained, which is in good agreement with the simulation results. These results suggest that the nervous system can simultaneously amplify the EPSV amplitude and achieve signal cognition by spatial EPSV summation, which can be further optimized to explore the connections between the internal nervous system and the external environment.

  17. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  18. Extragenic accumulation of RNA polymerase II enhances transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Listerman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent genomic data indicate that RNA polymerase II (Pol II function extends beyond conventional transcription of primarily protein-coding genes. Among the five snRNAs required for pre-mRNA splicing, only the U6 snRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III. Here we address the question of how Pol II coordinates the expression of spliceosome components, including U6. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and high-resolution mapping by PCR to localize both Pol II and Pol III to snRNA gene regions. We report the surprising finding that Pol II is highly concentrated approximately 300 bp upstream of all five active human U6 genes in vivo. The U6 snRNA, an essential component of the spliceosome, is synthesized by Pol III, whereas all other spliceosomal snRNAs are Pol II transcripts. Accordingly, U6 transcripts were terminated in a Pol III-specific manner, and Pol III localized to the transcribed gene regions. However, synthesis of both U6 and U2 snRNAs was alpha-amanitin-sensitive, indicating a requirement for Pol II activity in the expression of both snRNAs. Moreover, both Pol II and histone tail acetylation marks were lost from U6 promoters upon alpha-amanitin treatment. The results indicate that Pol II is concentrated at specific genomic regions from which it can regulate Pol III activity by a general mechanism. Consequently, Pol II coordinates expression of all RNA and protein components of the spliceosome.

  19. Interaction of human serum albumin with Fe(III)–deferasirox studied by multispectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Gholamreza, E-mail: dehghan2001d@yahoo.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shaghaghi, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697 Tehran, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sattari, Safura [Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between the iron complex of deferasirox (Fe(III)–DFX) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Binding constants, number of binding sites and binding distance (r) were calculated. Fluorescence data at different temperatures revealed that the fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex, and the fluorescence quenching was the result of the formation of the Fe(III)–DFX–HSA complex, therefore the quenching mechanism was static. The binding constant (K{sub a}) for the interaction was 10{sup 4}, and the number of binding site was obtained ∼1. The thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy (∆H), entropy (∆S) and Gibb's free energy (∆G) changes were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. These data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex and the association process was spontaneous. The interaction of HSA with Fe(III)–DFX was also confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectra. The quantitative analysis data of CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex in aqueous solution with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure. - Highlights: • The interaction between Fe(III)–DFX and (HSA) was studied by multispectroscopic methods. • Fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex through a static quenching procedure. • Thermodynamic data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force and the association process was spontaneous. • The CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure.

  20. BES-III distributed computing status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Korenkov, V. V.; Li, W. D.; Lin, T.; Ma, Z. T.; Nicholson, C.; Pelevanyuk, I. S.; Suo, B.; Trofimov, V. V.; Tsaregorodtsev, A. U.; Uzhinskiy, A. V.; Yan, T.; Yan, X. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Zhemchugov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The BES-III experiment at the Institute of High Energy Physics (Beijing, China) is aimed at the precision measurements in e+e- annihilation in the energy range from 2.0 till 4.6 GeV. The world's largest samples of J/psi and psi' events and unique samples of XYZ data have been already collected. The expected increase of the data volume in the coming years required a significant evolution of the computing model, namely shift from a centralized data processing to a distributed one. This report summarizes a current design of the BES-III distributed computing system, some of key decisions and experience gained during 2 years of operations.

  1. Solar Neutrino Measurement at SK-III

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, B S

    2009-01-01

    The full Super-Kamiokande-III data-taking period, which ran from August of 2006 through August of 2008, yielded 298 live days worth of solar neutrino data with a lower total energy threshold of 4.5 MeV. During this period we made many improvements to the experiment's hardware and software, with particular emphasis on its water purification system and Monte Carlo simulations. As a result of these efforts, we have significantly reduced the low energy backgrounds as compared to earlier periods of detector operation, cut the systematic errors by nearly a factor of two, and achieved a 4.5 MeV energy threshold for the solar neutrino analysis. In this presentation, I will present the preliminary SK-III solar neutrino measurement results.

  2. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  3. On the three harmonics of solar type III bursts at the decameter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, Anatolii; Pylaev, Oleg; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexandr; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Rucker, Helmut; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii; Dorovskyy, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Harmonic structure of type III bursts are explained in terms of plasma emission mechanism. The second harmonic emission is well known. But there are theoretical papers about the third harmonic of type III bursts. And there were observations of the third harmonic of such types of bursts as U, J, V, II. We observed triple type III bursts where frequency ratio is close to 1:2:3. They are structures where type III emission is repeated at the double and triple frequencies. Incidentally, components of triple type III bursts are not only standard type III but also type IIIb bursts. We registered 30 triple bursts during 2011 and 2012 years. Observations were made by radio telescope URAN-2, Poltava, Ukraine. It enables polarization measurements at the frequencies 8 - 32 MHz. URAN-2 allows registration of radio emission with time and frequency resolution 10 ms and 4 kHz correspondingly. We analyze properties of the components of triple bursts and their dependencies on frequency, type of burst and on the position of the component within the triplet. The main properties of the components of triple bursts such as duration and drift rate are similar to those of standard type III and IIIb bursts. We find usual for type III bursts dependencies such as follow: duration decreases with frequency, the type IIIb bursts have always smaller duration at the same frequencies, all bursts drift from high to low frequencies. But we also find the linear dependence of drift rate on frequency. All components of a trio have the same sign of polarization. Polarization of the first component is always the highest in triple bursts. It corresponds to the generally accepted viewpoint about the first harmonic emission. The second and the third components of trio have low polarization. It is typical for the second and the third harmonics according to the plasma radiation mechanism. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and theoretical aspects of observed dependencies. The most of detected regularities

  4. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  5. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscient...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  6. Nota a Ovidio, Tr. III 2, 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulogio F. Baeza Angulo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at proving the correct reading of quod in Ovid Tr. III 2, 23, basing it on the context and especially in mss. Ei mihi, quod totiens nostri pulsata sepulcri ianua, sub nullo tempore aperta fuit! Cur ego tot gladios fugi totiensque minata obruit infelix nulla procella caput? _______________________________ 23 quod codd. Heinsius def. Housman 1916, 131-132: quo Owen Ehwald-Levy Luck: quam K

  7. Objectives and methodology of BIOBADASER phase iii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Hernández Miguel, M Victoria; Manero, Javier; Roselló, Rosa; Sánchez-Costa, Jesús Tomás; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Campos, Cristina; Cuende, Eduardo; Fernández-Lopez, Jesús Carlos; Bustabad, Sagrario; Martín Domenech, Raquel; Pérez-Pampín, Eva; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Millan-Arcineas, Ana Milena; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús

    2017-09-18

    Describe the objectives, methods and results of the first year of the new version of the Spanish registry of adverse events involving biological therapies and synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatic diseases (BIOBADASER III). Multicenter prospective registry of patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases being treated with biological drugs or synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatology departments in Spain. The main objective of BIOBADASER Phase III is the registry and analysis of adverse events; moreover, a secondary objective was added consisting of assessing the effectiveness by means of the registry of activity indexes. Patients in the registry are evaluated at least once every year and whenever they experience an adverse event or a change in treatment. The collection of data for phase iii began on 17 December 2015. During the first year, 35 centers participated. The number of patients included in this new phase in December 2016 was 2,664. The mean age was 53.7 years and the median duration of treatment was 8.1 years. In all, 40.4% of the patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent adverse events were infections and infestations. BIOBADASER Phase III has been launched to adapt to a changing pharmacological environment, with the introduction of biosimilars and small molecules in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This new stage is adapted to the changes in the reporting of adverse events and now includes information related to activity scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. Co(II)4, Co(II)7, and a Series of Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) Coordination Clusters: Search for Single Molecule Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Ritwik; Sikdar, Yeasin; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Christou, George; Goswami, Sanchita

    2016-10-03

    We report herein the syntheses and investigation of the magnetic properties of a Co(II)4 compound, a series of trinuclear Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes, and a Co(II)7 complex. The homometallic Co(II)4 core was obtained from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(NO3)2·6H2O/H2vab/Et3N in a 0.5:0.5:1:2 ratio in methanol. Variation in synthetic conditions was necessary to get the desired Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes. The Co(II)-Ln(III) assembly was synthesized from Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(OAc)2·4H2O/H2vab/NaOMe in a 0.4:0.5:1:1 ratio in methanol. The isostructural Co(II)2Ln(III) complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Co2Ln(Hvab)4(NO3)](NO3)2·MeOH·H2O, (where H2vab = 2-[(2-hydroxymethyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol) with simultaneous crystallization of Co(II)7 complex in each reaction. The magnetic investigation of these complexes reveals that both homometallic complexes and four Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes (except Co(II)-Nd(III)) display behavior characteristic of single molecule magnets.

