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Sample records for anticancer targeted agents

  1. Early clinical development of targeted anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, E.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Van Brummelen studied the safety and preliminary signs of efficacy of several novel targeted anticancer agents in phase I trials. In her thesis, she reports the results of trials with the immunotherapies pembrolizumab and cergutuzumab-amunaleukin, and with combinations of inhibitors of the MEK and

  2. Mitochondrially targeted anti-cancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biasutto, L.; Dong, L.A.; Zoratti, M.; Neužil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2010), s. 670-681 ISSN 1567-7249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitochondrial targeting * pro-oxidant effect * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2010

  3. Preclinical evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer agents for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Zips, Daniel; Thames, Howard D.; Kummermehr, Johann; Baumann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The combination of molecular-targeted agents with irradiation is a highly promising avenue for cancer research and patient care. Molecular-targeted agents are in themselves not curative in solid tumours, whereas radiotherapy is highly efficient in eradicating tumour stem cells. Recurrences after high-dose radiotherapy are caused by only one or few surviving tumour stem cells. Thus, even if a novel agent has the potential to kill only few tumour stem cells, or if it interferes in mechanisms of radioresistance of tumours, combination with radiotherapy may lead to an important improvement in local tumour control and survival. To evaluate the effects of novel agents combined with radiotherapy, it is therefore necessary to use experimental endpoints which reflect the killing of tumour stem cells, in particular tumour control assays. Such endpoints often do not correlate with volume-based parameters of tumour response such as tumour regression and growth delay. This calls for radiotherapy specific research strategies in the preclinical testing of novel anti-cancer drugs, which in many aspects are different from research approaches for medical oncology

  4. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

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    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  5. Targeting apoptotic machinery as approach for anticancer therapy: Smac mimetics as anticancer agents

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    Nevine M.Y. Elsayed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a chief regulator of cellular homeostasis. Impairment of apoptotic machinery is a main characteristic of several diseases such as cancer, where the evasion of apoptosis is a cardinal hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis is regulated by contribution of pro- and anti- apoptotic proteins, where caspases are the main executioners of the apoptotic machinery. IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins is a family of endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis, which perform their function through interference with the function of caspases. Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases is endogenous inhibitor of IAPs, thus it is one of the major proapoptotic endogenous proteins. Thus, the development of Smac mimetics has evolved as an approach for anticancer therapy. Several Smac mimetic agents have been introduced to clinical trial such as birinapanet 12. Herein, the history of development of Smac mimetics along with the recent development in this field is briefly discussed.

  6. Supramolecular approach for target transport of photodynamic anticancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Kaplánek, R.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 106-116 ISSN 1061-0278 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA ČR GA203/09/1311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * photosensitisers * targeted transport * combination therapy * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2012

  7. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Zhang, Pingyu; Jin, Chengzhi; Zeng, Leli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by poor depth efficacy and inefficient activation of the cell death machinery in cancer cells during treatment. To address these issues, photoactivation using two-photon absorption (TPA) is currently being examined. Mitochondria-targeted therapy represents a promising approach to target tumors selectively and may overcome the resistance in current anticancer therapies. Herein, four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RuL1-RuL4) have been designed and developed to act as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit very high singlet oxygen quantum yields in methanol (0.74-0.81), significant TPA cross sections (124-198 GM), remarkable mitochondrial accumulation, and deep penetration depth. Thus, RuL1-RuL4 were utilized as one-photon and two-photon absorbing photosensitizers in both monolayer cells and 3D multicellular spheroids (MCSs). These Ru(II) complexes were almost nontoxic towards cells and 3D MCSs in the dark and generate sufficient singlet oxygen under one- and two-photon irradiation to trigger cell death. Remarkably, RuL4 exhibited an IC50 value as low as 9.6 μM in one-photon PDT (λirr = 450 nm, 12 J cm(-2)) and 1.9 μM in two-photon PDT (λirr = 830 nm, 800 J cm(-2)) of 3D MCSs; moreover, RuL4 is an order of magnitude more toxic than cisplatin in the latter test system. The combination of mitochondria-targeting and two-photon activation provides a valuable paradigm to develop ruthenium(II) complexes for PDT applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment Strategies that Enhance the Efficacy and Selectivity of Mitochondria-Targeted Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S. Modica-Napolitano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a century has passed since Otto Warburg first observed high rates of aerobic glycolysis in a variety of tumor cell types and suggested that this phenomenon might be due to an impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity in these cells. Subsequently, much has been written about the role of mitochondria in the initiation and/or progression of various forms of cancer, and the possibility of exploiting differences in mitochondrial structure and function between normal and malignant cells as targets for cancer chemotherapy. A number of mitochondria-targeted compounds have shown efficacy in selective cancer cell killing in pre-clinical and early clinical testing, including those that induce mitochondria permeability transition and apoptosis, metabolic inhibitors, and ROS regulators. To date, however, none has exhibited the standards for high selectivity and efficacy and low toxicity necessary to progress beyond phase III clinical trials and be used as a viable, single modality treatment option for human cancers. This review explores alternative treatment strategies that have been shown to enhance the efficacy and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo, and may yet fulfill the clinical promise of exploiting the mitochondrion as a target for cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Recent advances in the development of 1,8-naphthalimide based DNA targeting binders, anticancer and fluorescent cellular imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Swagata; Veale, Emma B; Phelan, Caroline M; Murphy, Samantha A; Tocci, Gillian M; Gillespie, Lisa J; Frimannsson, Daniel O; Kelly, John M; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2013-02-21

    The development of functional 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives as DNA targeting, anticancer and cellular imaging agents is a fast growing area and has resulted in several such derivatives entering into clinical trials. This review gives an overview of the many discoveries and the progression of the use of 1,8-naphthalimides as such agents and their applications to date; focusing mainly on mono-, bis-naphthalimide based structures, and their various derivatives (e.g. amines, polyamine conjugates, heterocyclic, oligonucleotide and peptide based, and those based on metal complexes). Their cytotoxicity, mode of action and cell-selectivity are discussed and compared. The rich photophysical properties of the naphthalimides (which are highly dependent on the nature and the substitution pattern of the aryl ring) make them prime candidates as probes as the changes in spectroscopic properties such as absorption, dichroism, and fluorescence can all be used to monitor their binding to biomolecules. This also makes them useful species for monitoring their uptake and location within cells without the use of co-staining. The photochemical properties of the compounds have also been exploited, for example, for photocleavage of nucleic acids and for the destruction of tumour cells.

  10. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics.

  11. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Substituted Diquinolinyl-Pyridine Ligands as Anticancer Agents by Targeting G-Quadruplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rabindra Nath; Chevret, Edith; Desplat, Vanessa; Rubio, Sandra; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Guillon, Jean

    2017-12-30

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked non-canonical nucleic acid structures found in specific G-rich DNA or RNA sequences in the human genome. G4 structures are liable for various biological functions; transcription, translation, cell aging as well as diseases such as cancer. These structures are therefore considered as important targets for the development of anticancer agents. Small organic heterocyclic molecules are well known to target and stabilize G4 structures. In this article, we have designed and synthesized 2,6-di-(4-carbamoyl-2-quinolyl)pyridine derivatives and their ability to stabilize G4-structures have been determined through the FRET melting assay. It has been established that these ligands are selective for G4 over duplexes and show a preference for the parallel conformation. Next, telomerase inhibition ability has been assessed using three cell lines (K562, MyLa and MV-4-11) and telomerase activity is no longer detected at 0.1 μM concentration for the most potent ligand 1c . The most promising G4 ligands were also tested for antiproliferative activity against the two human myeloid leukaemia cell lines, HL60 and K562.

  12. Mitochondrial complex II, a novel target for anti-cancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klučková, Katarína; Bezawork-Geleta, A.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1827, č. 5 (2013), s. 552-564 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitochondrion * Complex II * Anti- cancer agent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2013

  13. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Furocoumarin Derivatives as Possible Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mattarei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeting small molecules to appropriate subcellular compartments is a way to increase their selectivity and effectiveness while minimizing side effects. This can be accomplished either by stably incorporating specific “homing” properties into the structure of the active principle, or by attaching to it a targeting moiety via a labile linker, i.e., by producing a “targeting pro-drug.” Mitochondria are a recognized therapeutic target in oncology, and blocking the population of the potassium channel Kv1.3 residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane (mtKv1.3 has been shown to cause apoptosis of cancerous cells expressing it. These concepts have led us to devise novel, mitochondria-targeted, membrane-permeant drug candidates containing the furocoumarin (psoralenic ring system and the triphenylphosphonium (TPP lipophilic cation. The strategy has proven effective in various cancer models, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and glioblastoma, stimulating us to devise further novel molecules to extend and diversify the range of available drugs of this type. New compounds were synthesized and tested in vitro; one of them—a prodrug in which the coumarinic moiety and the TPP group are linked by a bridge comprising a labile carbonate bond system—proved quite effective in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Selective death induction is attributed to inhibition of mtKv1.3. This results in oxidative stress, which is fatal for the already-stressed malignant cells. This compound may thus be a candidate drug for the mtKv1.3-targeting therapeutic approach.

  14. Cathepsin D as a Promising Target for the Discovery of Novel Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vijaya; Luqman, Suaib

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin D (CATD), one of the aspartyl endoproteinase involved in different physiological processes and signaling pathways, is accountable for metabolic breakdown of intracellular proteins, the activation of growth factors, hormones, and precursors of enzyme, the processing of antigens, enzyme inhibitors and activators and the regulation of apoptosis. Implication as a Target: Studies have confirmed the role and significance of CATD in an assortment of pathological conditions like Atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Huntington and Parkinson diseases. Amalgamated and veiled as inactive proCATD, it undergoes diverse cleavages to attain a desired conformation in an acidic milieu to act as a functionally active protein. In search of new candidate target (s) for cancer, CATD has attracted a wide group of investigators across the globe and is being recognized as a well-defined marker in cancer especially for breast and hormone-dependent cancer. In this review, PubMed, Sci-finder and other search engines were used to gather information on Cathepsin D. The necessary and relevant information was thoroughly studied to make the article appropriate to highlight all the aspects related to Cathepsin D and its role in cancer. Findings & Conclusion: The present review illustrates structural, functional and regulatory aspects of CATD in cancer, its significant role in angiogenesis, metastasis, invasion, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and therapeutic potential besides the benefits of targeting CATD by the natural products in cancer chemoprevention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Diacetoxyscirpenol as a new anticancer agent to target hypoxia-inducible factor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Joon; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Chun, Yang-Sook; Leutou, Alain Simplice; Son, Byeng Wha; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1, which promotes the progression of malignancy by stimulating angiogenesis and by augmenting the ability of tumors to survive. Thus, HIF-1 is one of the most compelling targets for treating cancers. The aim of this study was to find a small molecule that inhibits HIF-1 under hypoxia in cancer cells. 7,280 compounds in a chemical library were tested in a cancer cell line expressing luciferase HIF-dependently. Through three rounds of screening, we finally picked up a compound that originates from a marine bacterium parasitizing red alga. The antibiotic potently inhibited HIF-1 expression and its transcriptional activity in cancer cells exposed to hypoxia. Through two-step fractionation, diacetoxyscirpenol was purified and identified as a HIF-inhibiting ingredient. Mechanistically, diacetoxyscirpenol inhibits the synthesis of HIF-1α protein and also interferes with the dimerization of HIF-1α and ARNT. It attenuates HIF-mediated gene expression in cancer cells exposed to hypoxia, and by doing so reduces tumorigenic and angiogenic potentials of cancer cells. More importantly, diacetoxyscirpenol retarded tumor growth in mice, and reduced HIF-1α expression and vascular formation in the tumors. Overall, diacetoxyscirpenol is considered a potential drug deregulating the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and it could be beneficially employed for treating malignant tumors with hypoxic microenvironment. PMID:27613833

  16. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  17. Development of a new anti-cancer agent for targeted radionuclide therapy: β- radiolabeled RAFT-RGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitprin, A.

    2013-01-01

    β-emitters radiolabeled RAFT-RGD as new agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. The αvβ3 integrin is known to play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, survival and metastasis. Because of its overexpression on neo-endothelial cells such as those present in growing tumors, as well as on tumor cells of various origins, αvβ3 integrin is an attractive molecular target for diagnosis and therapy of the rapidly growing and metastatic tumors. A tetrameric RGD-based peptide, regioselectively addressable functionalized template-(cyclo-[RGDfK])4 (RAFT-RGD), specifically targets integrin αvβ3 in vitro and in vivo. RAFT-RGD has been used for tumor imaging and drug targeting. This study is the first to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the β-emitters radiolabeled tetrameric RGD peptide RAFT-RGD in a Nude mouse model of αvβ3 -expressing tumors. An injection of 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD in mice with αvβ3 -positive tumors caused a significant growth delay as compared with mice treated with 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RAD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RAD or untreated mice. In comparison, an injection of 30 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD had no efficacy for the treatment of αvβ3 -negative tumors. 90 Y-RAFT-RGD and 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD are potent αvβ3 -expressing tumor targeting agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  19. Improved clearance of radioiodinated hypericin as a targeted anticancer agent by using a duodenal drainage catheter in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Verbruggen, Alfons; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-12-01

    We sought to reduce the radioactive intestinal waste after intravenous injection of necrosis avid iodine-131-labeled hypericin in dual-targeting anticancer radiotherapy and to study its pharmacokinetics in rats using a newly designed catheter. Iodine-123-labeled hypericin was prepared with iodogen as oxidant and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. After iodine-123-labeled hypericin administration, duodenal juice was collected via a catheter from groups of rats (n = 5) at intervals of 0-4, 4-8 or 20-24 h. The content was assessed by gamma-counting. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of iodine-123-labeled hypericin were investigated in rats without (n = 5) and with continuous catheterization (n = 5) for 9 h. After labeling, a high radiochemical yield was obtained with iodine-123-labeled hypericin (>95%), as confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the duodenal aspirate from animals with intermittent catheterization during 24 h, radioactivity accounted for 46% of the total with two peaks at 3 h and 8 h, suggesting enterohepatic circulation. Rats with 9 h of catheterization exhibited one peak representing 20% of the radioactivity. Major metabolites appeared to be conjugated iodine-123-labeled hypericin forms. In rats without and with catheter, iodine-123-labeled hypericin showed exponential elimination from plasma with no significant dehalogenation. Delayed iodine-123-labeled hypericin excretion, a higher maximum concentration (Cmax), larger area under concentration-time curve [AUC(0-∞)] and a longer mean residence time were observed in non-catheterized animals (P elimination of iodine-131-labeled hypericin can be prevented using this approach.

  20. Comparing the Suitability of Autodock, Gold and Glide for the Docking and Predicting the Possible Targets of Ru(II-Based Complexes as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cancer chemotherapy, metal-based complexes have been recognized as the most promising means of inhibiting cancer growth due to the successful application of cis-platin and its derivatives above many of the existing organic anticancer agents. The limitations in their rational design can be traced to the complexity of the mechanism of their operations, lack of proper knowledge of their targets and lack of force fields in docking packages to appropriately define the metal centre of the organometallic complexes. In this paper, some of the promising anticancer complexes of Ru(II such as the rapta-based complexes formulated as [Ru(η6-p-cymeneL2(pta] and those with unusual ligands are considered. CatB and kinases which have been experimentally confirmed as possible targets of the complexes are also predicted by the three methods as one of the most targeted receptors while TopII and HDAC7 are predicted by two and one of the methods as best targets. The interesting features of the binding of the complexes show that some of the complexes preferentially target specific macromolecules than the others, which is an indication of their specificity and possibility of their therapeutic combination without severe side effects that may come from competition for the same target. Also, introduction of unusual ligands is found to significantly improve the activities of most of the complexes studied. Strong correlations are observed for the predicted binding sites and the orientation of the complexes within the binding site by the three methods of docking. However there are disparities in the ranking of the complexes by the three method of docking, especially that of Glide.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs: multitargeted anticancer agents

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    Ververis K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Ververis,1 Alison Hiong,1 Tom C Karagiannis,1,* Paul V Licciardi2,*1Epigenomic Medicine, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Allergy and Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax. More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the

  2. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  3. Liposomal Drug Delivery of Anticancer Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob

    In the first part of the thesis the work towards a new generation of liposomal drug delivery systems for anticancer agents is described. The drug delivery system takes advantage of the elevated level of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) IIA in many tumors and the enhanced permeability......-trans retinoic acid, α-tocopheryl succinate and calcitriol were examined for their ability to be incorporated into the investigated drug delivery system and syntheses of the phospholipid prodrugs are described. The majority of the phospholipid prodrugs were able to form particles with diameters close to 100 nm...... that upon sPLA2 triggering the formulated phospholipid prodrugs displayed IC50 values in range from 3–36 μM and complete cell death was observed when higher drug concentrations were applied. Promising for the drug delivery system the majority of the phospholipid prodrugs remain non-toxic in the absence...

  4. Pro-oxidant natural products as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Cordero, Carmen; Leon-Gonzalez, Antonio Jose; Calderon-Montano, Jose Manuel; Burgos-Moron, Estefania; Lopez-Lazaro, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    Cancer cells produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to a state of increased basal oxidative stress. Since this state of oxidative stress makes cancer cells vulnerable to agents that further augment ROS levels, the use of pro-oxidant agents is emerging as an exciting strategy to selectively target tumor cells. Natural products have provided a significant contribution to the development of several drugs currently used in cancer chemotherapy. Although many natural products are known to affect the redox state of the cell, most studies on these compounds have focused on their antioxidant activity instead of on their pro-oxidant properties. This article provides an overview of natural products with pro-oxidant and anticancer activities, with special focus on plant secondary metabolites, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Design and docking of novel series of hybrid xanthones as anti-cancer agent to target human DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha

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    Lalit Mohan Nainwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase (topo IIα is a homodimeric protein catalyzes topological vicissitudes by adding or by soothing super coiling transpiration, occurs in human DNA during DNA replication as an outcome chromosome segregation and condensation occurs during meiosis I and recombination. To prevent the cleavage and religation activity we administered novel hybrid substituted Xanthone series of drugs. The toxicity prediction showed outstanding results which impetus to study its anticancer activities by targeting topoisomerase (topo IIα. We developed the homology model of the topoisomerase (topo IIα due to the unavailability of 3D structure in the Protein Data Bank. Structural assessment of the modeled protein and confirmed the quality of the model. The ligands were docked using Autodock4.2 software and binding energy was reported. The compound XM9, XN2, XM7, XLNU and XNS scored lowest binding energy and highest binding affinity. The interaction sites and the hydrogen bond were observed.

  6. Targeted deletion of the ara operon of Salmonella typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and drives PBAD-promoted expression of anti-cancer toxins and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun; Lim, Daejin; Kim, Geun-Joong; Park, Seung-Hwan; Sik Kim, Hyeon; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-specific expression of antitumor drugs can be achieved using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harboring the PBAD promoter, which is induced by L-arabinose. However, L-arabinose does not accumulate because it is metabolized to D-xylulose-5-P by enzymes encoded by the ara operon in Salmonellae. To address this problem, we developed an engineered strain of S. typhimurium in which the ara operon is deleted. Linear DNA transformation was performed using λ red recombinase to exchange the ara operon with linear DNA carrying an antibiotic-resistance gene with homology to regions adjacent to the ara operon. The ara operon-deleted strain and its parental strain were transformed with a plasmid encoding Renilla luciferase variant 8 (RLuc8) or cytolysin A (clyA) under the control of the PBAD promoter. Luciferase assays demonstrated that RLuc8 expression was 49-fold higher in the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium than in the parental strain after the addition of L-arabinose. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that the tumor tissue targeted by the ara operon-deleted Salmonella had a stronger imaging signal (~30-fold) than that targeted by the parental strain. Mice with murine colon cancer (CT26) that had been injected with the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium expressing clyA showed significant tumor suppression. The present report demonstrates that deletion of the ara operon of S. typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and thereby drives PBAD-promoted expression of cytotoxic agents and imaging agents. This is a promising approach for tumor therapy and imaging.

  7. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; S Madhuri

    2009-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance agai...

  8. T-oligo as an anticancer agent in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdyla, Luke; Stone, Amanda L. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States); Sethakorn, Nan [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Uppada, Srijayaprakash B.; Devito, Joseph T. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States); Bissonnette, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Puri, Neelu, E-mail: neelupur@uic.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • T-oligo induces cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation in CRC. • Treatment with T-oligo downregulates telomere-associated proteins. • T-oligo combined with an EGFR-TKI additively inhibits cellular proliferation. • T-oligo has potential as an effective therapeutic agent for CRC. - Abstract: In the United States, there will be an estimated 96,830 new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and 50,310 deaths in 2014. CRC is often detected at late stages of the disease, at which point there is no effective chemotherapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective novel therapies that have minimal effects on normal cells. T-oligo, an oligonucleotide homologous to the 3′-telomere overhang, induces potent DNA damage responses in multiple malignant cell types, however, its efficacy in CRC has not been studied. This is the first investigation demonstrating T-oligo-induced anticancer effects in two CRC cell lines, HT-29 and LoVo, which are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies. In this investigation, we show that T-oligo may mediate its DNA damage responses through the p53/p73 pathway, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis or senescence. Additionally, upregulation of downstream DNA damage response proteins, including E2F1, p53 or p73, was observed. In LoVo cells, T-oligo induced senescence, decreased clonogenicity, and increased expression of senescence associated proteins p21, p27, and p53. In addition, downregulation of POT1 and TRF2, two components of the shelterin protein complex which protects telomeric ends, was observed. Moreover, we studied the antiproliferative effects of T-oligo in combination with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib, which resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation. Collectively, these data provide evidence that T-oligo alone, or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapies, has potential as an anti-cancer agent in CRC.

  9. T-oligo as an anticancer agent in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojdyla, Luke; Stone, Amanda L.; Sethakorn, Nan; Uppada, Srijayaprakash B.; Devito, Joseph T.; Bissonnette, Marc; Puri, Neelu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T-oligo induces cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation in CRC. • Treatment with T-oligo downregulates telomere-associated proteins. • T-oligo combined with an EGFR-TKI additively inhibits cellular proliferation. • T-oligo has potential as an effective therapeutic agent for CRC. - Abstract: In the United States, there will be an estimated 96,830 new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and 50,310 deaths in 2014. CRC is often detected at late stages of the disease, at which point there is no effective chemotherapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective novel therapies that have minimal effects on normal cells. T-oligo, an oligonucleotide homologous to the 3′-telomere overhang, induces potent DNA damage responses in multiple malignant cell types, however, its efficacy in CRC has not been studied. This is the first investigation demonstrating T-oligo-induced anticancer effects in two CRC cell lines, HT-29 and LoVo, which are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies. In this investigation, we show that T-oligo may mediate its DNA damage responses through the p53/p73 pathway, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis or senescence. Additionally, upregulation of downstream DNA damage response proteins, including E2F1, p53 or p73, was observed. In LoVo cells, T-oligo induced senescence, decreased clonogenicity, and increased expression of senescence associated proteins p21, p27, and p53. In addition, downregulation of POT1 and TRF2, two components of the shelterin protein complex which protects telomeric ends, was observed. Moreover, we studied the antiproliferative effects of T-oligo in combination with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib, which resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation. Collectively, these data provide evidence that T-oligo alone, or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapies, has potential as an anti-cancer agent in CRC

  10. Understanding Resistance to Targeted Anticancer Therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, C.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapeutic regimens are gradually changing from using relatively unspecific cytotoxic agents to selective, pathway-centered approaches. The mechanistic rationale of targeted approaches is to destruct the tumor by blocking aberrant cell signaling, crucial for tumor maintenance and growth, but

  11. Biodegradable polymers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.

  12. NSAIDs: Old Drugs Reveal New Anticancer Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Piazza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  13. Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-12-01

    Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NFκB are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease.

  14. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

  15. Underestimated potential of organometallic rhenium complexes as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidova, Anna; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-10-17

    In the recent years, organometallic compounds have become recognized as promising anti-cancer drug candidates. While radioactive (186/188)Re compounds are already used in clinics for cancer treatment, cold Re organometallic compounds have mostly been explored as luminescent probes for cell imaging and photosensitizers in photocatalysis. However, a growing number of studies have recently revealed the potential of Re organometallic complexes as anti-cancer agents. Several compounds have displayed cytotoxicity equaling or exceeding that of the well-established anti-cancer drug cisplatin. In this review, we present the currently known Re organometallic complexes that have shown anti-proliferative activity on cancer cell lines. A particular emphasis is placed on their cellular uptake and localization as well as their potential mechanism of action.

  16. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel pyrrolizine derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ahmed M; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Abdellatif, Khaled R A

    2014-04-01

    A new series of novel pyrrolizine derivatives has been synthesized and biologically evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The starting compounds, 6-amino-7-cyano-N-(3,5-disubstitutedphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamides 11a-b, were reacted with different acid chlorides, aldehydes and isocyanates to give the target compounds 12-14. Structural characterizations of the new compounds were performed using spectral and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for their anticancer activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and PC-3 respectively. With exception of compounds 11a and 13a, results revealed that all the tested compounds showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values less than 40μM. Compound 12b and the three urea derivatives 14b-d showed the most potent anticancer activity with IC50 values less than 2.73μM. The anticancer activity of these compounds was mediated, at least in part, via the induction of apoptosis as indicated by its ability to activate caspase-3/7. In light of the high potency of our novel compounds in targeting both breast and prostate cancers, these compounds warrant continued preclinical development as potential anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic polymer nanospheres for anticancer drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JurIkova, A; Csach, K; Koneracka, M; Zavisova, V; Tomasovicova, N; Lancz, G; Kopcansky, P; Timko, M; Miskuf, J; Muckova, M

    2010-01-01

    Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA) nanospheres loaded with biocom-patible magnetic fluid as a magnetic carrier and anticancer drug Taxol were prepared by the modified nanoprecipitation method with size of 200-250 nm in diameter. The PLGA polymer was utilized as a capsulation material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Taxol as an important anticancer drug was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. Thermal properties of the drug-polymer system were characterized using thermal analysis methods. It was determined the solubility of Taxol in PLGA nanospheres. Magnetic properties investigated using SQUID magnetometry showed superparamagnetism of the prepared magnetic polymer nanospheres.

  18. Reductive Metabolism Influences the Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of the Hypoxia-Targeted Benzotriazine Di-Oxide Anticancer Agent SN30000 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchuan Gu

    2017-08-01

    30000 in mice. This study demonstrates the importance of non-tumor bioreductive metabolism in the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of benzotriazine di-oxides designed to target tumor hypoxia.

  19. Absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin; Sui, Zhong-Quan; Corke, Harold

    2018-04-13

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.

  20. Synthetic Methods of Quinoline Derivatives as Potent Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Mehta, Dinesh Kumar; Das, Rina

    2017-01-01

    On account of significant biological activities, quinoline derivatives have drawn more attention to the synthesis and biological activities in the search for new therapeutic agents. Several new synthetic approaches have been implemented to derive new molecules from quinoline and all the synthesized molecules showed effective anticancer activity. Some molecules are synthesized using quinolones as precursor reactant, which is another effective product of quinoline, also showing significant activity against malignant tumors. The presence of nitrogen in it and its ability to bind with enzymes like gyrase, topoisomerase II and kinase have also proven it with antitumor activity. This review encapsulates the recent advances in the synthesis and anticancer activity of Quinoline derivatives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Imran, Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Nadeem, Muhammad; Peters, Dennis G; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2016-12-21

    Owing to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity, grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are the archetypal paradigms of fruits used not only for nutritional purposes, but also for exclusive therapeutics. Grapes are a prominent and promising source of phytochemicals, especially resveratrol, a phytoalexin antioxidant found in red grapes which has both chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against various ailments. Resveratrol's role in reducing different human cancers, including breast, cervical, uterine, blood, kidney, liver, eye, bladder, thyroid, esophageal, prostate, brain, lung, skin, gastric, colon, head and neck, bone, ovarian, and cervical, has been reviewed. This review covers the literature that deals with the anti-cancer mechanism of resveratrol with special reference to antioxidant potential. Furthermore, this article summarizes the literature pertaining to resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent.

  2. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space.

  3. Mitosis-targeted anti-cancer therapies: where they stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K-S; Koh, C-G; Li, H-Y

    2012-10-18

    The strategy of clinically targeting cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis has instigated numerous studies into the mitotic cell death (MCD) pathway. As the hallmark of cancer revolves around cell-cycle deregulation, it is not surprising that antimitotic therapies are effective against the abnormal proliferation of transformed cells. Moreover, these antimitotic drugs are also highly selective and sensitive. Despite the robust rate of discovery and the development of mitosis-selective inhibitors, the unpredictable complexities of the human body's response to these drugs still herald the biggest challenge towards clinical success. Undoubtedly, the need to bridge the gap between promising preclinical trials and effective translational bedside treatment prompts further investigations towards mapping out the mechanistic pathways of MCD, understanding how these drugs work as medicine in the body and more comprehensive target validations. In this review, current antimitotic agents are summarized with particular emphasis on the evaluation of their clinical efficacy as well as their limitations. In addition, we discuss the basis behind the lack of activity of these inhibitors in human trials and the potential and future directions of mitotic anticancer strategies.

  4. Anticancer Drugs Targeting the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2011), s. 2951-2974 ISSN 1523-0864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Targets for anticancer drugs * mitochondrial electron transport chain * mitocans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.456, year: 2011

  5. Dermatologic adverse events associated with chemotherapy and targeted anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents and drugs used for targeted tumor therapy often cause undesirable side effects of the skin which typically are toxic cutaneous reactions (toxicity grade 1 to 4. The first group of drugs that cause toxicities affecting the skin are inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. They cause a variety of skin changes (PRIDE syndrome, which are mainly manifested by papulopustular rash, also referred to as acneiform rash, occurring in 44–74% of patients. Another drug which causes cutaneous toxicities is inhibitor of CTLA4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, which is represented by ipilimumab, used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The most common dermatological adverse event, observed in 40–64% of patients receiving ipilimumab, is generalized maculopapular rash with pruritus and dry skin, and in some cases vitiligo is also observed. BRAF and MEK inhibitors introduced for the treatment of advanced melanoma also cause skin rashes. BRAF inhibitors also affecting the proliferation of keratinocytes stimulate hypertrophic changes and cause the whole spectrum of lesions from benign and keratoacanthoma to squamous cell carcinoma. A hedgehog pathway inhibitor (vismodegib is used for the treatment of metastatic basal cell carcinoma. The most common adverse events it causes are reversible alopecia and dysgeusia, but it can also cause the development of keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Among the most common side effects of chemotherapy and targeted therapy are toxic changes within the hands and feet (hand-foot skin reaction – HFSR that early manifest as a neurological symptoms (numbness, paresthesia, and skin symptoms (erythematous swelling changes, blisters, hyperkeratosis occur later. Anti-cancer drugs can also cause serious skin diseases such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, whose course and prognosis

  6. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling Pathways for Anticancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.

  7. Development of novel alkylating drugs as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicka, Elzbieta; Tolcher, Anthony W

    2004-06-01

    Although conventional alkylating drugs have proven efficacy in the treatment of malignancies, the agents themselves are not selective. Therefore, non-specific alkylation of cellular nucleophilic targets may contribute to many of the observed toxic effects. Novel approaches to drug discovery have resulted in candidate agents that are focused on 'soft alkylation'--alkylators with greater target selectivity. This review highlights the discovery of small molecule drugs that bind to DNA with higher selectivity, act in a unique hypoxic tumor environment, or covalently bind specific protein targets overexpressed in cancer, such as topoisomerase II, glutathione transferase pi1, beta-tubulin and histone deacetylase.

  8. Safe handling and administration considerations of oral anticancer agents in the clinical and home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joanne

    2012-12-01

    The use of hormonal, chemotherapeutic, and targeted biologic oral agents has exponentially increased since the early 2000s. Oral therapies have the advantage of persistent exposure of the cytotoxic drug to tumor cells and the tumor environment. The use of oral anticancer agents provides therapeutic drug treatment for patients with cancer in the comfort of their home or alternative settings, such as retirement homes and assisted living or extended-care facilities. Practices to ensure safe storage, handling, administration, and disposal of oral agents are necessary to prevent additional exposure of hazardous substances to the environment, professionals, patients, family members, and caretakers. Providers should consider potential barriers to adherence and compliance, and develop strategies to ensure optimal therapeutic benefit prior to initiation of oral agents.

  9. Anticancer Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy with Lung Cancer-Targeted Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Eun; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and non-surgical method representing an attractive alternative choice for lung cancer treatment. Photosensitizers selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and lead to tumor cell death in the presence of oxygen and the proper wavelength of light. To increase the therapeutic effect of PDT, we developed both photosensitizer- and anticancer agent-loaded lung cancer-targeted nanoparticles. Both enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect-based passive targeting and hyaluronic-acid-CD44 interaction-based active targeting were applied. CD44 is a well-known hyaluronic acid receptor that is often introduced as a biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, a combination of PDT and chemotherapy is adopted in the present study. This combination concept may increase anticancer therapeutic effects and reduce adverse reactions. We chose hypocrellin B (HB) as a novel photosensitizer in this study. It has been reported that HB causes higher anticancer efficacy of PDT compared to hematoporphyrin derivatives 1 . Paclitaxel was selected as the anticancer drug since it has proven to be a potential treatment for lung cancer 2 . The antitumor efficacies of photosensitizer (HB) solution, photosensitizer encapsulated hyaluronic acid-ceramide nanoparticles (HB-NPs), and both photosensitizer- and anticancer agent (paclitaxel)-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-ceramide nanoparticles (HB-P-NPs) after PDT were compared both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro phototoxicity in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells and the in vivo antitumor efficacy in A549 tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The HB-P-NP treatment group showed the most effective anticancer effect after PDT. In conclusion, the HB-P-NPs prepared in the present study represent a potential and novel photosensitizer delivery system in treating lung cancer with PDT.

  10. Phytochemicals and Biogenic Metallic Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities.

  11. Phytochemicals and Biogenic Metallic Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Nallappan, Devi; Madhavi, Kondeti; Rahman, Shafiqur; Jun Wei, Lim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities. PMID:27057273

  12. [Molecular mechanism regulating effect of anti-cancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saya, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Faithful genome duplication is achieved by accurate coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Abnormalities occurring in this process are checked by biochemical signal transduction pathways, called checkpoints, which ensure the orderly progression of events in the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent transition into subsequent phases until all processes in the previous phase are completed. Defects in cell cycle checkpoints result in gene mutations, chromosome damage, and aneuploidy, all of which contribute to tumorigenesis. However, it has recently been uncovered that the impairment of checkpoint function is the major reason why DNA damaging anti-cancer agents can selectively kill cancer cells. Given that G1 and G2 checkpoint functions are generally impaired in cancer cells, cells with DNA damage are unable to maintain G2 arrest and eventually die as they enter mitosis. This process is known as mitotic catastrophe.

  13. Polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available R Dinarvand1,2, N Sepehri1, S Manoochehri1, H Rouhani1, F Atyabi1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects.Keywords: nanotechnology, polymeric nanocarriers, targeting, anticancer agents, surface modification

  14. Mitosis as an anti-cancer target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A; Medema, R H

    2011-06-23

    Most of the current drugs used to treat cancer can be classified as anti-proliferative drugs. These drugs perturb the proliferative cycle of tumor cells at diverse stages of the cell cycle. Examples of such drugs are DNA-damaging agents and inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases that arrest cell cycle progression at different stages of interphase. Another class of anti-proliferative drugs is the so-called anti-mitotic drugs, which selectively perturb progression through mitosis. Mitosis is the shortest and final stage in the cell cycle and has evolved to accurately divide the duplicated genome over the two daughter cells. This review deals with the different strategies that are currently considered to perturb mitotic progression in the treatment of cancer.

  15. Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Drug Delivery System Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels in Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are known to recruit new blood vessels to support their growth. Therefore, unique molecules expressed on tumor endothelial cells can function as targets for the antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. Current efforts are focusing on developing therapeutic agents capable of specifically targeting cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironments including tumor blood vessels. These therapies hold the promise of high efficacy and low toxicity. One recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics is to encapsulate anticancer drugs into targeting liposomes that bind to the cell surface receptors expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenic drug delivery systems could be used to target both tumor blood vessels as well as the tumor cells, themselves. This article reviews the mechanisms and advantages of various present and potential methods using peptide-conjugated liposomes to specifically destroy tumor blood vessels in anticancer therapy.