  9. Mechanistic insights into type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Rao, Desirazu N

    2012-01-01

    Type III restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in indirectly repeated, head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location next to only one of the two sites. However, cleavage of sites that are not in head-to-head orientation have been observed to occur under certain reaction conditions in vitro. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites prior to cleavage. Type III R-M enzymes comprise two subunits, Res and Mod that form a homodimeric Mod2 and a heterotetrameric Res2Mod2 complex. The Mod subunit in M2 or R2M2 complex recognizes and methylates DNA while the Res subunit in R2M2 complex is responsible for ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation and cleavage. A vast majority of biochemical studies on Type III R-M enzymes have been undertaken using two closely related enzymes, EcoP1I and EcoP15I. Divergent opinions about how the long-distance interaction between the recognition sites exist and at least three mechanistic models based on 1D- diffusion and/or 3D- DNA looping have been proposed.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid degradation in the presence of Fe(III) under natural sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiu, Zongming [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Liu, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Gang [Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas-Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Adamson, Dave; Newell, Charles [GSI Environmental Inc., Houston, TX 77098 (United States); Vikesland, Peter [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Tsai, Ah-Lim [Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas-Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J., E-mail: alvarez@rice.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • PFOA was photo-chemically decomposed in the presence of Fe(III) and natural sunlight. • An alternative reaction pathway involves hydroxyl radical as confirmed by EPR. • Common oxidant-persulfate increased PFOA defluorination extent. -- Abstract: Due to the high bond dissociation energy (BDE) of C-F bonds (116 kcal/mol), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a highly recalcitrant pollutant. Herein, we demonstrate a novel method to decompose PFOA in the presence of sunlight and ferric iron (Fe(III)). Under such conditions, 97.8 ± 1.7% of 50 μM PFOA decomposed within 28 days into shorter-chain intermediates and fluoride (F{sup −}), with an overall defluorination extent of 12.7 ± 0.5%. No PFOA was removed under visible light, indicating that UV radiation is required for PFOA decomposition. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that the decomposition reaction is likely initiated by electron-transfer from PFOA to Fe(III), forming Fe(II) and an unstable organic carboxyl radical. An alternative mechanism for the formation of this organic radical involves hydroxyl radicals, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observation that PFOA can be degraded by Fe(III) under solar irradiation provides mechanistic insight into a possibly overlooked natural attenuation process. Because Fe(III) is abundant in natural waters and sunlight is essentially free, this work represents a potentially important step toward the development of simple and inexpensive remediation strategies for PFOA-contaminated water.

  11. Single‐molecule mechanochemical characterization of E. coli pol III core catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufer, M. Nabuan; Murison, David A.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Beuning, Penny J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pol III core is the three‐subunit subassembly of the E. coli replicative DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. It contains the catalytic polymerase subunit α, the 3′ → 5′ proofreading exonuclease ε, and a subunit of unknown function, θ. We employ optical tweezers to characterize pol III core activity on a single DNA substrate. We observe polymerization at applied template forces F  30 pN. Both polymerization and exonucleolysis occur as a series of short bursts separated by pauses. For polymerization, the initiation rate after pausing is independent of force. In contrast, the exonucleolysis initiation rate depends strongly on force. The measured force and concentration dependence of exonucleolysis initiation fits well to a two‐step reaction scheme in which pol III core binds bimolecularly to the primer‐template junction, then converts at rate k 2 into an exo‐competent conformation. Fits to the force dependence of k init show that exo initiation requires fluctuational opening of two base pairs, in agreement with temperature‐ and mismatch‐dependent bulk biochemical assays. Taken together, our results support a model in which the pol and exo activities of pol III core are effectively independent, and in which recognition of the 3′ end of the primer by either α or ε is governed by the primer stability. Thus, binding to an unstable primer is the primary mechanism for mismatch recognition during proofreading, rather than an alternative model of duplex defect recognition. PMID:28263430

  12. High-resolution analysis of the duodenal interdigestive phase III in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castedal, M; Abrahamsson, H

    2001-10-01

    To study the spatial organization of the propagating pressure waves of duodenal phase III, we performed fasting antroduodenal high-resolution manometry with a 16-channel catheter in 12 healthy subjects. The phase III pressure waves diverged in an anterograde and retrograde direction from the start site of each pressure wave. The pressure waves maintained this configuration as the activity front moved distally in the duodenum. The start site of the pressure waves moved gradually to a point approximately 12 cm (median) distal to the pylorus and remained at this point for about 40% of the phase III time before moving further distally. The length of retrograde pressure wave propagation increased to 6 cm (median) as the pressure wave origin moved aborally to a point 10-14 cm distal to the pylorus, and then decreased when the origin of pressure waves reached the distal end of the duodenum. Bidirectional pressure waves dominated in both retrograde and anterograde activity fronts. Three pressure-wave mechanisms behind the duodenal phase IV were observed. Isolated pyloric pressure waves were absent during late duodenal phase III retroperistalsis. Thus, a number of new features of the duodenal phase III-related motility were observed using high-temporospatial resolution recordings.

  13. Induction of polyclonal B cell activation and differentiation by the AIDS retrovirus (HTLV-III/LAV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, S.E.; Schnittman, S.M.; Lane, H.C.; Folks, T.; Koenig, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-03-05

    The immune systems of individuals infected with HTLV-III/LAV are characterized by a profound defect in cellular immunity together with paradoxical polyclonal B cell activation. The present study examined the direct effects of HTLV-III/LAV on B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood B cells from healthy donors were incubated with a variety of HTLV-III/LAV isolates for 1 h and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was measured at multiple time points. Responses ranged from 9000-28,000 cpm and peaked on day 4. This B cell activation was not enhanced by the addition of interleukin-2 to culture, was not synergistic with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, was not modulated by the addition of T lymphocytes to culture, and was not associated with B cell transformation. Supernatant Ig could first be detected in virus-activated cultures at day 4, plateaued by day 8, and yielded a mean of 12,500 ng IgG+IgM/ml/50,000 B cells. Thus, HTLV-III/LAV is a potent T cell independent B cell mitogen capable of inducing B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation comparable in magnitude to that of the most potent B cell activators. This biological property of HTLV-III/LAV may help explain the profound polyclonal B cell activation observed in patients with AIDS and may provide investigators with another probe for investigating the mechanisms of B cell activation.

  14. Upgrading a Stage III A engine for Stage IV; Ertuechtigung eines Stufe-III-A-Motors fuer Stufe IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrewe, Klaus; Lamotte, Dominik; Zirka, Ingo [HJS Emission Technology GmbH und Co. KG, Menden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In the field of construction and agricultural machinery proven simple technique is estimated especially in countries with lower development standards as in Central Europe. A 4.4 l, 65 to 95 kW diesel engine that is certified in line with Stage III A, equipped with a fully mechanical injection system and open loop-controlled exhaust-gas recirculation system has now been upgraded from HJS through a low-maintenance and fully autarkic exhaust aftertreatment system that complies with the Stage IV standard. The reduction of nitrogen oxides by selective catalytic reduction is carried out with a NO{sub x} reduction greater than 90 %. The particulate emissions are reduced by a maintenance-free bypass filter with a particle reduction rate exceeds by more than 60 %. (orig.)