  16. Targeting mitosis for anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakin, Valery; Yen, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Basic research that has focused on achieving a mechanistic understanding of mitosis has provided unprecedented molecular and biochemical insights into this highly complex phase of the cell cycle. The discovery process has uncovered an ever-expanding list of novel proteins that orchestrate and coordinate spindle formation and chromosome dynamics during mitosis. That many of these proteins appear to function solely in mitosis makes them ideal targets for the development of mitosis-specific cancer drugs. The clinical successes seen with anti-microtubule drugs such as taxanes and the vinca alkaloids have also encouraged the development of drugs that specifically target mitosis. Drugs that selectively inhibit mitotic kinesins involved in spindle and kinetochore functions, as well as kinases that regulate these activities, are currently in various stages of clinical trials. Our increased understanding of mitosis has also revealed that this process is targeted by inhibitors of farnesyl transferase, histone deacetylase, and Hsp90. Although these drugs were originally designed to block cell proliferation by inhibiting signaling pathways and altering gene expression, it is clear now that these drugs can also directly interfere with the mitotic process. The increased attention to mitosis as a chemotherapeutic target has also raised an important issue regarding the cellular determinants that specify drug sensitivity. One likely contribution is the mitotic checkpoint, a failsafe mechanism that delays mitotic exit so that cells whose chromosomes are not properly attached to the spindle have extra time to correct their errors. As the biochemical activity of the mitotic checkpoint is finite, cells cannot indefinitely sustain the delay, as in cases where cells are treated with anti-mitotic drugs. When the mitotic checkpoint activity is eventually lost, cells will exit mitosis and become aneuploid. While many of the aneuploid cells may die because of massive chromosome imbalance

  17. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias R; Joerger, Andreas C; Fersht, Alan R

    2016-09-06

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53's oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1(MET)(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells.

  18. Towards safety of oral anti-cancer agents, the need to educate our pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Saeed Mekdad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The global prevalence of cancer is rising. Use of oral anticancer medications has expanded exponentially. Knowledge about these medications as well as safe handling guidelines has not kept abreast with the rapidity these medications are applied in clinical practice. They pose serious hazards on all personal involved in handling these medications as well as on patients and their caregivers. We addressed the gaps in knowledge and safe handling of oral anticancer agents among pharmacists in institutional based cancer care. Materials and Methods: We used a 41 item questionnaire to explore three domains, pharmacists’ knowledge, safe handling practice and confidence and self-improving strategies towards these agents among pharmacists in multicentre specialized cancer care. Results: Participants included 120 pharmacists dedicated to handle and dispense oral anticancer agents. About 20% of Pharmacists have adequate knowledge about oral anticancer agents. Less than 50% apply safe handling principles adequately. Only a quarter are confident in educating cancer patients and their caregivers about Oral Anti-Cancer Agents. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ knowledge about Oral Anticancer agents needs to be improved. Safe handling and dispensing practice of these medications should be optimized. Pharmacists’ confidence towards educating patients and their caregiver needs to be addressed. Enhancing safety of oral anticancer agents should be a priority. Involving all key players, research and quality improving projects are needed to improve all aspects of the safety of oral anticancer agents.

  19. Adherence and patients' experiences with the use of oral anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, L.; Boons, C.C.; Kropff, F.; Ven, P.M. van de; Swart, E.L.; Smit, E.F.; Zweegman, S.; Kroep, J.R.; Timmer-Bonte, J.N.; Boven, E.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly growing number of oral anticancer agents has become available in oncology and hematology. Though these introductions have several benefits, medication adherence is an issue of concern. Little is known about the factors influencing adherence to treatment with oral anticancer agents in daily

  20. Anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak TW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hee Jae Shin,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Myoung-Eun Han,3 Sae-Ock Oh,3 Hyun-Jung Kim,4 Do Hyung Kim,5 Dae Hwan Kang1 1Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 2Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam, 4Genewel Co Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, 5School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: The anticancer activity of streptochlorin was evaluated in vitro in various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for apoptosis, proliferation, invasiveness, and expression of various protein levels. A liver metastasis model was prepared by splenic injection of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells using a BALB/c nude mouse model to study the systemic antimetastatic efficacy of streptochlorin 5 mg/kg at 8 weeks. The antitumor efficacy of subcutaneously injected streptochlorin was also assessed using a solid tumor xenograft model of SNU478 cells for 22 days in the BALB/c nude mouse. Results: Streptochlorin inhibited growth and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, streptochlorin effectively inhibited invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma cells were also suppressed by treatment with streptochlorin. Streptochlorin effectively regulated metastasis of HuCC-T1 cells in a mouse model of liver metastasis. In a tumor xenograft study using SNU478 cells, streptochlorin significantly inhibited tumor growth without changes in body weight

  1. Exploiting Cancer Metal Metabolism using Anti-Cancer Metal-Binding Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, Angelica M; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Jansson, Patric J; Sahni, Sumit; Huang, Michael L; Lane, Darius L; Lok, Hiu; Richardson, Des R

    2017-07-05

    Metals are vital cellular elements necessary for multiple indispensable biological processes of living organisms, including energy transduction and cell proliferation. Interestingly, alterations in metal levels and also changes in the expression of proteins involved in metal metabolism have been demonstrated in a variety of cancers. Considering this and the important role of metals for cell growth, the development of drugs that sequester metals have become an attractive target for the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Interest in this field has surged with the design and development of new generations of chelators of the thiosemicarbazone class. These ligands have shown potent anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activity in vitro and in vivo. Due to their efficacy and safe toxicological assessment, some of these agents have recently entered multi-center clinical trials as therapeutics for advanced and resistant tumors. This review highlights the role, and changes in homeostasis, of metals in cancer and emphasizes the pre-clinical development and clinical assessment of metal ion-binding agents, namely, thiosemicarbazones, as anti-tumor agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Identification of N-arylsulfonylpyrimidones as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Santhosh; Boggu, Pulla Reddy; Yun, Jieun; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2018-03-01

    For confirming the role of five membered ring of imidazolidinone moiety of N-arylsulfonylimidazolidinones (7) previously reported with highly potent anticancer agent, a series of N-arylsulfonylpyrimidones (10a-g) and N-arylsulfonyltetrahydropyrimidones (11a-e) were prepared and their anti-proliferating activity was measured against human cancer cell lines (renal ACHN, colon HCT-15, breast MDA-MB-231, lung NCI-H23, stomach NUGC-3, and prostate PC-3) using XTT assay. Among them, 1-(1-acetylindolin-5-ylsulfonyl)-4-phenyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (11d, mean GI 50  = 3.50 µM) and ethyl 5-(2-oxo-4-phenyltetrahydropyrimidin-1(2H)-ylsulfonyl)-indoline-1-carboxylate (11e, mean GI 50  = 0.26 µM) showed best growth inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines. Considering the activity results, N-arylsulfonyltetrahydropyrimidones (11) exhibited more potent activity compared to N-arylsulfonylpyrimidones (10) and comparable activity to N-arylsulfonylimidazolidinones (7). Especially, tetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one analogs containing acylindolin-5-ylsulfonyl moiety at position 1 demonstrated their strong growth inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines.

  3. Quinones derived from plant secondary metabolites as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Shan; Huang, Ming-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-03-01

    Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present some anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the anti-cancer prospects of plant-derived quinones, namely, aloe-emodin, juglone, β-lapachol, plumbagin, shikonin, and thymoquinone. We intend to summarize their anti-cancer effects and investigate the mechanism of actions to promote the research and development of anti-cancer agents from quinones.

  4. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Anticancer Agents from Bauhinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Flowers of Bauhinia kockiana were investigated for their anticancer properties. Methods: Gallic acid (1), and methyl gallate (2), were isolated via bioassay-directed isolation, and they exhibited anticancer properties towards several cancer cell lines, examined using MTT cell viability assay. Pyrogallol (3) was ...

  5. Patient satisfaction with information on oral anticancer agent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Christel C L M; Timmers, Lonneke; van Schoor, Natasja M; Swart, Eleonora L; Hendrikse, N Harry; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2018-01-01

    Adequate information on oral anticancer agent (OACA) use is an essential element of optimal cancer care. The present study aimed to get insight into the experiences of patients with information on OACA treatment and their characteristics regarding information dissatisfaction. Patients of four Dutch university hospitals using OACA participated in this observational study and completed the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS), EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-Specific. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with dissatisfaction with information. Patients (n = 208) using capecitabine (35%), lenalidomide (15%), imatinib (14%), temozolomide (12%), sunitinib (11%), thalidomide (5%), dasatinib (4%), erlotinib (2%), and nilotinib (2%) participated. Information on the following SIMS-items was inadequate: how OACA elicit their effect, how long it takes before treatment works, how to conclude that treatment is effective, the risk of side effects and its management, interference with sex life, drowsiness, interference with other medication and alcohol and what to do in case of a missed dose. Younger age, hematological malignancy, dyspnoea, positive perception of consequences of the cancer, low perception of treatment control, and indifferent attitude towards OACA were associated with dissatisfaction with information. In conclusion, a considerable number of patients would have appreciated receiving more information on specific issues relating to the consequences of OACA treatment such as the effects and side effects of OACA and the interference of treatment with various aspects of their daily life. Oncologists, hematologists, lung-oncologists and pharmacists may reconsider the provision of information on OACA treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inventory of oral anticancer agents : Pharmaceutical formulation aspects with focus on the solid dispersion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicki, E.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.; Nuijen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution from the pharmaceutical formulation is a prerequisite for complete and consistent absorption of any orally administered drug, including anticancer agents (oncolytics). Poor dissolution of an oncolytic can result in low oral bioavailability, high variability in blood concentrations and

  7. Synthesis of chalcone incorporated quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapavat Madhavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of ten novel chalcone incorporated quinazoline derivatives (11a–11j were designed and synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activities against four human cancer cell lines (A549, HT-29, MCF-7 and A375. Among them, four compounds, 11f, 11g, 11i and 11j showed more potent anticancer activity than the control drug, Combretastatin – A4.

  8. VEGF pathway targeting agents, vessel normalization and tumor drug uptake : from bench to bedside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjaans, Marlous; Schroder, Carolien P.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Dafni, Urania; Kleibeuker, Josee E.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway targeting agents have been combined with other anticancer drugs, leading to improved efficacy in carcinoma of the cervix, stomach, lung, colon and rectum, ovary, and breast. Vessel normalization induced by VEGF pathway targeting agents influences

  9. Cdt1 is differentially targeted for degradation by anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Stathopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintenance of genome integrity is crucial for the propagation of the genetic information. Cdt1 is a major component of the pre-replicative complex, which controls once per cell cycle DNA replication. Upon DNA damage, Cdt1 is rapidly targeted for degradation. This targeting has been suggested to safeguard genomic integrity and prevent re-replication while DNA repair is in progress. Cdt1 is deregulated in tumor specimens, while its aberrant expression is linked with aneuploidy and promotes tumorigenesis in animal models. The induction of lesions in DNA is a common mechanism by which many cytotoxic anticancer agents operate, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study we examine the ability of several anticancer drugs to target Cdt1 for degradation. We show that treatment of HeLa and HepG2 cells with MMS, Cisplatin and Doxorubicin lead to rapid proteolysis of Cdt1, whereas treatment with 5-Fluorouracil and Tamoxifen leave Cdt1 expression unaffected. Etoposide affects Cdt1 stability in HepG2 cells and not in HeLa cells. RNAi experiments suggest that Cdt1 proteolysis in response to MMS depends on the presence of the sliding clamp PCNA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that treatment of tumor cells with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents induces differential responses with respect to Cdt1 proteolysis. Information on specific cellular targets in response to distinct anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs in different cancer cell types may contribute to the optimization of the efficacy of chemotherapy.

  10. Resistance to cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic anticancer agents: similarities and differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broxterman, H.J.; Lankelma, J.; Hoekman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic resistance to anticancer drugs, or resistance developed during chemotherapy, remains a major obstacle to successful treatment. This is the case both for resistance to cytotoxic agents, directed at malignant cells, and for resistance to anti-angiogenic agents, directed at non-malignant

  11. Diterpenes and Their Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Torequl

    2017-05-01

    As therapeutic tools, diterpenes and their derivatives have gained much attention of the medicinal scientists nowadays. It is due to their pledging and important biological activities. This review congregates the anticancer diterpenes. For this, a search was made with selected keywords in PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society and miscellaneous databases from January 2012 to January 2017 for the published articles. A total 28, 789 published articles were seen. Among them, 240 were included in this study. More than 250 important anticancer diterpenes and their derivatives were seen in the databases, acting in the different pathways. Some of them are already under clinical trials, while others are in the nonclinical and/or pre-clinical trials. In conclusion, diterpenes may be one of the lead molecules in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides as An Anti-cancer Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohretoglu, Didem; Huang, Shile

    2017-11-13

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been used for centuries in Asian countries to treat various diseases and to promote health and longevity. Clinical studies have shown beneficial effects of G. lucidum as an alternative adjuvant therapy in cancer patients without obvious toxicity. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) is the main bioactive component in the water soluble extracts of this mushroom. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies has demonstrated that GLP possesses potential anticancer activity through immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects. Here, we briefly summarize these anticancer effects of GLP and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore as a selective target for anti-cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon eSuh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP is the ultimate step in dozens of lethal apoptotic signal transduction pathways which converge on mitochondria. One of the representative systems proposed to be responsible for the MOMP is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP. Although the molecular composition of the MPTP is not clearly understood, the MPTP attracts much interest as a promising target for resolving two conundrums regarding cancer treatment: tumor selectivity and resistance to treatment. The regulation of the MPTP is closely related to metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells including mitochondrial alterations. Restoration of deregulated apoptotic machinery in cancer cells by tumor-specific modulation of the MPTP could therefore be a promising anti-cancer strategy. Currently, a number of MPTP-targeting agents are under pre-clinical and clinical studies. Here, we reviewed the structure and regulation of the MPTP as well as the current status of the development of promising MPTP-targeting drugs.

  14. Polymeric micelles in anticancer therapy : Targeting, imaging and triggered release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Chris; Bult, Wouter; Bos, Mariska; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, J. Frank W.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Micelles are colloidal particles with a size around 5-100 nm which are currently under investigation as carriers for hydrophobic drugs in anticancer therapy. Currently, five micellar formulations for anticancer therapy are under clinical evaluation, of which Genexol-PM has been FDA approved for use

  15. Myxobacterial epothilones and tubulysins as promising anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Richter, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Tubulin-binding agents play a pivotal role in current cancer therapy and there are many efforts in pre-clinical and clinical development of known and novel cytotoxic agents ongoing. In this article a known class, epothilones, as well as a novel class, tubulysins, are presented. © Springer 2005.

  16. Alopecia in patients treated with molecularly targeted anticancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belum, V R; Marulanda, K; Ensslin, C; Gorcey, L; Parikh, T; Wu, S; Busam, K J; Gerber, P A; Lacouture, M E

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies presents new challenges, among which dermatologic adverse events are noteworthy. Alopecia in particular is frequently reported, but the true incidence is not known. We sought to ascertain the incidence and risk of developing alopecia during treatment with approved inhibitors of oncogenic pathways and molecules [anaplastic lymphoma kinase, breakpoint cluster region-abelson, B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, Janus kinase, MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) Kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, smoothened, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor; proteasomes; CD20, CD30, CD52]. Electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science) and ASCO meeting abstract searches were conducted to identify clinical trials reporting alopecia. Meta-analysis was conducted utilizing fixed- or random-effects models. The calculated overall incidence of all-grade alopecia was 14.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6% to 17.2%]-lowest with bortezomib, 2.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 10.9%), and highest with vismodegib, 56.9% (95% CI 50.5% to 63.1%). There was an increased risk of all-grade alopecia [relative risk (RR), 7.9 (95% CI 6.2-10.09, P ≤ 0.01)] compared with placebo, but when compared with chemotherapy, the risk was lower [RR, 0.32 (95% CI 0.2-0.55, P ≤ 0.01)]. Targeted therapies are associated with an increased risk of alopecia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chrysin-piperazine conjugates as antioxidant and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rahul V; Mistry, Bhupendra; Syed, Riyaz; Rathi, Anuj K; Lee, Yoo-Jung; Sung, Jung-Suk; Shinf, Han-Seung; Keum, Young-Soo

    2016-06-10

    Synthesis of 7-(4-bromobutoxy)-5-hydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one intermediate treating chrysin with 1,4-dibromobutane facilitated combination of chrysin with a wide range of piperazine moieties which were equipped via reacting the corresponding amines with bis(2-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride in diethylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent. Free radical scavenging potential of prepared products was analyzed in vitro adopting DPPH and ABTS bioassay in addition to the evaluation of in vitro anticancer efficacies against cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and CaSki) and an ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3 using SRB assay. Bearable toxicity of 7a-w was examined employing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. In addition, cytotoxic nature of the presented compounds was inspected utilizing Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Overall, 7a-w indicated remarkable antioxidant power in scavenging DPPH(·) and ABTS(·+), particularly analogs 7f, 7j, 7k, 7l, 7n, 7q, 7v, 7w have shown promising free radical scavenging activity. Analogs 7j and 7o are identified to be highly active candidates against HeLa and CaSki cell lines, whereas 7h and 7l along with 7j proved to be very sensitive towards ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3. None of the newly prepared scaffolds showed cytotoxic nature toward hBM-MSCs cells. From the structure-activity point of view, nature and position of the electron withdrawing and electron donating functional groups on the piperazine core may contribute to the anticipated antioxidant and anticancer action. Different spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass) and elemental analysis (CHN) were utilized to confirm the desired structure of final compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro method determing sensitivity of anticancer agents by incorporation of radioactive precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, Satoshi

    1983-01-01

    A new sensitivity test of anticancer agents was developed to measure the lethal effects of cancer cells by the incorporation of radioactive precursors. The thousand cancer cells were cultured in a microplate in the presence of anticancer agents. These cells were exposed to radioactive precursors. Two or three days later, the cancer cells were harvested on a glass fiver filter by a multiple automatic cell-harvester and the incorporation of precursors was counted by a liquid scintillation counter. In this study, the in vivo results of drug testing in animal model systems were compared with drug sensitivities. Mice inoculated Ehrlich ascites cells were treated with various kinds of anticancer drugs. The development of the cells was compatible with the result of the sensitivity test. The growths of Lauson and ME-180 cells derived from human cancers implanted subcutaneously to nude mice were also well correlated with this sensitivity test. (author)

  19. Pharmaceutical development of the novel metal-based anticancer agents NAMI-A and AP 5280

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, M. (Marjan)

    2002-01-01

    The pharmaceutical development of the two novel metal-based anticancer agents NAMI-A and AP 5280 is described in this thesis, starting with the development of analytical methods for the quality control of drug substance and final product, via the formulation process leading to a stable, intravenous

  20. Design and development of polynuclear ruthenium and platinum polypyridyl complexes in search of new anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilden, Karlijn van der

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this Ph.D. Thesis has been devoted to the design and development of polynuclear polypyridyl ruthenium and ruthenium-platinum complexes in search of new anticancer agents. A variety of polynuclear ruthenium and ruthenium-platinum complexes has been synthesized with a long

  1. National Cancer Institute Formulary: A Public-Private Partnership Providing Investigators Access to Investigational Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, J V; Ansher, S S; Zwiebel, J A; Ivy, P; Conley, B; Abrams, J S; Doroshow, J H

    2017-05-01

    As part of the White House Cancer Moonshot Initiative, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has developed a drug formulary to provide investigational anticancer agents to the extramural research community. This article describes how the NCI Formulary functions, how researchers may apply for access to drugs in the formulary, and the NCI's initial goals for formulary participation. Approved investigators may apply for access to formulary agents at: https://nciformulary.cancer.gov. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  2. Design, synthesis, biological assessment and molecular docking studies of new 2-aminoimidazole-quinoxaline hybrids as potential anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarimasir, Zahra; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Rafiei, Alireza; Razzaghi-Asl, Nima; Kardan, Mostafa

    2018-04-01

    In a search for novel antiproliferative agents, a series of quinoxaline derivatives containing 2-aminoimidazole (8a-8x) were designed and synthesized. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass Spectroscopy and analyzed using HSQC, COSY, ROESY, HMBC techniques. The anticancer activity of all derivatives were evaluated for colon cancer and breast cancer cell lines by the MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining method. The anti-cancer effect in human colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines exhibited that compounds 8a, 8s, 8t, 8w, 8x appeared as potent antiproliferative agents and especially inhibited the human colon cancer cell proliferation with percentage of inhibition by over 50%. The most active compound was (E)-4-phenyl-1-((quinoxalin-2-ylmethylene)amino)-1H-imidazol-2-amine (8a) with the highest inhibition for MCF-7 (83.3%) and HCT-116 (70%) cell lines after 48 and 24 h, respectively. Molecular docking studies of these derivatives within c-kit active site as a validated target might be suggested them as appropriate candidates for further efforts toward more potent anticancer compounds.

  3. Growth inhibitory effect of the Src inhibitor dasatinib in combination with anticancer agents on uterine cervical adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Eri; Nishimura, Masato; Mineda, Ayuka; Kawakita, Takako; Abe, Akiko; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Uterine cervical adenocarcinoma has a poor clinical prognosis when compared with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the development of new treatment strategies for uterine cervical adenocarcinoma is necessary. Src is a proto-oncogene that is important in cancer progression. Dasatinib is a Src inhibitor that has been reported to be effective when used in combination with anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to confirm Src expression in human cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines and to determine the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of dasatinib on Src signaling in vitro . Western blot analysis was performed to investigate Src expression in cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa and TCO-2 cells). The cells were cultured for 48 h with the addition of different concentrations of anticancer drugs (paclitaxel or oxaliplatin). Viable cell count was measured using a colorimetric (WST-1) assay. The concentrations of anticancer agents were fixed according to the results obtained, and the same experiments were performed using the drugs in combination with dasatinib at various concentrations to determine the concentrations that significantly affected the number of viable cells. The presence or absence of apoptosis was investigated using a caspase-3/7 assay. Signal transduction in each cell line was examined using western blotting. Src was activated in the two cell lines, and cell proliferation was significantly suppressed by each anticancer drug in combination with 10 µM dasatinib. Caspase-3/7 activity was also increased and Src signaling was suppressed by each anticancer drug in combination with dasatinib. In conclusion, Src is overexpressed in cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines, and dasatinib inhibits intracellular Src signaling and causes apoptosis. The results of the present study suggest that Src may be targeted in novel therapeutic strategies for cervical adenocarcinoma.

  4. Cranberry as promising natural source of potential anticancer agents: current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Tampaki, Ekaterini-Christina; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2012-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary modification can lower the risk for several cancer types' development. Cranberry in particular, has been shown to have anti-oxidative, -inflammatory and -proliferative properties in vitro. To present the latest knowledge regarding the role of cranberry extracts against human cancer several types. A review of the literature documenting both in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of whole cranberry and/or its extracts is conducted. Current data provide evidence for several anti-cancer properties of either whole cranberry and/or its extracts. The discovery of the specific cranberry components and the appropriate concentrations that exert such beneficial effects along with verification of the preliminary in vitro results in in vivo settings could potentially lead to the invention of novel safer and efficient anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  5. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives: a new class of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Bomfim, Igor da S; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Pessoa, Claudia; Goncalves, Raoni S B; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; de Souza, Marcus V N

    2014-01-01

    A series of 23 racemic mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinolines, derived from (R*, S*)-(±)-mefloquine and arenealdehydes, have been evaluated for their activity against four cancer cell lines (HCT-8, OVCAR-8, HL-60, and SF-295). Good cytotoxicities have been determined with IC50 values ranging from 0.59 to 4.79 μg/mL. In general compounds with aryl groups having strong electron-releasing substituents, such as HO and MeO, or electron-rich heteroaryl groups, for example imidazol-2-y-l, are active. However, other factors such as steric effects may play a role. As both the active and non-active conformations of the mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives are similar, it is concluded that molecular conformations do not play a significant role either. This study is the first to evaluate mefloquine derivatives as antitumor agents. The mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives are considered to be useful leads for the rational design of new antitumor agents. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Some Anticancer Agents Act on Human Serum Paraoxonase-1 to Reduce Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Zuhal; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase (hPON1) is an important antioxidant enzyme. It protects low-density lipoproteins against oxidative stress and prevents atherosclerosis development. Anticancer agents have cardiotoxic effects, and this situation can lead to significant complications. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro effects of some of the anticancer agents such as cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide on the activity of hPON1 in this study. For this reason, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3654.2 EU/mg and 16.84% yield using simple chromatographic methods. The five chemotherapeutic agents dose dependently decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. IC50 values for cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were 0.0111, 0.042, 0.226, 0.665, and 23.3 mm, respectively. Ki constants were 0.0194, 0.0165, 0.131, 0.291, and 8.973 mm, respectively. The inhibition mechanisms of cetuximab, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were non-competitive, and for paclitaxel was competitive. Consequently, inhibition of hPON1 by these anticancer agents may explain some of the cardiotoxic actions of these drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Hormetic Effect of Berberine Attenuates the Anticancer Activity of Chemotherapeutic Agents.

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    Jiaolin Bao

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a phenomenon of biphasic dose response characterized by exhibiting stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or toxic effects at high doses. Increasing numbers of chemicals of various types have been shown to induce apparent hormetic effect on cancer cells. However, the underlying significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Berberine, one of the major active components of Rhizoma coptidis, has been manifested with notable anticancer activities. This study aims to investigate the hormetic effect of berberine and its influence on the anticancer activities of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results demonstrated that berberine at low dose range (1.25 ~ 5 μM promoted cell proliferation to 112% ~170% of the untreated control in various cancer cells, while berberine at high dose rage (10 ~ 80 μM inhibited cell proliferation. Further, we observed that co-treatment with low dose berberine could significantly attenuate the anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU, camptothecin (CPT, and paclitaxel (TAX. The hormetic effect and thereby the attenuated anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic drugs by berberine may attributable to the activated protective stress response in cancer cells triggered by berberine, as evidenced by up-regulated MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results provided important information to understand the potential side effects of hormesis, and suggested cautious application of natural compounds and relevant herbs in adjuvant treatment of cancer.

  8. Rationale and clinical use of multitargeting anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melisi, Davide; Piro, Geny; Tamburrino, Anna; Carbone, Carmine; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2013-08-01

    Human solid tumors contain genetically distinct subpopulations of tumor cells that can be enriched under selective pressure of specific treatments. This heterogeneous nature reflects the dynamism of drug response and it represents a fundamental driver of resistance. Moreover, the complexity of cancer disease is increased by the activity of cross-talking, redundant signaling pathways, escape pathways and compensatory events, which triggers activation of secondary growth and survival. Broad multi-targeted approaches are requested to overcome a complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic disease such as cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 microspheres combined with systemic anticancer agents: expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew; Brown, Daniel B; Feilchenfeldt, Jonas; Marshall, John; Wasan, Harpreet; Fakih, Marwan; Gibbs, Peter; Knuth, Alexander; Sangro, Bruno; Soulen, Michael C; Pittari, Gianfranco; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-12-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with microspheres labelled with the β-emitter yttrium-90 (Y-90) enables targeted delivery of radiation to hepatic tumors. SIRT is primarily used to treat inoperable primary or metastatic liver tumors. Eligible patients have usually been exposed to a variety of systemic anticancer therapies, including cytotoxic agents, targeted biologics, immunotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). All these treatments have potential interactions with SIRT; however, robust evidence on the safety of these potential combinations is lacking. This paper provides current clinical experiences and expert consensus guidelines for the use of SIRT in combination with the anticancer treatment agents likely to be encountered in clinical practice. It was agreed by the expert panel that precautions need to be taken with certain drugs, but that, in general, systemic therapies do not necessarily have to be stopped to perform SIRT. The authors recommend stopping vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors 4-6 weeks before SIRT, and restart after the patient has recovered from the procedure. It may also be prudent to stop potent radiosensitizers such as gemcitabine therapy 4 weeks before SIRT, and restart treatment at least 2‒4 weeks later. Data from phase III studies combining SIRT with fluorouracil (5FU) or folinic acid/5FU/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) suggest that hematological toxicity is more common from the combination than it is from chemotherapy without SIRT. There is no evidence to suggest that chemotherapy increases SIRT-specific gastro-intestinal or liver toxicities.

  10. The potential for substance P antagonists as anti-cancer agents in brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Lewis, Kate M; Vink, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Despite recent advances in cancer treatment and diagnosis, the prognosis for patients with CNS tumours remains extremely poor. This is, in part, due to the difficulty in completely removing tumours surgically, and also because of the presence of the blood brain barrier, which can prevent the entry of chemotherapeutic agents typically used in cancer treatment. Despite the presence of the blood brain barrier, tumour cells are capable of entering and colonising the brain to form secondary brain tumours. Additionally, tumour related disruption of the blood brain barrier is associated with the clinical presentation of many patients, with accompanying increases in intracranial pressure due, in part, to the development of vasogenic oedema. Vasogenic oedema results because the newly formed angiogenic vessels within brain tumours do not retain the highly selective properties of the blood brain barrier, and thus allow for the extravasation of plasma proteins and water into the brain parenchyma. Tachykinins, and in particular substance P, have been implicated in blood brain barrier disruption and the genesis of cerebral oedema in other CNS insults via a process known as neurogenic inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that substance P may play a similar role in CNS tumours. It has been well established that an upregulation of substance P and its receptors occurs in a number of different cancer types, including CNS neoplasms. In addition to disrupting blood brain barrier permeability, substance P and the NK1 receptors facilitate promotion of tumour growth and the development of cerebral oedema. Accordingly, recent patents describe the potential of NK1 receptor antagonists as anti-cancer agents suggesting that substance P may provide a novel cancer treatment target. This review will examine the role of substance P in the development of CNS tumours.

  11. Caffeine-hydrazones as anticancer agents with pronounced selectivity toward T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplánek, R.; Jakubek, M.; Rak, J.; Kejik, Z.; Havlík, M.; Dolenský, B.; Frydrych, I.; Hajduch, M.; Kolář, M.; Bogdanová, K.; Králová, Jarmila; Dzubak, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, Jun (2015), s. 19-29 ISSN 0045-2068 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0060; GA MŠk CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0041; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Program:EE; LD Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Anticancer agents * Cancer treatment * Caffeine -hydrazones * Leukaemia * Selectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2015

  12. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Láuris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Júlio César Dias; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa; Montanari, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CALORIMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERACTION OF NOVEL BISCATIONIC ANTICANCER AGENTS WITH DNA. Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-alpha,omega-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the ...

  13. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Anticancer Agents: Successes in Clinical Trials and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. L. Seca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage process resulting in an uncontrolled and abrupt division of cells and is one of the leading causes of mortality. The cases reported and the predictions for the near future are unthinkable. Food and Drug Administration data showed that 40% of the approved molecules are natural compounds or inspired by them, from which, 74% are used in anticancer therapy. In fact, natural products are viewed as more biologically friendly, that is less toxic to normal cells. In this review, the most recent and successful cases of secondary metabolites, including alkaloid, diterpene, triterpene and polyphenolic type compounds, with great anticancer potential are discussed. Focusing on the ones that are in clinical trial development or already used in anticancer therapy, therefore successful cases such as paclitaxel and homoharringtonine (in clinical use, curcumin and ingenol mebutate (in clinical trials will be addressed. Each compound’s natural source, the most important steps in their discovery, their therapeutic targets, as well as the main structural modifications that can improve anticancer properties will be discussed in order to show the role of plants as a source of effective and safe anticancer drugs.

  14. Molecular targets and anti-cancer potential of escin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dorothy H J; Arfuso, Frank; Sethi, Gautam; Wang, Lingzhi; Hui, Kam Man; Kumar, Alan Prem; Tran, Thai

    2018-02-21

    Escin is a mixture of triterpenoid saponins extracted from the horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum. Its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-odematous properties makes it a choice of therapy against chronic venous insufficiency and odema. More recently, escin is being actively investigated for its potential activity against diverse cancers. It exhibits anti-cancer effects in many cancer cell models including lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and leukemia. Escin also attenuates tumor growth and metastases in various in vivo models. Importantly, escin augments the effects of existing chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby supporting the role of escin as an adjunct or alternative anti-cancer therapy. The beneficial effects of escin can be attributed to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of cell cycle arrest. By regulating transcription factors/growth factors mediated oncogenic pathways, escin also potentially mitigates chronic inflammatory processes that are linked to cancer survival and resistance. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of escin and its potential as an anti-cancer therapy through its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel glyoxalase-I inhibitors possessing a “zinc-binding feature” as potential anticancer agents

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    Al-Balas QA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Qosay A Al-Balas,1 Mohammad A Hassan,1 Nizar A Al-Shar’i,1 Nizar M Mhaidat,2 Ammar M Almaaytah,3 Fatima M Al-Mahasneh,1 Israa H Isawi1 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Background: The glyoxalase system including two thiol-dependent enzymes, glyoxalase I (Glo-I and glyoxalase II, plays an important role in a ubiquitous metabolic pathway involved in cellular detoxification of cytotoxic 2-oxoaldehydes. Tumor cells have high glycolytic activity, leading to increased cellular levels of these toxic metabolites. The increased activity of the detoxification system in cancerous cells makes this pathway a viable target for developing novel anticancer agents. In this study, we examined the potential utility of non-glutathione-based inhibitors of the Glo-I enzyme as novel anticancer drugs.Methods: Computer-aided drug design techniques, such as customized pharmacophoric features, virtual screening, and flexible docking, were used to achieve the project goals. Retrieved hits were extensively filtered and subsequently docked into the active site of the enzyme. The biological activities of retrieved hits were assessed using an in vitro assay against Glo-I.Results: Since Glo-I is a zinc metalloenzyme, a customized Zn-binding pharmacophoric feature was used to search for selective inhibitors via virtual screening of a small-molecule database. Seven hits were selected, purchased, and biologically evaluated. Three of the seven hits inhibited Glo-I activity, the most effective of which exerted 76.4% inhibition at a concentration of 25 µM.Conclusion: We successfully identified a potential Glo-I inhibitor that can serve as a lead compound for further optimization. Moreover, our in silico and experimental results were highly correlated. Hence, the docking protocol adopted in this study may

  16. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. However, these reviews consider the term “cytotoxicity” to be synonymous with “anticancer agent”, which is not actually true. Indeed, a cytotoxic compound is by definition a poisonous compound. To become a potential anticancer agent, a cytotoxic compound must at least display (i selectivity between normal and cancer cells (ii activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR cancer cells; and (iii a preferentially non-apoptotic cell death mechanism, as it is now well known that a high proportion of cancer cells that resist chemotherapy are in fact apoptosis-resistant cancer cells against which pro-apoptotic drugs have more than limited efficacy. The present review thus focuses on the cytotoxic marine fungal-derived metabolites whose ability to kill cancer cells has been reported in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that kill cancer cells through non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms.

  17. DNA Topoisomerases as Targets for Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiasa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases are proven therapeutic targets of antibacterial agents. Quinolones, especially fluoroquinolones, are the most successful topoisomerase-targeting antibacterial drugs. These drugs target type IIA topoisomerases in bacteria. Recent structural and biochemical studies on fluoroquinolones have provided the molecular basis for both their mechanism of action, as well as the molecular basis of bacterial resistance. Due to the development of drug resistance, including fluoroquinolone resistance, among bacterial pathogens, there is an urgent need to discover novel antibacterial agents. Recent advances in topoisomerase inhibitors may lead to the development of novel antibacterial drugs that are effective against fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogens. They include type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors that either interact with the GyrB/ParE subunit or form nick-containing ternary complexes. In addition, several topoisomerase I inhibitors have recently been identified. Thus, DNA topoisomerases remain important targets of antibacterial agents.

  18. Pro-oxidant activity of dietary chemopreventive agents: an under-appreciated anti-cancer property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Asfar S

    2013-01-01

    “ Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was quoted by Hippocrates more than two thousand years ago and since ancient times the health benefits of different natural agents have been exploited. In modern research, the disease preventive benefits of many such natural agents, particularly dietary compounds and their derivatives, has been attributed to their well recognized activity as the regulators of redox state of the cell. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on their antioxidant activity. A large body of evidence indicates that a major fraction of these agents can elicit pro-oxidant (radical generating) behavior which has been linked to their anti-cancer effects. This editorial provides an overview of the under-appreciated pro-oxidant activity of natural products, with a special focus on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of transition metal ions, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24358870

  19. Glycosides from Medicinal Plants as Potential Anticancer Agents: Emerging Trends towards Future Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Saeedi, Mina; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mubarak, Mohammad S; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-04-03

    Cancer continues to be a global burden, despite the advancement of various technological and pharmaceutical improvements over the past two decades. Methods for treating cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in addition to other specialized techniques. On the other hand, medicinal plants have been traditionally employed either as the complementary medicine or dietary agents in the treatment and management of cancer. Medicinal plants are a rich source of secondary metabolites with interesting biological and pharmacological activities. Among these metabolites, glycosides are naturally occurring substances and have outstanding therapeutic potential and clinical utility. Different medical research engines such GoogleScholar, PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect were used to collect related literature on the subject matter. In this regard, only peer reviewed journals were considered. Emerging results showed that numerous glycosides isolated from various plants possessed marked anticancer activity against a variety of cancer cell lines. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to shed light on the anticancer effects of glycosides, analyze possible mechanisms of action, and highlight the role of these natural agents as complementary and alternative medicine in combating and managing cancer. The glycosides isolated from different plants demonstrated potent cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in initial preclinical studies. The anticancer effect was mediated through multiple mechanisms; however further detail studies are needed to understand the full potential of glycosides for clinical utility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Centrosome – a promising anti-cancer target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Rivera Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yainyrette Rivera-Rivera, Harold I Saavedra Department of Pharmacology, Ponce Health Sciences University-School of Medicine, Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, Puerto Rico Abstract: The centrosome, an organelle discovered >100 years ago, is the main microtubule-organizing center in mammalian organisms. The centrosome is composed of a pair of centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material (PMC and plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle transitions (G1-S, G2-M, and metaphase-anaphase, ensuring the normality of cell division. Hundreds of proteins found in the centrosome exert a variety of roles, including microtubule dynamics, nucleation, and kinetochore–microtubule attachments that allow correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Errors in these processes lead to structural (shape, size, number, position, and composition, functional (abnormal microtubule nucleation and disorganized spindles, and numerical (centrosome amplification [CA] centrosome aberrations causing aneuploidy and genomic instability. Compelling data demonstrate that centrosomes are implicated in cancer, because there are important oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins that are localized in this organelle and drive centrosome aberrations. Centrosome defects have been found in pre-neoplasias and tumors from breast, ovaries, prostate, head and neck, lung, liver, and bladder among many others. Several drugs/compounds against centrosomal proteins have shown promising results. Other drugs have higher toxicity with modest or no benefits, and there are more recently developed agents being tested in clinical trials. All of this emerging evidence suggests that targeting centrosome aberrations may be a future avenue for therapeutic intervention in cancer research. Keywords: centrosomes, cell cycle, mitosis, CA, CIN, cancer therapy

  1. In Silico Molecular Docking Analysis of Natural Pyridoacridines as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docking studies are proved to be an essential tool that facilitates the structural diversity of natural products to be harnessed in an organized manner. In this study, pyridoacridines containing natural anticancer pigments were subjected to docking studies using Glide (Schrodinger. Investigations were carried out to find out the potential molecular targets for these selected pigments. The docking was carried out on different cancer macromolecules involved in different cell cycle pathways, that is, CDK-2, CDK-6, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, IGF-1R kinase, and G-Quadruplexes. CDK-6 was found to be the most suitable anticancer target for the pyridoacridines. In addition, effectiveness of the study was further evaluated by performing docking of known inhibitors against their respective selected macromolecules. However, the results are preliminary and experimental evaluation will be carried out in near future.