  15. Computational Mechanistic Study of Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation Reactions of Arylnitrones with Alkynes: Role of Noncovalent Interactions in Controlling Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yang-Yang; Liu, Jian-Biao; Tian, Ying-Ying; Sun, Chuan-Zhi; Huang, Fang; Chen, De-Zhan

    2016-11-23

    The mechanism of redox-neutral Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling reactions of arylnitrones with alkynes was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The free energy profiles associated with the catalytic cycle, involving C(sp(2))-H activation, insertion of alkyne, transfer of O atom, cyclization and protodemetalation, are presented and analyzed. An overwhelming preference for alkyne insertion into Rh-C over Rh-O is observed among all pathways, and the most favorable route is determined. The pivalate-assisted C-H activation step is turnover-limiting, and the cyclization step determines the diastereoselectivity of the reaction, with the stereoselectivity arising mainly from the difference of noncovalent interactions in key transition states. The detailed mechanism of O atom transfer, Rh(III)-Rh(I)-Rh(III) versus Rh(III)-Rh(V)-Rh(III) cycle, is discussed.

  16. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) - III

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III (NESARC-III) is a nationally representative survey of 46,500 adult Americans that collected...

  17. Pangad õhutavad III pensionisambaga liituma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Pangad peavad III pensionisambaga liitumist hädavajalikuks neile, kes soovivad oma elustandardit pensionile minnes säilitada. Pankade prognoose III sambaga liitumise kohta käesolevaks aastaks. Lisa: Pensioniks kogumine

  18. Pangad õhutavad III pensionisambaga liituma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Pangad peavad III pensionisambaga liitumist hädavajalikuks neile, kes soovivad oma elustandardit pensionile minnes säilitada. Pankade prognoose III sambaga liitumise kohta käesolevaks aastaks. Lisa: Pensioniks kogumine

  19. Single-molecule magnet behavior and magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetically coupled Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III) and Gd(III)) linear complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Carlos; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Hänninen, Mikko M; Navarrete, R; Mota, A J; Evangelisti, Marco; Ruiz, José; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-11-17

    New types of linear tetranuclear Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy (1), Gd (2)) complexes have been prepared using the multidentate ligand N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diaminobenzene, which has two sets of NO and OO' coordination pockets that are able to selectively accommodate Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions, respectively. The X-ray structure analysis reveals that the Ni(II) ions are bridged by phenylenediimine groups forming a 12-membered metallacycle in the central body of the complex, whereas the Ln(III) ions are located at both sides of the metallacycle and linked to the Ni(II) ions by diphenoxo bridging groups. Phenylenediimine and diphenoxo bridging groups transmit ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the two Ni(II) ions and between the Ni(II) and the Ln(III) ions, respectively. Complex 1 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization at zero field and a thermal energy barrier Ueff = 7.4 K with HDC = 1000 Oe, whereas complex 2 exhibits an S = 9 ground state and significant magnetocaloric effect (-ΔSm = 18.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 3 K and ΔB = 5 T).

  20. 1,2,4-Diazaphospholide complexes of lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii): synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minggang; Wang, Lixia; Li, Pangpang; Ma, Jianping; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    A few heteroleptic, charge-separated heterobimetallic, and polymeric alkali metalate complexes of 1,2,4-diazaphospholide lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii) were simply prepared via the metathesis reaction of MCl3 (THF)m (m = 1-2) and K[3,5-R2dp] ([3,5-R2dp](-) = 3,5-di-substituent-1,2,4-diazaphospholide; R = tBu, Ph) in a varied ratio (1 : 3, 1 : 4, and 1 : 5, respectively) at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran. All the complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H}, IR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis despite their paramagnetism (excluding La(iii) complexes). The structures of the complexes were found to feature varied coordination modes. The magnetic properties of several compounds were studied by magnetic susceptibility, and the complexes presented the magnetic moments close to or lower than the theoretical values for the free ions in the trivalent oxidation states (Pr(3+), Nd(3+)).

  1. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan

    2013-01-01

    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly.

  2. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer of the Tb(III)-Nd(III) Binary System in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. I. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The lanthanides act as a neutron poison in nuclear reactor with large neutron absorption cross section. For that reason, very low amount of lanthanides is required in the recovered U/TRU ingot product from pyrochemical process. In view of that, the investigation of thermodynamic properties and chemical behaviors of lanthanides in molten chloride salt are necessary to estimate the performance efficiency of pyrochemical process. However, there are uncertainties about knowledge and understanding of basic mechanisms in pyrochemical process, such as chemical speciation and redox behaviors due to the lack of in-situ monitoring methods for high temperature molten salt. The spectroscopic analysis is one of the probable techniques for in-situ qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recently, a few fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on single lanthanide element in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic have been investigated. The fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence lifetime of Tb(III) were decreased as increasing the concentration of Nd(III), demonstrating collisional quenching between donor ions and acceptor ions. The Forster distance (..0) of Tb(III)-Nd(III) binary system in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was determined in the specific range of .... (0.1-1.0) and .. (1.387-1.496)

  3. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  4. Class - III malocclusion: Genetics or environment? A twins study

    OpenAIRE

    Jena A; Duggal R; Mathur V; Parkash H

    2005-01-01

    Etiology of class-III malocclusion is generally believed to be genetic. A wide range of environmental factors have been suggested as contributing factors for the development of class-III malocclusion. Twin study is one of the most effective methods available for investigating genetically determined variables of malocclusion. Discordancy for class-III malocclusion is a frequent finding in dizygotic twins. However, class-III malocclusion discordancy in monozygotic twins is a rare finding. The p...

  5. 76 FR 60511 - Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Offshore Units. The policy is currently found in Chapter 16 of the Marine Safety Manual, Volume III. The... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Chapter 16 of Volume III of the Marine Safety...

  6. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or...

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  8. Organocatalytic Site-Selective Acylation of 10-Deacetylbaccatin III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Masanori; Ninomiya, Ryo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Organocatalytic site-selective diversification of 10-deacetylbaccatin III, a key natural product for the semisynthesis of taxol, has been achieved. Various acyl groups were selectively introduced into the C(10)-OH of 10-deacetylbaccatin III. The C(10)-OH selective acylation was also applied to acylative site-selective dimerization of 10-deacetylbaccatin III to provide the structurally defined dimer.

  9. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the benefits and harms of AT III in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched from inception to 27 August 2015 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We included randomized cont...

  10. Korean Cultural Influences on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of Korean culture on the results of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) by comparing profiles of 147 Korean and 132 American college students. Results indicate that MCMI-III personality profile differences exist between Korean and American college students. Discusses implications for mental health…

  11. Low-energy neutrino observation at Super-Kamiokande-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Y [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)], E-mail: takeuchi@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    Super-Kamiokande-III (SK-III) has been started its observation in July 2006. The main targets of low-energy neutrinos are the solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. In this paper, the current status of the solar neutrino observation in SK-III is reported.

  12. Korean Cultural Influences on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of Korean culture on the results of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) by comparing profiles of 147 Korean and 132 American college students. Results indicate that MCMI-III personality profile differences exist between Korean and American college students. Discusses implications for mental health…

  13. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  14. Arene activation by a nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex: pathways leading to phenol and ketone products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faponle, Abayomi S; Banse, Frédéric; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are found in various nonheme iron enzymes as catalytic cycle intermediates; however, little is known on their catalytic properties. The recent work of Banse and co-workers on a biomimetic nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex provided evidence of its involvement in reactivity with arenes. This contrasts the behavior of heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes that are known to be sluggish oxidants. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism of the biomimetic iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex with arenes, we performed a computational (density functional theory) study. The calculations show that iron(III)-hydroperoxo reacts with substrates via low free energies of activation that should be accessible at room temperature. Moreover, a dominant ketone reaction product is observed as primary products rather than the thermodynamically more stable phenols. These product distributions are analyzed and the calculations show that charge interaction between the iron(III)-hydroxo group and the substrate in the intermediate state pushes the transferring proton to the meta-carbon atom of the substrate and guides the selectivity of ketone formation. These studies show that the relative ratio of ketone versus phenol as primary products can be affected by external interactions of the oxidant with the substrate. Moreover, iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are shown to selectively give ketone products, whereas iron(IV)-oxo complexes will react with arenes to form phenols instead.