  2. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Kaori; Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-04-14

    To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. A university hospital in Japan. 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients' inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The application of click chemistry in the synthesis of agents with anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nan Ma,1–3 Ying Wang,3 Bing-Xin Zhao,3 Wen-Cai Ye,1,3 Sheng Jiang2 1Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The copper(I-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkynes and azides (click chemistry to form 1,2,3-triazoles is the most popular reaction due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. This reaction has the potential to shorten procedures, and render more efficient lead identification and optimization procedures in medicinal chemistry, which is a powerful modular synthetic approach toward the assembly of new molecular entities and has been applied in anticancer drugs discovery increasingly. The present review focuses mainly on the applications of this reaction in the field of synthesis of agents with anticancer activity, which are divided into four groups: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and antimicrotubule agents. Keywords: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antimicrotubule agents

  4. Assessment of adherence with oral anticancer agents in oncology clinical trials: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsbaken, J J; Eickhoff, J C; Buss, B A; Mably, M S; Kolesar, J M

    2016-02-01

    Despite recommendations for adherence reporting in clinical trials involving an oral anticancer agent, the frequency and methods of adherence reporting are inconsistent. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the frequency and type of adherence measures used in oncology and hematology clinical trials of oral anticancer agents and their association with study characteristics including quality, cancer type, stage and treatment type. PubMed was searched of all randomized controlled clinical trials assessing self-administered pharmacological interventions in patients with cancer and published over two years, between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012 were evaluated. We identified 70 publications in the PubMed database, comprising 45,118 total patients. Adherence reporting was present in 14 of 70 trials (20%); quantitative reporting was present in three of 70 trials (4%). Method of adherence assessment varied and included medication count, medication diaries and patient self-report. There was no association between adherence reporting and study quality or other study characteristics, although there was a trend towards increased reporting in breast cancer studies, with 46% of the studies reporting adherence (p = 0.0621). In a preliminary analysis, hematology studies (mean Jadad score 2.19 ± 1.47) were found to have significantly lower quality when compared to non-hematology trials (mean Jadad score 3.39 ± 1.37, p = 0.0034). This systematic review demonstrates adherence reporting in clinical trials of oral anticancer agents is infrequent. When reported, adherence was not associated with overall study quality or other study characteristics. Given the potential effects of non-adherence on study power and validity, adherence reporting should be encouraged in oncology and hematology clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A review of the evidence for occupational exposure risks to novel anticancer agents - A focus on monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julie; Alexander, Marliese; Byrne, Jenny; MacMillan, Kent; Mollo, Adele; Kirsa, Sue; Green, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Evidence of occupational exposure risks to novel anticancer agents is limited and yet to be formally evaluated from the Australian healthcare perspective. From March to September 2013 medical databases, organizational policies, drug monographs, and the World Wide Web were searched for evidence relating to occupational exposure to monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, gene therapies, and other unclassified novel anticancer agents. Australian legislation, national and international guidelines, and drug company information excluded novel agents or provided inconsistent risk assessments and safe handling recommendations. Monoclonal antibody guidelines reported conflicting information and were often divergent with available evidence and pharmacologic rationale demonstrating minimal internalisation ability and occupational exposure risk. Despite similar physiochemical, pharmacologic, and internalisation properties to monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins were included in only a minority of guidelines. Clinical directives for the safe handling of gene therapies and live vaccines were limited, where available focusing on prevention against exposure and cross-contamination. Although mechanistically different, novel small molecule agents (proteasome inhibitors), possess similar physiochemical and internalisation properties to traditional cytotoxic agents warranting cytotoxic classification and handling. Novel agents are rapidly emerging into clinical practice, and healthcare personnel have few resources to evaluate risk and provide safety recommendations. Novel agents possess differing physical, molecular and pharmacological profiles compared to traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents. Evaluation of occupational exposure risk should consider both toxicity and internalisation. Evidence-based guidance able to direct safe handling practices for novel anticancer agents across a variety of clinical settings is urgently required. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Discovery of a synthetic Aminopeptidase N inhibitor LB-4b as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Jia, Yuping; Wang, Xuejian; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Hao; Xu, Wenfang

    2013-05-01

    APN inhibitors have been considered as potential anticancer agents for years. LB-4b is the first synthetic APN inhibitor to be evaluated for both of its anti-invasion and anti-angiogenesis effects. As a potent synthetic APN inhibitor (IC50=850 nM, versus bestatin of 8.1 μM), LB-4b was determined to have more significant block effects to cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis than bestatin. Besides, it is able to be easily synthesized with a high total yield, while the reported synthetic methods of bestatin are much more complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Degradation Properties of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Matrix for Anticancer Agent Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, S. M.; Mohamed, M. S. W.; Yahya, A. F.; Noorsal, K.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA 50 GA 50 ) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It offers tremendous potential as a basis for drug delivery, either as drug delivery system alone or in conjugate with a medical device. The PLA 50 GA 50 is the material of choice for relatively shorter-duration applications, while the homopolymer PLA (poly-L-lactide) and PGA (polyglycolide) are preferred for longer term delivery of drugs. This paper discusses the degradation properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA 50 GA 50 ) at inherent viscosity of 0.89 dL/g as preliminary studies for anticancer agent delivery.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Aminothiazole-Paeonol Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel aminothiazole-paeonol derivatives were synthesized and characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, mass spectroscopy, and high performance liquid chromatography. All the new synthesized compounds were evaluated according to their anticancer effect on seven cancer cell lines. The experimental results indicated that these compounds possess high anticancer potential regarding human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29 cells. Among these compounds, N-[4-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylthiazol-2-yl]-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide (13c had the most potent inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 4.0 µM to AGS, 4.4 µM to HT-29 cells and 5.8 µM to HeLa cells. The 4-fluoro-N-[4-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylthiazol-2-yl]benzenesulfonamide (13d was the second potent compound, showing IC50 values of 7.2, 11.2 and 13.8 µM to AGS , HT-29 and HeLa cells, respectively. These compounds are superior to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU for relatively higher potency against AGS and HT-29 human cancer cell lines along with lower cytotoxicity to fibroblasts. Novel aminothiazole-paeonol derivatives in this work might be a series of promising lead compounds to develop anticancer agents for treating gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.

  9. Largazole Analogues as Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Anticancer Agents: An Overview of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Giulio; Di Fabio, Romano; Ferrante, Luca; Summa, Vincenzo; Botta, Maurizio

    2017-12-07

    Since the time of its identification, the natural compound largazole rapidly caught the attention of the medicinal chemistry community for its impressive potency as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and its strong antiproliferative activity against a broad panel of cancer cell lines. The design of largazole analogues is an expanding field of study, due to their remarkable potential as novel anticancer therapeutics. At present, a large ensemble of largazole analogues has been reported, allowing the identification of important structure-activity relationships (SAR) that can guide the design of novel compounds with improved HDAC inhibitory profiles, anticancer activity, and pharmacokinetic properties. The aim of this review is to concisely summarize the information obtained by biological evaluations of the various largazole analogues reported to date, with particular attention given to the latest analogues, as well as to analyze the various SAR obtained from this data, with the purpose of providing useful guidelines for the development of novel potent and selective HDAC inhibitors to be used as anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70-90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2-3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of breast

  11. Platinum, palladium, gold and ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents: Current clinical uses, cytotoxicity studies and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarević, Tatjana; Rilak, Ana; Bugarčić, Živadin D

    2017-12-15

    Metallodrugs offer potential for unique mechanism of drug action based on the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, the types and number of coordinated ligands and the coordination geometry. This review illustrates notable recent progress in the field of medicinal bioinorganic chemistry as many new approaches to the design of innovative metal-based anticancer drugs are emerging. Current research addressing the problems associated with platinum drugs has focused on other metal-based therapeutics that have different modes of action and on prodrug and targeting strategies in an effort to diminish the side-effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. Examples of metal compounds and chelating agents currently in clinical use, clinical trials or preclinical development are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitosis as an anti-cancer drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Kallio, Marko J

    2013-10-01

    Suppression of cell proliferation by targeting mitosis is one potential cancer intervention. A number of existing chemotherapy drugs disrupt mitosis by targeting microtubule dynamics. While efficacious, these drugs have limitations, i.e. neuropathy, unpredictability and development of resistance. In order to overcome these issues, a great deal of effort has been spent exploring novel mitotic targets including Polo-like kinase 1, Aurora kinases, Mps1, Cenp-E and KSP/Eg5. Here we summarize the latest developments in the discovery and clinical evaluation of new mitotic drug targets.

  13. Molecular Targets Underlying the Anticancer Effects of Quercetin: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Ismail Hassan, Fatima; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nagulapalli Venkata, Kalyan C; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-08-29

    Quercetin, a medicinally important member of the flavonoid family, is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. It is present in a variety of foods-including fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, as well as other dietary supplements-and is responsible for various health benefits. Numerous pharmacological effects of quercetin include protection against diseases, such as osteoporosis, certain forms of malignant tumors, and pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. Quercetin has the special ability of scavenging highly reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radicals. These oxygen radicals are called reactive oxygen species, which can cause oxidative damage to cellular components, such as proteins, lipids, and deoxyribonucleic acid. Various oxygen radicals play important roles in pathophysiological and degenerative processes, such as aging. Subsequently, several studies have been performed to evaluate possible advantageous health effects of quercetin and to collect scientific evidence for these beneficial health claims. These studies also gather data in order to evaluate the exact mechanism(s) of action and toxicological effects of quercetin. The purpose of this review is to present and critically analyze molecular pathways underlying the anticancer effects of quercetin. Current limitations and future directions of research on this bioactive dietary polyphenol are also critically discussed.

  14. Multi-Agent Cooperative Target Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwen Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation.

  15. Multi-agent cooperative target search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinwen; Xie, Lihua; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhao

    2014-05-26

    This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation.

  16. The potential of brown-algae polysaccharides for the development of anticancer agents: An update on anticancer effects reported for fucoidan and laminaran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, K K Asanka; Lee, Jung-Suck; Kim, Won-Suck; Jeon, You-Jin

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, attention to cancer-preventive treatments and studies on the development of anticancer drugs have sharply increased owing to the increase in cancer-related death rates in every region of the world. However, due to the adverse effects of synthetic drugs, much attention has been given to the development of anticancer drugs from natural sources because of fewer side effects of natural compounds than those of synthetic drugs. Recent studies on compounds and crude extracts from marine algae have shown promising anticancer properties. Among those compounds, polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds play a principal role as anticancer agents. Especially, a number of studies have revealed that polysaccharides isolated from brown seaweeds, such as fucoidan and laminaran, have promising effects against different cancer cell types in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we reviewed in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties reported for fucoidan and laminaran toward various cancer cells from 2013 to 2016. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ENOX2 target for the anticancer isoflavone ME-143.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morré, D James; Korty, Theodore; Meadows, Christiaan; Ades, Laura M C; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    ME-143 (NV-143), a synthetic isoflavone under clinical evaluation for efficacy in the management of ovarian and other forms of human cancer, blocked the activity of a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface ECTO-NOX protein with both oxidative (hydroquinone) and protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity designated ENOX2 (tNOX) and inhibited the growth of cultured cancer cells with EC50s in the range of 20-50 nM. Purified recombinant ENOX2 also bound ME-143 with a Kd of 43 (40-50) nM. Both the oxidative and protein disulfide-thiol interchange activities of ENOX proteins that alternate to generate a complex set of oscillations with a period length of 22 min compared to 24 min for the constitutive counterpart ENOX1 (CNOX) that characterizes ENOX proteins responded to ME-143. Oxidation of NADH or reduced coenzyme Q10 was rapidly blocked. In contrast, the protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity measured from the cleavage of dithiodipyridine (EC50 of ca. 50 nM) was inhibited progressively over an interval of 60 min that spanned three cycles of activity. Inhibition of the latter paralleled the inhibition of cell enlargement and the consequent inability of inhibited cells to initiate traverse of the cell cycle. Activities of constitutive ENOX1 (CNOX) forms of either cancer or noncancer cells were unaffected by ME-143 over the range of concentrations inhibiting ENOX2. Taken together, the findings show that ME-143 binds to ENOX2 with an affinity 4 to 10 times greater than that reported previously for the related anticancer isoflavone, phenoxodiol.

  18. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  19. Covalent Organic Framework Material bearing Phloroglucinol Building Units as a Potent Anticancer Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Bhanja, Piyali

    2017-08-23

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) having periodicity in pores of nanoscale dimensions can be suitably designed for the organic building units bearing reactive functional groups at their surfaces. Thus, they are an attractive option as an anticancer agent to overcome the limitations of chemotherapy. Herein, we first report a new porous biodegradable nitrogen containing COF material, EDTFP-1 (ethylenedianiline-triformyl phloroglucinol), synthesized using 4,4\\'-ethylenedianiline and 2,4,6-triformylphloroglucinol via Schiff base condensation reaction. EDTFP-1 exhibited 3D-hexagonal porous structure with average pores of ca. 1.5 nm dimension. Here, we have explored the anti-cancer potentiality of EDTFP-1. Result demonstrated an enhanced cytotoxicity was observed against four cancer cells HCT 116, HepG2, A549, and MIA-Paca2 with significant lower IC50 on HCT116 cells. Additionally, EDTFP-1-induced cell death was associated with the characteristic apoptotic changes like cell membrane blebbing, nuclear DNA fragmentation, externalization of phosphatidylserine from the cell membrane followed by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as modulation of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Further, the result depicted a direct correlation between the generations of ROS with mitochondrial-dependant apoptosis through the involvement of p53 phosphorylation upon EDTFP-1 induction, suggesting this COF material is a novel chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  20. Histone lysine demethylases as targets for anticancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Agger, Karl; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    interesting drug targets. The successful introduction of DNA methylation and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of specific subtypes of cancer has paved the way for the use of epigenetic therapy. Here, we highlight key biological findings demonstrating the roles of members of the histone...

  1. Rational Combinations of Targeted Agents in AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite modest improvements in survival over the last several decades, the treatment of AML continues to present a formidable challenge. Most patients are elderly, and these individuals, as well as those with secondary, therapy-related, or relapsed/refractory AML, are particularly difficult to treat, owing to both aggressive disease biology and the high toxicity of current chemotherapeutic regimens. It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that coordinated interruption of cooperative survival signaling pathways in malignant cells is necessary for optimal therapeutic results. The modest efficacy of monotherapy with both cytotoxic and targeted agents in AML testifies to this. As the complex biology of AML continues to be elucidated, many “synthetic lethal” strategies involving rational combinations of targeted agents have been developed. Unfortunately, relatively few of these have been tested clinically, although there is growing interest in this area. In this article, the preclinical and, where available, clinical data on some of the most promising rational combinations of targeted agents in AML are summarized. While new molecules should continue to be combined with conventional genotoxic drugs of proven efficacy, there is perhaps a need to rethink traditional philosophies of clinical trial development and regulatory approval with a focus on mechanism-based, synergistic strategies.

  2. Targeted alpha anticancer therapies: update and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen BJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Allen,1,2 Chen-Yu Huang,3 Raymond A Clarke2 1Faculty of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Ingham Institute, University of Western Sydney, Liverpool, NSW, Australia; 3Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Targeted alpha therapy (TAT is an emerging option for local and systemic cancer treatment. Preclinical research and clinical trials show that alpha-emitting radionuclides can kill targeted cancer cells while sparing normal cells, thus reducing toxicity. 223RaCl2 (Xofigo® is the first alpha emitting radioisotope to gain registration in the US for palliative therapy of prostate cancer bone metastases by indirect physiological targeting. The alpha emitting radioisotopes 211At, 213Bi, 225Ac and 227Th are being used to label targeting vectors such as monoclonal antibodies for specific cancer therapy indications. In this review, safety and tolerance aspects are considered with respect to microdosimetry, specific energy, Monte Carlo model calculations, biodosimetry, equivalent dose and mutagenesis. The clinical efficacy of TAT for solid tumors may also be enhanced by its capacity for tumor anti-vascular (TAVAT effects. This review emphasizes key aspects of TAT research with respect to the PAI2-uPAR complex and the monoclonal antibodies bevacizumab, C595 and J591. Clinical trial outcomes are reviewed for neuroendocrine tumors, leukemia, glioma, melanoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and prostate bone metastases. Recommendations and future directions are proposed.Keywords: biodosimetry, microdosimetry, mutagenesis, PAI2, bevacizumab, C595, J591, tumors, cancer, metastases

  3. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Acts as a Novel Anticancer Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Yokoo

    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD is a cyclic oligosaccharide that is widely used as an enabling excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, but also as a cholesterol modifier. HP-β-CyD has recently been approved for the treatment of Niemann-Pick Type C disease, a lysosomal lipid storage disorder, and is used in clinical practice. Since cholesterol accumulation and/or dysregulated cholesterol metabolism has been described in various malignancies, including leukemia, we hypothesized that HP-β-CyD itself might have anticancer effects. This study provides evidence that HP-β-CyD inhibits leukemic cell proliferation at physiologically available doses. First, we identified the potency of HP-β-CyD in vitro against various leukemic cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. HP-β-CyD treatment reduced intracellular cholesterol resulting in significant leukemic cell growth inhibition through G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Intraperitoneal injection of HP-β-CyD significantly improved survival in leukemia mouse models. Importantly, HP-β-CyD also showed anticancer effects against CML cells expressing a T315I BCR-ABL mutation (that confers resistance to most ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and hypoxia-adapted CML cells that have characteristics of leukemic stem cells. In addition, colony forming ability of human primary AML and CML cells was inhibited by HP-β-CyD. Systemic administration of HP-β-CyD to mice had no significant adverse effects. These data suggest that HP-β-CyD is a promising anticancer agent regardless of disease or cellular characteristics.

  4. Physics considerations in targeted anticancer drug delivery by magnetoelectric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimphil, Emmanuel; Nagesetti, Abhignyan; Guduru, Rakesh; Stewart, Tiffanie; Rodzinski, Alexandra; Liang, Ping; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2017-06-01

    In regard to cancer therapy, magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) have proven to be in a class of its own when compared to any other nanoparticle type. Like conventional magnetic nanoparticles, they can be used for externally controlled drug delivery via application of a magnetic field gradient and image-guided delivery. However, unlike conventional nanoparticles, due to the presence of a non-zero magnetoelectric effect, MENs provide a unique mix of important properties to address key challenges in modern cancer therapy: (i) a targeting mechanism driven by a physical force rather than antibody matching, (ii) a high-specificity delivery to enhance the cellular uptake of therapeutic drugs across the cancer cell membranes only, while sparing normal cells, (iii) an externally controlled mechanism to release drugs on demand, and (iv) a capability for image guided precision medicine. These properties separate MEN-based targeted delivery from traditional biotechnology approaches and lay a foundation for the complementary approach of technobiology. The biotechnology approach stems from the underlying biology and exploits bioinformatics to find the right therapy. In contrast, the technobiology approach is geared towards using the physics of molecular-level interactions between cells and nanoparticles to treat cancer at the most fundamental level and thus can be extended to all the cancers. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art and presents an ab initio model to describe the underlying mechanisms of cancer treatment with MENs from the perspective of basic physics.

  5. Natural Product-Derived Spirooxindole Fragments Serve as Privileged Substructures for Discovery of New Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zheng, Yi-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Ping-Ping; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The utility of natural products for identifying anticancer agents has been highly pursued in the last decades and over 100 drug molecules in clinic are natural products or natural product-derived compounds. Natural products are believed to be able to cover unexplored chemical space that is normally not occupied by commercially available molecule libraries. However, the low abundance and synthetic intractability of natural products have limited their applications in drug discovery. Recently, the identification of biologically relevant fragments derived from biologically validated natural products has been recognized as a powerful strategy in searching new biological probes and drugs. The spirocyclic oxindoles, as privileged structural scaffolds, have shown their potential in designing new drugs. Several anticancer drug candidates such as SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres are undergoing clinical trials or preclinical studies. To highlight the significant progress, we focus on illustrating the discovery of SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres for cancer therapy using substructure-based strategies and discussing modes of action, binding models and preclinical data.

  6. Cultivation and utility of Piptoporus betulinus fruiting bodies as a source of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Siwulski, Marek; Lemieszek, Marta K; Kunaszewska, Justyna; Kaczor, Józef; Rzeski, Wojciech; Janusz, Grzegorz; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Piptoporus betulinus is a wood-rotting basidiomycete used in medicine and biotechnology. However, to date, no indoor method for cultivation of this mushroom fruiting bodies has been developed. Here we present the first report of successful production of P. betulinus mature fruiting bodies in artificial conditions. Four P. betulinus strains were isolated from natural habitats and their mycelia were inoculated into birch sawdust substrate supplemented with organic additives. All the strains effectively colonized the medium but only one of them produced fruiting bodies. Moisture and organic supplementation of the substrate significantly determined the fruiting process. The biological efficiency of the P. betulinus PB01 strain cultivated on optimal substrate (moisture and organic substance content of 55 and 65 and 25 or 35 %, respectively) ranged from 12 to 16 %. The mature fruiting bodies reached weight in the range from 50 to 120 g. Anticancer properties of water and ethanol extracts isolated from both cultured and nature-derived fruiting bodies of P. betulinus were examined in human colon adenocarcinoma, human lung carcinoma and human breast cancer cell lines. The studies revealed antiproliferative and antimigrative properties of all the investigated extracts. Nevertheless the most pronounced effects demonstrated the ethanol extracts, obtained from fruiting bodies of cultured P. betulinus. Summarizing, our studies proved that P. betulinus can be induced to fruit in indoor artificial culture and the cultured fruiting bodies can be used as a source of potential anticancer agents. In this respect, they are at least as valuable as those sourced from nature.

  7. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  8. Molecular-target-based anticancer photosensitizer: synthesis and in vitro photodynamic activity of erlotinib-zinc(II) phthalocyanine conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ling; Huang, Qi; Liu, Jian-Yong; Huang, Ming-Dong; Xue, Jin-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Targeted photodynamic therapy is a new promising therapeutic strategy to overcome growing problems in contemporary medicine, such as drug toxicity and drug resistance. A series of erlotinib-zinc(II) phthalocyanine conjugates were designed and synthesized. Compared with unsubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine, these conjugates can successfully target EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells owing to the presence of the small molecular-target-based anticancer agent erlotinib. All conjugates were found to be essentially non-cytotoxic in the absence of light (up to 50 μM), but upon illumination, they show significantly high photo-cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells, with IC50 values as low as 9.61-91.77 nM under a rather low light dose (λ=670 nm, 1.5 J cm(-2) ). Structure-activity relationships for these conjugates were assessed by determining their photophysical/photochemical properties, cellular uptake, and in vitro photodynamic activities. The results show that these conjugates are highly promising antitumor agents for molecular-target-based photodynamic therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Differential cytotoxic pathways of topoisomerase I and II anticancer agents after overexpression of the E2F-1/DP-1 transcription factor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofland, K; Petersen, B O; Falck, J

    2000-01-01

    and drug sensitivity in detail, we established human osteosarcoma U-20S-TA cells expressing full-length E2F-1/ DP-1 under the control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter, designated UE1DP-1 cells. Topoisomerase I levels and activity as well as the number of camptothecin-induced DNA single- and double...... of an E2F-1/ DP-1-induced post-DNA damage pathway rather than an increase in the number of replication forks caused by the S-phase initiation. In contrast, topoisomerase IIalpha levels (but not topoisomerase IIbeta levels), together with topoisomerase IIalpha promoter activity, increased 2--3-fold in UE1......-targeted anticancer drugs. However, the mechanism by which this occurs appears to be qualitatively different. The UE1DP-1 cell model may be used to elucidate post-DNA damage mechanisms of cell death induced by topoisomerase I-directed anticancer agents....

  10. Genome-wide transcriptional effects of the anti-cancer agent camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Veloso

    Full Text Available The anti-cancer drug camptothecin inhibits replication and transcription by trapping DNA topoisomerase I (Top1 covalently to DNA in a "cleavable complex". To examine the effects of camptothecin on RNA synthesis genome-wide we used Bru-Seq and show that camptothecin treatment primarily affected transcription elongation. We also observed that camptothecin increased RNA reads past transcription termination sites as well as at enhancer elements. Following removal of camptothecin, transcription spread as a wave from the 5'-end of genes with no recovery of transcription apparent from RNA polymerases stalled in the body of genes. As a result, camptothecin preferentially inhibited the expression of large genes such as proto-oncogenes, and anti-apoptotic genes while smaller ribosomal protein genes, pro-apoptotic genes and p53 target genes showed relative higher expression. Cockayne syndrome group B fibroblasts (CS-B, which are defective in transcription-coupled repair (TCR, showed an RNA synthesis recovery profile similar to normal fibroblasts suggesting that TCR is not involved in the repair of or RNA synthesis recovery from transcription-blocking Top1 lesions. These findings of the effects of camptothecin on transcription have important implications for its anti-cancer activities and may aid in the design of improved combinatorial treatments involving Top1 poisons.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a unique, ultrasensitive tool for exploring the pharmacology of metal-based anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.E.M.

    2007-01-01

    After the discovery of the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin, the drug has developed into one of the most frequently used anticancer agents. Unfortunately, the use of cisplatin is hampered by severe side effects and by the resistance of several tumour types. These limitations have led to the

  12. Novel microtubule-targeting agents – the epothilones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Budman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Kit L Cheng, Thomas Bradley, Daniel R Budman1Monter Cancer Center, North Shore – LIJ Health Systems, Lake Success, New York, USAAbstract: Epothilones are a new class of antimicrotubule agents currently in clinical trials. Their chemical structures are distinct from taxanes and are more amenable to synthetic modification. Six epothilones have been studied in preclinical and clinical trials: patupilone (epothilone B, ixabepilone (BMS247550, BMS 310705, sagopilone (ZK-EPO, KOS-862 (epothilone D, and KOS-1584. In vitro data have shown increased potency in taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cancer cell lines. This enhanced cytotoxic effect has been attributed to epothilone being a poor substrate for p-glycoprotein drug resistance protein and having high affinity to the various β tubulin isoforms. Phase I clinical data have shown different dose-limiting toxicities for each of the epothilones. These effects are drug specific, dose specific, and schedule of administration specific. While diarrhea and myelosuppression are the dose-limiting toxicities for patupilone and BMS 310705, respectively, neurologic toxicity, as seen with taxanes, is the dose-limiting toxicity of ixabepilone, sagopilone, and KOS-862. In an effort to decrease neurologic toxicity, investigators have modified dosing schedules with limited success. Ixabepilone has the most mature clinical results with published phase II and III data, and regulatory approval for clinical use in the treatment of breast cancer. Ixabepilone has also been combined with other anticancer agents and has regulatory approval in combination with capecitabine for heavily treated breast cancer.Keywords: microtubule-targeting agents, epothilones, taxanes, ixabepilone

  13. Platinum Complexes with Edda (Ethylenediamine -N, N - Diacetate Ligands as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurisevic Milena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of platinum based drugs is not a new field of interest. Platinum complexes are widely used as anticancer agents and currently, approximately 30 platinum(II and platinum(IV entered into some of the phases of clinical trials. A special place in today’s research belongs to platinum complexes with diammine ligands. A large number of edda (ethylenediamine- N, N’-diacetate-type ligands and their corresponding metal complexes has been successfully synthesized. This article summarizes recent progress in research on edda-type-platinum complexes. Some of these agents achieves better effect compared to the gold standard (cisplatin. It has been shown that there is a possible relationship between the length of the ligand ester group carbon chain and its cytotoxic effect. In most cases the longer the ester chain is the greater is the antitumor activity. Of particular interest are the noticeable effects of some new platinum compound with edda-type ligand on cell lines that are known to have a high level of cisplatin-resistance. Exanimate complexes appear to have a different mode of mechanism of action compared with cisplatin which includes apoptotic and necrotic cell death. There are indications that further investigations of these compounds may be very useful in overcoming the problems associated global cancer statistic.

  14. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of callophycin A and analogues as potential chemopreventive and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Guendisch, Daniela; Marler, Laura; Pezzuto, John M; Wright, Anthony D; Sun, Dianqing

    2011-11-01

    Callophycin A was originally isolated from the red algae Callophycus oppositifolius and shown to mediate anticancer and cytotoxic effects. In our collaborative effort to identify potential chemopreventive and anticancer agents with enhanced potency and selectivity, we employed a tetrahydro-β-carboline-based template inspired by callophycin A for production of a chemical library. Utilizing a parallel synthetic approach, 50 various functionalized tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were prepared and assessed for activities related to cancer chemoprevention and cancer treatment: induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1) and inhibition of aromatase, nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced NFκB activity, and MCF7 breast cancer cell proliferation. Biological results showed that the n-pentyl urea S-isomer 6a was the strongest inducer of QR1 with an induction ratio (IR) value of 4.9 at 50 μM [the concentration to double the activity (CD)=3.8 μM] and its corresponding R-isomer 6f had an IR value of 4.3 (CD=0.2 μM). The isobutyl carbamate derivative 3d with R stereochemistry demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity of NFκB, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 4.8 μM, and also showed over 60% inhibition at 50 μM of NO production (IC(50)=2.8 μM). The R-isomer urea derivative 6j, having an appended adamantyl group, exhibited the most potent MCF7 cell proliferation inhibitory activity (IC(50)=14.7 μM). The S-isomer 12a of callophycin A showed the most potent activity in aromatase inhibition (IC(50)=10.5 μM). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Landscape of Targeted Anti-Cancer Drug Synergies in Melanoma Identifies a Novel BRAF-VEGFR/PDGFR Combination Treatment.

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    Adam A Friedman

    Full Text Available A newer generation of anti-cancer drugs targeting underlying somatic genetic driver events have resulted in high single-agent or single-pathway response rates in selected patients, but few patients achieve complete responses and a sizeable fraction of patients relapse within a year. Thus, there is a pressing need for identification of combinations of targeted agents which induce more complete responses and prevent disease progression. We describe the results of a combination screen of an unprecedented scale in mammalian cells performed using a collection of targeted, clinically tractable agents across a large panel of melanoma cell lines. We find that even the most synergistic drug pairs are effective only in a discrete number of cell lines, underlying a strong context dependency for synergy, with strong, widespread synergies often corresponding to non-specific or off-target drug effects such as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 transporter inhibition. We identified drugs sensitizing cell lines that are BRAFV600E mutant but intrinsically resistant to BRAF inhibitor PLX4720, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/kinase insert domain receptor (VEGFR/KDR and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR family inhibitor cediranib. The combination of cediranib and PLX4720 induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor regression in animal models. This synergistic interaction is likely due to engagement of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, demonstrating the potential of drug- rather than gene-specific combination discovery approaches. Patients with elevated biopsy KDR expression showed decreased progression free survival in trials of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK kinase pathway inhibitors. Thus, high-throughput unbiased screening of targeted drug combinations, with appropriate library selection and mechanistic follow-up, can yield clinically-actionable drug combinations.

  16. Targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 for anticancer therapy: clinical impact from diagnostics to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2015-01-01

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is one of the amino acid transporters. It is overexpressed in various types of cancer cells, while it is produced restrictedly in normal tissues. We discuss its characteristics in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also mention the current applications to target LAT1 for anticancer therapy focusing on prognostic biomarkers, radio-labeled tumor imaging reagents, amino acid-stapled prodrugs, LAT1-mediated enhanced transport of anticancer drugs and LAT1 inhibitors. LAT1 can be a versatile target to promisingly develop transporter-based drugs with enhanced drug delivery potential for anticancer therapy.

  17. Pharmacological Agents Targeting the Cellular Prion Protein

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    Maria Letizia Barreca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC, a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of a wide variety of cell types, into a misfolded conformer (the scrapie form of PrP, or PrPSc that accumulates in brain tissues of affected individuals. PrPSc is a self-catalytic protein assembly capable of recruiting native conformers of PrPC, and causing their rearrangement into new PrPSc molecules. Several previous attempts to identify therapeutic agents against prion diseases have targeted PrPSc, and a number of compounds have shown potent anti-prion effects in experimental models. Unfortunately, so far, none of these molecules has successfully been translated into effective therapies for prion diseases. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that PrPSc might be a difficult pharmacological target because of its poorly defined structure, heterogeneous composition, and ability to generate different structural conformers (known as prion strains that can elude pharmacological intervention. In the last decade, a less intuitive strategy to overcome all these problems has emerged: targeting PrPC, the common substrate of any prion strain replication. This alternative approach possesses several technical and theoretical advantages, including the possibility of providing therapeutic effects also for other neurodegenerative disorders, based on recent observations indicating a role for PrPC in delivering neurotoxic signals of different misfolded proteins. Here, we provide an overview of compounds claimed to exert anti-prion effects by directly binding to PrPC, discussing pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of each chemical class.

  18. Rollover Cyclometalated Bipyridine Platinum Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents: Impact of the Ancillary Ligands on the Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Maria V; Pfaffeneder-Kmen, Martin; Meier-Menches, Samuel M; Legina, Maria S; Theiner, Sarah; Licona, Cynthia; Orvain, Christophe; Hejl, Michaela; Hanif, Muhammad; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Gaiddon, Christian; Hartinger, Christian G

    2018-03-05

    Platinum-based anticancer coordination compounds are widely used in the treatment of many tumor types, where they are very effective but also cause severe side effects. Organoplatinum compounds are significantly less investigated than the analogous coordination compounds. We report here rollover cyclometalated Pt compounds based on 2,2'-bipyridine which are demonstrated to be potent antitumor agents both in vitro and in vivo. Variation of the co-ligands on the Pt(2,2'-bipyridine) backbone resulted in the establishment of structure-activity relationships. They showed that the biological activity was in general inversely correlated with the reaction kinetics to biomolecules as shown for amino acids, proteins, and DNA. The less stable compounds caused higher reactivity with biomolecules and were shown to induce p53-dependent DNA damage. In contrast, the presence of bulky PTA and PPh 3 ligands was demonstrated to cause lower reactivity and increased antineoplastic activity. Such compounds were devoid of DNA-damaging activity and induced ATF4, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. The lead complex inhibited tumor growth similar to oxaliplatin while showing no signs of toxicity in test mice. Therefore, we demonstrated that it is possible to fine-tune rollover-cyclometalated Pt(II) compounds to target different cancer pathways and be a means to overcome the side effects associated with cisplatin and analogous compounds in cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Natural product modulators of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as potential anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Sieglitz, Florian; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2016-11-07

    Treatment of cancer is a significant challenge in clinical medicine, and its research is a top priority in chemical biology and drug discovery. Consequently, there is an urgent need for identifying innovative chemotypes capable of modulating unexploited drug targets. The transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels persist scarcely explored as targets, despite intervening in a plethora of pathophysiological events in numerous diseases, including cancer. Both agonists and antagonists have proven capable of evoking phenotype changes leading to either cell death or reduced cell migration. Among these, natural products entail biologically pre-validated and privileged architectures for TRP recognition. Furthermore, several natural products have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on TRP biology. In this Tutorial Review we focus on selected natural products, e.g. capsaicinoids, cannabinoids and terpenes, by highlighting challenges and opportunities in their use as starting points for designing natural product-inspired TRP channel modulators. Importantly, the de-orphanization of natural products as TRP channel ligands may leverage their exploration as viable strategy for developing anticancer therapies. Finally, we foresee that TRP channels may be explored for the selective pharmacodelivery of cytotoxic payloads to diseased tissues, providing an innovative platform in chemical biology and molecular medicine.

  20. Anti-cancer agents in Saudi Arabian herbals revealed by automated high-content imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina

    2017-06-13

    Natural products have been used for medical applications since ancient times. Commonly, natural products are structurally complex chemical compounds that efficiently interact with their biological targets, making them useful drug candidates in cancer therapy. Here, we used cell-based phenotypic profiling and image-based high-content screening to study the mode of action and potential cellular targets of plants historically used in Saudi Arabia\\'s traditional medicine. We compared the cytological profiles of fractions taken from Juniperus phoenicea (Arar), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kaff Maryam), and Citrullus colocynthis (Hanzal) with a set of reference compounds with established modes of action. Cluster analyses of the cytological profiles of the tested compounds suggested that these plants contain possible topoisomerase inhibitors that could be effective in cancer treatment. Using histone H2AX phosphorylation as a marker for DNA damage, we discovered that some of the compounds induced double-strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the active fraction isolated from Juniperus phoenicea revealed possible anti-cancer compounds. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of cell-based phenotypic screening of natural products to reveal their biological activities.

  1. The anticancer agent prodigiosin is not a multidrug resistance protein substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahian, Fatemeh; Moghimi, Bahareh; Dinmohammadi, Farideh; Ghamghami, Mahsa; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas

    2013-03-01

    The brilliant red pigments prodiginines are natural secondary metabolites that are produced by select species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These molecules have received significant attention due to their reported antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In this study, a Serratia marcescens SER1 strain was isolated and verified using 16s rDNA. The prodigiosin was purified using silica chromatography and was analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The cell cytotoxic effects of the purified prodigiosin on multiple drug resistant cell lines that overexpress MDR1, BCRP, or MRP2 pumps were analyzed. Prodigiosin had nearly identical cytotoxic effects on the resistant cells in comparison to their parental lines. In agreement with the same prodigiosin cytotoxicity, FACS analysis of prodigiosin accumulation and efflux in MDR overexpressing cell lines also indicated that this pro-apoptotic agent operates independently of the presence of the MDR1, BCRP, or MRP transporter and may be a potential treatment for malignant cancer cells that overexpress multidrug resistance transporters.

  2. Preformulation studies of a novel camptothecin anticancer agent, CKD-602: physicochemical characterization and hydrolytic equilibrium kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Seok-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Lae; Shin, Hee-Jong; Hong, Chung Il

    2002-06-04

    (20S)-7-(2-isopropylamino)ethylcamptothecin.HCl (CKD-602), a new camptothecin (CPT) anticancer agent, is a pale yellowish crystalline compound. DSC thermogram exhibited a melt endotherm near 270 degrees C, and CKD-602 was found to be slightly hygroscopic. The solubility of CKD-602 in deionized water was 8.22 mg/ml, and two pK(a) values were measured to be 2.32 and 9.15, respectively. A pH-dependent partition coefficient behavior in octanol-buffer was observed. CKD-602 in solid state was stable over the range of temperature and humidity, but decomposed slightly by light. The hydrolysis of CKD-602 occurred reversibly and rapidly in aqueous buffer solutions. The conversion rate constants (k(f): from the lactone to the carboxylate and k(r): from the carboxylate to the lactone) and the final equilibrium ratio (K(eq)) between two species were dependent on the pH of aqueous solutions.

  3. Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Tocotrienol Combined with Chemotherapeutic Agents or Dietary Components: A Review

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    Takahiro Eitsuka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol (T3, unsaturated vitamin E, is gaining a lot of attention owing to its potent anticancer effect, since its efficacy is much greater than that of tocopherol (Toc. Various factors are known to be involved in such antitumor action, including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, antiangiogenesis, anti-metastasis, nuclear factor-κB suppression, and telomerase inhibition. Owing to a difference in the affinity of T3 and Toc for the α-tocopherol transfer protein, the bioavailability of orally ingested T3 is lower than that of Toc. Furthermore, cellular uptake of T3 is interrupted by coadministration of α-Toc in vitro and in vivo. Based on this, several studies are in progress to screen for molecules that can synergize with T3 in order to augment its potency. Combinations of T3 with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., statins, celecoxib, and gefitinib or dietary components (e.g., polyphenols, sesamin, and ferulic acid exhibit synergistic actions on cancer cell growth and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current status of synergistic effects of T3 and an array of agents on cancer cells, and discuss their molecular mechanisms of action. These combination strategies would encourage further investigation and application in cancer prevention and therapy.

  4. Anticancer Drugs Induced Severe Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions: An Updated Review on the Risks Associated with Anticancer Targeted Therapy or Immunotherapies

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    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are commonly seen in patients with anticancer drug treatment. Anticancer drugs, including chemotherapy, target therapy, and recent immunotherapy causing skin reactions ranging from mild skin rash to life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN with increase morbidity and mortality while they are receiving cancer treatments, have been proposed to be a result of direct skin toxicity or drug hypersensitivity reactions (these are proposed mechanism, not definite. Differentiating SCARs from other more commonly seen reactions with a better outcome help prevent discontinuation of therapy and inappropriate use of systemic immunosuppressants for presumable allergic reactions, of which will affect the clinical outcome. In this article, we have reviewed published articles from 1950 to August 2017 for SJS/TEN associated with anticancer drugs, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. We aimed to provide an overview of SJS/TEN associated with anticancer drugs to increase clinician recognition and accelerate future studies on the pathomechanism and managements.

  5. QSAR and docking studies on xanthone derivatives for anticancer activity targeting DNA topoisomerase IIα

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    Alam S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarfaraz Alam, Feroz KhanMetabolic and Structural Biology Department, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Due to the high mortality rate in India, the identification of novel molecules is important in the development of novel and potent anticancer drugs. Xanthones are natural constituents of plants in the families Bonnetiaceae and Clusiaceae, and comprise oxygenated heterocycles with a variety of biological activities along with an anticancer effect. To explore the anticancer compounds from xanthone derivatives, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR model was developed by the multiple linear regression method. The structure–activity relationship represented by the QSAR model yielded a high activity–descriptors relationship accuracy (84% referred by regression coefficient (r2=0.84 and a high activity prediction accuracy (82%. Five molecular descriptors – dielectric energy, group count (hydroxyl, LogP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water, shape index basic (order 3, and the solvent-accessible surface area – were significantly correlated with anticancer activity. Using this QSAR model, a set of virtually designed xanthone derivatives was screened out. A molecular docking study was also carried out to predict the molecular interaction between proposed compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA topoisomerase IIα. The pharmacokinetics parameters, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity, were also calculated, and later an appraisal of synthetic accessibility of organic compounds was carried out. The strategy used in this study may provide understanding in designing novel DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitors, as well as for other cancer targets.Keywords: drug likeness, ADMET, regression model, HeLa cell line

  6. A computational approach to tuning the photochemistry of platinum(IV) anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hui-Chung; Zhao, Yao; Farrer, Nicola J; Anastasi, Anna E; Clarkson, Guy; Sadler, Peter J; Deeth, Robert J

    2012-08-20

    Diazido Pt(IV) complexes are inert stable prodrugs that can be photoactivated to produce Pt(II) species with promising anticancer activity. Our studies of the photochemistry of Pt(IV) complexes, [Pt(X)(2) (Y)(2) (Z)(2) ](0/-1) (X=N-ligands (NH(3) , pyridine, etc.)/S(CH(3) )(2) /H(-) , Y=(pseudo)halogen (N(3) (-) , I(-) ), Z=OR(-) , R=H, Ac) by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) show close agreement with spectroscopic data. Broad exploration of cis/trans geometries, trans influences, the nature of the OR(-) and (pseudo)halogen ligands, electron-withdrawing/donating/delocalising substituents on the N-ligands, and intramolecular H bonds shows that: 1) the design of platinum(IV) complexes with intense bands shifted towards longer wavelengths (from 289 to ∼330 nm) can be achieved by introducing intramolecular H bonds involving the OH ligands and 2-hydroxyquinoline or by iodido ligands; 2) mesomeric electron-withdrawing substituents on pyridine result in low-energy absorption with significant intensity in the visible region; and 3) the distinct makeup of the molecular orbitals involved in the electronic transitions for cis/trans-{Pt(N(3) )(2) } isomers results in different photoproducts. In general, the comparison of the optimised geometries shows that Pt(IV) complexes with longer PtL bonds are more likely to undergo photoreduction with longer-wavelength light. The novel complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N(3) )(2) (OH)(2) (NH(3) )(4-nitropyridine)] with predicted absorption in the visible region has been synthesised. The experimental UV/Vis spectrum in aqueous solution correlates well with the intense band in the computed spectrum, whereas the overlay in the low-energy region can be improved by a solvent model. This combined computational and experimental study shows that TDDFT can be used to tune the coordination environment for optimising photoactive Pt(IV) compounds as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  7. Immune mechanisms regulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gina

    integrated approaches, we were able to identify the immunological mechanisms at the molecular, tissue, and clinical levels that may contribute to inter-individual variability in PK and PD of PLD. This dissertation research has a potential to make an impact on development of future NP-based anticancer therapeutics as well as on clinical use of PLD (DoxilRTM) and other PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents.

  8. PEGylated anticancer-carbon nanotubes complex targeting mitochondria of lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Lee, Jong Yeon; Hong, Jeong Hee; Khang, Dongwoo

    2017-11-01

    Although activating apoptosis in cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria is an effective strategy for cancer therapy, insufficient targeting of the mitochondria in cancer cells restricts the availability in clinical treatment. Here, we report on a polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)-ABT737 nanodrug that improves the mitochondrial targeting of lung cancer cells. The polyethylene glycol-coated CNT-ABT737 nanodrug internalized into the early endosomes via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in advance of early endosomal escape and delivered into the mitochondria. Cytosol release of the nanodrug led to apoptosis of lung cancer cells by abruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis and generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. As such, this study provides an effective strategy for increasing the anti-lung cancer efficacy by increasing mitochondria accumulation rate of cytosol released anticancer nanodrugs.

  9. Post-marketing research and its outcome for novel anticancer agents approved by both the FDA and EMA between 2005 and 2010: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Baron, Gabriel; Vivot, Alexandre; Atal, Ignacio; Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    Post-marketing research in oncology has rarely been described. We aimed to characterize post-marketing trials for a consistent set of anticancer agents over a long period. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of post-marketing trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov through September 2014 for novel anticancer agents approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency between 2005 and 2010. All relevant post-marketing trials were classified according to indication, primary outcome, starting date, sponsors, and planned enrollment. Supplemental indications were retrieved from regulatory documents and publication rate was assessed by two different methods. Ten novel anticancer agents were eligible: five were indicated for hematologic malignancies and the remaining five for solid cancers (three for kidney cancer). We identified 2,345 post-marketing trials; 1,362 (58.1%) targeted an indication other than the originally approved one. We observed extreme variations among drugs in both number of post-marketing trials (range 8-530) and overall population to be enrolled per trial (1-8,381). Post-marketing trials assessed almost all types of cancers, the three most frequently studied cancers being leukemia, kidney cancer and myeloma. In all, 6.6% of post-marketing trials had a clinical endpoint as a primary outcome, and 35.9% and 54.1% had a safety or surrogate endpoint, respectively, as a primary outcome. Nine drugs obtained approval for supplemental indications. The publication rate at 10 years was 12.3 to 26.1% depending on the analysis method. In conclusion, we found that post-marketing research in oncology is highly heterogeneous and the publication rate of launched trials is low. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling & Simulation for Anticancer Drugs with Complex Absorption Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Huixin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death in the world. In recent years, targeted anticancer agents have shown to be a major breakthrough in the battle against cancer. These targeted anticancer agents, mostly administered orally, specifically target molecular defects of tumour cells

  11. One-carbon metabolism and nucleotide biosynthesis as attractive targets for anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Oleg; Petukhov, Alexey; Daks, Alexandra; Fedorova, Olga; Vasileva, Elena; Barlev, Nickolai A

    2017-04-04

    Cancer-related metabolism has recently emerged as one of the "hallmarks of cancer". It has several important features, including altered metabolism of glucose and glutamine. Importantly, altered cancer metabolism connects different biochemical pathways into the one fine-tuned metabolic network, which stimulates high proliferation rates and plasticity to malignant cells. Among the keystones of cancer metabolism are one-carbon metabolism and nucleotide biosynthesis, which provide building blocks to anabolic reactions. Accordingly, the importance of these metabolic pathways for anticancer therapy has well been documented by more than fifty years of clinical use of specific metabolic inhibitors - methotrexate and nucleotides analogs. In this review we discuss one-carbon metabolism and nucleotide biosynthesis as common and specific features of many, if not all, tumors. The key enzymes involved in these pathways also represent promising anti-cancer therapeutic targets. We review different aspects of these metabolic pathways including their biochemistry, compartmentalization and expression of the key enzymes and their regulation at different levels. We also discuss the effects of known inhibitors of these pathways as well as the recent data on other enzymes of the same pathways as perspective pharmacological targets.

  12. New pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitors of protein kinase d as potent anticancer agents for prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuj Tandon

    Full Text Available The emergence of protein kinase D (PKD as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases including cancer has triggered the search for potent, selective, and cell-permeable small molecule inhibitors. In this study, we describe the identification, in vitro characterization, structure-activity analysis, and biological evaluation of a novel PKD inhibitory scaffold exemplified by 1-naphthyl PP1 (1-NA-PP1. 1-NA-PP1 and IKK-16 were identified as pan-PKD inhibitors in a small-scale targeted kinase inhibitor library assay. Both screening hits inhibited PKD isoforms at about 100 nM and were ATP-competitive inhibitors. Analysis of several related kinases indicated that 1-NA-PP1 was highly selective for PKD as compared to IKK-16. SAR analysis showed that 1-NA-PP1 was considerably more potent and showed distinct substituent effects at the pyrazolopyrimidine core. 1-NA-PP1 was cell-active, and potently blocked prostate cancer cell proliferation by inducing G2/M arrest. It also potently blocked the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, demonstrating promising anticancer activities on multiple fronts. Overexpression of PKD1 or PKD3 almost completely reversed the growth arrest and the inhibition of tumor cell invasion caused by 1-NA-PP1, indicating that its anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities were mediated through the inhibition of PKD. Interestingly, a 12-fold increase in sensitivity to 1-NA-PP1 could be achieved by engineering a gatekeeper mutation in the active site of PKD1, suggesting that 1-NA-PP1 could be paired with the analog-sensitive PKD1(M659G for dissecting PKD-specific functions and signaling pathways in various biological systems.

  13. C60-fullerenes as Drug Delivery Carriers for Anticancer Agents: Promises and Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Raza, Kaisar

    2017-01-01

    C60-fullerenes (CFs) constitute a carbon-allotropic family with cage-like fused-ring structure, comprising of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons. Since discovery in 1985, CFs attracted the scientists from various strata for unique properties like tensile strength, nanometeric size, symmetric nature, thermal and photo conductivity, chemical tailoring opportunities and drug loading capabilities. Surprisingly, CFs are also established to possess antiviral, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, MRI contrast and antioxidant properties. Though extensively explored for chemical modifications and therapeutic benefits, CFs and derivatives also offer immense promises in drug delivery, especially to the cancerous cells. The present review is an attempt to highlight the promises of CFs in drug delivery, esp. of anticancer agents. The review also analyzes the safety concerns of CF-based drug delivery and attempts to discuss the promises and challenges in the light of preclinical and clinical data. The raw material (research/review articles) for the manuscript was collected from Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus and the keywords used were fullerenes, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, functionalization, safety, drug delivery and biomedical applications. The drug release rate controlling behavior, higher drug loading, immuno-neutrality, substantial biocompatibility, capability to bypass mononuclear phagocytic system, long circulating nature and tissue extraction by virtue of enhanced permeability and retention effect are the major promises of these nanocarriers. On the other hand, the concerns like elimination from the biological system, anticipated tissue toxicity, stability of the final product, sterility issues and commercial viability pose challenges in proper utilization of CFs as ideal drug delivery carriers. However, a few commercial products based on CFs with human safety evidences provide a ray of hope. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Novel quinolines carrying pyridine, thienopyridine, isoquinoline, thiazolidine, thiazole and thiophene moieties as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab Mostafa M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of ongoing studies in developing new anticancer agents, novel 1,2-dihydropyridine 4, thienopyridine 5, isoquinolines 6–20, acrylamide 21, thiazolidine 22, thiazoles 23–29 and thiophenes 33–35 bearing a biologically active quinoline nucleus were synthesized. The structure of newly synthesized compounds was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against the breast cancer cell line MCF7. 2,3-Dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamides 27, 25, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (34, 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (7, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-cyclohepta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (35, 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (6, 2-cyano-3-(dimethylamino-N-(quinolin-3-ylacrylamide (21, 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitriles (11 and (8 exhibited higher activity (IC50 values of 27–45 μmol L–1 compared to doxorubicin (IC50 47.9 μmol L–1. LQ quinolin-3-yl-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (12, 2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamide (28 and quinolin-3-yl-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (15 show activity comparable to doxorubicin, while (quinolin-3-yl-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (9, 2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxamide (24, thieno [3,4-c] pyridine-4(5H-one (5, cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (33 and (quinolin-3-yl-6-stryl-1,2-dihydroisoquinoline-7-carbonitrile (10 exhibited moderate activity, lower than doxorubicin.

  15. Development of a mouse model for testing therapeutic agents: the anticancer effect of dienogest on endometrial neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumitaka; Tashiro, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Munekage; Honda, Ritsuo; Ohba, Takashi; Suzuki, Akira; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    As the number of younger women with endometrial carcinoma has increased, fertility-sparing treatments have received more attention. Although there have been several reports on conservative treatments with progestins for endometrial carcinoma, only medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is available in Japan. Dienogest has been developed as a fourth-generation progestin for treating endometriosis. Because of its high progesterone activity, its antitumor activity has attracted attention. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of dienogest on endometrial neoplasms using mouse model of endometrial carcinoma. Pten(loxP/loxP) mice were injected with MPA or dienogest subcutaneously to evaluate the anticancer effect against endometrial neoplasms that developed in the mice. One week after injections, histopathological analyzes were performed. Endometrial neoplasms were found in one of the eight (12.5%) mice from each group treated with either dienogest or MPA. In contrast, they were found in seven of eight (87.5%) mice not treated with progestins. Each progestin treatment showed anticancer activity against endometrial neoplasms that developed in the mice compared to those without treatment. Dienogest and MPA showed potent anticancer activity against endometrial neoplasms in our mouse model. The present study demonstrated that dienogest might be a useful therapeutic agent for human endometrial neoplasms.

  16. A computational network analysis based on targets of antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Feng, Shuo; Liu, Zhao-Yuan; Wang, Jiu-Qiang; Qi, Ke-Ke; Wang, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Currently, numerous antipsychotic agents have been developed in the area of pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying multi targets of antipsychotics were yet to be explored. In this study we performed a computational network analysis based on targets of antipsychotic agents. We retrieved a total of 96 targets from 56 antipsychotic agents. By expression enrichment analysis, we identified that the expressions of antipsychotic target genes were significantly enriched in liver, brain, blood and corpus striatum. By protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, a PPI network with 77 significantly interconnected target genes was generated. By historeceptomics analysis, significant brain region specific target-drug interactions were identified in targets of dopamine receptors (DRD1-Olanzapine in caudate nucleus and pons (P-valueantipsychotic targets and insights for molecular mechanism of antipsychotic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmaceutical development of investigational anticancer agents: focus on EO-9, AP5346, and GMP implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, Sabina Cornelia van der

    2006-01-01

    The development of new anticancer drugs can be divided into six phases: characterization of the API (structural and analytical), solubility- and stability studies, design of the formulation, manufacturing, quality control analysis, and (bio)compatibility studies. Structural and analytical

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor is a robust enhancer of anticancer agents against hepatocellular carcinoma multicellular spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Cui,1,2 Ya-Huan Guo,3 Hong-Yi Zhang,4 Li-Li Jiang,1 Jie-Qun Ma,1 Wen-Juan Wang,1 Min-Cong Wang,1 Cheng-Cheng Yang,1 Ke-Jun Nan,1 Li-Ping Song5 1Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 2Department of Oncology, Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan'an, 3Department of Oncology, Shaanxi Province Cancer Hospital, Xi'an, 4Department of Urology, Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan'an, 5Department of Radiotherapy, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China Purpose: Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, was investigated for enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study aimed to determine whether celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib is beneficial in HepG2 multicellular spheroids (MCSs, as well as elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 MCSs were used as in vitro models to investigate the effects of celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib treatment on cell growth, apoptosis, and signaling pathway. Results: MCSs showed resistance to drugs compared with monolayer cells. Celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib exhibited a synergistic action. Exposure to celecoxib (21.8 µmol/L plus 5-fluorouracil (8.1 × 10-3 g/L or sorafenib (4.4 µmol/L increased apoptosis but exerted no effect on COX2, phosphorylated epidermal growth-factor receptor (p-EGFR and phosphorylated (p-AKT expression. Gefitinib (5 µmol/L, which exhibits no growth-inhibition activity as a single agent, increased the inhibitory effect of celecoxib. Gefitinib (5 µmol/L plus celecoxib (21.8 µmol/L increased apoptosis. COX2, p-EGFR, and p-AKT were inhibited. Conclusion: Celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib may be superior to single-agent therapy in HepG2

  19. Folate-conjugated boron nitride nanospheres for targeted delivery of anticancer drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shini Feng,1 Huijie Zhang,1 Ting Yan,1 Dandi Huang,1 Chunyi Zhi,2 Hideki Nakanishi,1 Xiao-Dong Gao1 1Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Abstract: With its unique physical and chemical properties and structural similarity to carbon, boron nitride (BN has attracted considerable attention and found many applications. Biomedical applications of BN have recently started to emerge, raising great hopes in drug and gene delivery. Here, we developed a targeted anticancer drug delivery system based on folate-conjugated BN nanospheres (BNNS with receptor-mediated targeting. Folic acid (FA was successfully grafted onto BNNS via esterification reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that BNNS-FA complexes were non-toxic to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Then, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a commonly used anticancer drug, was loaded onto BNNS-FA complexes. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes were stable at pH 7.4 but effectively released DOX at pH 5.0, which exhibited a pH sensitive and sustained release pattern. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes could be recognized and specifically internalized by HeLa cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. BNNS-FA/DOX complexes exhibited greater cytotoxicity to HeLa cells than free DOX and BNNS/DOX complexes due to the increased cellular uptake of DOX mediated by the FA receptor. Therefore, BNNS-FA complexes had strong potential for targeted cancer therapy. Keywords: boron nitride nanospheres, folic acid, doxorubicin, targeted delivery, cancer therapy

  20. Combination of nanotechnology with vascular targeting agents for effective cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana; Seidi, Khaled; Banimohamad-Shotorbani, Behnaz; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Ali; Yousefi, Bahman

    2018-04-01

    As a young science, nanotechnology promptly integrated into the current oncology practice. Accordingly, various nanostructure particles were developed to reduce drug toxicity and allow the targeted delivery of various diagnostic and therapeutic compounds to the cancer cells. New sophisticated nanosystems constantly emerge to improve the performance of current anticancer modalities. Targeting tumor vasculature is an attractive strategy to fight cancer. Though the idea was swiftly furthered from basic science to the clinic, targeting tumor vasculature had a limited potential in patients, where tumors relapse due to the development of multiple drug resistance and metastasis. The aim of this review is to discuss the advantages of nanosystem incorporation with various vascular targeting agents, including (i) endogen anti-angiogenic agents; (ii) inhibitors of angiogenesis-related growth factors; (iii) inhibitors of tyrosine kinase receptors; (iv) inhibitors of angiogenesis-related signaling pathways; (v) inhibitors of tumor endothelial cell-associated markers; and (vi) tumor vascular disrupting agents. We also review the efficacy of nanostructures as natural vascular targeting agents. The efficacy of each approach in cancer therapy is further discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amber Frick,1 Yuri Fedoriw,2 Kristy Richards,3,4 Blossom Damania,3,5 Bethany Parks,6 Oscar Suzuki,1 Cristina S Benton,1 Emmanuel Chan,1 Russell S Thomas,7 Tim Wiltshire1,3 1Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, 4Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 7Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods: Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 µM (37°C, 5% CO2. At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of New Pyrazoline Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents in HepG-2 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health concern worldwide. Adverse effects of cancer treatments still compromise patients’ quality of life. To identify new potential anticancer agents, a series of novel pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic effects on HepG-2 (human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and primary hepatocytes. Compound structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry, and infrared imaging. An in vitro assay demonstrated that several compounds exerted cytotoxicity in the micromolar range. Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-[5-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl-3-(2-hydroxy-phenyl-4,5-dihydo-pyrazol-1-yl]-methanone (b17 was the most effective anticancer agent against HepG-2 cells owing to its notable inhibitory effect on HepG-2 with an IC50 value of 3.57 µM when compared with cisplatin (IC50 = 8.45 µM and low cytotoxicity against primary hepatocytes. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis/necrosis evaluation using this compound revealed that b17 notably arrested HepG-2 cells in the G2/M phase and induced HepG-2 cells apoptosis. Our findings indicate that compound b17 may be a promising anticancer drug candidate.

  3. Anticancer drug development from traditional cytotoxic to targeted therapies: evidence of shorter drug research and development time, and shorter drug lag in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata-Shoda, E; Masuda, S; Kimura, H

    2012-10-01

    Concern about the drug lag, the delay in marketing approval between one country and another, for anticancer drugs has increased in Japan. Although a number of studies have investigated the drug lag, none has investigated it in relation to the transition of anticancer therapy from traditional cytotoxic drugs to molecularly targeted agents. Our aim was to investigate current trend in oncology drug lag between the US and Japan and identify oncology drugs approved in only one of the two countries. Publicly and commercially available data sources were used to identify drugs approved in the US and Japan as of 31 December 2010 and the data used to calculate the drug lag for individual drugs. Fifty-one drugs were approved in both the US and Japan, whereas 34 and 19 drugs were approved only in the US or Japan, respectively. Of the 19 drugs approved only in Japan, 12 had not been subject to development for a cancer indication in the US, and all were approved before 1996 in Japan. Of the 34 drugs approved only in the US, 20 had not been subject to development in Japan, and none was in the top 25 by annual US anticancer drug-class sales. For drugs approved in both countries, the mean approval lag of the molecularly targeted drugs (MTDs) was significantly shorter than that of the non-molecularly targeted drugs (non-MTDs) (3·3 vs. 5·4 years). Further, mean R&D time of the MTDs was significantly shorter than that of non-MTDs (10·0 vs. 13·7 years). The price of MTDs had increased on average by 6·6% annually in the US, whereas it had decreased on average by 4·3% biyearly in Japan. The emergence of new molecularly targeted agents has contributed to reducing the approval lag, most likely due to improvements in R&D strategy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Cyclodextrin conjugated magnetic colloidal nanoparticles as a nanocarrier for targeted anticancer drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Chen, D.-H.

    2008-01-01

    A novel magnetic nanocarrier (CD-GAMNPs) was fabricated for targeted anticancer drug delivery by grafting cyclodextrin (CD) onto gum arabic modified magnetic nanoparticles (GAMNPs) using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a linker. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the product had a mean diameter of 17.1 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 44.1 nm. The CD grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the amount of CD grafted on the GAMNPs was 16.8 mg g -1 . The study on the loading of anticancer drug all-trans-retinoic acid (retinoic acid) revealed that the newly fabricated magnetic nanocarrier possessed a considerably higher adsorption capability as compared to GAMNPs due to the special hydrophobic cavity structure of CD, which could act as a host-guest complex with retinoic acid. Furthermore, it was found that the complexation of CD-GAMNPs with retinoic acid was exothermic and the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) led to the decrease in the inclusion of retinoic acid because the linear structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate made it easier to enter the cavity of CD as compared to less linear retinoic acid. In addition, the in vitro release profile of retinoic acid from CD-GAMNPs was characterized by an initial fast release followed by a delayed release phase

  5. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

  7. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100''s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots

  8. Hydrazides/hydrazones as antimicrobial and anticancer agents in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2013-06-01

    Hydrazide/hydrazone derivatives are of quite interest for medicinal chemists because of their vast spectrum of biological activity. Literature reports reveal that the hydrazide derivatives have been extensively studied for their biological profile during the past decade. The aim of the present work is to collect literature reports focusing the antimicrobial and anticancer study of different hydrazide/hydrazone derivatives carried out during the past decade which will serve as a valuable source of information for the researchers working in the field of antimicrobial and anticancer research.

  9. In vitro assessment of a computer-designed potential anticancer agent in cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Helen Visagie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Computer-based technology is becoming increasingly essential in biological research where drug discovery programs start with the identification of suitable drug targets. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2 is a 17ß-estradiol metabolite that induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines including cervical cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Owing to 2ME2's poor in vivo bioavailability, our laboratory in silico-designed and subsequently synthesized a novel 2ME2 analogue, 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10,15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol, using receptor- and ligand molecular modeling. In this study, the biological effects of ESE-15-ol (180 nM and its parent molecule, 2ME2 (1 μM, were assessed on morphology and apoptosis induction in cervical cancer cells. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and polarization-optical transmitted light differential interference contrast (PlasDIC images demonstrated morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including apoptotic bodies, shrunken cells, vacuoles, reduced cell density and cell debris. Flow cytometry analysis showed apoptosis induction by means of annexin V-FITC staining. Cell cycle analysis showed that ESE-15-ol exposure resulted in a statistically significant increase in the G2M phase (72% compared to 2ME2 (19%. Apoptosis induction was more pronounced when cells were exposed to ESE-15-ol compared to 2ME2. Spectrophotometric analysis of caspase 8 activity demonstrated that 2ME2 and ESE-15-ol both induced caspase 8 activation by 2- and 1.7-fold respectively indicating the induction of the apoptosis. However, ESE-15-ol exerted all of the above-mentioned effects at a much lower pharmacological concentration (180 nM compared to 2ME2 (1 μM physiological concentration. CONCLUSION: Computer-based technology is essential in drug discovery and together with in vitro studies for the evaluation of these in silico-designed compounds, drug development can be improved to be

  10. The chemistry and biology of the anticancer agent, taxol: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxol, is conceivably the single most essential anticancer drug, today. It was first isolated in exceptionally low yield from the bark of the Western Yew, Taxus brevifolia. The clinical effectiveness of Taxol has impelled an incredible endeavor to obtain this intricate molecule synthetically. Owing to the chemical complication of ...

  11. The combination of novel targeted molecular agents and radiation in the treatment of pediatric gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eDasgupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric malignancy. For high-grade, recurrent or refractory pediatric brain tumors, radiation therapy (XRT is an integral treatment modality. In the era of personalized cancer therapy, molecularly targeted agents have been designed to inhibit pathways critical to tumorigenesis. Our evolving knowledge of genetic aberrations in low-grade gliomas is being exploited with targeted inhibitors. These agents are also being combined with XRT to increase their efficacy. In this review, we discuss novel agents targeting three different pathways in low-grade gliomas, and their potential combination with XRT. B-Raf is a kinase in the Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase pathway, which is integral to cellular division, survival and metabolism. In low-grade pediatric gliomas, point mutations in BRAF (BRAF V600E or a BRAF fusion mutation (KIAA1549:BRAF causes overactivation of the MEK/MAPK pathway. Pre-clinical data shows cooperation between XRT and tagrgeted inhibitors of BRAF V600E, and MEK and mTOR inhibitors in the gliomas with the BRAF fusion. A second important signaling cascade in pediatric glioma pathogenesis is the PI3 kinase (PI3K/mTOR pathway. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are poised to enter studies of pediatric tumors. Finally, many brain tumors express potent stimulators of angiogenesis. Several inhibitors of immunomodulators are currently being evaluated in in clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent or refractory pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors. In summary, combinations of these targeted inhibitors with radiation are currently under investigation in both translational bench research and early clinical trials. We summarize the molecular rationale for, and the pre-clinical data supporting the combinations of these targeted agents with other anti-cancer agents and XRT in pediatric gliomas. Parallels are drawn to adult gliomas, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of these agents is discussed

  12. Evaluation of bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride based dual functional colloidal carrier as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Baljinder; Kant, Ravi; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2016-04-21

    We have developed a dual function carrier using bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride, which has anticancer as well as antibacterial activity, using a ligand insertion method with a simple and easy work procedure. The complex is prepared by a simple and cost effective method using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and palladium chloride under controlled stoichiometry. Herein, we report the aggregation (self assembly) of the metallosurfactant having palladium as a counter ion, in aqueous medium along with its binding affinity with bovine serum albumin. The palladium surfactant has exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against fungus and bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Cytotoxicity of palladium surfactant against cancerous (Human leukemia HL-60, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and prostate cancer PC-3) and healthy cells (fR2 human breast epithelial cells) was also evaluated using MTT assay. The present dual functional moiety shows a low IC50 value and has potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Our dual function carrier which itself possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activity represents a simple and effective system and can also be utilized as a drug carrier in the future.

  13. Targeting NK cells for anti-cancer immunotherapy: clinical and pre-clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eCarotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of checkpoint blockade has highlighted the potential of immunotherapy approaches for cancer treatment. While the majority of approved immunotherapy drugs target T cell subsets, it is appreciated that other components of the immune system have important roles in tumor immune-surveillance as well and thus represent promising additional targets for immunotherapy. Natural killer cells are the body’s first line of defense against infected or transformed cells as they kill target cells in an antigen-independent manner. Although several studies have clearly demonstrated the active role of NK cells in cancer-immune surveillance, only few clinically approved therapies currently exist that harness their potential. Our increased understanding of NK cell biology over the past few years has renewed the interest in NK cell based anti-cancer therapies, which has lead to a steady increase of NK cell based clinical and pre-clinical trials. Here, the role of NK cells in cancer immunesurveillance is summarized and several novel approaches to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer are discussed.

  14. Peptide deformylase: a new target in antibacterial, antimalarial and anticancer drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Shinde, Devanand B

    2015-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a class of metalloenzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation. PDF inhibitors are moving into new phase of drug development. Initially, PDF was considered as an important target in antibacterial drug discovery; however genome database searches have revealed PDF-like sequences in parasites (P. falciparum) and human, widening the utility of this target in antimalarial and anticancer drug discovery along with antibacterial. Using structural and mechanistic information together with high throughput screening, several types of chemical classes of PDF inhibitors with improved efficacy and specificity have been identified. Various drugs like, GSK-1322322 (Phase II), BB-83698 (Phase I), and LBM-415 (Phase I) have entered into clinical developments. Developments in the field have prompted us to review the current aspects of PDFs, especially their structures, different classes of PDF inhibitors, and molecular modeling studies. In nut shell, this review enlightens PDF as a versatile target along with its inhibitors and future perspectives of different PDF inhibitors.

  15. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Agarwal, Subhash M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC(50)/ED(50)/EC(50)/GI(50)), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients' Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI(50) data.

  16. Enhancement of the photo-electric effect with pharmacological agents in synchrotron radiation based anti-cancer radiotherapy: a methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Anti-cancer therapy rests on three main principles: 1) anatomic confinement of irradiation; 2) temporal fractioning of treatment; 3) treatment of tissues that are more sensitive to radiation than surrounding healthy tissue. Under those principles hides the goal of radiotherapy: to deposit more of the X-ray energy in the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. This goal is hard to reach since one of the causes of the failures in radiotherapy is the continuing evolution of the tumor. Could synchrotron radiation be more effective as an X-ray source for radiotherapy? The variation of the radiation-matter interaction cross-sections as a function of X-ray energy and atomic number of the medium show that certain energies and certain elements are more suitable to obtain the largest number of interactions and the largest amount of deposited energy. Synchrotron radiation allows to select precisely those energies because of its high spectral intensity. Its spectral characteristics (energy of the photons between 10 and 100 keV) allow to trigger the photoelectric effect with a maximum of probability on heavy elements introduced close to cancerous cells. It has been shown that: 1) synchrotron radiation based tomodensitometry is a quantitative imaging technique, potentially powerful for radiotherapy since it insures in-vivo the measurement of intra-tumoral concentration of contrast agent (I or Gd); 2) in the presence of iodinated contrast agent the lethal effect of X-rays on cell survival is increased and the gain in radio sensitivity depends on X-ray energy; 3) at the cellular scale the lethality of irradiation can be optimised again by transporting heavy atoms (I, Pt) inside the DNA, which is the biological target of the irradiation. This reinforcement of the killing efficiency of low energy X-rays using a physical mechanism aimed at a pharmacological agent is an original concept in anti-cancer radiotherapy. (author) [fr

  17. Optimization of anti-cancer drugs and a targeting molecule on multifunctional gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Nahla; Christoforou, Nicolas; Lee, Sungmun

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and deadly cancer among women worldwide. Currently, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are useful for cancer treatment; however, strategic planning is critical in order to enhance the anti-cancer properties and reduce the side effects of cancer therapy. Here, we designed multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with two anti-cancer drugs, TGF-β1 antibody and methotrexate, and a cancer-targeting molecule, folic acid. First, optimum size and shape of AuNPs was selected by the highest uptake of AuNPs by MDA-MB-231, a metastatic human breast cancer cell line. It was 100 nm spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs) that were used for further studies. A fixed amount (900 μl) of S-AuNP (3.8 × 108 particles/ml) was conjugated with folic acid-BSA or methotrexate-BSA. Methotrexate on S-AuNP induced cellular toxicity and the optimum amount of methotrexate-BSA (2.83 mM) was 500 μl. Uptake of S-AuNPs was enhanced by folate conjugation that binds to folate receptors overexpressed by MDA-MB-231 and the optimum uptake was at 500 μl of folic acid-BSA (2.83 mM). TGF-β1 antibody on S-AuNP reduced extracellular TGF-β1 of cancer cells by 30%. Due to their efficacy and tunable properties, we anticipate numerous clinical applications of multifunctional gold nanospheres in treating breast cancer.