  15. Outer membrane-associated serine protease involved in adhesion of Shewanella oneidensis to Fe(III) oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Justin L; Ginn, Brian R; Bates, David J; Dublin, Steven N; Taylor, Jeanette V; Apkarian, Robert P; Amaro-Garcia, Samary; Neal, Andrew L; Dichristina, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires a variety of anaerobic electron acceptors, including insoluble Fe(III) oxides. S. oneidensis employs a number of novel strategies for respiration of insoluble Fe(III) oxides, including localization of respiratory proteins to the cell outer membrane (OM). The molecular mechanism by which S. oneidensis adheres to and respires Fe(III) oxides, however, remains poorly understood. In the present study, whole cell fractionation and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS techniques were combined to identify a serine protease (SO3800) associated with the S. oneidensis OM. SO3800 contained predicted structural motifs similar to cell surface-associated serine proteases that function as bacterial adhesins in other gram-negative bacteria. The gene encoding SO3800 was deleted from the S. oneidensis genome, and the resulting mutant strain (DeltaSO3800) was tested for its ability to adhere to and respire Fe(III) oxides. DeltaSO3800 was severely impaired in its ability to adhere to Fe(III) oxides, yet retained wild-type Fe(III) respiratory capability. Laser Doppler velocimetry and cryoetch high-resolution SEM experiments indicated that DeltaSO3800 displayed a lower cell surface charge and higher amount of surface-associated exopolysaccharides. Results of this study indicate that S. oneidensis may respire insoluble Fe(III) oxides at a distance, negating the requirement for attachment prior to electron transfer.

  16. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in Natural Soils and the Impact on Mobility of Inorganic Contaminants (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosson, David S. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Cowan, Robert M. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science; Young, Lily Y. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Center for Agriculture and the Environment; Hatcherl, Eric L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Scala, David J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2005-08-02

    Inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, can adhere to insoluble Fe(III) minerals resulting in decreased mobility of these contaminants through subsurface environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB), by reducing insoluble Fe(III) to soluble Fe(II), may enhance contaminant mobility. The Savannah River Site, South Carolina (SRS), has been subjected to both heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the release of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are bound to solid phase soil Fe complexes and to elucidate the mechanisms for mobilization of these contaminants that can be associated with microbial Fe(III) reduction. This is being accomplished by (i) using uncontaminated and contaminated soils from SRS as prototype systems, (ii) evaluating the diversity of DIRBs within the samples and isolating cultures for further study, (iii) using batch microcosms to evaluate the bioavailability of Fe(III) from pure minerals and SRS soils, (iv) developing kinetic and mass transfer models that reflect the system dynamics, and (v) carrying out soil column studies to elucidate the dynamics and interactions amongst Fe(III) reduction, remineralization and contaminant mobility.

  17. The insecticidal neurotoxin Aps III is an atypical knottin peptide that potently blocks insect voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Niraj S; Kang, Eunji; Herzig, Volker; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M; Mobli, Mehdi; King, Glenn F

    2013-05-15

    One of the most potent insecticidal venom peptides described to date is Aps III from the venom of the trapdoor spider Apomastus schlingeri. Aps III is highly neurotoxic to lepidopteran crop pests, making it a promising candidate for bioinsecticide development. However, its disulfide-connectivity, three-dimensional structure, and mode of action have not been determined. Here we show that recombinant Aps III (rAps III) is an atypical knottin peptide; three of the disulfide bridges form a classical inhibitor cystine knot motif while the fourth disulfide acts as a molecular staple that restricts the flexibility of an unusually large β hairpin loop that often houses the pharmacophore in this class of toxins. We demonstrate that the irreversible paralysis induced in insects by rAps III results from a potent block of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. Channel block by rAps III is voltage-independent insofar as it occurs without significant alteration in the voltage-dependence of channel activation or steady-state inactivation. Thus, rAps III appears to be a pore blocker that plugs the outer vestibule of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. This mechanism of action contrasts strikingly with virtually all other sodium channel modulators isolated from spider venoms that act as gating modifiers by interacting with one or more of the four voltage-sensing domains of the channel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of Fe(III) and U(VI) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-acyl-pyrazolones-5 from aqueous solutions of different acids and complexing agents. Separation of Fe(III) from U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, E.C. (Nigeria Univ., Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry); Uzoukwu, B.A. (Port Harcourt Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Solvent extraction behaviour of Fe(III) and U(VI) in aqueous media containing various mineral acids or complexing agents, using 4-butyryl, 4-palmitoyl and 4-trichloroacetyl derivatives of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-pyrazolone-5 in xylene as extraction reagents have been studied. The possible extraction mechanism has been investigated. Solid complexes of Fe(III) and U(VI) with the chelating agents have been isolated and analysed. Separation factors of Fe(III) and U(VI) using these chelating agents are reported and methods suggested for separation of Fe(III) from U(VI) in an aqueous medium containing 0.1 M HCl or 5x10{sup -4} M EDTA. (orig.).

  19. Spectroscopic and mechanistic investigations into oxidation of aspartame by diperiodatocuprate(III in aqueous alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant I. Gowda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of aspartame (ASP by diperiodatocuprate(III (DPC in aqueous alkaline medium at 298 K and a constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm−3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between aspartame and diperiodatocuprate(III in alkaline medium exhibits 1:6 stoichiometry in the reaction. The order of the reaction with respect to [diperiodatocuprate(III] was unity, while the apparent order with respect to [aspartame] was less than unity over the concentration range studied. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in [OH−] whereas the rate decreased with increase in [$ {\\text{IO}}^-_4 $]. Increasing the ionic strength of the medium increased the rate. The main products were identified by FT-IR, NMR, and LC-MS spectral studies. The probable mechanism was proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities were also calculated. Kinetic studies suggest that [Cu(H2IO6(H2O2] is the reactive species of Cu(III.

  20. Removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions by La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasay, Syed Abdul; Tokunaga, Shuzo [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraka (Japan); Park, S.W. [Keimyung Univ., Daegu City (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    New adsorbents, La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina, were prepared for the removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions. A commercially available alumina was impregnated with La(III) or Y(III) ions by the adsorption process. The change in the surface charge due to the impregnation was measured by acid/base titration. The adsorption rate and the capacity of the alumina for La(III) and Y(III) ions were determined. The adsorption characteristics of the La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina and the original alumina for fluoride, phosphate, arsenate and selenite ions were analyzed under various conditions. The pH effect, dose effect, and kinetics were studied. The removal selectivity by the impregnated alumina was in the order fluoride > phosphate > arsenate > selenite. The impregnated alumina has been successfully applied for the removal of hazardous anions from synthetic and high-tech industrial wastewaters.

  1. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  2. Pulmonary mechanics during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, William R; Sheel, A William

    2012-03-15

    The use of mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the management of hypoxic respiratory failure. Investigations of pulmonary mechanics in this clinical scenario have demonstrated that there are significant differences in compliance, resistance and gas flow when compared with normal subjects. This paper will review the mechanisms by which pulmonary mechanics are assessed in mechanically ventilated patients and will review how the data can be used for investigative research purposes as well as to inform rational ventilator management.

  3. Analysis of DNA modified by cerium (III, lanthanum (III and gadolinium (III ions by using of raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kohoutkova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are at the present group of heavy metals, which are at the centre of interest, especially because of their ability to interact with DNA and similarity with calcium(III ions, which play crucial role in many cell processes. On basis of DNA interactions, anti–cancerogenic potential is established. In our work, we were focused on interactions of chosen lanthanides – lanthanum, cerium and gadolinium – with DNA. Results of our experiments demonstrate ability of lanthanides to form DNA adducts.

  4. WAIS-III and WMS-III performance in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilp, John G; Corbera, Kathy; Slavov, Iordan; Taylor, Michael J; Sackeim, Harold A; Fallon, Brian A

    2006-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the nature and degree of intellectual and memory deficits in chronic Lyme disease. In this study, 81 participants with rigorously diagnosed chronic Lyme disease were administered the newest revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III), and compared to 39 nonpatients. On the WAIS-III, Lyme disease participants had poorer Full Scale and Performance IQ's. At the subtest level, differences were restricted to Information and the Processing Speed subtests. On the WMS-III, Lyme disease participants performed more poorly on Auditory Immediate, Immediate, Auditory Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, and General Memory indices. Among WMS-III subtests, however, differences were restricted to Logical Memory (immediate and delayed) and Family Pictures (delayed only), a Visual Memory subtest. Discriminant analyses suggest deficits in chronic Lyme are best characterized as a combination of memory difficulty and diminished processing speed. Deficits were modest, between one-third and two-thirds of a standard deviation, consistent with earlier studies. Depression severity had a weak relationship to processing speed, but little other association to test performance. Deficits in chronic Lyme disease are consistent with a subtle neuropathological process affecting multiple performance tasks, although further work is needed to definitively rule out nonspecific illness effects.

  5. Interactions Between Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-phyllosilicates During Microbial Reduction 2: Natural Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T.; Griffin, A. M.; Gorski, C. A.; Shelobolina, E. S.; Xu, H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Roden, E. E.

    2016-04-19

    Dissimilatory microbial reduction of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-bearing phyllosilicates (Fe(III)-phyllosilicates) is an important process in anoxic soils, sediments, and subsurface materials. Although various studies have documented the relative extent of microbial reduction of single-phase Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-phyllosilicates, detailed information is not available on interaction between these two processes in situations where both phases are available for microbial reduction. The goal of this research was to use the model dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium (DIRB) Geobacter sulfurreducens to study Fe(III)-oxide vs. Fe(III)-phyllosilicate reduction in a range of subsurface materials and Fe(III)-oxide stripped versions of the materials. Low temperature (12K) Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to infer changes in the relative abundances of Fe(III)-oxide, Fe(III)-phyllosilicate, and phyllosilicate-associated Fe(II) (Fe(II)-phyllosilicate). A Fe partitioning model was employed to analyze the fate of Fe(II) and assess the potential for abiotic Fe(II)-catalyzed reduction of Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. The results showed that in most cases Fe(III)- oxide utilization dominated (70-100 %) bulk Fe(III) reduction activity, and that electron transfer from oxide-derived Fe(II) played only a minor role (ca. 10-20 %) in Fe partitioning. In addition, the extent of Fe(III)-oxide reduction was positively correlated to surface area-normalized cation exchange capacity and the phyllosilicate-Fe(III)/total Fe(III) ratio, which suggests that the phyllosilicates in the natural sediments promoted Fe(III)-oxide reduction by binding of oxide-derived Fe(II), thereby enhancing Fe(III)-oxide reduction by reducing or delaying the inhibitory effect that Fe(II) accumulation on oxide and DIRB cell surfaces has on Fe(III)-oxide reduction. In general our results suggest that although Fe(III)-oxide reduction is likely to dominate bulk Fe(III) reduction in most subsurface sediments, Fe

  6. Synthesis, Characterization of La(III, Nd(III, and Er(III Complexes with Schiff Bases Derived from Benzopyran-4-one and Thier Fluorescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida L. El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff bases, L1, L2, and L3, are synthesized from the condensation of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-formyl-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one (L with 2-aminopyridine (1, p-phenylenediamine (2, and o-phenylenediamine (3. The prepared Schiff bases react with lanthanum (III, neodymium (III, and erbium (III nitrate to give complexes with stoichiometric ratio (1 : 1 (ligand : metal. The binuclear complexes of Er(III with L3 and the three metal ions with L2 are separated. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption, and infrared, 1H-NMR spectral studies. The presence of hydrated and coordinated water molecules is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal degradation studies show that the final product is the metal oxide. The luminescence properties of the Nd(III and Er(III complexes in dimethylformamide (DMF solutions were investigated.

  7. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  8. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  9. Methods of Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Gottschalk, Alexander; Sostman, H Dirk; Chenevert, Thomas L; Fowler, Sarah E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Kanal, Emanuel; Leeper, Kenneth V; Nadich, David P; Sak, Daniel J; Tapson, Victor F; Wakefield, Thomas W; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the methods of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III) are described in detail. PIOPED III is a multicenter collaborative investigation sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The purpose is to determine the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A composite reference standard based on usual diagnostic methods for PE is used. All images will be read by 2 blinded and study-certified central readers. Patients with no PE according to the composite reference test will be randomized to undergo gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography. This procedure will reduce the proportion of patients with negative tests at no loss in evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

  10. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  11. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  12. The role of Ce(III) in BZ oscillating reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paulo A.; Varela, Hamilton; Faria, Roberto B.

    2012-03-01

    Herein we present results on the oscillatory dynamics in the bromate-oxalic acid-acetone-Ce(III)/Ce(IV) system in batch and also in a CSTR. We show that Ce(III) is the necessary reactant to allow the emergence of oscillations. In batch, oscillations occur with Ce(III) and also with Ce(IV), but no induction period is observed with Ce(III). In a CSTR, no oscillations were found using a freshly prepared Ce(IV), but only when the cerium-containing solution was aged, allowing partial conversion of Ce(IV) to Ce(III) by reaction with acetone.

  13. Mechanical Kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Jerry N.

    Mechanical kinesiology is defined as a study of the mechanical factors affecting human movement, i.e., applying the physical laws of mechanics to the study of human motor behavior. This textbook on the subject is divided into thirty lessons. Each lesson is organized into three parts: a part on the text proper; a part entitled "study…

  14. Mechanisms Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design such mechan......Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design...... using criteria such as size, performance parameters, operation environment, etc. Content: Understanding Mechanisms Design (2 weeks) Definitions, mechanisms representations, kinematic diagrams, the four bar linkage, mobility, applications of mechanisms, types of mechanisms, special mechanisms, the design......: equations for various mechanisms. At the end of this module you will be able to analyze existing mechanisms and to describe their movement. Designing mechanisms (7 weeks) Type synthesis and dimensional synthesis, function generation, path generation, three precision points in multi-loop mechanisms...

  15. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab Rijal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC; they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease.

  16. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  17. Poly[hexaaquatri-μ-malonato-didysprosium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Dy2(C3H2O43(H2O6]n, forms a coordination polymeric structure comprising hydrated dysprosium ions and malonate ligands. In the asymmetric unit, there are one dysprosium ion, one and a half malonate ligands, and three water molecules. Each DyIII atom is coordinated by six O atoms from four malonate ligands and by three water molecules, and displays a tricapped trigonal–prismatic coordination geometry. The malonate ligands adopt two types of coordination mode, linking dysprosium centres to form a three-dimensional coordination polymer. The extensive network of hydrogen bonds in this polymer enhances the structural stability.

  18. Silicon photonics III systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, David

    2016-01-01

    This book is volume III of a series of books on silicon photonics. It reports on the development of fully integrated systems where many different photonics component are integrated together to build complex circuits. This is the demonstration of the fully potentiality of silicon photonics. It contains a number of chapters written by engineers and scientists of the main companies, research centers and universities active in the field. It can be of use for all those persons interested to know the potentialities and the recent applications of silicon photonics both in microelectronics, telecommunication and consumer electronics market.

  19. Synthetic Stellar Clusters for Pop III

    CERN Document Server

    Raimondo, G; Cassisi, S; Castellani, V

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results of an incoming theoretical work concerning the integrated properties of the Population III clusters of stars. On the basis of synthetic Color-Magnitude Diagrams, we provide a grid of optical and near-IR colors of Simple Stellar Populations with very low metallicity (Z=10$^{-10}$ and Z=10$^{-6}$) and age which spans from 10 Myr to 15 Gyr. A comparison with higher metallicities up to 0.006 is also shown, disclosing sizable differences in the CMD morphology, integrated colors and Spectral Energy Distribution (SED).