  18. Half-Sandwich Iridium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing P^P-Chelating Ligands: A New Class of Potent Anticancer Agents with Unusual Redox Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JuanJuan; Tian, Meng; Tian, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Shumiao; Yan, Chao; Shao, Changfang; Liu, Zhe

    2018-02-19

    A series of half-sandwich Ir III pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and Ru II arene complexes containing P^P-chelating ligands of the type [(Cp x /arene)M(P^P)Cl]PF 6 , where M = Ir, Cp x is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), or 1-biphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp xbiPh ); M = Ru, arene is 3-phenylpropan-1-ol (bz-PA), 4-phenylbutan-1-ol (bz-BA), or p-cymene (p-cym), and P^P is 2,20-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,10-binaphthyl (BINAP), have been synthesized and fully characterized, three of them by X-ray crystallography, and their potential as anticancer agents explored. All five complexes showed potent anticancer activity toward HeLa and A549 cancer cells. The introduction of a biphenyl substituent on the Cp* ring for the iridium complexes has no effect on the antiproliferative potency. Ruthenium complex [(η 6 -p-cym)Ru(P^P)Cl]PF 6 (5) displayed the highest potency, about 15 and 7.5 times more active than the clinically used cisplatin against A549 and HeLa cells, respectively. No binding to 9-MeA and 9-EtG nucleobases was observed. Although these types of complexes interact with ctDNA, DNA appears not to be the major target. Compared to iridium complex [(η 5 -Cp*)Ir(P^P)Cl]PF 6 (1), ruthenium complex (5) showed stronger ability to interfere with coenzyme NAD + /NADH couple through transfer hydrogenation reactions and to induce ROS in cells, which is consistent with their anticancer activities. The redox properties of the complexes 1, 5, and ligand BINAP were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Complexes 1 and 5 arrest cell cycles at the S phase, Sub-G 1 phase and G 1 phase, respectively, and cause cell apoptosis toward A549 cells.

  19. Phytosterols as a natural anticancer agent: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Naiyer; Khan, Wajahatullah; Md, Shadab; Ali, Asgar; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Sharma, Sadhana; Al-Allaf, Faisal A; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Abdel-Wahab, Ali Fathi; Afify, Mohamed Abdelaziz; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed Saeed

    2017-04-01

    Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation. Moreover, phytosterols have also exhibited properties that directly inhibit tumor growth, including reduced cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and tumor metastasis inhibition. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on occurrences, chemistry, pharmacokinetics and potential anticancer properties of phytosterols in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, anticancer effects of phytosterols have strongly been suggested and support their dietary inclusion to prevent and treat cancers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of andrographolide analogues as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preet, Ranjan; Chakraborty, Biswajit; Siddharth, Sumit; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Supriya; Maiti, Nakul C; Maulik, Prakas R; Kundu, Chanakya Nath; Chowdhury, Chinmay

    2014-10-06

    A new family of andrographolide analogues were synthesized and screened in vitro against kidney (HEK-293) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. The anti-cancer effects of the active analogues (2b, 2c and 4c) were determined by multiple cell based assays such as MTT, immunostaining, FACS, western blotting and transcriptional inhibition of NF-κB activity. Importantly, these compounds were found to possess higher anti-cancer potency than andrographolide and low toxicity to normal (VERO and MCF-10A) cells. Increased level of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, caspase 3, and sub G1 population, higher expression level of tumor suppressor protein p53 and lower expression level of NF-κB suggested potent apoptotic property of the active analogues. Data revealed that the andrographolide derivative-mediated cell death in cancer cells was p53 dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Folate mediated self-assembled phytosterol-alginate nanoparticles for targeted intracellular anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Mingming; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Yafan; Wang, Heqing; Xie, Xiangrong; Huang, Fenghong; Gong, Renmin

    2015-05-01

    Self-assembled core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from water-soluble alginate substituted by hydrophobic phytosterols. Folate, a cancer-cell-specific ligand, was conjugated to the phytosterol-alginate (PA) NPs for targeting folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells. The physicochemical properties of folate-phytosterol-alginate (FPA) NPs were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, was entrapped inside prepared NPs by dialysis method. The identification of prepared FPA NPs to folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells (KB cells) was confirmed by cytotoxicity and folate competition assays. Compared to the pure DOX and DOX/PA NPs, the DOX/FPA NPs had lower IC50 value to KB cells because of folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis process and the cytotoxicity of DOX/FPA NPs to KB cells could be competitively inhibited by free folate. The cellular uptake and internalization of pure DOX and DOX/FPA NPs was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy image and the higher intracellular uptake of drug for DOX/FPA NPs over pure DOX was observed. The FPA NPs had the potential as a promising carrier to target drugs to cancer cells overexpressing folate receptors and avoid cytotoxicity to normal tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of chalcones incorporated pyrazole moiety as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magda F; Mohamed, Mervat S; Shouman, Samia A; Fathi, Mohamed M; Abdelhamid, Ismail Abdelshafy

    2012-11-01

    A newly synthesized series of chalcone derivatives containing pyrazole rings were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in vitro against several human cancer cell lines. Most of the prepared compounds showed potential cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, HEPG-2, and HCT-116. Also the compounds were evaluated as antimicrobial agents. The three compounds 3, 4, and 5 were proved to be better anticancer agents than the positive standard doxorubicin with IC50 values (4.7, 4.4, and 3.9 μg/ml) against the same human cancer cell lines, whereas compounds 5 and 6 showed the most active antimicrobial compounds in comparison to the other chalcones.

  3. [Quod medicina aliis, aliis est acre venenum**--venoms as a source of anticancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucińska, Małgorzata; Ruciński, Piotr; Murias, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Natural product derived from plants and animals were used in folk medicine for centuries. The venoms produced by animals for hunting of self-defence are rich in bioactive compounds with broad spectrum of biological activity. The papers presents the most promising compounds isolated from venoms of snakes, scorpions and toads. For these compounds both: mechanism of anticancer activity as well as possibilities of clinical use are presented.

  4. Enhancement of Selectivity of an Organometallic Anticancer Agent by Redox Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Mos, Magdalena; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-10-08

    Combination with redox modulators can potentiate the anticancer activity and maximize the selectivity of organometallic complexes with redox-based mechanisms of action. We show that nontoxic doses of l-buthionine sulfoximine increase the selectivity of organo-Os complex FY26 for human ovarian cancer cells versus normal lung fibroblasts to 63-fold. This increase is not due to changes in the mechanism of action of FY26 but to the decreased response of cancer cells to oxidative stress.

  5. Dual pH-sensitive oxidative stress generating micellar nanoparticles as a novel anticancer therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanga; Kwon, Byeongsu; Yang, Wonseok; Han, Eunji; Yoo, Wooyoung; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Lee, Dongwon

    2014-12-28

    Cancer cells are under oxidative stress due to a large production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which involve in cell proliferation and cancer promotion and progression. On the other hand, ROS promotes cell death, depending on the rate of ROS production and the activity of antioxidant systems. Recently, "oxidation therapy" has arisen as a promising anticancer strategy, which can be achieved by inducing the generation of cytotoxic level of ROS or inhibiting the antioxidant systems in tumor cells. Here, we report oxidative stress amplifying nanoplatforms as novel anticancer therapeutics, which are able not only to suppress antioxidant but also to generate ROS simultaneously in acidic tumor microenvironments. The oxidative stress amplifying nanoplatforms are composed of dual pH-sensitive PBCAE copolymer, polymeric prodrug of BCA (benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibiting zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). PBCAE was designed to incorporate ROS-generating BCA in its backbone via acid-cleavable acetal linkages and self-assemble to form micelles that encapsulate ZnPP. In vitro proof-of-concept studies revealed that ZnPP encapsulated in PBCAE micelles suppressed HO-1 to make cancer cells more vulnerable to BCA-induced ROS, leading to enhanced apoptotic cell death. In addition, ZnPP-loaded PBCAE micelles significantly suppressed the tumor growth in human cancer xenograft mouse models. We believe that oxidative stress amplifying micellar nanoparticles have a great potential as novel redox anticancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative Stress Mediates through Apoptosis the Anticancer Effect of Phospho-Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Implications for the Role of Oxidative Stress in the Action of Anticancer AgentsS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Huang, Liqun; Mackenzie, Gerardo G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between oxidative stress, cytokinetic parameters, and tumor growth in response to novel phospho-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), agents with significant anticancer effects in preclinical models. Compared with controls, in SW480 colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, phospho-sulindac, phospho-aspirin, phospho-flurbiprofen, and phospho-ibuprofen (P-I) increased the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and decreased GSH levels and thioredoxin reductase activity, whereas the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs (CCDs), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan, oxaliplatin, chlorambucil, paclitaxel, and vincristine, did not. In both cell lines, phospho-NSAIDs induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation much more potently than CCDs. We then treated nude mice bearing SW480 xenografts with P-I or 5-FU that had an opposite effect on RONS in vitro. Compared with controls, P-I markedly suppressed xenograft growth, induced apoptosis in the xenografts (8.9 ± 2.7 versus 19.5 ± 3.0), inhibited cell proliferation (52.6 ± 5.58 versus 25.8 ± 7.71), and increased urinary F2-isoprostane levels (10.7 ± 3.3 versus 17.9 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine, a marker of oxidative stress); all differences were statistically significant. 5-FU's effects on tumor growth, apoptosis, proliferation, and F2-isoprostane were not statistically significant. F2-isoprostane levels correlated with the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth. P-I induced oxidative stress only in the tumors, and its apoptotic effect was restricted to xenografts. Our data show that phospho-NSAIDs act against cancer through a mechanism distinct from that of various CCDs, underscore the critical role of oxidative stress in their effect, and indicate that pathways leading to oxidative stress may be useful targets for anticancer strategies. PMID:21646387

  7. Rational design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of third generation α-noscapine analogues as potent tubulin binding anti-cancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Manchukonda

    Full Text Available Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol. Free energy (ΔG bind calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol. Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol. The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl noscapine (6f binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM, which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM. All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents.

  8. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi

    2015-08-07

    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules.

  9. Physicochemical investigations of biogenic chitosan-silver nanocomposite as antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nithya; Kumari, Henry Linda Jeeva; Singaravelu, Chandra Mohan; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Kandasamy, Jothivenkatachalam

    2016-11-01

    Chitosan (CS), a seaweed polysaccharide is a natural macromolecule which is widely being used in medical applications because of its distinctive antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Silver, a noble metal, is also receiving wide attention for its potential usage in antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutics. In this study, an effective way of reduction of silver using chitosan at varying reaction temperatures and an optimised concentration of silver were performed. The optical, structural, spectral, morphological and elemental studies of the biosynthesized chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) nanocomposites were characterized by several techniques. The synthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibit particle size around 20nm and were further exploited for potent biological applications in nanomedicine due to their nanometric sizes and biocompatibility of chitosan. The antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibits zone of inhibition ranged between 09.666±0.577 and 19.000±1.000 (mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were from 8 to 128μgmL -1 and 16 to 256μgmL -1 respectively, with the highest antimicrobial activity shown against Gram-negative Salmonella sp. The synergistic effect of chitosan and silver as a composite in nanometric size revealed significant IC 50 value of 29.35μgmL -1 and a maximum of 95.56% inhibition at 100μgmL -1 against A549 lung cancer cell line, resulting in potent anticancer effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthracenedione Derivatives as Anticancer Agents Isolated from Secondary Metabolites of the Mangrove Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ye Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report anticancer activity of 14 anthracenedione derivatives separated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungi Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 and Guignardia sp. (No. 4382. Some of them inhibited potently the growth of KB and KBv200 cells, among which compound 6 displayed strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.17 and 3.21 μM to KB and KBv200 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism involved in the apoptosis induced by compound 6 is probably related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds are discussed.

  11. Anthracenedione Derivatives as Anticancer Agents Isolated from Secondary Metabolites of the Mangrove Endophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang; Tao; Liang; Chen; Mi; Zheng; Wang; She; Lin; To; Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report anticancer activity of 14 anthracenedione derivatives separated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungi Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) and Guignardia sp. (No. 4382). Some of them inhibited potently the growth of KB and KBv200 cells, among which compound 6 displayed strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.17 and 3.21 μM to KB and KBv200 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism involved in the apoptosis induced by co...

  12. Biological evaluation of indolizine-chalcone hybrids as new anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sujin; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Ikyon

    2018-01-20

    A new chemical space was explored based on an indolizine-chalcone hybrid, which was readily accessible by base-mediated aldol condensation of indolizine bearing a 7-acetyl group with various (hetero)aromatic aldehydes. Their anticancer effect was evaluated, revealing that indolizine-chalcone hybrids with 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl group (4h) or the halogen at the meta position (4j and 4l) could have the potential to induce the caspase-dependent apoptosis of human lymphoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA is a direct target of anti-cancer anthracycline drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, Neil; Poulton, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DXR), are potent anti-cancer drugs but they are limited by their clinical toxicity. The mechanisms involved remain poorly understood partly because of the difficulty in determining sub-cellular drug localisation. Using a novel method utilising the fluorescent DNA dye PicoGreen, we found that anthracyclines intercalated not only into nuclear DNA but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Intercalation of mtDNA by anthracyclines may thus contribute to the marked mitochondrial toxicity associated with these drugs. By contrast, ethidium bromide intercalated exclusively into mtDNA, without interacting with nuclear DNA, thereby explaining why mtDNA is the main target for ethidium. By exploiting PicoGreen quenching we also developed a novel assay for quantification of mtDNA levels by flow-cytometry, an approach which should be useful for studies of mitochondrial dysfunction. In summary our PicoGreen assay should be useful to study drug/DNA interactions within live cells, and facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring and kinetic studies in cancer patients.

  15. Curcumin as a clinically-promising anti-cancer agent: pharmacokinetics and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwidjaja, Jeffry; McLachlan, Andrew J; Boddy, Alan V

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin has been extensively studied for its anti-cancer properties. While a diverse array of in vitro and preclinical research support the prospect of curcumin use as an anti-cancer therapeutic, most human studies have failed to meet the intended clinical expectation. Poor systemic availability of orally-administered curcumin may account for this disparity. Areas covered: This descriptive review aims to concisely summarise available clinical studies investigating curcumin pharmacokinetics when administered in different formulations. A critical analysis of pharmacokinetic- and pharmacodynamic-based interactions of curcumin with concomitantly administered drugs is also provided. Expert opinion: The encouraging clinical results of curcumin administration are currently limited to people with colorectal cancer, given that sufficient curcumin concentrations persist in colonic mucosa. Higher parent curcumin systemic exposure, which can be achieved by several newer formulations, has important implications for optimal treatment of cancers other than those in gastrointestinal tract. Curcumin-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are also almost exclusively in the enterocytes, owing to extensive first pass metabolism and poor curcumin bioavailability. Greater scope of these interactions, i.e. modulation of the systemic elimination of co-administered drugs, may be expected from more-bioavailable curcumin formulations. Further studies are still warranted, especially with newer formulations to support the inclusion of curcumin in cancer therapy regimens.

  16. Synthesis, SAR and pharmacological characterization of novel anthraquinone cation compounds as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Zhu, Li; Fan, Lulu; Zhao, Wenna; Wang, Jianlong; Hao, Xianxiao; Zhu, Yunhui; Hu, Xiufang; Yuan, Yaofeng; Shao, Jingwei; Wang, Wenfeng

    2017-01-05

    Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L., has been demonstrated to exhibit good anti-cancer effect. In this study, a series of novel quaternary ammonium salts of emodin, anthraquinone and anthrone were synthesized and their anticancer activities were tested in vitro. The effects of emodin quaternary ammonium salts on cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were investigated in A375, BGC-823, HepG2 and HELF cells. The results demonstrated that compound 4a induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability. Apoptosis triggered by compound 4a was visualized using DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Compound 4a-induced apoptosis of A375 cells were showed to be associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) as a result of the up-regulation of P53 and Caspase-3. When cancer cells were treated with emodin derivative, their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) rose significantly and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. Additionally, confocal microscopy assay confirmed that compound 4a was primarily located in the mitochondria of A375 cells. These results suggested that compound 4a has the potential for use in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation data supporting the characterization of novel copper complexes as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Acilan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three copper(II complexes, Cu(Sal-Gly(phen, Cu(Sal-Glypheamine, Cu(Sal-Glyphepoxy were synthesized and characterized for their anticancer properties and mechanism of action (Acilan et al., in press [1]. Here, we provide supporting data on colon cancer cell lines complementing our previous findings in cervix cells. This paper also contains a data table for the fold changes and p-values of all genes analyzed in this study via a custom RT-qPCR array. All compounds induced DNA damage (based on 8-oxo-guanidine, ɣH2AX staining in cells and apoptosis (based on elevated DNA condensation/fragmentation, Annexin V staining, caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The increase in oxidative stress was also further confirmed in these cells. Further interpretation of the data presented here can be found in the article entitled “Synthesis, biological characterization and evaluation of molecular mechanisms of novel copper complexes as anticancer agents” (Acilan et al., in press [1].

  18. Mathematical modeling analysis of intratumoral disposition of anticancer agents and drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popilski, Hen; Stepensky, David

    2015-05-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by complex morphology. Numerous factors relating to the composition of the cells and tumor stroma, vascularization and drainage of fluids affect the local microenvironment within a specific location inside the tumor. As a result, the intratumoral drug/drug delivery system (DDS) disposition following systemic or local administration is non-homogeneous and its complexity reflects the differences in the local microenvironment. Mathematical models can be used to analyze the intratumoral drug/DDS disposition and pharmacological effects and to assist in choice of optimal anticancer treatment strategies. The mathematical models that have been applied by different research groups to describe the intratumoral disposition of anticancer drugs/DDSs are summarized in this article. The properties of these models and of their suitability for prediction of the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition and pharmacological effects are reviewed. Currently available mathematical models appear to neglect some of the major factors that govern the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition, and apparently possess limited prediction capabilities. More sophisticated and detailed mathematical models and their extensive validation are needed for reliable prediction of different treatment scenarios and for optimization of drug treatment in the individual cancer patients.

  19. Preclinical Pharmacology of BA-TPQ, a Novel Synthetic Iminoquinone Anticancer Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Scharri J.; Li, Haibo; Xu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiangrong; Gurpinar, Evrim; Zhang, Xu; Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Sommers, Charnell I.; Yang, Xinyi; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2010-01-01

    Marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives represent a major source of novel candidate anti-cancer compounds. We have recently tested the anti-cancer activity of more than forty novel compounds based on an iminoquinone makaluvamine scaffold, and have found that many of the compounds exert potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. One of the most potent compounds, BA-TPQ [(11,12),7-(benzylamino)-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one], was active against a variety of human cancer cell lines, and inhibited the growth of breast and prostate xenograft tumors in mice. However, there was some toxicity noted in the mice following administration of the compound. In order to further the development of BA-TPQ, and in a search for potential sites of accumulation that might underlie the observed toxicity of the compound, we accomplished preclinical pharmacological studies of the compound. We herein report the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of BA-TPQ, including its stability in plasma, plasma protein binding, metabolism by S9 enzymes, and plasma and tissue distribution. We believe these studies will be useful for further investigations, and may be useful for other investigators examining the use of similar compounds for cancer therapy. PMID:20714427

  20. Preclinical Pharmacology of BA-TPQ, a Novel Synthetic Iminoquinone Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiwen Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives represent a major source of novel candidate anti-cancer compounds. We have recently tested the anti-cancer activity of more than forty novel compounds based on an iminoquinone makaluvamine scaffold, and have found that many of the compounds exert potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. One of the most potent compounds, BA-TPQ [(11,12,7-(benzylamino-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H-one], was active against a variety of human cancer cell lines, and inhibited the growth of breast and prostate xenograft tumors in mice. However, there was some toxicity noted in the mice following administration of the compound. In order to further the development of BA-TPQ, and in a search for potential sites of accumulation that might underlie the observed toxicity of the compound, we accomplished preclinical pharmacological studies of the compound. We herein report the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of BA-TPQ, including its stability in plasma, plasma protein binding, metabolism by S9 enzymes, and plasma and tissue distribution. We believe these studies will be useful for further investigations, and may be useful for other investigators examining the use of similar compounds for cancer therapy.

  1. THE ROLE OF RED PIGMENT PRODIGIOSIN FROM BACTERIA OF EARTHWORM GUT AS AN ANTICANCER AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy P.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are the most ancient invertebrate animals on earth which can be used as a good source of pharmaceutical compounds. A study was carried out to find out the distribution of microorganisms in the gut of earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. Significant number of microbial populations in the gut of earthworm was observed and it was gradually increased from the initial day to final day of composting. Pigmented colonies of bacteria from earthworm gut were selectively isolated, the pigment was extracted from the culture broth and a presumptive test was carried out for the confirmation of prodigiosin. The pigment component was separated using thin layer chromatography and the structural elucidation of the compound was performed using U.V. spectroscopy. The inhibitory effect of prodigiosin on bacterial pathogens was studied and the results confirmed the antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. The anticancer activity of the prodigiosin pigment was evaluated under in vitro conditions against the breast cancer cell lines and it was observed that prodigiosin induced the apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Then the potential isolate was subjected to morphological and biochemical analysis and it was confirmed that the colonies were of Serratia marcescens. The results obtained from the present study indicated that earthworm gut is promising and could be a vital source of habitat possessing antimicrobial and anticancer activity.

  2. Increased Anticancer Efficacy of Intravesical Mitomycin C Therapy when Combined with a PCNA Targeting Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odrun A. Gederaas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs are tumors confined to the mucosa or the mucosa/submucosa. An important challenge in treatment of NMIBC is both high recurrence and high progression rates. Consequently, more efficacious intravesical treatment regimes are in demand. Inhibition of the cell’s DNA repair systems is a new promising strategy to improve cancer therapy, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a new promising target. PCNA is an essential scaffold protein in multiple cellular processes including DNA replication and repair. More than 200 proteins, many involved in stress responses, interact with PCNA through the AlkB homologue 2 PCNA-interacting motif (APIM, including several proteins directly or indirectly involved in repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. In this study, we targeted PCNA with a novel peptide drug containing the APIM sequence, ATX-101, to inhibit repair of the DNA damage introduced by the chemotherapeutics. A bladder cancer cell panel and two different orthotopic models of bladder cancer in rats, the AY-27 implantation model and the dietary BBN induction model, were applied. ATX-101 increased the anticancer efficacy of the ICL-inducing drug mitomycin C (MMC, as well as bleomycin and gemcitabine in all bladder cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, we found that ATX-101 given intravesically in combination with MMC penetrated the bladder wall and further reduced the tumor growth in both the slow growing endogenously induced and the rapidly growing transplanted tumors. These results suggest that ATX-101 has the potential to improve the efficacy of current MMC treatment in NMIBC.

  3. Advancing drug therapy for brain tumours: a current review of the pro-inflammatory peptide Substance P and its antagonists as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Kimberley; Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Lewis, Kate M; Vink, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the involvement of the Substance P (SP)/NK1 receptor system in the development and progression of cancer strongly supports its potential as a therapeutic target in malignancies. Novel strategies for approaching cancer treatment are urgently required particularly with regard to tumours of the central nervous system (CNS), which are notoriously difficult to effectively treat and associated with extremely poor prognosis for many patients. This is due, in part, to the presence of the highly specialised blood-brain barrier, which is known to restrict common treatments such as chemotherapy and hinder early tumour diagnosis. Additionally, tumours of the CNS are difficult to surgically resect completely, often contributing to the resurgence of the disease many years later. Interestingly, despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier, circulating tumour cells are able to gain entry to the brain and form secondary brain tumours; however, the underlying mechanisms of this process remain unclear. Tachykinins, in particular Substance P, have been implicated in early blood-brain barrier disruption via neurogenic inflammation in a number of other CNS pathologies. Recent evidence also suggests that Substance P may play a central role in the development of CNS tumours. It has been well established that a number of tumour cells express Substance P, NK1 receptors and mRNA for the tachykinin NK1 receptor. This increase in the Substance P/NK1 receptor system is known to induce proliferation and migration of tumour cells as well as stimulate angiogenesis, thus contributing to tumour progression. Accordingly, the NK1 receptor antagonist presents a novel target for anti-cancer therapy for which a number of patents have been filed. This review will examine the role of Substance P in the development of CNS tumours and its potential application as an anti-cancer agent.

  4. A network biology approach evaluating the anticancer effects of bortezomib identifies SPARC as a therapeutic target in adult T-cell leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Junko H Ohyashiki1, Ryoko Hamamura2, Chiaki Kobayashi2, Yu Zhang2, Kazuma Ohyashiki21Intractable Immune System Disease Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: There is a need to identify the regulatory gene interaction of anticancer drugs on target cancer cells. Whole genome expression profiling offers promise in this regard, but can be complicated by the challenge of identifying the genes affected by hundreds to thousands of genes that induce changes in expression. A proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, could be a potential therapeutic agent in treating adult T-cell leukemia (ATL patients, however, the underlying mechanism by which bortezomib induces cell death in ATL cells via gene regulatory network has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that a Bayesian statistical framework by VoyaGene® identified a secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC gene, a tumor-invasiveness related gene, as a possible modulator of bortezomib-induced cell death in ATL cells. Functional analysis using RNAi experiments revealed that inhibition of the expression SPARC by siRNA enhanced the apoptotic effect of bortezomib on ATL cells in accordance with an increase of cleaved caspase 3. Targeting SPARC may help to treat ATL patients in combination with bortezomib. This work shows that a network biology approach can be used advantageously to identify the genetic interaction related to anticancer effects.Keywords: network biology, adult T cell leukemia, bortezomib, SPARC

  5. Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Malignant Melanoma: A Future Therapeutic Agent or Just Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmpis, Nikolaos; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpi, Anna; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Margonis, Georgios-Antonios; Schizas, Dimitrios; Deskou, Irini; Doula, Chrysoula; Magkouti, Eleni; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Efstathios A; Nonni, Afroditi; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Mantas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with increasing frequency and mortality. Melanoma is characterized by rapid proliferation and metastases. Malignant transformation of normal melanocytes is associated with imbalance between oncogenes' action and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations or inactivation of these genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Many target-specific agents improved progression-free survival but unfortunately metastatic melanoma remains incurable, so new therapeutic strategies are needed. The balance of histones' acetylation affects cell cycle progression, differentiation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with different types of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are enzymes that inhibit the action of HDAC, resulting in block of tumor cell proliferation. A small number of these enzymes has been studied regarding their anticancer effects in melanoma. The purpose of this article was to review the therapeutic effect of HDACI against malignant melanoma, enlightening the molecular mechanisms of their action. The MEDLINE database was used. The keywords/ phrases were; HDACI, melanoma, targeted therapies for melanoma. Our final conclusions were based on studies that didn't refer solely to melanoma due to their wider experimental data. Thirty-two articles were selected from the total number of the search's results. Only English articles published until March 2017 were used. Molecules, such as valproid acid (VPA), LBH589, LAQ824 (dacinostat), vorinostat, tubacin, sirtinol and tx-527, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), depsipeptide and Trichostatin A (TSA) have shown promising antineoplastic effects against melanoma. HDACI represent a promising agent for targeted therapy. More trials are required. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Celecoxib Derivatives as Possible Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antioxidant, Anticancer and Anti-HCV Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amartya Basu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2a–e were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoro-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1a–e, which were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates with celecoxib. The structures of the isolated products were determined by spectral methods and their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp activities evaluated. The compounds were also tested for gastric toxicity and selected compound 1a was screened for its anticancer activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. These investigations revealed that compound 1a exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and further did not cause tissue damage in liver, kidney, colon and brain compared to untreated controls or celecoxib. Compounds 1c and 1d displayed modest inhibition of HCV NS5B RdRp activity. In conclusion, N-(ethylcarbamothioyl-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl-3-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (1a may have the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  7. Exploring DNA topoisomerases as targets of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse-Dinh, Y-C

    2007-03-01

    DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes needed to overcome topological problems encountered during DNA replication, transcription, recombination and maintenance of genomic stability. They have proved to be valuable targets for therapy, in part because some anti-topoisomerase agents act as poisons. Bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (type IIA topoisomerases) are targets of fluoroquinolones while human topoisomerase I (a type IB topoisomerase) and topoisomerase II are targets of various anticancer drugs. Bacterial type IA topoisomerase share little sequence homology to type IB or type IIA topoisomerases, but all topoisomerases have the potential of having the covalent phosphotyrosine DNA cleavage intermediate trapped by drug action. Recent studies have demonstrated that stabilization of the covalent complex formed by bacterial topoisomerase I and cleaved DNA can lead to bacterial cell death, supporting bacterial topoisomerase I as a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. For current antibacterial therapy, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens has become a major public health concern, and efforts are directed towards identifying novel inhibitors of bacterial type IIA topoisomerases that are not affected by fluoroquinolone resistant mutations on the gyrase or topoisomerase IV genes. For anti-viral therapy, poxviruses encode their own type IB topoisomerases; these enzymes differ in drug sensitivity from human topoisomerase I. To confront potential threat of small pox as a weapon in terrorist attacks, vaccinia virus topoisomerase I has been targeted for discovery of anti-viral agents. These new developments of DNA topoisomerases as targets of novel therapeutic agents being reviewed here represent excellent opportunities for drug discovery in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  8. Mitochondria-Targeted Agents: Mitochondriotropics, Mitochondriotoxics, and Mitocans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Weissig, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, have been known for many years for their central role in the energy metabolism; however, extensive progress has been made and to date substantial evidence demonstrates that mitochondria play a critical role not only in the cell bioenergetics but also in the entire cell metabolome. Mitochondria are also involved in the intracellular redox poise, the regulation of calcium homeostasis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are crucial for the control of a variety of signaling pathways. Additionally, they are essential for the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis process. Thus, it is not surprising that disruptions of mitochondrial functions can lead or be associated with human pathologies. Because of diseases like diabetes, Alzheimer, Parkinson's, cancer, and ischemic disease are being increasingly linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions, the interest in mitochondria as a prime pharmacological target has dramatically risen over the last decades and as a consequence a large number of agents, which could potentially impact or modulate mitochondrial functions, are currently under investigation. Based on their site of action, these agents can be classified as mitochondria-targeted and non-mitochondria-targeted agents. As a result of the continuous search for new agents and the design of potential therapeutic agents to treat mitochondrial diseases, terms like mitochondriotropics, mitochondriotoxics, mitocancerotropics, and mitocans have emerged to describe those agents with high affinity to mitochondria that exert a therapeutic or deleterious effect on these organelles. In this chapter, mitochondria-targeted agents and some strategies to deliver agents to and/or into mitochondria will be reviewed.

  9. Possible targets for the aneugenic activity of alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerano, P. [IST-National Institute for Research on Cancer, Genova (Italy); Abbondandolo, A. [Univ. of Genova (Italy); Bonatti, S.; Simili, M. [CNR Institute of Mutagenesis and Differentiation, Pisa (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    Alkylating agents have been of invaluable help in mutation research for half a century. In all tested organisms, they have proved able to induce a large variety of genetic effects, including aneuploidy. Credible molecular models exist to explain the ability of alkylating agents to induce gene mutation and to act as initiators in carcinogenesis as a consequence of DNA alkylation at specific sites. On the contrary, neither the mechanism of aneuploidy induction nor the relevant cellular targets are known.

  10. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  11. Library construction and biological evaluation of enmein-type diterpenoid analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahong; Xu, Shengtao; Cai, Hao; Pei, Lingling; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming; Yao, Hequan; Jiang, Jieyun; Sun, Yijun; Xu, Jinyi

    2013-05-01

    A library of promising enmein-type 14-O-diterpenoid derivatives was constructed from a commercially available kaurene-type oridonin by practical and efficient synthetic methods. These synthetic derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a set of four human cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are similar to or improved over those of the parent molecule and paclitaxel, the latter of which was used as a positive control. Compound 29 was further investigated for its apoptotic properties against human hepatocarcinoma Bel-7402 cells to better understand its mode of action. Moreover, compound 29 was shown to have potent antitumor activity in vivo in studies with a murine model of gastric cancer (MGC-803 mice). These results warrant further preclinical investigations of these diterpenoid-based analogues as potential novel anticancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole-2-thiol Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo-Ting Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivatives were synthesized and their structures determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS (ESI. The effects of all compounds on a panel of different types of human cancer cell lines were investigated. Among them, pyridinyl-2-amine linked benzothiazole-2-thiol compounds 7d, 7e, 7f and 7i exhibited potent and broad-spectrum inhibitory activities. Compound 7e displayed the most potent anticancer activity on SKRB-3 (IC50 = 1.2 nM, SW620 (IC50 = 4.3 nM, A549 (IC50 = 44 nM and HepG2 (IC50 = 48 nM and was found to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cancer cells.

  13. Lappaol F, a novel anticancer agent isolated from plant arctium Lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Liu, Kanglun; Shen, Xiaoling; Jin, Weixin; Jiang, Lingyan; Sheikh, M Saeed; Hu, Yingjie; Huang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to search for new cancer-fighting therapeutics, we identified a novel anticancer constituent, Lappaol F, from plant Arctium Lappa L. Lappaol F suppressed cancer cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner in human cancer cell lines of various tissue types. We found that Lappaol F induced G(1) and G(2) cell-cycle arrest, which was associated with strong induction of p21 and p27 and reduction of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Depletion of p21 via genetic knockout or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches significantly abrogated Lappaol F-mediated G(2) arrest and CDK1 and cyclin B1 suppression. These results suggest that p21 seems to play a crucial role in Lappaol F-mediated regulation of CDK1 and cyclin B1 and G(2) arrest. Lappaol F-mediated p21 induction was found to occur at the mRNA level and involved p21 promoter activation. Lappaol F was also found to induce cell death in several cancer cell lines and to activate caspases. In contrast with its strong growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells, Lappaol F had minimal cytotoxic effects on nontumorigenic epithelial cells tested. Importantly, our data also demonstrate that Lappaol F exhibited strong growth inhibition of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Lappaol F was well tolerated in treated animals without significant toxicity. Taken together, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that Lappaol F exhibits antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo and has strong potential to be developed as an anticancer therapeutic.

  14. GOLGA2/GM130, cis-Golgi Matrix Protein, is a Novel Target of Anticancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Hong, Seong-Ho; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kang, Bitna; Park, Sungjin; Han, Kiwon; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-01-01

    Achievement of long-term survival of patients with lung cancer treated with conventional chemotherapy is still difficult for treatment of metastatic and advanced tumors. Despite recent progress in investigational therapies, survival rates are still disappointingly low and novel adjuvant and systemic therapies are urgently needed. A recently elucidated secretory pathway is attracting considerable interest as a promising anticancer target. The cis-Golgi matrix protein, GOLGA2/GM130, plays an im...

  15. Nano-engineered mesenchymal stem cells increase therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drug through true active tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Buddhadev; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Panyam, Jayanth; Prabha, Swayam

    2018-03-28

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery has the potential to improve therapeutic efficacy and mitigate non-specific toxicity of anticancer drugs. However, current drug delivery approaches rely on inefficient passive accumulation of the drug carrier in the tumor. We have developed a unique, truly active tumor targeting strategy that relies on engineering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Our studies using the A549 orthotopic lung tumor model show that nano-engineered MSCs carrying the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) home to tumors and create cellular drug depots that release the drug payload over several days. Despite significantly lower doses of PTX, nano-engineered MSCs resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and superior survival. Anticancer efficacy of nano-engineered MSCs was confirmed in immunocompetent C57BL/6 albino female mice bearing orthotopic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LL/2-luc) tumors. Further, at doses that resulted in equivalent therapeutic efficacy, nano-engineered MSCs had no effect on white blood cell count whereas PTX solution and PTX nanoparticle treatments caused leukopenia. Biodistribution studies showed that nano-engineered MSCs resulted in greater than 9-fold higher AUClung of PTX (1.5 µg.day/g) than PTX solution and nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.1 µg.day/g tissue, respectively) in the target lung tumors. Furthermore, the lung-to-liver and the lung-to-spleen ratios of PTX were several folds higher for nano-engineered MSCs relative to those for PTX solution and nanoparticle groups, suggesting that nano-engineered MSCs demonstrate significantly less off-target deposition. In summary, our results demonstrate that nano-engineered MSCs can serve as an efficient carrier for tumor specific drug delivery and significantly improved anti-cancer efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticancer agents: Data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system, AERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaeda Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA database were reviewed to confirm platinum agent-associated hypersensitivity reactions. The present study was performed to confirm whether the database could suggest the hypersensitivity reactions caused by anticancer agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, and etoposide. Methods After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving candidate agents were analyzed. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 was applied to evaluate the susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions, and standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, the signals were detected for paclitaxel-associated mild, severe, and lethal hypersensitivity reactions, and docetaxel-associated lethal reactions. However, the total number of adverse events occurring with procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, or etoposide was not large enough to detect signals. Conclusions The FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, and the data mining methods used herein are useful for confirming drug-associated adverse events, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  17. Identification of functional peptides from natural and synthetic products on their anticancer activities by tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Joshua K; Auyeung, Kathy K

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells can express specific membrane proteins, which act as biomarkers for chemotherapeutic targeting. Functional peptides possess unique properties that will ensure efficacy, selectivity, specificity and low toxicity when used as therapeutic agents. Therapeutic peptides have been derived in treatment of cancers through improvement of cellular uptake, drug targeting and vaccine development. Peptides from natural source have been used for chemoprevention and therapy of various cancers. These include peptides derived from food, marine products, venom components and other animal constituents. Besides, chemically- and recombinantly-synthesized peptides have also been produced and extensively studied in contemporary applications. Improvement of tumor targeting is essential for chemotherapeutic development. This can be achieved through enhancement of intracellular delivery and/or increased specific binding affinity to cancer cells by pore-forming and cytotoxic peptides. Cytotoxic peptides such as the Bcl-2 family members can induce receptor-specific binding to tumor cells and promote apoptosis by targeting lipid membranes. This approach has some limitations in targeting, penetration and localization within tumors. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) belong to a new class of tumor-targeting peptides that can facilitate internalization of tumor markers and/or chemotherapeutic drugs. In order to overcome the problem of serum instability in classical CPPs (e.g. Tat), newer classes of CPPs has been recently introduced. Nevertheless, some cyclized CPPs can further enhance cellular uptake and binding selectivity when compared to activities of their linear counterpart, especially when treating chemoresistant tumors. This review compiles the use of effective tumor-targeting peptides including novel CPPs that represents new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancers.

  18. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA; Investigacao eletroquimica e calorimetrica da interacao de novos agentes antitumorais biscationicos com DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lauris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias, E-mail: cdonnici@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Campus A.C. Simoes. Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Denadai, Angelo Marcio Leite [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Campus VII; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Montanari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-{alpha}-{omega}-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered. (author)

  19. Rising Prices of Targeted Oral Anticancer Medications and Associated Financial Burden on Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Xu, Ying; Liu, Lei; Smieliauskas, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The high cost of oncology drugs threatens the affordability of cancer care. Previous research identified drivers of price growth of targeted oral anticancer medications (TOAMs) in private insurance plans and projected the impact of closing the coverage gap in Medicare Part D in 2020. This study examined trends in TOAM prices and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) payments in Medicare Part D and estimated the actual effects on patient OOP payments of partial filling of the coverage gap by 2012. Methods Using SEER linked to Medicare Part D, 2007 to 2012, we identified patients who take TOAMs via National Drug Codes in Part D claims. We calculated total drug costs (prices) and OOP payments per patient per month and compared their rates of inflation with general health care prices. Results The study cohort included 42,111 patients who received TOAMs between 2007 and 2012. Although the general prescription drug consumer price index grew at 3% per year over 2007 to 2012, mean TOAM prices increased by nearly 12% per year, reaching $7,719 per patient per month in 2012. Prices increased over time for newly and previously launched TOAMs. Mean patient OOP payments dropped by 4% per year over the study period, with a 40% drop among patients with a high financial burden in 2011, when the coverage gap began to close. Conclusion Rising TOAM prices threaten the financial relief patients have begun to experience under closure of the coverage gap in Medicare Part D. Policymakers should explore methods of harnessing the surge of novel TOAMs to increase price competition for Medicare beneficiaries.

  20. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Gloriam, David E.; Attwood, Misty M.

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals...... current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially...... novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has increased. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer disease, although several central nervous system disorders...

  1. Design and In vitro Validation of Multivalent Dendrimer Methotrexates as a Folate-targeting Anticancer Therapeutic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Thommey P.; Joice, Melvin; Sumit, Madhuresh; Silpe, Justin E.; Kotlyar, Alina; Bharathi, Sophia; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Baker, James R.; Choi, Seok Ki

    2013-01-01

    Design of cancer-targeting nanotherapeutics relies on a pair of two functionally orthogonal molecules, one serving as a cancer cell-specific targeting ligand, and the other as a therapeutic cytotoxic agent. The present study investigates the validity of an alternative simplified strategy where a dual-acting molecule which bears both targeting and cytotoxic activity is conjugated to the nanoparticle as cancer-targeting nanotherapeutics. Herein we demonstrate that methotrexate is applicable for this dual-acting strategy due to its reasonable affinity to folic acid receptor (FAR) as a tumor biomarker, and cytotoxic inhibitory activity of cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase. This article describes design of new methotrexate-conjugated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, each carrying multiple copies of methotrexate attached through a stable amide linker. We evaluated their dual biological activities by performing surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, a cell-free enzyme assay and cell-based experiments in FAR-overexpressing cells. This study identifies the combination of an optimal linker framework and multivalency as the two key design elements that contribute to achieving potent dual activity. PMID:23621534

  2. Chemical proteomics reveals HSP70 1A as a target for the anticancer diterpene oridonin in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Cotugno, Roberta; Lepore, Laura; Vassallo, Antonio; Malafronte, Nicola; Lauro, Gianluigi; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2013-04-26

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpene isolated from well known Chinese medicinal plant Isodon rubescens, has been shown to have multiple biological activities. Among them, the anticancer activity has been repeatedly reported by many research groups. The chemopreventive and antitumor effects of oridonin have been related to its ability to interfere with several pathways which are involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and/or autophagy. Despite the number of studies performed on this diterpene, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular activity remains to be elucidated. Hence, we tried to mine target protein(s) of oridonin by employing a mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach, providing evidences that oridonin is able to directly bind the multifunctional, stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 1A (HSP70 1A). Oridonin/HSP70 complex formation was confirmed in leukemia-derived Jurkat cells. The characterization of HSP70 inhibition by oridonin was performed using chemical and biological approaches. Moreover, the binding site of oridonin on the chaperone was identified by a mass-based approach combined with Molecular Dynamics simulations. Although natural products showed high efficiency and several of these agents have now entered in clinical trials, information concerning the mechanisms of action at a molecular level of many of them is very poor or completely missed. Nevertheless, the identification of the molecular target of a drug candidate has several advantages. The most significant is the ability to set up target-based assays and to allow structure-activity relationship studies to guide medicinal chemistry efforts towards lead optimization. The knowledge of drug targets can also facilitate the identification of potential toxicities or side effects, if there is any precedent of toxicities for the identified target. Achieving this in an effective, unbiased and efficient manner subsists as a significant challenge for the new era

  3. Clinical pharmacology of the novel marine-derived anticancer agent Ecteinascidin 743 administered as a 1- and 3-h infusion in a phase I study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Charlotte; Twelves, Chris; Bowman, Angela; Hoekman, Klaas; López-Lázaro, Luis; Jimeno, José; Guzman, Cecilia; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Simpson, Andrew; Vermorken, Jan B.; Smyth, John; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2002-01-01

    Ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743) is an anticancer agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. In the present article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ET-743 are described within a phase I study. Forty patients with solid tumors initially received ET-743 as a 1-h i.v.

  4. Targeting 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, S; Lin, R; Xia, S; Pan, Y; Shan, C; Wu, S; Lonial, S; Gaddh, M; Arellano, M L; Khoury, H J; Khuri, F R; Lee, B H; Boggon, T J; Fan, J; Chen, J

    2017-01-12

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is crucial for cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. We recently reported that targeting a key oxidative PPP enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), using our novel small-molecule 6PGD inhibitors Physcion and its derivative S3, shows anticancer effects. Notably, humans with genetic deficiency of either 6PGD or another oxidative PPP enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, exhibit non-immune hemolytic anemia upon exposure to aspirin and various antimalarial drugs. Inspired by these clinical observations, we examined the anticancer potential of combined treatment with 6PGD inhibitors and antimalarial drugs. We found that stable knockdown of 6PGD sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Combined treatment with DHA and Physcion activates AMP-activated protein kinase, leading to synergistic inhibition of human leukemia cell viability. Moreover, our combined therapy synergistically attenuates tumor growth in xenograft nude mice injected with human K562 leukemia cells and cell viability of primary leukemia cells from human patients, but shows minimal toxicity to normal hematopoietic cells in mice as well as red blood cells and mononucleocytes from healthy human donors. Our findings reveal the potential for combined therapy using optimized doses of Physcion and DHA as a novel antileukemia treatment without inducing hemolysis.

  5. Characterizing and optimizing human anticancer drug targets based on topological properties in the context of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yan; Shang, Desi; Yu, Fulong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Chenchen; Wang, Qiuyu; Xu, Yanjun; Liu, Yuejuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Li, Xuecang; Li, Chunquan

    2015-04-01

    One of the challenging problems in drug discovery is to identify the novel targets for drugs. Most of the traditional methods for drug targets optimization focused on identifying the particular families of "druggable targets", but ignored their topological properties based on the biological pathways. In this study, we characterized the topological properties of human anticancer drug targets (ADTs) in the context of biological pathways. We found that the ADTs tended to present the following seven topological properties: influence the number of the pathways related to cancer, be localized at the start or end of the pathways, interact with cancer related genes, exhibit higher connectivity, vulnerability, betweenness, and closeness than other genes. We first ranked ADTs based on their topological property values respectively, then fused them into one global-rank using the joint cumulative distribution of an N-dimensional order statistic to optimize human ADTs. We applied the optimization method to 13 anticancer drugs, respectively. Results demonstrated that over 70% of known ADTs were ranked in the top 20%. Furthermore, the performance for mercaptopurine was significant: 6 known targets (ADSL, GMPR2, GMPR, HPRT1, AMPD3, AMPD2) were ranked in the top 15 and other four out of the top 15 (MAT2A, CDKN1A, AREG, JUN) have the potentialities to become new targets for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and pro-apoptosis activity of etodolac hydrazide derivatives as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkla, Pelin; Özsavcı, Derya; Bingöl-Özakpınar, Özlem; Şener, Azize; Çevik, Özge; Özbaş-Turan, Suna; Akbuğa, Jülide; Şahin, Fikrettin; Küçükgüzel, Ş Güniz

    2013-05-01

    Etodolac hydrazide and a novel series of etodolac hydrazide-hydrazones 3-15 and etodolac 4-thiazolidinones 16-26 were synthesized in this study. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HREI-MS) methods. Some selected compounds were determined at one dose toward the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, Bethesda, USA). 2-(1,8-Diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1-yl)acetic acid[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]hydrazide 9 demonstrated the most marked effect on the prostate cancer cell line PC-3, with 58.24% growth inhibition at 10(-5) M (10 µM). Using the MTT colorimetric method, compound 9 was evaluated in vitro against the prostate cell line PC-3 and the rat fibroblast cell line L-929, for cell viability and growth inhibition at different doses. Compound 9 exhibited anticancer activity with an IC(50) value of 54 µM (22.842 µg/mL) against the PC-3 cells and did not display any cytotoxicity toward the L-929 rat fibroblasts, compared to etodolac. In addition, this compound was evaluated for caspase-3 and Bcl-2 activation in the apoptosis pathway, which plays a key role in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of bile acid amides of [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Devesh S; Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Lohitesh, K; Jha, Prabhat N; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2017-12-13

    A series of amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene derivatives and their bile acid (cholic and deoxycholic acid) amides were designed and synthesized. A comparative study on the anticancer and antibacterial activity evaluation on the synthesized analogs was carried against the human osteosarcoma (HOS) cancer cell line, and two gram -ve (E. coli and S. typhi) and two gram [Formula: see text]ve (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacterial strains. All the cholic acid [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene amides showed an [Formula: see text] in the range 2-13 [Formula: see text] against human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) with the most active analog (6g) possessing an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. One of the amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene, 4e, was found to possess an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. An increase in the number of cells at the sub-[Formula: see text] phase of the cell was observed in the in vitro cell cycle analysis of two most active compounds in the series (4e, 6g) suggesting a clear indication toward induction of apoptotic cascade. With respect to antibacterial screening, amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes were found to be more active than their corresponding bile acid amides. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to in silico study to predict their physiochemical properties and drug-likeness score.

  8. The Use of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 as an Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Marcinkowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion that vitamin D can influence the incidence of cancer arose from epidemiological studies. The major source of vitamin D in the organism is skin production upon exposure to ultra violet-B. The very first observation of an inverse correlation between exposure of individuals to the sun and the likelihood of cancer was reported as early as 1941. In 1980, Garland and Garland hypothesised, from findings from epidemiological studies of patients in the US with colon cancer, that vitamin D produced in response to sun exposure is protective against cancer as opposed to sunlight per se. Later studies revealed inverse correlations between sun exposure and the occurrence of prostate and breast cancers. These observations prompted laboratory investigation of whether or not vitamin D had an effect on cancer cells. Vitamin D is not active against cancer cells, but the most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D has profound biological effects. Here, we review the anticancer action of 1,25D, clinical trials of 1,25D to date and the prospects of the future therapeutic use of new and low calcaemic analogues.

  9. Augmented anticancer activity of a targeted, intracellularly activatable, theranostic nanomedicine based on fluorescent and radiolabeled, methotrexate-folic Acid-multiwalled carbon nanotube conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manasmita; Datir, Satyajit R; Singh, Raman Preet; Jain, Sanyog

    2013-07-01

    The present study reports the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel, intravenously injectable, theranostic prodrug based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) concomitantly decorated with a fluorochrome (Alexa-fluor, AF488/647), radionucleide (Technitium-99m), tumor-targeting module (folic acid, FA), and anticancer agent (methotrexate, MTX). Specifically, MTX was conjugated to MWCNTs via a serum-stable yet intracellularly hydrolyzable ester linkage to ensure minimum drug loss in circulation. Cell uptake studies corroborated the selective internalization of AF-FA-MTX-MWCNTs (1) by folate receptor (FR) positive human lung (A549) and breast (MCF 7) cancer cells through FR mediated endocytosis. Lysosomal trafficking of 1 enabled the conjugate to exert higher anticancer activity as compared to its nontargeted counterpart that was mainly restricted to cytoplasm. Tumor-specific accumulation of 1 in Ehlrich Ascites Tumor (EAT) xenografted mice was almost 19 and 8.6 times higher than free MTX and FA-deprived MWCNTs. Subsequently, the conjugate 1 was shown to arrest tumor growth more effectively in chemically breast tumor induced rats, when compared to either free MTX or nontargeted controls. Interestingly, the anticancer activities of the ester-linked CNT-MTX conjugates (including the one deprived of FA) were significantly higher than their amide-linked counterpart, suggesting that cleavability of linkers between drug and multifunctional nanotubes critically influence their therapeutic performance. The results were also supported by in silico docking and ligand similarity analysis. Toxicity studies in mice confirmed that all CNT-MTX conjugates were devoid of any perceivable hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. Overall, the delivery property of MWCNTs, high tumor binding avidity of FA, optical detectability of AF fluorochromes, and radio-traceability of (99m)Tc could be successfully integrated and partitioned on a single CNT-platform to

  10. Anti-cancer agents based on 6-trifluoromethoxybenzimidazole derivatives and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakh, Andrei A; Vovk, Mykhaylo V; Mel& #x27; nychenko, Nina V; Sukach, Volodymyr A

    2012-10-23

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds having the structural Formulas (1a,1b), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof as chemotherapy agents for treating of cancer, particularly androgen-independent prostate cancer. The disclosure also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  11. Anti-cancer agents based on 6-trifluoromethoxybenzimidazole derivatives and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Vovk, Mykhaylo V.; Mel' nychenko, Nina V.; Sukach, Volodymyr A.

    2012-08-14

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds having the structural Formulas (1a,1b), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof as chemotherapy agents for treating of cancer, particularly androgen-independent prostate cancer. The disclosure also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  12. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as an anticancer target in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Massoner, Petra; Sampson, Natalie; Klocker, Helmut

    2015-10-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in males. In recent years, several new targeting agents have been introduced for the treatment of advanced stages of the disease. However, development of resistance limits the efficacy of new drugs and there is a further need to develop additional novel treatment approaches. One of the most investigated targets in cancer research is the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, whose receptors are overexpressed in several cancer entities including PCa. In preclinical studies in PCa, targeting of the IGF axis receptors showed promising anti-tumor effects. Currently available data on clinical studies do not meet the expectations for this new treatment approach. In this review we provide a summary of preclinical and clinical studies on the IGF axis in PCa including treatment with monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Moreover, we summarize preliminary results from ongoing studies and discuss limitations and side effects of the substances used. We also address the role of the IGF axis in the biomarkers setting including IGF-binding proteins and genetic variants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of multimodal imaging strategies for the pharmacology of anticancer agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulle, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical imaging in oncology is booming. It allows, using representative animal models of human cancers, to understand the mechanisms of development of pathologies and to assess the therapeutic efficiency of a new treatment. The main objective of this work was to develop two ortho-topic models of cancer (pancreas and colon) and to assess on them the reference treatments as well as a new therapeutic strategy by non-thermal plasma so called Plasma Gun. The two cancer models developed showed good representation in relation to human cancers, with the appearance of distant metastases and hypoxia. 5-fluorouracil for the HCT116-luc ortho-topic model of colorectal carcinoma and gemcitabine for the MIA PaCa2-luc pancreatic adenocarcinoma model, have induced discrete effects at low dose which can be detected thanks imaging modalities. After validation of our experimental steps, a new therapeutic strategy, Plasma Gun was evaluated and showed significant effects on tumor growth inhibition. The second objective was to carry out tools for the induction and the characterization of bone metastases and for high resolution imaging of the vasculature. On the one hand, bone metastases obtained by injection of PC3M-luc cells intracardially, was evaluated and quantified with different imaging modalities (bioluminescence, scintigraphy and Computed Tomography). And the other hand, the achievement of a high resolution imaging of vascularization, was possible by the casting method that restores the 3D structure of the vascular architecture following injection of a resin in the circulation. Developments makes during this thesis are new tools for preclinical evaluation of novel anticancer therapies. (author) [fr

  14. Bioimaging of isosteric osmium and ruthenium anticancer agents by LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Matthias H M; Theiner, Sarah; Kornauth, Christoph; Meier-Menches, Samuel M; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2018-03-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to study the spatial distribution of two metallodrugs with anticancer activities in vivo, namely the organoruthenium plecstatin-1 (1) and its isosteric osmium analogue (2), in liver, kidneys, muscles and tumours of treated mice bearing a CT-26 tumour after single-dose i.p. administration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the spatial distribution of an osmium drug candidate has been investigated using LA-ICP-MS in tissues. Independent measurements of the average ruthenium and osmium concentration via microwave digestion and ICP-MS in organs and tumours were in good agreement with the LA-ICP-MS results. Matrix-matched standards (MMS) ranging from 1 to 30 μg g -1 were prepared to quantify the spatial distributions of the metals and the average metal content of the MMS samples was additionally quantified by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. The recoveries for osmium and ruthenium in the MMS were 105% and 101% on average, respectively, validating the sample preparation procedure of the MMS. Preparation of MMS was carried out under an argon atmosphere to prevent oxidation of osmium-species to the volatile OsO 4 . The highest metal concentrations were found in the liver, followed by kidney, lung and tumour tissues, while muscles displayed only very low quantities of the respective metal. Both metallodrugs accumulated in the cortex of the kidneys more strongly compared to the medulla. Interestingly, osmium from 2 was largely located at the periphery and tissue edges, whereas ruthenium from 1 was observed to penetrate deeper into the organs and tumours.

  15. A General Synthetic Procedure for 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinone Derivatives and Their Utilization in the Preparation of Novel Anticancer Agents with 4-Anilinoquinazoline Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lan Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our ongoing research on novel anticancer agents with 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffolds, a series of novel 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were needed as key intermediates. An improved one-step synthesis of 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones utilizing o-anthranilic acids as starting materials was described. Based on it, 2-hydroxy-methyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were conveniently prepared in one pot. Moreover, two novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives substituted with chloromethyl groups at the 2-position were synthesized and showed promising anticancer activity in vitro.

  16. The Optimum Irradiation Dose in Preservation of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) As Anticancer Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno; Ermin Katrin W; Wisnurahadi; Swasono R Tamat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to obtain the optimum irradiation dose, in order to preserve and protect the damage of anticancer compounds in mahkota dewa bark. The specimens of mahkota dewa bark were irradiated using 60 Co at the variation doses of 0; 5; 7,5 ; 10; 15; and 20 kGy, respectively at the dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The irradiated and control samples were macerated in n-hexane and ethyl acetate, respectively, then the ethyl acetate extract was then fractionated using chromatography column to obtain 8 fractions. The examination of irradiated and control samples of mahkota dewa bark against microbe contaminants showed that irradiation at doses ≥5 kGy could inhibit the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast and destroyed them. The cytotoxicity test of irradiated ethyl acetate extract of mahkota dewa bark against leukemia L1210 cell showed that irradiation at the dose up to 20 kGy can decreased cytotoxic activities performance, however these IC 50 values lower than 50 μg/ml, which is the cytotoxic activity threshold for extract. The cytotoxic activity test of fraction 6, the most active fraction in mahkota dewa bark, showed that irradiation at the dose up to 20 kGy can also decreased the cytotoxic activities performance, however these IC 50 values was lower than 20 μg/ml, which is the cytotoxic activity threshold for fraction. Analysis of 2,4’-dihydroxy-4 methoxy benzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in fraction 6 of irradiated samples showed that the concentration of this compound in irradiated samples significantly decreased, compared to the control sample. Decreasing the concentration of 2,4’-dihydroxy-4 methoxy benzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was not comparable to the cytotoxic activity of ethyl acetate extract or fraction 6, therefore this compound can not be used as marker of irradiation effect on decreasing the cytotoxic activity of the mahkota dewa bark. Irradiation at doses of 5 up to 20 k

  17. The thioredoxin system mediates redox-induced cell death in human colon cancer cells: implications for the mechanism of action of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Rigas, Basil

    2008-10-15

    Anticancer agents act, at least in part, by inducing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). We examined the redox effect on SW480 and HT-29 colon cancer cells of four anticancer compounds, arsenic trioxide, phosphoaspirin, phosphosulindac, and nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA). All compounds inhibited the growth of both cell lines (IC(50), 10-90 micromol/L) and induced RONS detected by a general RONS molecular probe. NO-ASA, which induced at least four individual RONS (NO, H(2)O(2), superoxide anion, and peroxynitirte), induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death that was RONS-mediated (cell death paralleled RONS levels and was abrogated by N-acetyl cysteine but not by diphenylene iodonium, which displayed prooxidant activity and enhanced cell death). Nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases were modulated by RONS. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), an oxidoreductase involved in redox regulation, was heavily oxidized in response to RONS and mediated the growth inhibitory effect of the anticancer agents; knocking-down trx-1 expression by small interfering RNA abrogated cell death induced by them. These compounds also inhibited the activity of Trx reductase that reduces oxidized Trx-1, whereas the Trx reductase inhibitor aurothiomalate synergized with NO-ASA in the induction of cell death. Our findings indicate that the Trx system mediates to a large extent redox-induced cell death in response to anticancer agents. This mechanism of action may be shared by more anticancer agents and deserves further assessment as a candidate mechanism for the pharmacologic control of cancer.

  18. Methyl-hydroxylamine as an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Julián

    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has encouraged vigorous efforts to develop antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR is a key enzyme in DNA replication that acts by converting ribonucleotides into the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA replication and repair. RNR has been extensively studied as an ideal target for DNA inhibition, and several drugs that are already available on the market are used for anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the high toxicity of these current drugs to eukaryotic cells does not permit their use as antibacterial agents. Here, we present a radical scavenger compound that inhibited bacterial RNR, and the compound's activity as an antibacterial agent together with its toxicity in eukaryotic cells were evaluated. First, the efficacy of N-methyl-hydroxylamine (M-HA in inhibiting the growth of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was demonstrated, and no effect on eukaryotic cells was observed. M-HA showed remarkable efficacy against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, given the M-HA activity against these two bacteria, our results showed that M-HA has intracellular antimycobacterial activity against BCG-infected macrophages, and it is efficacious in partially disassembling and inhibiting the further formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Furthermore, M-HA and ciprofloxacin showed a synergistic effect that caused a massive reduction in a P. aeruginosa biofilm. Overall, our results suggest the vast potential of M-HA as an antibacterial agent, which acts by specifically targeting a bacterial RNR enzyme.

  19. Molecular predictors of therapeutic response to specific anti-cancer agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Gray, Joe W.; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Heiser, Laura M.; Gibb, William J.; Kuo, Wen-lin; Wang, Nicholas J.

    2016-11-29

    Herein is described the use of a collection of 50 breast cancer cell lines to match responses to 77 conventional and experimental therapeutic agents with transcriptional, proteomic and genomic subtypes found in primary tumors. Almost all compounds produced strong differential responses across the cell lines produced responses that were associated with transcriptional and proteomic subtypes and produced responses that were associated with recurrent genome copy number abnormalities. These associations can now be incorporated into clinical trials that test subtype markers and clinical responses simultaneously.

  20. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Byoung Dae

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Retaspimycin hydrochloride (IPI-504): a novel heat shock protein inhibitor as an anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Britt Erika; Vesole, David H

    2009-09-01

    Heat shock proteins are vital to cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Heat shock protein inhibitors are a diverse group of novel agents that have been demonstrated to have pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells through inhibition of ATP binding on the ATP/ADP-binding pocket of the heat shock protein. Initial development of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, were limited by hepatotoxicity and the need for solvent carrying agents. In contrast, retaspimycin, or IPI-504, a derivative of geldanamycin and 17-AAG, is highly soluble in water and generally well tolerated. In Phase I/II trials, retaspimycin has shown activity in NSCLC and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The most promising activity was observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Phase I/II trials are currently underway to evaluate the dosing schedules and activity of IPI-504 in breast cancer. Given the in vitro activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, melanoma, leukemia and pancreatic cancer, current and future trials are of clinical interest. This article reviews IPI-504 and its utility in a wide variety of cancer phenotypes.

  2. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrillo Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs can regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes and activities of transcriptional factors involved in both cancer initiation and progression through alteration of either DNA or the structural components of chromatin. Recently, the role of gene repression through modulation such as acetylation in cancer patients has been clinically validated with several inhibitors of HDACs. One of the HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, has been approved by FDA for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL for patients with progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. Other inhibitors, for example, FK228, PXD101, PCI-24781, ITF2357, MGCD0103, MS-275, valproic acid and LBH589 have also demonstrated therapeutic potential as monotherapy or combination with other anti-tumor drugs in CTCL and other malignancies. At least 80 clinical trials are underway, testing more than eleven different HDAC inhibitory agents including both hematological and solid malignancies. This review focuses on recent development in clinical trials testing HDAC inhibitors as anti-tumor agents.

  3. Dual drug delivery using 'smart' liposomes for triggered release of anticancer agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ankit; Gulbake, Arvind; Jain, Ashish; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K., E-mail: drskjainin@yahoo.com [Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Pharmaceutics Research Projects Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-07-15

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most fatal gynecologic cancers. In this debut study, dual approach using synergistically active combination of paclitaxel-topotecan (Pac-Top; 20:1, w/w) is investigated with utilization of characteristic features of tumor micro-environment and additionally overexpressed folate receptors (FR-{alpha}) to achieve targeting to tumor site. Various liposomes namely liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes with lipid compositions viz. DPPC:DMPG (85.5:9.5), DPPC:DMPG:mPEG{sub 2000}-DSPE (85.5:9.5:5), and DPPC:DMPG:mPEG{sub 2000}-DSPE:DSPE-PEG-folate (85.5:9.5:4.5:0.5), respectively, were developed using thin film casting method. These were nanometric in size around 200 nm. In vitro drug release study showed initial burst release followed by sustained release for more than 72 h at physiological milieu (37 {+-} 0.5 Degree-Sign C, pH 7.4) while burst release (i.e., more than 90 %) within 5 min at simulated tumor milieu (41 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C, pH 4). SRB cytotoxicity assay in OVCAR-3 cell line revealed Pac-Top free (20:1, w/w) to be more toxic (GI{sub 50} = 6.5 {mu}g/ml) than positive control (Adriamycin, GI{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}g/ml) and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes GI{sub 50} (14.7 {mu}g/ml). Moreover, florescence microscopy showed the highest cell uptake of FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes so called 'smart liposomes' which has not only mediated effective targeting to FR-{alpha} but also triggered release of drugs upon hyperthermia.

  4. Dual drug delivery using "smart" liposomes for triggered release of anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Gulbake, Arvind; Jain, Ashish; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most fatal gynecologic cancers. In this debut study, dual approach using synergistically active combination of paclitaxel-topotecan (Pac-Top; 20:1, w/w) is investigated with utilization of characteristic features of tumor micro-environment and additionally overexpressed folate receptors (FR-α) to achieve targeting to tumor site. Various liposomes namely liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes with lipid compositions viz. DPPC:DMPG (85.5:9.5), DPPC:DMPG:mPEG2000-DSPE (85.5:9.5:5), and DPPC:DMPG:mPEG2000-DSPE:DSPE-PEG-folate (85.5:9.5:4.5:0.5), respectively, were developed using thin film casting method. These were nanometric in size around 200 nm. In vitro drug release study showed initial burst release followed by sustained release for more than 72 h at physiological milieu (37 ± 0.5 °C, pH 7.4) while burst release (i.e., more than 90 %) within 5 min at simulated tumor milieu (41 ± 1 °C, pH 4). SRB cytotoxicity assay in OVCAR-3 cell line revealed Pac-Top free (20:1, w/w) to be more toxic (GI50 = 6.5 μg/ml) than positive control (Adriamycin, GI50 = 9.1 μg/ml) and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes GI50 (14.7 μg/ml). Moreover, florescence microscopy showed the highest cell uptake of FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes so called "smart liposomes" which has not only mediated effective targeting to FR-α but also triggered release of drugs upon hyperthermia.

  5. Dual drug delivery using “smart” liposomes for triggered release of anticancer agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ankit; Gulbake, Arvind; Jain, Ashish; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most fatal gynecologic cancers. In this debut study, dual approach using synergistically active combination of paclitaxel–topotecan (Pac–Top; 20:1, w/w) is investigated with utilization of characteristic features of tumor micro-environment and additionally overexpressed folate receptors (FR-α) to achieve targeting to tumor site. Various liposomes namely liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes with lipid compositions viz. DPPC:DMPG (85.5:9.5), DPPC:DMPG:mPEG 2000 –DSPE (85.5:9.5:5), and DPPC:DMPG:mPEG 2000 –DSPE:DSPE–PEG–folate (85.5:9.5:4.5:0.5), respectively, were developed using thin film casting method. These were nanometric in size around 200 nm. In vitro drug release study showed initial burst release followed by sustained release for more than 72 h at physiological milieu (37 ± 0.5 °C, pH 7.4) while burst release (i.e., more than 90 %) within 5 min at simulated tumor milieu (41 ± 1 °C, pH 4). SRB cytotoxicity assay in OVCAR-3 cell line revealed Pac–Top free (20:1, w/w) to be more toxic (GI 50 = 6.5 μg/ml) than positive control (Adriamycin, GI 50 = 9.1 μg/ml) and FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes GI 50 (14.7 μg/ml). Moreover, florescence microscopy showed the highest cell uptake of FR-targeted PEGylated liposomes so called “smart liposomes” which has not only mediated effective targeting to FR-α but also triggered release of drugs upon hyperthermia

  6. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Targeted Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael M.; Weber, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents our adaptation of Fryback and Thornbury’s hierarchical scheme for modeling the efficacy of diagnostic imaging systems. The original scheme was designed to evaluate new medical imaging systems but is less successful when applied to evaluate new radiopharmaceuticals. The proposed adaptation, which is specifically directed toward evaluating targeted imaging agents, has 6 levels: in vitro characterization, in vivo animal studies, initial human studies, impact on clinical care (change in management), impact on patient outcome, and societal efficacy. These levels, particularly the first four, implicitly define the sequence of studies needed to move an agent from the radiochemistry synthesis laboratory to the clinic. Completion of level 4 (impact on clinical care) should be sufficient for initial approval and reimbursement. We hope that the adapted scheme will help streamline the process and assist in bringing new targeted radiopharmaceuticals to approval over the next few years. PMID:26769867

  7. Lipoprotein Nanoplatform for Targeted Delivery of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Glickson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of visible or near-infrared fluorescent optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and photodynamic therapy and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that overexpress low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs. Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from about 10 nm (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] to over a micron (chylomicrons is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents onto or into these particles has been achieved by protein loading (covalent attachment to protein side chains, surface loading (intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer, and core loading (extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Core and surface loading of LDL have been used for delivery of optical imaging agents to tumor cells in vivo and in culture. Surface loading was used for delivery of gadolinium-bis-stearylamide contrast agents for in vivo MRI detection in tumor-bearing mice. Chlorin and phthalocyanine near-infrared photodynamic therapy agents (≤ 400/LDL have been attached by core loading. Protein loading was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR to folate receptors and could be used to target other receptors. A semisynthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer of phospholipid to which apolipoprotein A1 or E was adsorbed for targeting HDL or adsorbing synthetic amphipathic helical peptides ltargeting LDL or folate receptors. These particles can be used for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI-monitored cell tracking or gene expression.

  8. A high-throughput quantitative expression analysis of cancer-related genes in human HepG2 cells in response to limonene, a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidh, Rand R; Hussein, Saba Z; MalAllah, Mohammed Q; Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Abu Bakar, Fatimah

    2017-11-14

    Citrus bioactive compounds, as active anticancer agent, have been under focus by several studies worldwide. However, the underlying genes responsible for the anticancer potential have not been sufficiently highlighted. The current study investigated the gene expression profile of hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2, cells after treatment with Limonene. The concentration that killed 50% of HepG2 cells was used to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of limonene anticancer activity. The apoptotic induction was detected by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. Two of pro-apoptotic events, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine translocation were manifested by confocal fluorescence microscopy. High-throughput real-time PCR was used to profile 1023 cancer-related genes in 16 different gene families related to the cancer development. In comparison to untreated cells, limonene increased the percentage of apoptotic cells up to 89.61%, by flow cytometry, and 48.2% by fluorescence microscopy. There was a significant limonene-driven differential gene expression of HepG2 cells in 15 different gene families. Limonene was shown to significantly (>2log) up-regulate and down-regulate 14 and 59 genes, respectively. The affected gene families, from most to least affected, were apoptosis induction, signal transduction, cancer genes augmentation, alteration in kinases expression, inflammation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle proteins. The current study reveals that limonene could be a promising, cheap, and effective anticancer compound. The broad spectrum of limonene anticancer activity is interesting for anticancer drug development. Further research is needed to confirm the current findings and to examine the anticancer potential of limonene along with underlying mechanisms on different cell lines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Lipoprotein nanoplatform for targeted delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, Jerry D; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Zhou, Rong; Choi, Hoon; Chen, I-Wei; Li, Hui; Corbin, Ian; Popov, Anatoliy V; Cao, Weiguo; Song, Liping; Qi, Chenze; Marotta, Diane; Nelson, David S; Chen, Juan; Chance, Britton; Zheng, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of optical and MRI contrast agents, photodynamic therapy agents and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that over express LDL receptors (LDLR). Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from approximately 5-10 nm (high density lipoprotein, HDL) to over a micron (chilomicrons) is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents has been achieved by covalent attachment to protein side chains, intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer and extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Covalent attachment of folate to the lysine side chain amino groups was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR) to folate receptors and could be utilized to target other receptors. A semi-synthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer ofphospholipid to which Apo A1, Apo E or synthetic amphoteric alpha-helical polypeptides were adsorbed for targeting HDL, LDL or folate receptors, respectively. These particles can be utilized for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI monitored cell tracking or gene therapy.

  10. Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

    2008-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

  11. Novel p53-dependent anticancer strategy by targeting iron signaling and BNIP3L-induced mitophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfinger, Nastasia; Austin, Shane; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Berger, Walter; Reipert, Siegfried; Praschberger, Monika; Paur, Jakob; Trondl, Robert; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Nowikovsky, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies BNIP3L as the key regulator of p53-dependent cell death mechanism in colon cancer cells targeted by the novel gallium based anticancer drug, KP46. KP46 specifically accumulated into mitochondria where it caused p53-dependent morphological and functional damage impairing mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. Furthermore, competing with iron for cellular uptake, KP46 lowered the intracellular labile iron pools and intracellular heme. Accordingly, p53 accumulated in the nucleus where it activated its transcriptional target BNIP3L, a BH3 only domain protein with functions in apoptosis and mitophagy. Upregulated BNIP3L sensitized the mitochondrial permeability transition and strongly induced PARKIN-mediated mitochondrial clearance and cellular vacuolization. Downregulation of BNIP3L entirely rescued cell viability caused by exposure of KP46 for 24 hours, confirming that early induced cell death was regulated by BNIP3L. Altogether, targeting BNIP3L in wild-type p53 colon cancer cells is a novel anticancer strategy activating iron depletion signaling and the mitophagy-related cell death pathway. PMID:26517689

  12. One-pot synthesis and biological evaluation of N-(aminosulfonyl)-4-podophyllotoxin carbamates as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Hui; Guan, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Shi-Liang; Ma, You-Zhen; Chen, Shi-Wu; Hui, Ling

    2017-07-01

    A series of N-(aminosulfonyl)-4-podophyllotoxin carbamates were synthesized via the Burgess-type intermediate, and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Most of them possessed more potent cytotoxic effects against four human tumor cell lines (HeLa, A-549, HCT-8 and HepG2) and less toxic to normal human fetal lung fibroblast WI-38 cells than etoposide. In particular, N-(morpholinosulfonyl)-4-podophyllotoxin carbamate (9) exhibited the most potent activity towards these four tumor cells with IC 50 values in the range of 0.5-16.5μM. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 9 induced cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of p53 and ROS. Meanwhile, 9 effectively inhibited tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly at cellular levels in HeLa cells. In addition, 9 could induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in HeLa cells by up-regulating levels of cyclinB1 and cdc2 and decreasing the expression of p-cdc2. These results indicated that 9 had potential for further development as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Madrid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1, 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2 and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3 against melanoma cells (A2058. In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4, a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells.