  20. Kaiser Ferdinand III. (1608–1657)

    OpenAIRE

    HENGERER, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Ferdinand III. inherited the Thirty Years' war from its father, Ferdinand II.. In the centre of his reign, the war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia and thereby the long time of the confessional arguments going along with denomination questions. The Peace of Westphalia was at the same time an important stage in the decay of the alliance of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburger which had emerged under Karl of the V. and which had polarised Europe about for one century. Now the Peace hel...

  1. Alimentos industrializados congelados gama III y IV

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo, indagar sobre el consumo, el grado de información y contenido de sodio, grasas saturadas y colesterol de los principales alimentos congelados Gama III y V consumidos por los encuestados. A partir de esto, se realiza una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo y preguntas varias a 250 personas de entre 30 a 60 años, que concurren a cuatro supermercados de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, para determinar el conocimiento por parte de los encuestados e...

  2. Recombinant human antithrombin III: rhATIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    GTC Biotherapeutics (formerly Genzyme Transgenics Corporation) is developing a transgenic form of antithrombin III known as recombinant human antithrombin III [rhATIII]. It is produced by inserting human DNA into the cells of goats so that the targeted protein is excreted in the milk of the female offspring. The transgenic goats have been cloned in collaboration with the Louisiana State University Agriculture Center. GTC Biotherapeutics is conducting clinical trials of rhATIII in coagulation disorders. rhATIII is believed to be both safer and more cost-effective than the currently available plasma-derived product. rhATIII is also being investigated in cancer and acute lung injury. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, originally a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation, changed its name to GTC Biotherapeutics in June 2002; it is no longer a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation. GTC Biotherapeutics is seeking partners for the commercialisation of rhATIII. Restructuring of GTC Biotherapeutics to support its commercialisation programmes was announced in February 2004. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation was developing rhATIII in association with Genzyme General (Genzyme Corporation) in the ATIII LLC joint venture, but in November 2000 a letter of intent was signed for the reacquisition of the rights by Genzyme Transgenics Corporation. It was announced in February 2001 that this reacquisition was not going to be completed and that the development of rhATIII was to continue with ATIII LLC. However, in July 2001, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired all the rights in the transgenic antithrombin III programme. SMI Genzyme Ltd, a joint venture between Sumitomo Metal Industries, Japan, and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, USA, was set up to fund development of transgenic antithrombin III in Asia. However, in October 2000, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired, from Sumitomo Metal Industries, the rights to its technology for production of medicines from milk in 18 Asian countries

  3. Research in collegiate mathematics education III

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, A; Kaput, Jim; Dubinsky, Ed; Dick, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Volume III of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME) presents state-of-the-art research on understanding, teaching, and learning mathematics at the post-secondary level. This volume contains information on methodology and research concentrating on these areas of student learning: Problem solving. Included here are three different articles analyzing aspects of Schoenfeld's undergraduate problem-solving instruction. The articles provide new detail and insight on a well-known and widely discussed course taught by Schoenfeld for many years. Understanding concepts. These articles fe

  4. III Astronomy School: the world of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Astronomy School is an activity organized by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón. It is celebrated every year at the end of the summer or the beginning of autumn with the purpose of bringing Astronomy and Astrophysics to the population from an educational and a training point of view. Its III Edition, held in October 2013, has been financed by the Spanish Astronomical Society and was focused on stellar physics. This contribution describes the School and the results.

  5. Semiconductors A(III)B(VI): Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhundov, G. A.; Abdullaev, G. B.; Guseynov, G. D.; Mekhtiyev, R. F.; Aliyeva, M. Kh.

    1993-11-01

    Semiconductors A(III) B(VI) crystallize in laminated or chain structures and contain nine valence electrons in each molecule. Connection in the layers and the chains is predominantly covalent, and Van der Waal between the layers and the chains. Calculated data of the energy spectrum of these compounds are absent, and the available experimental studies are insufficient for understanding of the zone structures. We have obtained and studied single crystals of GaS, GaSe, GaTe, InSe, and TiSe.

  6. NNMSM type-II and -III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    We suggest two types of extension of the standard model, which are the so-called next to new minimal standard model type-II and -III. They can achieve gauge coupling unification as well as suitable dark matter abundance, small neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, inflation, and dark energy. The gauge coupling unification can be realized by introducing two or three extra new fields, and they could explain charge quantization. We also show that there are regions in which the vacuum stability, coupling perturbativity, and correct dark matter abundance can be realized with current experimental data at the same time. (orig.)

  7. Treatment of Class III with Facemask Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Pattanaik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult problems to treat in the mixed dentition. It has a multifactorial etiology involving both genetic and environmental causes. The dental and skeletal effects of maxillary protraction with a facemask are well documented in several studies. Although treatment in the late mixed or early permanent dentition can be successful, results are generally better in the deciduous or early mixed dentition. The following case shows early treatment of a young patient with severe sagittal and transverse discrepancy of the maxilla and mandible, using a facemask.

  8. Spectroscopic studies on unexpected complex azides of lanthanum(III) and neodymium(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popitsch, A.; Mautner, A.; Fritzer, H. P.

    Solid azides of the types Cs 3La(N 3) 6, Cs 2Nd(N 3) 5, and Cs 4Nd(N 3) 7 can be prepared by metathetical reactions under special precautions. Electronic spectra in diffuse reflectance, infrared and Raman spectra, and magnetic susceptibilities versus temperature and field strength were measured on microcrystalline samples. The data of these new compounds are primarily discussed in view of vibrational properties of the azide ion N 3-, as ligand and in relation to first insights into the nature of the metal-nitrogen bonds within the coordination polyhedra of La(III) and Nd(III).

  9. As origens da III Internacional Comunista The origins of the III Communist International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Carone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa o rico processo histórico (de finais do século XIX e primeiras duas décadas do XX de lutas de classes e de ideologia do movimento socialista, que culminará com a fundação da III Internacional Comunista. This texts analyses the rich historical process (from the end of the 19th century to the first two decades of the 20th century of the class conflict and idealogy of the socialist movement, which will end up with the institution of the III Communist International.

  10. Structure of Co(III and Fe(III transition metal ions in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Mohammed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydration structures of Co(III and Fe(III ions have been investigated by Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC simulations using only ion-water pair interaction potentials and by including up to three body correction terms. The hydration structures were evaluated in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and angular distributions. The structural parameters obtained by including three-body correction terms are in good agreement with experimental values proving that many-body effects play a crucial role in the description of the hydration structure of these highly charged ions.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of bioactive carboxyamide with trinuclear lanthanide (III) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bibhesh K.; Prakash, Anant; Adhikari, Devjani

    2009-10-01

    Complexes of La(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III) with bioactive carboxyamide ligands N',N″-bis(3-caboxy-1-oxophenelenyl)2-amino-N-arylbenzamidine have been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. Mass spectrum explains the successive degradation of the molecular species in solution and justifies ML complexes. Vibrational spectra indicate coordination of Ln(III) with amide and carboxylate oxygen of the ligand along with nitrate ions. The magnetic moment of Sm(III) and Eu(III) complexes showed slightly higher-values which originated due to low J- J separation leading to thermal population of next higher energy J levels and susceptibility due to first order Zeeman effect. The strong luminescence emitting peaks at 587 nm for Eu(III) and 543 nm for Tb(III) can be observed, which could be attributed to the ligand have an enhanced effect to the luminescence intensity of the Eu(III) and Tb(III). The thermal behaviour of complexes shows that water molecules and nitrate ion are removed in first step followed by the removal of two molecules of nitrate ions and then decomposition of the ligand molecule in subsequent step. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal data using Coats and Redferm method, which confirm first order kinetics.

  12. Prospects of III-Vs for Logic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.P. Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing challenges for further scaling down of Si CMOS require the study of alternative channel materials. This paper highlights the significance of III-V compound semiconductor materials in order to face the looming fate of Si CMOS technology. The potential advantages of using III-Vs as channel materials for future III-V CMOS is its outstanding transport properties that have been widely accepted in high frequency RF applications. However, many significant challenges in front of III-V digital technology needs to be overcome before III-V CMOS becomes feasible for next generation high speed and low power logic applications. But it may be that this situation is changing given recent progress in the fabrication of high-mobility III-Vs based heterostructure electronic devices for logic applications to fulfill the needs towards the everyday evolving III-V CMOS technology.