  14. DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Chandra Sharma, Girish; Arjmand, Farukh [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Azam, Ameer, E-mail: tsartaj62@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, UP (India)

    2010-05-14

    A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the phenyl glycine chloride ligand located at the equatorial sites and the coordinated chloride ion occupying an apical position. {sup 119}Sn NMR spectral data showed a hexa-coordinated environment around the Sn(IV) metal ion. TEM, AFM and XRD measurements illustrate that the complex could induce the condensation of CT-DNA to a particulate nanostructure. The interaction of the Cu-Sn complex with CT-DNA was investigated by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetric measurements. The results indicated that the complex interacts with DNA through an electrostatic mode of binding with an intrinsic binding constant K{sub b} = 8.42 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}. The Cu-Sn complex exhibits effective cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by an oxidative cleavage mechanism, monitored at different concentrations both in the absence and in the presence of reducing agents.

  15. Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Alejandro; Cardile, Venera; González, César; Montenegro, Ivan; Villena, Joan; Caggia, Silvia; Graziano, Adriana; Russo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2) and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3)) against melanoma cells (A2058). In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4), a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells. PMID:25860949

  16. Platinum anticancer agents and antidepressants: desipramine enhances platinum-based cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Engelmann, Brigitte J; Pullen, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer K; Ryan, John J; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    A unique synergistic effect on platinum drug cytotoxicity is noted in the presence of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine is used for treating neuropathic pain, particularly in prostate cancer patients. The clinically used drugs cisplatin (cis-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)]), oxaliplatin [1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalatoplatinum(II)], and the cationic trinuclear agent BBR3464 [{trans-PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)-μ-(trans-Pt(NH(3))(2)(H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2))(2))](4+), which has undergone evaluation in phase II clinical trials for activity in lung and ovarian cancers, were evaluated. Surprisingly, desipramine greatly augments the cytotoxicity of all the platinum-based chemotherapeutics in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Desipramine enhanced cellular accumulation of cisplatin, but had no effect on the accumulation of oxaliplatin or BBR3464, suggesting that enhanced accumulation could not be a consistent means by which desipramine altered the platinum-drug-mediated cytotoxicity. The desipramine/cisplatin combination resulted in increased levels of p53 as well as mitochondrial damage, caspase activation, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, suggesting that desipramine may synergize with cisplatin more than with other platinum chemotherapeutics partly by activating distinct apoptotic pathways. The study argues that desipramine may be a means of enhancing chemoresponsiveness of platinum drugs and the results warrant further investigation. The results emphasize the importance of understanding the differential pharmacological action of adjuvants employed in combinations with cancer chemotherapeutics. © SBIC 2011

  17. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Alexander S; Attwood, Misty M; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Schiöth, Helgi B; Gloriam, David E

    2017-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has increased. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer disease, although several central nervous system disorders are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug discovery.

  18. Chloramphenicol Derivatives as Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents: Historic Problems and Current Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Dinos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAM is the D-threo isomer of a small molecule, consisting of a p-nitrobenzene ring connected to a dichloroacetyl tail through a 2-amino-1,3-propanediol moiety. CAM displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against the three most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Resistance to CAM has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety of mechanisms. However, the most important concerns that limit its clinical utility relate to side effects such as neurotoxicity and hematologic disorders. In this review, we present previous and current efforts to synthesize CAM derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, we highlight potentially broader roles of these derivatives in investigating the plasticity of the ribosomal catalytic center, the main target of CAM.

  19. Ashwagandha derived withanone targets TPX2-Aurora A complex: computational and experimental evidence to its anticancer activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Grover

    Full Text Available Cancer is largely marked by genetic instability. Specific inhibition of individual proteins or signalling pathways that regulate genetic stability during cell division thus hold a great potential for cancer therapy. The Aurora A kinase is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays a critical role during mitosis and cytokinesis and is found upregulated in several cancer types. It is functionally regulated by its interactions with TPX2, a candidate oncogene. Aurora A inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer drugs that work by blocking its ATP binding site. This site is common to other kinases and hence these inhibitors lack specificity for Aurora A inhibition in particular, thus advocating the need of some alternative inhibition route. Previously, we identified TPX2 as a cellular target for withanone that selectively kill cancer cells. By computational approach, we found here that withanone binds to TPX2-Aurora A complex. In experiment, withanone treatment to cancer cells indeed resulted in dissociation of TPX2-Aurora A complex and disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus proposing this as a mechanism of the anticancer activity of withanone. From docking analysis, non-formation/disruption of the active TPX2-Aurora A association complex could be discerned. Our MD simulation results suggesting the thermodynamic and structural stability of TPX2-Aurora A in complex with withanone further substantiates the binding. We report a computational rationale of the ability of naturally occurring withanone to alter the kinase signalling pathway in an ATP-independent manner and experimental evidence in which withanone cause inactivation of the TPX2-Aurora A complex. The study demonstrated that TPX2-Aurora A complex is a target of withanone, a potential natural anticancer drug.

  20. Structure and Potential Cellular Targets of HAMLET-like Anti-Cancer Compounds made from Milk Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Emma M; Duff, Anthony P; Håkansson, Anders P; Vacher, Catherine S; Liu, Guo Jun; Knott, Robert B; Church, William Bret

    2015-01-01

    The HAMLET family of compounds (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumours) was discovered during studies on the properties of human milk, and is a class of protein-lipid complexes having broad spectrum anti-cancer, and some specific anti-bacterial properties. The structure of HAMLET-like compounds consists of an aggregation of partially unfolded protein making up the majority of the compound's mass, with fatty acid molecules bound in the hydrophobic core. This is a novel protein-lipid structure and has only recently been derived by small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The structure is the basis of a novel cytotoxicity mechanism responsible for anti-cancer activity to all of the around 50 different cancer cell types for which the HAMLET family has been trialled. Multiple cytotoxic mechanisms have been hypothesised for the HAMLET-like compounds, but it is not yet clear which of those are the initiating cytotoxic mechanism(s) and which are subsequent activities triggered by the initiating mechanism(s). In addition to the studies into the structure of these compounds, this review presents the state of knowledge of the anti-cancer aspects of HAMLET-like compounds, the HAMLET-induced cytotoxic activities to cancer and non-cancer cells, and the several prospective cell membrane and intracellular targets of the HAMLET family. The emerging picture is that HAMLET-like compounds initiate their cytotoxic effects on what may be a cancer-specific target in the cell membrane that has yet to be identified. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  1. Bacterial biosynthesis and maturation of the didemnin anti-cancer agents

    KAUST Repository

    Xü, Ying

    2012-05-23

    The anti-neoplastic agent didemnin B from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum solidum was the first marine drug to be clinically tested in humans. Because of its limited supply and its complex cyclic depsipeptide structure, considerable challenges were encountered during didemnin B\\'s development that continue to limit aplidine (dehydrodidemnin B), which is currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials. Herein we show that the didemnins are bacterial products produced by the marine α-proteobacteria Tistrella mobilis and Tistrella bauzanensis via a unique post-assembly line maturation process. Complete genome sequence analysis of the 6,513,401 bp T. mobilis strain KA081020-065 with its five circular replicons revealed the putative didemnin biosynthetic gene cluster (did) on the 1,126,962 bp megaplasmid pTM3. The did locus encodes a 13-module hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase enzyme complex organized in a collinear arrangement for the synthesis of the fatty acylglutamine ester derivatives didemnins X and Y rather than didemnin B as first anticipated. Imaging mass spectrometry of T. mobilis bacterial colonies captured the time-dependent extracellular conversion of the didemnin X and Y precursors to didemnin B, in support of an unusual post-synthetase activation mechanism. Significantly, the discovery of the didemnin biosynthetic gene cluster may provide a long-term solution to the supply problem that presently hinders this group of marine natural products and pave the way for the genetic engineering of new didemnin congeners. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Combining Targeted Agents With Modern Radiotherapy in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A.; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with extremity STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing agents could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with agents modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery provides an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted agents to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640

  3. Synthesis of Triazole Derivatives of Levoglucosenone As Promising Anticancer Agents: Effective Exploration of the Chemical Space through retro-aza-Michael//aza-Michael Isomerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Borini Etichetti, Carla M; Di Benedetto, Carolina; Girardini, Javier E; Martins, Felipe Terra; Spanevello, Rolando A; Suárez, Alejandra G; Sarotti, Ariel M

    2018-03-08

    The design and synthesis of biomass-derived triazoles and the in vitro evaluation as potential anticancer agents are described. The discovery of base-catalyzed retro-aza-Michael//aza-Michael isomerizations allowed the exploration of the chemical space by affording novel types of triazoles, difficult to obtain otherwise. Following this strategy, 2,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles could be efficiently obtained from the corresponding 1,4-disubstituted analogues.

  4. First report of anti-cancer agent, lapachol producing endophyte, Aspergillus niger of Tabebuia argentea and its in vitro cytotoxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Channabasava; Melappa Govindappa

    2014-01-01

    All parts of Tabebuia argentia were used for isolation and identified the lapachol producing endophytes were used for evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity (antimitotic, antiproliferative, determination of cell viability, DNA fragmentation). Five endophytes (leaf endophytes, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Aspegerillus niger, Penicillium sp. and the bark endophyte, A. alternata) are able to produce potent anticancer agent lapachol. The 3rd and 4th fractions of endophytic extracts (A. nige...

  5. Drug repurposing of novel quinoline acetohydrazide derivatives as potent COX-2 inhibitors and anti-cancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Chelli Sai; Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Siva Kumar, B.; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara

    2018-02-01

    Novel QuinolineAcetohydrazide (QAh) derivatives (9a-n) were firstly evaluated in silico to determine their anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer efficacy via the mechanisms of COX1 and COX2 inhibition, and NF-ĸB, HDAC and Human Topoisomerase I pathways respectively. In the studied set, the trifluoro substituted QAh derivatives: (E)-N'-(4-(trifluoro methyl) benzylidene)-2-(7-fluoro-2-methoxy quinolin-8-yl) acetohydrazid and (E)-N'-(3-(trifluoro methyl) benzylidene)-2-(7-fluoro-2-methoxy quinolin-8-yl) acetohydrazide are determined to be potential leads, indicated from their best docked scores, relative ligand efficiency, and significant structural attributes evaluated by ab initio simulations. The only setback being their partition co-efficient that retrieved a red flag in the evaluation of their Lipinski parameters. The experimental in vitro studies confirmed the significant enhancement as COX-2 inhibitors and appreciable enhancement in MTT assay of breast and skin cancer cell lines. Significantly, trifluoro substituent in the quinoline scaffold can be reasoned to note the excellent binding affinity to all the evaluated drug targets.

  6. Evaluation of SD-208, a TGF-β-RI Kinase Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent in Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puran Fadakar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children resulting from genetic alterations and transformation of mature retinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SD-208, TGF-β-RI kinase inhibitor, on the expression of some miRNAs including a miR-17/92 cluster in retinoblastoma cells. Prior to initiate this work, the cell proliferation was studied by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT and bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU assays. Then, the expression patterns of four miRNAs (18a, 20a, 22, and 34a were investigated in the treated SD-208 (0.0, 1, 2 and 3 µM and untreated Y-79 cells. A remarkable inhibition of the cell proliferation was found in Y-79 cells treated with SD-208 versus untreated cells. Also, the expression changes were observed in miRNAs 18a, 20a, 22 and 34a in response to SD-208 treatment (P<0.05. The findings of the present study suggest that the anti-cancer effect of SD-208 may be exerted due to the regulation of specific miRNAs, at least in this particular retinoblastoma cell line. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the SD-208 could alter the expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs as well as oncomiRs in vitro. In conclusion, the present data suggest that SD-208 could be an alternative agent in retinoblastoma treatment.

  7. Comparison of the crystal structures of the potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent regorafenib and its monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng Ying; Wu, Su Xiang; Zhou, Xin Bo; Gu, Jian Ming; Hu, Xiu Rong

    2016-04-01

    Regorafenib {systematic name: 4-[4-({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethy)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)-3-fluorophenoxy]-1-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide}, C21H15ClF4N4O3, is a potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent that possesses various activities on the VEGFR, PDGFR, raf and/or flt-3 kinase signaling molecules. The compound has been crystallized as polymorphic form I and as the monohydrate, C21H15ClF4N4O3·H2O. The regorafenib molecule consists of biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units linked by an ether group. A comparison of both forms shows that they differ in the relative orientation of the biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units, due to different rotations around the ether group, as measured by the C-O-C bond angles [119.5 (3)° in regorafenib and 116.10 (15)° in the monohydrate]. Meanwhile, the conformational differences are reflected in different hydrogen-bond networks. Polymorphic form I contains two intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the regorafenib molecules into an infinite molecular chain along the b axis. In the monohydrate, the presence of the solvent water molecule results in more abundant hydrogen bonds. The water molecules act as donors and acceptors, forming N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen-bond interactions. Thus, R4(2)(28) ring motifs are formed, which are fused to form continuous spiral ring motifs along the a axis. The (trifluoromethyl)phenyl rings protrude on the outside of these motifs and interdigitate with those of adjacent ring motifs, thereby forming columns populated by halogen atoms.

  8. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Liqing; Kang, Lin; Jin, Mingji; Sun, Ping; Xin, Xin; Gao, Zhonggao; Bae, You Han

    2017-06-01

    Anticancer therapy has always been a vital challenge for the development of nanomedicine. Repeated single therapeutic agent may lead to undesirable and severe side effects, unbearable toxicity and multidrug resistance due to complex nature of tumor. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy can synergistically improve antitumor outcomes through multiple-target therapy, decreasing the dose of each therapeutic agent and reducing side effects. There are versatile combinational anticancer strategies such as chemotherapeutic combination, nucleic acid-based co-delivery, intrinsic sensitive and extrinsic stimulus combinational patterns. Based on these combination strategies, various nanocarriers and drug delivery systems were engineered to carry out the efficient co-delivery of combined therapeutic agents for combination anticancer therapy. This review focused on illustrating nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs for synergistically improving anticancer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in vitro release kinetics of polyaspartamide-based conjugates containing antimalarial and anticancer agents for combination therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is treated by combination of two drugs in order to overcome drug resistance. Antimalarials have been found to be more effective by combining them with low doses of anticancer drugs. Polymer-drug conjugates containing aminoquinoline...

  10. Repositioning Clofazimine as a Macrophage-Targeting Photoacoustic Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Rahul K; Tian, Chao; Peryea, Tyler; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding; Rosania, Gus R

    2016-03-22

    Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a deep-tissue imaging modality, with potential clinical applications in the diagnosis of arthritis, cancer and other disease conditions. Here, we identified Clofazimine (CFZ), a red-pigmented dye and anti-inflammatory FDA-approved drug, as a macrophage-targeting photoacoustic (PA) imaging agent. Spectroscopic experiments revealed that CFZ and its various protonated forms yielded optimal PAT signals at wavelengths -450 to 540 nm. CFZ's macrophage-targeting chemical and structural forms were detected with PA microscopy at a high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR > 22 dB) as well as with macroscopic imaging using synthetic gelatin phantoms. In vivo, natural and synthetic CFZ formulations also demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity. Finally, the injection of CFZ was monitored via a real-time ultrasound-photoacoustic (US-PA) dual imaging system in a live animal and clinically relevant human hand model. These results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory drug repurposing strategy, while identifying a new PA contrast agent with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis.

  11. A PSMA-targeted theranostic agent for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chatterjee, Samit; Lisok, Ala; Minn, Il; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Wharram, Bryan; Wang, Yuchuan; Jin, Jiefu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2017-02-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in the epithelium of prostate cancer and in the neovasculature of many non-prostate solid tumors. PSMA has been increasingly used as a target for cancer imaging and therapy. Here we describe a low-molecular-weight theranostic photosensitizer, YC-9, for PSMA-targeted optical imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). YC-9 was synthesized by conjugating IRDye700DX N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester with a PSMA targeting Lys-Glu urea through a lysine-suberate linker in suitable yield. Optical imaging in vivo demonstrated PSMA-specific tumor uptake of YC-9 with rapid clearance from non-target tissues. PSMA-specific cell kill was demonstrated with YC-9in vitro through PDT in PSMA + PC3-PIP and PSMA - PC3-flu cells. In vivo PDT in mice bearing PSMA + PC3-PIP tumors at 4h post-injection of YC-9 (A total of four PDT sessions were performed, 48h apart) resulted in significant tumor growth delay, while tumors in control groups continued to grow. PDT with YC-9 significantly increased the median survival of the PSMA + PC3-PIP tumor mice (56.5days) compared to control groups [23.5-30.0days, including untreated, light alone, YC-9 alone (without light) and non-targeted IRDye700DX PDT treatment groups], without noticeable toxicity at the doses used. This study proves in principle that YC-9 is a promising therapeutic agent for targeted PDT of PSMA-expressing tissues, such as prostate tumors, and may also be useful against non-prostate tumors by virtue of neovascular PSMA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Doxorubicin-conjugated core-shell magnetite nanoparticles as dual-targeting carriers for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighian, Somayeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    The present study reports the successful synthesis of core-shell nanostructures composed of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) conjugated to the anticancer drug doxorubicin, intended for dual targeting of the drug to the tumor sites via a combination of the magnetic attraction and the pH-sensitive cleavage of the drug-particle linkages along with a longer circulation time and reduced side effects. To improve the carrier biocompatibility, the prepared nanocarrier was, finally coated by chitosan. FT-IR analysis confirmed the synthesis of functionalized Fe3O4-NPs, doxorubicin-conjugated Fe3O4-NPs, and chitosan-coated nanocarriers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the formation of spherical nanostructures with the final average particle size of around 50 nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis showed that the saturation magnetization value (Ms) of carrier was 6 emu/g. The drug release behavior from the nanocarriers was investigated both in acidic and neutral buffered solutions (pH values of 5.3 and 7.4, respectively) and showed two-fold increase in the extent of drug release at pH 5.3 compared to pH 7.4 during 7 days. The results showed that the dual-targeting nanocarriers responded successfully to the external magnetic field and pH. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that this methodology can be used to target and improve therapeutic efficacy of the anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Mn(II) complex of boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) loaded graphene oxide as both LED light and H2O2 enhanced anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Lei; Shao, Jian; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Li, Cheng-Hao; Kong, Meng-Yun; Fang, Fang; Ji, Ling; Boison, Daniel; Huang, Tao; Gao, Jing; Feng, Chang-Jian

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cells are more susceptible to H2O2 induced cell death than normal cells. H2O2-activatable and O2-evolving nanoparticles could be used as photodynamic therapy agents in hypoxic environments. In this report, a photo-active Mn(II) complex of boradiazaindacene derivatives (Mn1) was used as a dioxygen generator under irradiation with LED light in water. Moreover, the in vitro biological evaluation for Mn1 and its loaded graphene oxide (herein called Mn1@GO) on HepG-2 cells in normal and hypoxic conditions has been performed. In particular, Mn1@GO can react with H2O2 resulting active anticancer species, which show high inhibition on both HepG-2 cells and CoCl2-treated HepG-2 cells (hypoxic cancer cells). The mechanism of LED light enhanced anticancer activity for Mn1@GO on HepG-2 cells was discussed. Our results show that Mn(II) complexes of boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) derivatives loaded GO can be both LED light and H2O2-activated anticancer agents in hypoxic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the antiproliferative effects of 3-deazaneoplanocin A in combination with standard anticancer agents in rhabdoid tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, Rebekka; Borchardt, Christiane; Clemens, Dagmar; Kool, Marcel; Dirksen, Uta; Frühwald, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with a rather poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches and optimization of already established treatment protocols are urgently needed. The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is highly overexpressed in RTs and associated strongly with epigenetic silencing in cancer. EZH2 is involved in aggressive cell growth and stem cell maintenance. Thus, EZH2 is an attractive therapeutic target in RTs. The aim of the study presented here was to analyze the effects of a pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs on RTs cells in vitro. The antitumor activity of the S-adenosyl-homocysteine-hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) alone and in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs (doxorubicin, etoposide) or epigenetic active compounds [5-Aza-CdR, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] was assessed by MTT cell proliferation assays on three RT cell lines (A204, BT16, G401). Combinatorial treatment with DZNep synergistically and significantly enhanced the antiproliferative activity of etoposide, 5-Aza-CdR, and SAHA. In functional analyses, pretreatment with DZNep significantly increased the effects of 5-Aza-CdR and SAHA on apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and clonogenicity. Microarray analyses following sequential treatment with DZNep and 5-Aza-CdR or SAHA showed changes in global gene expression affecting apoptosis, neuronal development, and metabolic processes. In-vitro analyses presented here show that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 synergistically affects the antitumor activity of the epigenetic active compounds 5-Aza-CdR and SAHA. Sequential treatment with these drugs combined with DZNep may represent a new therapeutic approach in RTs.

  15. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dexin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid–polyethylene glycol/gadolinium–diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. The PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA–PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd–DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was −12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed (r = 0.987. The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd–DTPA. PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular

  16. New Acridine Thiourea Gold(I) Anticancer Agents: Targeting the Nucleus and Inhibiting Vasculogenic Mimicry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perez, S.A.; de Haro, C.; Vicente, C.; Donaire, A.; Zamora, A.; Zajac, Juraj; Kostrhunová, Hana; Brabec, Viktor; Bautista, D.; Ruiz, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), s. 1524-1537 ISSN 1554-8929 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09436S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : heterocyclic carbene complexes * inflammatory breast-cancer Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.995, year: 2016

  17. Chemical profiling of the genome with anti-cancer drugs defines target specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baoxu; de Jong, Johann; Qiao, Xiaohang; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Neefjes, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Many anticancer drugs induce DNA breaks to eliminate tumor cells. The anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitors additionally cause histone eviction. Here, we performed genome-wide high-resolution mapping of chemotherapeutic effects of various topoisomerase I and II (TopoI and II) inhibitors and integrated this mapping with established maps of genomic or epigenomic features to show their activities in different genomic regions. The TopoI inhibitor topotecan and the TopoII inhibitor etoposide are similar in inducing DNA damage at transcriptionally active genomic regions. The anthracycline daunorubicin induces DNA breaks and evicts histones from active chromatin, thus quenching local DNA damage responses. Another anthracycline, aclarubicin, has a different genomic specificity and evicts histones from H3K27me3-marked heterochromatin, with consequences for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells with elevated levels of H3K27me3. Modifying anthracycline structures may yield compounds with selectivity for different genomic regions and activity for different tumor types.

  18. Anticancer sulfonamides target splicing by inducing RBM39 degradation via recruitment to DCAF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting; Goralski, Maria; Gaskill, Nicholas; Capota, Emanuela; Kim, Jiwoong; Ting, Tabitha C; Xie, Yang; Williams, Noelle S; Nijhawan, Deepak

    2017-04-28

    Indisulam is an aryl sulfonamide drug with selective anticancer activity. Its mechanism of action and the basis for its selectivity have so far been unknown. Here we show that indisulam promotes the recruitment of RBM39 (RNA binding motif protein 39) to the CUL4-DCAF15 E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to RBM39 polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Mutations in RBM39 that prevent its recruitment to CUL4-DCAF15 increase RBM39 stability and confer resistance to indisulam's cytotoxicity. RBM39 associates with precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing factors, and inactivation of RBM39 by indisulam causes aberrant pre-mRNA splicing. Many cancer cell lines derived from hematopoietic and lymphoid lineages are sensitive to indisulam, and their sensitivity correlates with DCAF15 expression levels. Two other clinically tested sulfonamides, tasisulam and chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide, share the same mechanism of action as indisulam. We propose that DCAF15 expression may be a useful biomarker to guide clinical trials of this class of drugs, which we refer to as SPLAMs (splicing inhibitor sulfonamides). Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Targeting Reactive Carbonyl Species with Natural Sequestering Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars are highly reactive due to their electrophilic nature, and are able to easily react with the nucleophilic sites of proteins as well as DNA causing cellular dysfunction. Levels of reactive carbonyl species and their reaction products have been reported to be elevated in various chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to identify sequestering agents for reactive carbonyl species, various analytical techniques such as spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, western blot, and mass spectrometry have been utilized. In particular, recent advances using a novel high resolution mass spectrometry approach allows screening of complex mixtures such as natural products for their sequestering ability of reactive carbonyl species. To overcome the limited bioavailability and bioefficacy of natural products, new techniques using nanoparticles and nanocarriers may offer a new attractive strategy for increased in vivo utilization and targeted delivery of bioactives.

  20. Non-conventional dosing of oral anticancer agents in oncology and malignant haematology: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbari, Faouzi; Stoner, Nicola; Lavender, Verna

    2017-12-06

    Recent advances in cancer therapeutics have resulted in significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival for patients. Targeted oral systemic anticancer therapies (SACT) offer a range of treatment approaches that differ from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy: non-cytotoxic oral SACT target malignant disease continuously, have less broad and more favourable safety profiles, which can improve patients' quality of life (QoL). Toxicities associated with daily oral SACT administration can, however, result in non-adherence and a reduced QoL. Non-conventional dosing of oral SACT, where unlicensed doses/schedules of drugs are prescribed, is one approach increasingly adopted by clinicians to reduce toxicities and subsequent non-adherence and to improve QoL. Guidance governing this practice is, however, limited. This systematic review aims to identify evidence about prescribing practices of, and outcomes from, non-conventional dosing of oral SACT in oncology and malignant haematology. A search using the following electronic databases will be conducted: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Cochrane Registry of Controlled Trials. Studies will be selected based on predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Critical appraisal will be conducted to identify potential biases, strengths and limitations of included studies. Extracted data will be tabulated to sort and summarise key findings. An initial literature search indicated that studies reporting non-standard dosing of oral SACT intervention studies are diverse and heterogeneous in study design. Extracted data will, therefore, be tabulated, and together with a narrative synthesis of integrated key findings, will be presented and discussed in reference to the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence base. If sufficient stratified data is available (e.g. age group, tumour type, disease stage) or intervention (drug, dosing schedule), sub-group analysis

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs as anti-cancer and anti-microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Nam, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, a series of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs were synthesized and then evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines, e.g. lung cancer (A549), ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3), skin cancer (SK-MEL-2), and colon cancer (HCT15), as well as anti-microbial activities against three microbes, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Aspergillus niger. The title compounds were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation reaction of benzyl cyanide or p-nitrobenzyl cyanide with substituted benzaldehydes in good yields. Most of the compounds exhibited significant suppressive activities against the growth of all cancer cell lines. Compound 3c was most active in inhibiting the growth of A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 cells lines with IC50 values of 0.57, 0.14, 0.65, and 0.34 mg/mL, respectively, followed by compounds 3f, 3i, and 3h. Compound 3c exhibited 2.4 times greater cytotoxic activity against HCT15 cells, whereas it showed similar potency against SK-OV-3 cells to that of the standard anti-cancer agent doxorubicin. Structure-activity relationship study revealed that electron-donating groups at the para-position of phenyl ring B were more favorable for improved cytotoxic activity, whereas the presence of electron-withdrawing groups was unfavorable compare to unsubstituted acrylonitrile. An optimal electron density on phenyl ring A of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs was crucial for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines used in the present study. Qualitative structure-cytotoxic activity relationships were studied using physicochemical parameters; a good correlation between calculated polar surface area (PSA), a lipophobic parameter, and cytotoxic activity was found. Moreover, all compounds showed significant anti-bacterial activities against S. typhi, whereas compound 3k showed potent inhibition against both S. aureus and S. typhi bacterial strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  2. Sonophore labeled RGD: a targeted contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedicke, Katja; Brand, Christian; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Reiner, Thomas; Grimm, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is a rapidly expanding field for the diagnosis, characterization, and treatment evaluation of cancer. However, the availability of tumor specific exogenous contrast agents is still limited. Here, we report on a small targeted contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging using a black hole quencher ® (BHQ) dye. The sonophore BHQ-1 exhibited strong, concentration-dependent, optoacoustic signals in phantoms, demonstrating its ideal suitability for optoacoustic imaging. After labeling BHQ-1 with cyclic RGD-peptide, BHQ-1-cRGD specifically bound to α v β 3 -integrin expressing glioblastoma cell spheroids in vitro . The excellent optoacoustic properties of BHQ-1-cRGD could furthermore be proven in vivo . Together with this emerging imaging modality, our sonophore labeled small peptide probe offers new possibilities for non-invasive detection of molecular structures with high resolution in vivo and furthers the specificity of optoacoustic imaging. Ultimately, the discovery of tailor-made sonophores might offer new avenues for various molecular optoacoustic imaging applications, similar to what we see with fluorescence imaging.

  3. Sonophore labeled RGD: a targeted contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Haedicke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic imaging is a rapidly expanding field for the diagnosis, characterization, and treatment evaluation of cancer. However, the availability of tumor specific exogenous contrast agents is still limited. Here, we report on a small targeted contrast agent for optoacoustic imaging using a black hole quencher® (BHQ dye. The sonophore BHQ-1 exhibited strong, concentration-dependent, optoacoustic signals in phantoms, demonstrating its ideal suitability for optoacoustic imaging. After labeling BHQ-1 with cyclic RGD-peptide, BHQ-1-cRGD specifically bound to αvβ3-integrin expressing glioblastoma cell spheroids in vitro. The excellent optoacoustic properties of BHQ-1-cRGD could furthermore be proven in vivo. Together with this emerging imaging modality, our sonophore labeled small peptide probe offers new possibilities for non-invasive detection of molecular structures with high resolution in vivo and furthers the specificity of optoacoustic imaging. Ultimately, the discovery of tailor-made sonophores might offer new avenues for various molecular optoacoustic imaging applications, similar to what we see with fluorescence imaging.

  4. Design, synthesis and molecular modeling studies of novel thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as potential anti-cancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Vivek; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A series of novel thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives 4a-x have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for potential anti-cancer activity. The anti-cancer activity of synthesized compounds 4a-x were evaluated against selected human cancer cell line of breast (MCF-7) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Among the synthesized compounds, 4x having 2-cyano phenyl group showed significant cytotoxic activity which is comparable to that of adriamycin as standard anti-cancer drug. The SAR study revealed that the substituted phenyl group on oxadiazole ring attached to thiazolidine-2,4-dione moiety showed significant growth inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line. The result of molecular modeling studies showed that compounds 4f, 4o and 4x having similar structural alignment as crystal ligand of protein.

  5. GOLGA2/GM130, cis-Golgi matrix protein, is a novel target of anticancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Hong, Seong-Ho; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kang, Bitna; Park, Sungjin; Han, Kiwon; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-11-01

    Achievement of long-term survival of patients with lung cancer treated with conventional chemotherapy is still difficult for treatment of metastatic and advanced tumors. Despite recent progress in investigational therapies, survival rates are still disappointingly low and novel adjuvant and systemic therapies are urgently needed. A recently elucidated secretory pathway is attracting considerable interest as a promising anticancer target. The cis-Golgi matrix protein, GOLGA2/GM130, plays an important role in glycosylation and transport of protein in the secretory pathway. In this study, the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs targeting GOLGA2/GM130 (shGOLGA2) on autophagy and lung cancer growth were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of GOLGA2/GM130 led to induction of autophagy and inhibition of glycosylation in A549 cells and in the lungs of K-ras(LA1) mice. Furthermore, downregulation of GOLGA2/GM130 decreased angiogenesis and cancer cell invasion in vitro and suppressed tumorigenesis in lung cancer mice model. The tumor specificity of sequence targeting GOLGA2/GM130 was also demonstrated. Taken together, these results suggest that induction of autophagy by shGOLGA2 may induce cell death rather than cell survival. Therefore, downregulation of GOLGA2/GM130 may be a potential therapeutic option for lung cancer.

  6. Mitocans: Mitochondrial targeted anti-cancer drugs as improved therapies and related patent documents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ralph, S.J.; Low, P.; Dong, L.; Lawen, A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2006), s. 327-346 ISSN 1574-8928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mitocans * vitamin E analogues * mitochondria-based targeting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Collagen based magnetic nanobiocomposite as MRI contrast agent and for targeted delivery in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A; Sekar, S; Kanagavel, M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, A; Sastry, T P

    2013-10-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made with the advent of technology to prepare a multifunctional nanobiocomposite (NBC) for targeted drug delivery in cancer therapy. Collagen (C) was fabricated as nanofibers with multifunctional moieties viz. CFeAb*D by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe), coupling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antibody (Ab*) and loading an anticancer gemcitabine drug (D). This NBC was characterized by conventional methods and evaluated for its biological activities. The UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed the fluorescein to protein ratio and revealed the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles and their interaction with the collagen molecules, respectively. While SDS-PAGE showed the proteinaceous nature of collagen, VSM and TEM studies revealed magnetic saturation as 54.97emu/g and a magnetic nanoparticle with a diameter in the range of 10-30nm and the dimension of nanofiber ranging from 97 to 270nm. A MRI scan has shown a super paramagnetic effect, which reveals that the prepared NBC can be used as a MRI contrast agent. The MTT assay has shown biocompatibility and an apoptotic effect while phase contrast microscopy exhibited receptor mediated uptake of endocytosis. The novelty in the prepared NBC lies in the collagen nanofibers, which have a higher penetrating property without causing much cell damage, biocompatibility and multifunctional properties and is able to carry multifunctional agents. The study has demonstrated the possible use of CFeAb*D as a multifunctional NBC for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxicity and cell death mechanisms induced by the polyamine-vectorized anti-cancer drug F14512 targeting topoisomerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brel, Viviane; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Vispé, Stéphane; Kruczynski, Anna; Bailly, Christian; Guilbaud, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The polyamines transport system (PTS) is usually enhanced in cancer cells and can be exploited to deliver anticancer drugs. The spermine-conjugated epipodophyllotoxin derivative F14512 is a topoisomerase II poison that exploits the PTS to target preferentially tumor cells. F14512 has been characterized as a potent anticancer drug candidate and is currently in phase 1 clinical trials. Here we have analyzed the mechanisms of cell death induced by F14512, compared to the parent drug etoposide lacking the polyamine tail. F14512 proved to be >30-fold more cytotoxic than etoposide against A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells and triggers less but unrecoverable DNA damages. The cytotoxic action of F14512 is extremely rapid (within 3 h) and does not lead to a marked accumulation in the S-phase of the cell cycle, unlike etoposide. Interestingly, A549 cells treated with F14512 were less prone to undergo apoptosis (neither caspases-dependent nor caspases-independent pathways) or autophagy but preferentially entered into senescence. Drug-induced senescence was characterized qualitatively and quantitatively by an increased β-galactosidase activity, both by cytochemical staining and by flow cytometry. A morphological analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous multi-lamellar and vesicular bodies and large electron-lucent (methuosis-like) vacuoles in F14512-treated cell samples. The mechanism of drug-induced cell death is thus distinct for F14512 compared to etoposide, and this difference may account for their distinct pharmacological profiles and the markedly superior activity of F14512 in vivo. This study suggests that senescence markers should be considered as potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers of F14512 antitumor activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can the chemotherapeutic agents perform anticancer activity through miRNA expression regulation? Proposing a new hypothesis [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Doss, C George Priya; Sarin, Renu; Hsu, Minna J; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2015-11-01

    In the recent advancement of cancer therapy, mortality of the immortal cancer cells begins to decline, and it shows great promise for the chemotherapy regimen supported by targeted therapy. In this post-genomic era boosted by the discovery of microRNA (miRNA), it has been understood that miRNA regulates gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. On the other hand, some studies have also indicated that miRNA expression level has changed during the treatment of chemotherapy. Data based on various previous studies, we propose that the chemotherapeutic agents modulate miRNA expression that might perform anticancerous activities through cellular changes such as DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis.

  10. Anti-cancer agents based on 4-(hetero)Ary1-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl Amino derivatives and a method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A.; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-29

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. ##STR00001## In particular, the invention relates N-substituted derivatives of 4-(hetero)aryl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl amines having the structural Formula (I) and (II), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. Meaning of R1 and R2 in the Formula (I) and (II) are defined in claim 1. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  11. N-Phenyl-2-p-tolylthiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives: Syn-thesis and cytotoxicity evaluation as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: A new series of phenylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and their anticancer activity was assessed against cancerous cell lines. More structural modifications and derivatization is necessary to achieve to the more potent compounds.       