  13. Growth of single crystals of mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) in spacelab III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Berg, L.; Schnepple, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Continued development of a system designed to grow crystals by physical vapor transport in the environment of Spacelab III will be described, with special emphasis on simulation of expected space conditions, adjustment of crystal growth parameters, and on board observation and control of the experiment by crew members and ground personnel. A critical factor in the use of mercuric iodide for semiconductor detectors of x-rays and gamma-rays is the crystalline quality of the material. The twofold purpose of the Spacelab III experiment is therefore to grow single crystals with superior electronic properties as an indirect result of the greatly reduced gravity field during the growth, and to obtain data which will lead to improved understanding of the vapor transport mechanism. The experiments planned to evaluate the space crystals, including gamma-ray diffractometry and measurements of stoichiometry, lattice dimensions, mechanical strength, luminescense, and detector performance are discussed.

  14. Gap junctions enhancer combined with Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs, a promising antiarrhythmic method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-dong; Zhang, Cun-tai; Ruan, Lei; Ni, Ming-ke; Quan, Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Arrhythmias is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and adverse effects such as proarrhythmias. Reentry mechanism plays an important role in persistence of arrhythmias. Reentry can only continue when reentry path-length is longer than cardiac wavelength which is equal to the product of conduction velocity (CV) and effective refractory period (ERP). Gap junctions uncoupling is associated with proarrhythmic CV slowing and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) increasing in many cardiac diseases. Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs prolong ERP with an augmented TDR which is the main mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects. Gap junctions enhancer can augment CV and diminish TDR. As a result, gap junctions enhancer combined with class III drugs may be a promising antiarrhythmic method.

  15. Stacking fault domains as sources of a-type threading dislocations in III-nitride heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Bazioti, C.; Albrecht, M.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mechanism for the nucleation of a-type threading dislocation half-loops from basal stacking faults in wurtzite III-nitride heterostructures is presented. Transmission electron microscopy observations, in conjunction with topological and strain analysis, show that there are two possible configurations of closed domains comprising basal stacking faults of I1 type. It is shown that the lattice dislocation may emanate when the sphalerite structural units of the stacking faults in the closed domain are oriented in a parallel manner. The closed domain configurations do not introduce any shift on the basal planes, resulting in zero defect content along the growth direction. The stacking fault domains are hexagonal, with sides along the ⟨ 10 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ directions, and the threading dislocation half loops nucleate at the line nodes. The mechanism was found to be operational in multiple III-nitride systems.

  16. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems.

  17. Poly(propylene carbonate)/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites: selective adsorbent for the extraction and detection of gold(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sher Bahadar Khan; Hadi M Marwani; Jongchul Seo; Esraa M Bakhsh; Kalsoom Akhtar; Dowan Kim; Abdullah M Asiri

    2015-04-01

    In this study, poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) and exfoliated graphite (PPC–EG) composites were prepared by the solution blending method and their selective extraction and detection of gold(III) were investigated. Specifically, a new effective adsorbent was developed for a selective extraction and determination of gold(III) by use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The selectivity of PPC (PPC–EG 0.5, PPC–EG 1, PPC–EG 2, PPC–EG 3 and PPC–EG 5) was investigated toward several metal ions, including Au(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Pd(II) and Zn(II). Based on selectivity and pH studies, Au(III) was the most quantitatively adsorbed on PPC–EG 0.5 phase at pH 2, indicating that PPC–EG 0.5 was the most selective toward Au(III) among other metal ions. The adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model with adsorption capacity of 157.61 mg g−1 of PPC–EG 0.5 for Au(III), which was in agreement with experimental data of adsorption isotherm study. The kinetic of adsorption for Au(III) was investigated by a pseudo-first- and second-order models. Results of kinetic models displayed that the adsorption of Au(III) on the PPC–EG 0.5 phase obeyed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, results of thermodynamic investigation demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism of PPC–EG 0.5 toward Au(III) was a general spontaneous process and favourable.

  18. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  19. Mechanistic insight into conjugated N-N bond cleavage by Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weirong; Liu, Yuxia; Bi, Siwei

    2015-08-14

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the detailed mechanism of Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones with PhC≡CPh. It is found that (1) the methylene C-H activation is prior to the phenyl C-H activation, (2) the N-N bond cleavage is realized via Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) rather than via Rh(III) → Rh(V) → Rh(III). The zwitterionic Rh(I) complex is identified to be a key intermediate in promoting the N-N bond cleavage. (3) Different from the Rh(III)-catalyzed hydrazine-directed C-H activation for indole synthesis, the rate-determining step of the reaction studied in this work is the Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) process resulting in the N-N bond cleavage rather than the alkyne insertion step. The present theoretical study provides new insight into the mechanism of the conjugated N-N bond cleavage.

  20. Kinetic and mechanistic investigations of chlorocomplex of Ru(III and Ir(III catalyzed oxidation of d-fructose by N-bromophthalimide in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Sachdev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and mechanistic studies of Ru(III and Ir(III homogeneously catalyzed oxidation of d-fructose (d-fru by N-bromophthalimide (NBP in the presence of aqueous perchloric acid medium have been made at 303 K using mercuric acetate as Br− ion scavenger. The stoichiometry and the oxidation products in both catalysts were found to be the same. The determined stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:2 ([d-fru]:[NBP]. Arabinonic and formic acids were obtained as the major oxidized products of both the reactions. The kinetics of the reaction were studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength, concentration of the salt, concentration of the added reaction product, and the dielectric constant of the medium to learn the mechanistic aspects of the reaction. Possible mechanisms are proposed, which are consistent with the kinetics, stoichiometry and products of the reaction.

  1. Nonlocal Theories in Continuum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jirásek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain why the standard continuum theory fails to properly describe certain mechanical phenomena and how the description can be improved by enrichments that incorporate the influence of gradients or weighted spatial averages of strain or of an internal variable. Three typical mechanical problems that require such enrichments are presented: (i dispersion of short elastic waves in heterogeneous or discrete media, (ii size effects in microscale elastoplasticity, in particular with the size dependence of the apparent hardening modulus, and (iii localization of strain and damage in quasibrittle structures and with the resulting transitional size effect. Problems covered in the examples encompass static and dynamic phenomena, linear and nonlinear behavior, and three constitutive frameworks, namely elasticity, plasticity and continuum damage mechanics. This shows that enrichments of the standard continuum theory can be useful in a wide range of mechanical problems. 

  2. Azimilide dihydrochloride: a new class III anti-arrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, R; Page, R L

    2000-11-01

    Azimilide dihydrochloride (Stedicor) is a new class III anti-arrhythmic agent that is being developed by Proctor & Gamble to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Development of this agent is being undertaken due to the high prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the lack of satisfactory therapy for this arrhythmia, along with the desire to develop therapy to reduce the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in patients following myocardial infarction. The mechanism of action of azimilide is to block both the slowly conducting (I(Ks)) and rapidly conducting (I(Kr)) rectifier potassium currents in cardiac cells. This differs from other class III agents that block I(Kr) exclusively or in combination with sodium, calcium, or transient outward (I(to)) potassium current channels. Azimilide is distinguished by a relative lack of reverse use-dependence, excellent oral absorption, no need for dose titration, an option for out-patient initiation, no need for adjustment associated with renal or liver failure and a lack of interaction with warfarin or digoxin. It carries some risk of torsade de pointes and rarely, neutropoenia. Azimilide has shown dose-related efficacy in prolonging the time to recurrence of atrial fibrillation. A large trial examining the impact of azimilide on mortality in high-risk patients following myocardial infarction has completed enrolment and should yield data in the next couple of years and further studies are planned. Even if this trial fails to show a survival benefit, a neutral effect on mortality will make the agent attractive for atrial arrhythmias.

  3. Transport Properties of III-N Hot Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Donald J., III

    Unipolar hot electron transistors (HETs) represent a tantalizing alternative to established bipolar transistor technologies. During device operation electrons are injected over a large emitter barrier into the base where they travel along the device axis with very high velocity. Upon arrival at the collector barrier, high-energy electrons pass over the barrier and contribute to collector current while low-energy electrons are quantum mechanically reflected back into the base. Designing the base with thickness equal to or less than the hot electron mean free path serves to minimize scattering events and thus enable quasi-ballistic operation. Large current gain is achieved by increasing the ratio of transmitted to reflected electrons. Although III-N HETs have undergone substantial development in recent years, there remain ample opportunities to improve key device metrics. In order to engineer improved device performance, a deeper understanding of the operative transport physics is needed. Fortunately, the HET provides fertile ground for studying several prominent electron transport phenomena. In this thesis we present results from several studies that use the III-N HET as both emitter and analyzer of hot electron momentum states. The first provides a measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN; the second relies on a new technique called electron injection spectroscopy to investigate the effects of barrier height inhomogeneity in the emitter. To supplement our analysis we develop a comprehensive theory of coherent electron transport that allows us to model the transfer characteristics of complex heterojunctions. Such a model provides a theoretical touchstone with which to compare our experimental results. While these studies are of potential interest in their own right, we interpret the results with an eye toward improving next-generation device performance.

  4. Differential recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to DNA repair sites

    OpenAIRE

    Mortusewicz, O; Rothbauer, U.; Cardoso, M C; Leonhardt, H.

    2006-01-01

    DNA ligation is an essential step in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Mammalian cells contain three DNA Ligases that are not interchangeable although they use the same catalytic reaction mechanism. To compare the recruitment of the three eukaryotic DNA Ligases to repair sites in vivo we introduced DNA lesions in human cells by laser microirradiation. Time lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged proteins showed that DNA Ligase III accumulated at microirradiated sites before DNA Liga...

  5. Type III Seesaw and Dark Matter in a Supersymmetric Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new supersymmetric left right model with Higgs doublets carrying odd B-L charge, higgs bidoublet and heavy Higgs triplets with zero B-L charge and a set of sterile neutrinos which are singlet under the gauge group. We show that spontaneous parity violation can be achieved naturally in this model and the neutrino masses arise from the so called type III seesaw mechanism. We also discuss the possible phenomenology in the context of neutrino masses and dark matter.

  6. Effects of atorvastatin and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on VLDL apolipoprotein C-III kinetics in men with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C; Nguyen, Minh N; Watts, Gerald F; Ooi, Esther Mm; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2010-04-01

    Disturbed apolipoprotein (apo) C-III metabolism in obese subjects may account for hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin and fish oils decrease plasma triglycerides and VLDL concentrations, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We studied the independent and combined effects of atorvastatin and fish oils on the metabolism of VLDL apo C-III in obese men. We carried out a 6-wk randomized, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial intervention study of atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and fish oils (4 g/d) on VLDL apo C-III kinetics in the postabsorptive state in 39 abdominally obese men using intravenous administration of d(3)-leucine. VLDL apo C-III isotopic enrichments were measured by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with kinetic parameters derived by using a multicompartmental model. Atorvastatin significantly (P triglycerides but did not significantly alter plasma VLDL apo C-III concentrations or kinetic parameters. Combination treatment provided no additional effect on VLDL apo C-III concentrations or kinetics compared with atorvastatin alone. In obesity, the triglyceride-lowering effect of atorvastatin, but not fish oils, is associated with increased VLDL apo C-III fractional catabolism and hence lower VLDL apo C-III concentrations. Combination treatment provided no significant additional improvement in VLDL apo C-III metabolism compared with atorvastatin alone.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Manganese (III) Complex in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Is Mediated by the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Followed by Mitochondrial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anbaky, Qudes; Al-Karakooly, Zeiyad; Kilaparty, Surya P; Agrawal, Megha; Albkuri, Yahya M; RanguMagar, Ambar B; Ghosh, Anindya; Ali, Nawab

    2016-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug. The Mn (III) complex induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by microculture tetrazolium assay, a measure of cytotoxic cell death. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxic effects were significantly increased at higher concentrations of Mn (III) complex and with longer time of treatment. The IC50 (Inhibitor concentration that results in 50% cell death) value of Mn (III) complex in MCF-7 cells was determined to be 2.5 mmol/L for 24 hours of treatment. In additional experiments, we determined the Mn (III) complex-mediated cell death was due to both apoptotic and nonspecific necrotic cell death mechanisms. This was assessed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and flow cytometry techniques. The Mn (III) complex produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 1 and ultimately damaging the mitochondrial function as is evident by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment of the cells with free radical scavenger, N, N-dimethylthiourea decreased Mn (III) complex-mediated generation of ROS and attenuated apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the Mn (III) complex-mediated MCF-7 cell death utilizes combined mechanism involving apoptosis and necrosis perhaps due to the generation of ROS.

  8. Abnormal collagen I to III distribution in the skin of patients with incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, U; Si, Z Y; Zheng, H; Schumpelick, V; Bhardwaj, R S; Klosterhalfen, B

    2000-01-01

    The surgical mesh-free repair of incisional hernias has to face recurrence rates of up to 50%. Apart from technical faults this is probably due to collagen metabolic disorders, known to play an important role in the development of inguinal hernia. In particular an altered ratio of collagen types I and III with an increase in collagen type III has been claimed to reduce the mechanical strength of connective tissues. Therefore, we investigated the content of collagen types I and III in the skin of patients with incisional hernia (n = 7) and recurrent incisional hernia (n = 5) in comparison to controls with healthy skin (n = 7) and normal skin scar (n = 7) both by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of collagen I/III due to a concomitant increase in collagen III. The patients with incisional hernias and with recurrent incisional hernias showed a ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, whereas the controls exhibit a ratio of 2.1 +/- 0.2 in healthy skin and of 1.2 +/- 0.2 in normal skin scar, respectively. The decrease was highly significant (p scar, as well as between controls and normal scar, whereas there was not any significant difference between primary and recurrent hernia (p > 0.05). Our data for the first time confirmed that the presence of incisional hernia is accompanied by impaired collagen synthesis in the skin. The decreased tensile strength of collagen type III may play a key role in the development of incisional hernias. Furthermore, it might explain the high recurrence rates of hernia repair by simple closure, as a repetition of the primarily failing technique, and the improvement by the additional use of alloplastic material.

  9. Prevalência de dispnéia e possíveis mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos em indivíduos com obesidade graus 2 e 3 Prevalence of and the potential physiopathological mechanisms involved in dyspnea in individuals with class II or III obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Aires Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a dispnéia e correlações com dados respiratórios de obesos graus 2 e 3. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se 49 indivíduos com índice de massa corporal >35 kg/m², em dois grupos (presença ou ausência do sintoma. Avaliaram-se índice de dispnéia basal, espirometria, pressões respiratórias máximas e gasometria arterial. RESULTADOS: Doze indivíduos negaram dispnéia e 37 a confirmaram. O índice de dispnéia basal diferiu entre os dois grupos. Os valores médios dos parâmetros para todos estiveram dentro da normalidade, exceto para: volume residual/capacidade pulmonar total, volume de reserva expiratório, diferença alvéolo-arterial de oxigênio. O grupo dispnéico mostrou valores significativamente inferiores de volume de reserva expiratório, pressão expiratória máxima e pH arterial. Para todos, o índice de massa corporal correlacionou-se significativamente com: índice de dispnéia basal, volume residual/capacidade pulmonar total, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo/capacidade vital forçada, fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25% e 75% da capacidade vital forçada, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial, diferença alvéolo-arterial de oxigênio e pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue arterial. O índice de dispnéia basal correlacionou-se significativamente com: volume residual/capacidade pulmonar total, volume de reserva expiratório, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial, diferença alvéolo-arterial de oxigênio e pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue arterial. CONCLUSÃO: Dispnéia é uma queixa freqüente em obesos graus 2 e 3. Eles apresentam expressiv