  12. Vitamin E analogs, a novel group of "mitocans," as anticancer agents: The importance of being redox-silent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Tomasetti, M.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, L.F.; Birringer, M.; Wang, X. F.; Low, P.; Wu, K.; Salvatore, B.A.; Ralph, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 5 (2007), s. 1185-1199 ISSN 0026-895X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : vitamin E analogs * redox-silence * anticancer drugs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.622, year: 2007

  13. Liquid Chromatography - Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry : The gold standard for quantitative bioanalysis of anti-cancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the pharmacologic mechanisms of action, efficacy and toxicity of any anti-cancer drug it is important to know how the compound is transformed in the body: either into active metabolites or inactive and toxic (degradation) products. This information may lead to the success or failure of

  14. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  15. Pyrrolo[1,5]benzoxa(thia)zepines as a new class of potent apoptotic agents. Biological studies and identification of an intracellular location of their drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Gee, Margaret M; Gemma, Sandra; Butini, Stefania; Ramunno, Anna; Zisterer, Daniela M; Fattorusso, Caterina; Catalanotti, Bruno; Kukreja, Gagan; Fiorini, Isabella; Pisano, Claudio; Cucco, Carla; Novellino, Ettore; Nacci, Vito; Williams, D Clive; Campiani, Giuseppe

    2005-06-30

    We have recently developed five novel pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines as proapoptotic agents. Their JNK-dependent induction of apoptosis in tumor cells suggested their potential as novel anticancer agents. The core structure of the apoptotic agent 6 was investigated, and the SARs were expanded with the design and synthesis of several analogues. To define the apoptotic mechanism of the new compounds and the localization of their drug target, two analogues of 6 were designed and synthesized to delineate events leading to JNK activation. The cell-penetrating compound 16 induced apoptosis in tumor cells, while its nonpenetrating analogue, 17, was incapable of inducing apoptosis or activating JNK. Plasma membrane permeabilization of tumor cells resulted in 17-induced JNK activation, suggesting that the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine molecular target is intracellular. Interestingly, compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines but demonstrated negligible toxicity in vivo with no effect on the animals' hematology parameters.

  16. Role of SNARE proteins in tumourigenesis and their potential as targets for novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianghui; Wang, Jiafu

    2015-08-01

    The function of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in cellular trafficking, membrane fusion and vesicle release in synaptic nerve terminals is well characterised. Recent studies suggest that SNAREs are also important in the control of tumourigenesis through the regulation of multiple signalling and transportation pathways. The majority of published studies investigated the effects of knockdown/knockout or overexpression of particular SNAREs on the normal function of cells as well as their dysfunction in tumourigenesis promotion. SNAREs are involved in the regulation of cancer cell invasion, chemo-resistance, the transportation of autocrine and paracrine factors, autophagy, apoptosis and the phosphorylation of kinases essential for cancer cell biogenesis. This evidence highlights SNAREs as potential targets for novel cancer therapy. This is the first review to summarise the expression and role of SNAREs in cancer biology at the cellular level, their interaction with non-SNARE proteins and modulation of cellular signalling cascades. Finally, a strategy is proposed for developing novel anti-cancer therapeutics using targeted delivery of a SNARE-inactivating protease into malignant cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cutaneous Adverse Events of Targeted Anticancer Therapy: A Review of Common Clinical Manifestations and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Han Kao

    2015-12-01

    The management of these side effects can be categorized into prophylaxis and reactive treatment. Systemic antibiotics and topical corticosteroid could possibly prevent or alleviate symptoms caused by EGFR inhibitors. The prevention of sun exposure is recommended to all patients on targeted therapy, and emollients and lubricants can be used to relieve and improve the hand-foot skin reaction.

  18. Efficacy of a non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D2 derived anti-cancer agent (MT19c and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3 xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.

  19. DNA-Destabilizing Agents as an Alternative Approach for Targeting DNA: Mechanisms of Action and Cellular Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Lenglet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA targeting drugs represent a large proportion of the actual anticancer drug pharmacopeia, both in terms of drug brands and prescription volumes. Small DNA-interacting molecules share the ability of certain proteins to change the DNA helix's overall organization and geometrical orientation via tilt, roll, twist, slip, and flip effects. In this ocean of DNA-interacting compounds, most stabilize both DNA strands and very few display helix-destabilizing properties. These types of DNA-destabilizing effect are observed with certain mono- or bis-intercalators and DNA alkylating agents (some of which have been or are being developed as cancer drugs. The formation of locally destabilized DNA portions could interfere with protein/DNA recognition and potentially affect several crucial cellular processes, such as DNA repair, replication, and transcription. The present paper describes the molecular basis of DNA destabilization, the cellular impact on protein recognition, and DNA repair processes and the latter's relationships with antitumour efficacy.

  20. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arodola OA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Olayide A Arodola, Mahmoud ES SolimanMolecular Modelling and Drug Design Lab, School of Health Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAbstract: Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI, was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, “loop docking” – an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach – followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =−9.2 kcal/mol when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 µM. Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =−9.0, −8.6, and −8.5 kcal/mol, respectively. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602 played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding

  1. Inhibitory effects of sizofiran on anticancer agent- or X-ray-induced sister chromatid exchanges and mitotic block in murine bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhi-Bo; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Arika, Tadashi; Hosokawa, Masuo.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of a biological response modifier (RRM), sizofiran, on sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the bone marrow cells of mice treated with various anticancer agents or irradiation were investigated. Sizofiran (10 mg/kg i.m.) inhibited SCEs induced by mitomycin C (2 mg/kg i.v.), adriamycin (20 mg/kg i.v.) and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg i.v.) by about 20%, respectively. Analysis of the SCEs in vivo after irradiation plus sizofiran indicated that SCE levels were significantly lower than those observed in mice exposed to irradiation without sizofiran. Moreover, the effects of sizofiran were dependent on the timing of administration. Our results indicated that sizofiran should be administered simultaneously or soon after irradiation in order to minimize damage. Sizofiran also markedly restored the bone marrow cell mitosis which had been suppressed by anticancer agents, and this action was closely correlated with the prevention of increase in SCEs. These results indicate that in addition to immunopotentiating activity, sizofiran may play a role in preventing chromosomal damage induced by cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (author)

  2. [Response of Pharmaceutical Companies to the Crisis of Post-Marketing Clinical Trials of Anti-Cancer Agents -- Results of Questionnaires to Pharmaceutical Companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshifusa

    2016-04-01

    Investigator-oriented post-marketing clinical trials of anti-cancer agents are faced to financial crisis due to drastic decrease in research-funds from pharmaceutical companies caused by a scandal in 2013. In order to assess the balance of research funds between 2012 and 2014, we made queries to 26 companies manufacturing anti-cancer agents, and only 10 of 26 responded to our queries. Decrease in the fund was observed in 5 of 10, no change in 1, increase in 3 and no answer in 1. Companies showed passive attitude to carry out doctor-oriented clinical trials of off-patent drugs or unapproved drugs according to advanced medical care B program, though some companies answered to proceed approved routines of these drugs if clinical trials showed good results. Most companies declined to make comments on the activity of Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), but some insisted to produce good corroboration between AMED and pharmaceutical companies in order to improve the quality of trials. Further corroboration must be necessary for this purpose among researchers, governmental administrative organs, pharmaceutical companies, patients' groups, and mass-media.

  3. Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), an anticancer agent, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in activated human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Han, Na-Ra; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-10-01

    Inflammation has been closely associated with the development and progression of cancer. Previously, we reported that mast cells play a critical role in tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an anticancer agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), on an activated human mast cell line, in this case HMC-1 cells. We evaluated the effect and specific molecular mechanism of Dp44mT on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) using HMC-1 cells. Here, we demonstrated that Dp44mT significantly decreased the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor without exposing activated HMC-1 cells to any cytotoxicity. In activated mast cells, Dp44mT mitigated the strong production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, in this case, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, through a blockade of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activities. Furthermore, phosphorylations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family included in inflammatory signaling cascades were significantly inhibited by a Dp44mT treatment. Overall, our results indicate that the anticancer agent Dp44mT has an anti-inflammatory effect and may be of therapeutic importance for the treatment of mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  4. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Darvishi, Behrad; Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi; Shahmoradi, Elnaz; Mohammadi, Ali; Javanbakht, Mehran; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • MIP-PEG-FA was synthesized as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery to cancerous cells. • Nanoparticles

  5. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darvishi, Behrad [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Elnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Ali [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh, E-mail: atyabifa@tums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • MIP-PEG-FA was synthesized as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery to cancerous cells. • Nanoparticles

  6. Prazosin Displays Anticancer Activity against Human Prostate Cancers: Targeting DNA, Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Chia Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinazoline-based α1,-adrenoceptor antagonists, in particular doxazosin, terazosin, are suggested to display antineoplastic activity against prostate cancers. However, there are few studies elucidating the effect of prazosin. In this study, prazosin displayed antiproliferative activity superior to that of other α1-blockers, including doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, phentolamine. Prazosin induced G2 checkpoint arrest, subsequent apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP cells. In p53-null PC-3 cells, prazosin induced an increase in DNA str, breaks, ATM/ATR checkpoint pathways, leading to the activation of downstream signaling cascades, including Cdc25c phosphorylation at Ser216, nuclear export of Cdc25c, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk 1 phosphorylation at Tyr15. The data, together with sustained elevated cyclin A levels (other than cyclin B1 levels, suggested that Cdki activity was inactivated by prazosin. Moreover, prazosin triggered mitochondria-mediated, caspaseexecuted apoptotic pathways in PC-3 cells. The oral administration of prazosin significantly reduced tumor mass in PC-3-derived cancer xenografts in nude mice. In summary, we suggest that prazosin is a potential antitumor agent that induces cell apoptosis through the induction of DNA damage stress, leading to Cdki inactivation, G2 checkpoint arrest. Subsequently, mitochondriamediated caspase cascades are triggered to induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells.

  7. Innovative strategy for treatment of lung cancer: targeted nanotechnology-based inhalation co-delivery of anticancer drugs and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratula, Oleh; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Chen, Alex M; Minko, Tamara

    2011-12-01

    A tumor targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN)-based drug delivery system (DDS) was developed for inhalation treatment of lung cancer. The system was capable of effectively delivering inside cancer cells anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and cisplatin) combined with two types of siRNA targeted to MRP1 and BCL2 mRNA for suppression of pump and nonpump cellular resistance in non-small cell lung carcinoma, respectively. Targeting of MSN to cancer cells was achieved by the conjugation of LHRH peptide on the surface of MSN via poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. The delivered anticancer drugs and siRNA preserved their specific activity leading to the cell death induction and inhibition of targeted mRNA. Suppression of cellular resistance by siRNA effectively delivered inside cancer cells and substantially enhanced the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. Local delivery of MSN by inhalation led to the preferential accumulation of nanoparticles in the mouse lungs, prevented the escape of MSN into the systemic circulation, and limited their accumulation in other organs. The experimental data confirm that the developed DDS satisfies the major prerequisites for effective treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Therefore, the proposed cancer-targeted MSN-based system for complex delivery of drugs and siRNA has high potential in the effective treatment of lung cancer.

  8. Comprehensive insight into the binding of sunitinib, a multi-targeted anticancer drug to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md. Zahirul; Tee, Wei-Ven; Mohamad, Saharuddin B.; Alias, Zazali; Tayyab, Saad

    2017-06-01

    Binding studies between a multi-targeted anticancer drug, sunitinib (SU) and human serum albumin (HSA) were made using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking analysis. Both fluorescence quenching data and UV-vis absorption results suggested formation of SU-HSA complex. Moderate binding affinity between SU and HSA was evident from the value of the binding constant (3.04 × 104 M-1), obtained at 298 K. Involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds as the leading intermolecular forces in the formation of SU-HSA complex was predicted from the thermodynamic data of the binding reaction. These results were in good agreement with the molecular docking analysis. Microenvironmental perturbations around Tyr and Trp residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural changes in HSA upon SU binding were evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism results. SU binding to HSA also improved the thermal stability of the protein. Competitive displacement results and molecular docking analysis revealed the binding locus of SU to HSA in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). The influence of a few common ions on the binding constant of SU-HSA complex was also noticed.

  9. Folate Receptor-targeted Bioflavonoid Genistein-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Anticancer Effect in Cervical Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Limei; Yu, Rufen; Hao, Xi; Ding, Xiangcui

    2017-08-01

    In this study, novel folic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticle was formulated for specific delivery of bioflavonoid, Genistein (GEN), to the cervical cancer cells. The prepared GEN-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GCN) and folic acid-conjugated GCN (FGCN) showed smaller size with a controlled drug release profile. FGCN exhibited enhanced internalization potential in HeLa cells than that of GCN. The specific internalization of FGCN was mainly due to the affinity of folic acid (FA) with FRs-α which is present in large numbers in HeLa cells. The results revealed that FGCN has a specific affinity towards HeLa cells that will contribute to the better treatment. Folic acid-tagged nanoformulations exhibited a superior cytotoxic effect compared to that of non-targeted formulations. Consistently, IC50 value of GEN decreased from 33.8 to 14.6 μg/ml when treated with FGCN after 24 h incubation. The apoptosis studies indicated that the FGCN nanoparticles were then either GCN or free GEN in terms of anticancer activity. Overall, results revealed that folate conjugation to the delivery system might have great effect on the survival of cervical cancers that will be beneficial for overall cancer treatment.

  10. Performance evaluation of structure based and ligand based virtual screening methods on ten selected anti-cancer targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Thilagavathi; Selvam, Chelliah

    2015-10-15

    Virtual screening has become an important tool in drug discovery process. Structure based and ligand based approaches are generally used in virtual screening process. To date, several benchmark sets for evaluating the performance of the virtual screening tool are available. In this study, our aim is to compare the performance of both structure based and ligand based virtual screening methods. Ten anti-cancer targets and their corresponding benchmark sets from 'Demanding Evaluation Kits for Objective In silico Screening' (DEKOIS) library were selected. X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes were selected based on their resolution. Openeye tools such as FRED, vROCS were used and the results were carefully analyzed. At EF1%, vROCS produced better results but at EF5% and EF10%, both FRED and ROCS produced almost similar results. It was noticed that the enrichment factor values were decreased while going from EF1% to EF5% and EF10% in many cases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lung cancer mutations and use of targeted agents in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, W Douglas; Chiappori, Alberto; Santiago, Pedro; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are expected to grow to over 24% of the USA population by 2050 and lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death among H/L men. Due to the information that is becoming available via genetic testing, lung cancer molecular profiling is allowing for increasing application of personalized lung cancer therapies. However, to benefit the most people, development of these therapies and genetic tests must include research on as many racial and ethnic groups as possible. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the fact that the mutations driving lung cancer in H/Ls differ in frequency and nature relative to the non-Hispanic White (WNH) majority that dominate current databases and participate in clinical trials that test new therapies. Clinical trials using new agents targeting genetic alterations (driver mutations) in lung cancer have demonstrated significant improvements in patient outcomes (for example, gefitinib, erlotinib or crizotinib for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions, respectively). The nature and frequencies of some lung cancer driver mutations have been shown to be considerably different among racial and ethnic groups. This is particularly true for H/Ls. For example, several reports suggest a dramatic shift in the mutation pattern from predominantly KRAS in a WNH population to predominantly EGFR in multiple H/L populations. However, these studies are limited, and the effects of racial and ethnic differences on the incidence of mutations in lung cancer remain incompletely understood. This review serves as a call to address this problem.

  12. QSAR Modeling on Benzo[c]phenanthridine Analogues as Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Anti-cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Ngoc-Phuong Huynh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzo[c]phenanthridine (BCP derivatives were identified as topoisomerase I (TOP-I targeting agents with pronounced antitumor activity. In this study, hologram-QSAR, 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were developed for BCPs on topoisomerase I inbibitory activity and cytotoxicity against seven tumor cell lines including RPMI8402, CPT-K5, P388, CPT45, KB3-1, KBV-1and KBH5.0. The hologram, 2D, and 3D-QSAR models were obtained with the square of correlation coefficient R2 = 0.58 − 0.77, the square of the crossvalidation coefficient q2 = 0.41 − 0.60 as well as the external set’s square of predictive correlation coefficient r2 = 0.51 − 0.80. Moreover, the assessment method based on reliability test with confidence level of 95% was used to validate the predictive power of QSAR models and to prevent over-fitting phenomenon of classical QSAR models. Our QSAR model could be applied to design new analogues of BCPs with higher antitumor and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity.

  13. Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of 1,3-bis(aryl)-2-nitro-1-propenes as a new class of anticancer agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNamara, Yvonne M.; Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Knox, Andrew J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Structural derivatives of 4-MTA, an illegal amphetamine analogue have been previously shown to have anticancer effects in vitro. In this study we report the synthesis of a series of novel 1,3-bis(aryl)-2-nitro-1-propene derivatives related in structure to 4-MTA. A number of these compounds...... of the serotonin transporter, a high affinity target for amphetamines and independent of protein tyrosine phosphatases and tubulin dynamics both of which have been previously associated with nitrostyrene-induced cell death. We demonstrate that a number of these compounds induce caspase activation, PARP cleavage...

  14. Novel 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Induces Anticancer Activity by Targeting NF-κB in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya Mohan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of NF-κB is linked with the progression of human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and blockade of NF-κB signaling could be a potential target in the treatment of several cancers. Therefore, designing of novel small molecule inhibitors that target NF-κB activation is of prime importance in the treatment of several cancers. In the present work, we report the synthesis of series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, investigated their anticancer potential against HCC cells, and identified 2-(3-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-5-(3-methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (CMO as the lead compound. Further, we examined the effect of CMO on cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry, apoptosis (annexin V-propidium iodide-FITC staining, and phosphorylation of NF-κB signaling pathway proteins (IκB and p65 in HCC cells. We found that CMO induced antiproliferative effect in dose- and time-dependent manner. Also, CMO significantly increased the percentage of sub-G1 cell population and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CMO found to decrease the phosphorylation of IκB (Ser 32 in the cytoplasmic extract and p65 (Ser 536 in the nuclear extract of HCC cells. It also abrogated the DNA binding ability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. CMO induced the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, transfection with p65 small interfering RNA blocks CMO-induced caspase-3/7 activation. Molecular docking analysis revealed that CMO interacts with the hydrophobic region of p65 protein. Thus, we are reporting CMO as an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. Targeted co-delivery of Beclin 1 siRNA and FTY720 to hepatocellular carcinoma by calcium phosphate nanoparticles for enhanced anticancer efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu JY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Yi Wu,1,* Zhong-Xia Wang,1,* Guang Zhang,1 Xian Lu,1 Guang-Hui Qiang,2 Wei Hu,2 An-Lai Ji,3 Jun-Hua Wu,4 Chun-Ping Jiang1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Drum Tower Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 3Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; 4Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: FTY720, known as fingolimod, is a new immunosuppressive agent with effective anticancer properties. Although it was recently confirmed that FTY720 inhibits cancer cell proliferation, FTY720 can also induce protective autophagy and reduce cytotoxicity. Blocking autophagy with Beclin 1 siRNA after treatment with FTY720 promotes apoptosis. The objective of this study was to enhance the anticancer effect of FTY720 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC by targeted co-delivery of FTY720 and Beclin 1 siRNA using calcium phosphate (CaP nanoparticles (NPs.Materials and methods: First, the siRNA was encapsulated within the CaP core. To form an asymmetric lipid bilayer structure, we then used an anionic lipid for the inner leaflet and a cationic lipid for the outer leaflet; after removing chloroform by rotary evaporation, these lipids were dispersed in a saline solution with FTY720. The NPs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cancer cell viability and cell death were analyzed by MTT assays, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and Western blotting. In addition, the in vivo effects of the NPs were investigated using an athymic nude mouse subcutaneous transplantation tumor model.Results: When the CaP NPs, called

  16. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-01-01

    In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade anticancer scenario with respect to top public funded universities worldwide.

  17. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Dara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR: India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade

  18. Clearing the Fog of Anticancer Patents from 1993–2013: Through an In-Depth Technology Landscape & Target Analysis from Pioneer Research Institutes and Universities Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): India’s largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. Methodology/Principal Findings The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. Conclusions/Significance The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade anticancer scenario

  19. KCN1, a Novel Synthetic Sulfonamide Anticancer Agent: In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activities and Preclinical Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xu; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wu, Xuming; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity and pharmacological properties of 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, KCN1. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activity of KCN1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of pancreatic cancer cells, using the MTT and BrdUrd assays, and flow cytometry. The in vivo anti-cancer effects of KCN1 were evaluated in two distinct xenograft models of pancreatic cancer. We also developed an HPLC method for the quantitation of the compound, and examined its stability in mouse plasma, plasma protein binding, and degradation by mouse S9 microsomal enzymes. Furthermore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of KCN1 following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in mice. Results showed that, in a dose-dependent manner, KCN1 inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, and showed in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing Panc-1 or Mia Paca-2 tumor xenografts. The HPLC method provided linear detection of KCN1 in all of the matrices in the range from 0.1 to 100 µM, and had a lower limit of detection of 0.085 µM in mouse plasma. KCN1 was very stable in mouse plasma, extensively plasma bound, and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. The pharmacokinetic studies indicated that KCN1 could be detected in all of the tissues examined, most for at least 24 h. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that KCN1 is a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, providing a basis for its future development. PMID:23028659

  20. KCN1, a novel synthetic sulfonamide anticancer agent: in vitro and in vivo anti-pancreatic cancer activities and preclinical pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity and pharmacological properties of 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-ylmethyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, KCN1. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activity of KCN1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of pancreatic cancer cells, using the MTT and BrdUrd assays, and flow cytometry. The in vivo anti-cancer effects of KCN1 were evaluated in two distinct xenograft models of pancreatic cancer. We also developed an HPLC method for the quantitation of the compound, and examined its stability in mouse plasma, plasma protein binding, and degradation by mouse S9 microsomal enzymes. Furthermore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of KCN1 following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in mice. Results showed that, in a dose-dependent manner, KCN1 inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, and showed in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing Panc-1 or Mia Paca-2 tumor xenografts. The HPLC method provided linear detection of KCN1 in all of the matrices in the range from 0.1 to 100 µM, and had a lower limit of detection of 0.085 µM in mouse plasma. KCN1 was very stable in mouse plasma, extensively plasma bound, and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. The pharmacokinetic studies indicated that KCN1 could be detected in all of the tissues examined, most for at least 24 h. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that KCN1 is a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, providing a basis for its future development.

  1. Tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G.; Abhinayaa, R.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.

    2018-05-01

    Functioning of ultrasonically prepared tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer system was investigated and the obtained results were compared with that of pure WO3 nanoparticles. Structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the prepared WO3 nanoparticles and WO3-GO nanocomposite were studied. Photocatalytic efficiency of the system on organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB, cationic) and indigo carmine (IC, anionic) was investigated. The enhanced efficiency of the WO3-GO nanocomposite system was evaluated under sunlight and compared with that of pure WO3. The degradation efficiency values for MB and IC were found to be 97.03% and 95.43% at 180 and 120 min respectively. Antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite under visible light was tested and improved inhibition results were observed for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after 6 h of light exposure. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency and antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite are attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate. Investigation on anticancer activity of WO3-GO nanocomposite was tested on human lung cancer (A-549) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 139.6 ± 4.53 μg/mL. The results obtained in this study may be used as a platform for the development of photocatalysis applications based on WO3-GO nanocomposite.

  2. Synthesis and anticancer activity of some novel indolo[3,2-b]andrographolide derivatives as apoptosis-inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yaping; Xin, Zhengyuan; Wan, Yumeng; Li, Jiabin; Ye, Boping; Xue, Xiaowen

    2015-01-27

    A series of novel indolo[3,2-b]andrographolide derivatives were designed, synthesized and screened in vitro against three human cancer cell lines MCF7 (human breast cancer), HCT116 (human colon cancer), and DU145 (human prostate cancer). Fourteen compounds 6b, 6e, 6i, 6j, 6l, 6m, 6n, 12a, 12b, 13a, 13b, 15a, 17a, and 17b exhibited better anti-cancer activities than andrographolide for all three human cancer lines, with compound 6l displaying best activity with IC50 values of 1.85, 1.22 and 1.24 μM against MCF7, HCT116 and DU145 respectively. Preliminary anti-cancer mechanistic investigation was performed in terms of the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis assays of compound 6l against HCT116 using flow cytometry, and the results suggested that compound 6l inhibited tumor proliferation through inducing early and late cellular apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner and causing cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of cytochrome P450 2J2 on cell proliferation and resistance to an anticancer agent in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Park, So Mi; Han, Ho Jae; Baek, Kyoung Min; Kim, Joong Sun; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Ho Jin; Yun, Seung Pil; Ryu, Jung Min; Lee, Min Young

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the role of human cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) on cell proliferation and resistance to an anticancer agent using stable hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP2J2. Overexpression of CYP2J2 significantly increased HepG2 cell proliferation and the expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)2 and Cdk4. CYP2J2-overexpressing HepG2 cells exhibited high levels of Akt phosphorylation compared with those observed in wild-type HepG2 cells. Although Akt phosphorylation in both cell lines was significantly attenuated by LY294002, a specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling inhibitor, the levels of Akt phosphorylation following treatment with LY294002 were higher in CYP2J2-overexpressing HepG2 cells than in wild-type HepG2 cells. Cell counting revealed that proliferation was reduced by LY294002 in both cell lines; however, CYP2J2-overexpressing HepG2 cell numbers were higher than those of wild-type HepG2 cells following treatment with LY294002. These results indicated that increased cell proliferation by CYP2J2 overexpression is mediated by increased Akt activity. It was also demonstrated that doxorubicin, an anticancer agent, reduced cell viability, induced a significant increase in the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 ratio and decreased pro-caspase-3 levels in wild-type HepG2 cells. However, the doxorubicin-induced reduction in cell viability was significantly attenuated by enhanced upregulation of CYP2J2 expression. The increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the decrease in pro-caspase-3 levels were also recovered by CYP2J2 overexpression. In conclusion, CYP2J2 serves important roles in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to the anticancer agent doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.

  4. Eupalmerin acetate, a novel anticancer agent from Caribbean gorgonian octocorals, induces apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, Arifumi; Iwado, Eiji; Kondo, Seiji; Newman, Robert A; Vera, Burnilda; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Kondo, Yasuko

    2007-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is a vast but largely untapped resource for potential naturally based medicines. We tested 15 compounds derived from organisms found in the Caribbean Sea (14 gorgonian octocoral-derived compounds and one sponge-derived compound) for their anticancer effects on human malignant glioma U87-MG and U373-MG cells. Eupalmerin acetate (EPA) was chosen as the lead compound based on its longer-term stability and greater cytotoxicity than those of the other compounds we tested in these cell types. EPA induced G(2)-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway; it translocated Bax from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria and dissipated the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both cell types. EPA was found to increase phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by >50% in both U87-MG and U373-MG cells. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, inhibited EPA-induced apoptosis, confirming the involvement of the JNK pathway in EPA-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, 7 days of daily intratumoral injections of EPA significantly suppressed the growth of s.c. malignant glioma xenografts (P < 0.01, on day 19). These results indicate that EPA is therapeutically effective against malignant glioma cells in vitro and in vivo and that it, or a similar marine-based compound, may hold promise as a clinical anticancer agent.

  5. Evaluation of a curcumin analog as an anti-cancer agent inducing ER stress-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yi; Sun, Yusheng; Ren, Luqing; Huang, Yi; Cai, Yuepiao; Weng, Qiaoyou; Shen, Xueqian; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have highlighted the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cell death processes. Pharmacological interventions that effectively enhance tumor cell death through activating ER stress have attracted a great deal of attention for anti-cancer therapy. A bio-evaluation on 113 curcumin analogs against four cancer cell lines was performed through MTT assay. Furthermore, real time cell assay and flow cytometer were used to evaluate the apoptotic induction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (B82). Western blot, RT-qPCR, and siRNA were then utilized to confirm whether B82-induced apoptosis is mediated through activating ER stress pathway. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of B82 was evaluated. B82 exhibited strong anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. Treatment with B82 significantly induced apoptosis in H460 cells in vitro and inhibited H460 tumor growth in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that the B82-induced apoptosis is mediated by activating ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. A new monocarbonyl analog of curcumin, B82, exhibited anti-tumor effects on H460 cells via an ER stress-mediated mechanism. B82 could be further explored as a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of NSCLC

  6. Effects of intra-arterial chemotherapy with a new lipophilic anticancer agent, estradiol-chlorambucil (KM2210), dissolved in lipiodol on experimental liver tumor in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, H.; Maki, A.; Mori, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Bannai, K.; Asano, K.; Ozawa, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Anticancer effects and biodistribution of a new lipophilic anticancer agent, estradiol-chlorambucil (KM2210), dissolved in lipiodol (LPD) were investigated as an intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) on Walker 256 carcinosarcoma grown in the liver of 136 Wistar rats. All rats treated with KM2210 (10 mg)-LPD survived for 90 days after administration, whereas none of the rats with LPD alone were alive for more than 19 days. Histological examination revealed that there was no viable tumor cell in the encapsulated necrotic tumor at 21 days after administration. There was no significant liver dysfunction or leukopenia due to KM2210. The biodistribution study using (14C, 3H)KM2210-LPD solution showed that KM2210 accumulated selectively in tumor and that the tumor-to-normal-liver and tumor-to-blood ratios were 10 and 1,000, respectively, at 21 days after administration. These results suggest that KM2210 has potential clinical application in the treatment of human liver cancer.

  7. Theoretical investigation of inclusion complex formation of Gold (III – Dimethyldithiocarbamate anticancer agents with cucurbit[n = 5,6]urils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiollah Mahdavifar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold (III-N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate [DMDT(AuX2] complexes have recently gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents because of their strong tumor cell growth–inhibitory effects, generally achieved by exploiting non-cisplatin-like mechanisms of action. The goal of our research work is to encapsulate the gold(III dimethyldithiocarbamate complexes as anticancer with cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n = 5, 6] by accurate calculations, to predict the inclusion complex formation of gold(III species with cucurbiturils (CB[n = 5, 6]. The calculations were carried out just for the 1:1 stoichiometric complexes. Upon encapsulation, binding energy, thermodynamic parameters, structural parameters and electronic structures of complexes are investigated. The results of the thermodynamic calculations and the binding energy show that the inclusion process is exothermic and the CB[6]/[DMDT(AuBr2] complex is more stable than other complexes. The final geometry of CB[n]/drugs indicates that the drugs were expelled from the cavity of CB[n]. NBO calculations reveal that the hydrogen bonding between CB[n] and drugs and electrostatic interactions are the major factors contributing to the overall stabilities of the complexes.

  8. Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  9. First report of anti-cancer agent, lapachol producing endophyte, Aspergillus niger of Tabebuia argentea and its in vitro cytotoxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channabasava

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All parts of Tabebuia argentia were used for isolation and identified the lapachol producing endophytes were used for evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity (antimitotic, antiproliferative, determination of cell viability, DNA fragmentation. Five endophytes (leaf endophytes, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Aspegerillus niger, Penicillium sp. and the bark endophyte, A. alternata are able to produce potent anticancer agent lapachol. The 3rd and 4th fractions of endophytic extracts (A. niger and Penicillium sp. exhibited the pure lapachol. The 3rd fraction of A. niger lapachol strongly inhibited the Allium cepa root actively growing cells at various stages of cell cycle in antimitotic assay and the index was 22.5 mg/mL, the yeast cells were died due to toxicity and possessed the cell necrosis and they exhibited the DNA fragmentation. Present promised endophytes can be used for production of lapachol using endophyte A. niger for large scale production of lapachol within short period of time.

  10. Indole-based hydrazide-hydrazones and 4-thiazolidinones: synthesis and evaluation as antitubercular and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan-Üstündağ, Gökçe; Şatana, Dilek; Özhan, Gül; Çapan, Gültaze

    2016-01-01

    A new series of indolylhydrazones (6) and indole-based 4-thiazolidinones (7, 8) have been designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. 4-Thiazolidinone derivatives 7g-7j, 8g, 8h and 8j displayed notable antituberculosis (anti-TB) activity showing 99% inhibition at MIC values ranging from 6.25 to 25.0 µg/ml. Compounds 7g, 7h, 7i, 8h and 8j demonstrated anti-TB activity at concentrations 10-fold lower than those cytotoxic for the mammalian cell lines. The indolylhydrazone derivative 6b has also been evaluated for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines at the National Cancer Institute (USA). Compound 6b showed an interesting anticancer profile against different human tumor-derived cell lines at sub-micromolar concentrations with obvious selectivity toward colon cancer cell line COLO 205.

  11. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549. A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clove oils with concentrations of 31.19%, 79.15% and 82.71%, respectively. Strong antioxidant profiles of all the oils are revealed in vitro by DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that clove oil was similarly potent to the reference drug, doxorubicin in prostate, colon and lung cell lines. Thyme oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in breast and lung cell lines while juniper oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in all the tested cancer cell lines except prostate cancer. In conclusion, the essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants can be used as good candidates for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer as they possess significant anticancer activity.Los inhibidores de crecimiento de tumores usando extractos de plantas aromáticas están emergiendo con rapidez como nuevos e importantes medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer. La citotoxicidad y la acción anticancerígena in vitro de aceites esenciales de tomillo, enebro y clavo han sido evaluadas en cinco líneas celulares de cáncer humano (hígado HepG2, mama MCF-7, próstata PC3, colon HCT116 y pulmón A549. Los análisis de GC/MS mostraron que α-pineno, timol y eugenol son los principales componentes de los aceites egipcios de enebro, tomillo y clavo, con concentraciones de 31,19%, 79,15% y 82,71%, respectivamente. Se demuestra, mediante ensayos in vitro de blanqueo de DPPH y β-caroteno, el enérgico perfil antioxidante de todos los aceites. Los resultados

  12. PK of immunoconjugate anticancer agent CMD-193 in rats: ligand-binding assay approach to determine in vivo immunoconjugate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azher; Gorovits, Boris; Leal, Mauricio; Fluhler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The objective of this manuscript is to propose a methodology that can be used to assess the stability of the ADCs by using the PK data obtained by ligand-binding assays that measure various components of ADCs. The ligand-binding assays format of different components of ADCs provided unique valuable PK information. The mathematical manipulation of the bioanalytical data provided an insight into the in vivo integrity, indicating that the loading of the calicheamicin on the G193 antibody declines in an apparent slow first-order process. This report demonstrates the value of analyzing various components of the ADC and their PK profiles to better understand the disposition and in vivo stability of ADCs.

  13. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euphorbia antiquorum L. latex extract and evaluation of their biomedical perspectives as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (EAAgNPs using aqueous latex extract of Euphorbia antiquorum L as a potential bioreductant. Synthesized EAAgNPs generate the surface plasmonic resonance peak at 438 nm in UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Size and shape of EAAgNPs were further characterized through transmission electron microscope (TEM which shows well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 50 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX confirms the presence of silver (Ag as the major constituent element. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of EAAgNPs corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 planes, reveals that the generated nanoparticles were face centered cubic crystalline in nature. Interestingly, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis shows the major role of active phenolic constituents in reduction and stabilization of EAAgNPs. Phyto-fabricated EAAgNPs exhibits significant antimicrobial and larvicidal activity against bacterial human pathogens as well as disease transmitting blood sucking parasites such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (IIIrd instar larvae. On the other hand, in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of bioformulated EAAgNPs has shown potential anticancer activity against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa. The preliminary biochemical (MTT assay and microscopic studies depict that the synthesized EAAgNPs at minimal dosage (IC50 = 28 μg triggers cellular toxicity response. Hence, the EAAgNPs can be considered as an environmentally benign and non-toxic nanobiomaterial for biomedical applications. Keywords: Crystal structure, Euphorbia antiquorum L., Silver nanoparticles, Anticancer, Human pathogens

  14. Proof of Concept of a Mobile Health Short Message Service Text Message Intervention That Promotes Adherence to Oral Anticancer Agent Medications: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Given, Charles W; Sikorskii, Alla; Coursaris, Constantinos K; Majumder, Atreyee; DeKoekkoek, Tracy; Schueller, Monica; Given, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This multisite, randomized controlled trial assigned 75 adult cancer patients prescribed an oral anticancer agent to either an experimental group that received daily text messages for adherence for 21 days plus usual care or a control group that received usual care. Measures were administered at baseline, weekly (Weeks 1-8), and at exit (Week 9). A satisfaction survey was conducted following the intervention. Acceptability, feasibility, and satisfaction were examined. Primary outcomes were adherence and symptoms. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, cognition, physical function, and social support. Mixed or general linear models were used for the analyses comparing trial groups. Effect sizes (ES) were estimated to gauge clinical significance. Regarding acceptability, 57.2% (83 of 145) of eligible patients consented, 88% (n = 37 of 42) receiving text messages read them most or all of the time, and 90% (n = 38) were satisfied. The differences between experimental and control groups' ES were 0.29 for adherence, 0.21 for symptom severity, and 0.21 for symptom interference, and differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, perceived social support was higher (p = 0.04; ES = 0.54) in the experimental group. Proof of concept and preliminary efficacy of a mobile health intervention using text messages to promote adherence for patients prescribed oral anticancer agents were demonstrated. Patients accepted and had high satisfaction with the intervention, and adherence improved after the intervention. Text messages show promise. Additional research is needed prior to use in practice.

  15. Review on near-infrared heptamethine cyanine dyes as theranostic agents for tumor imaging, targeting, and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changhong; Wu, Jason Boyang; Pan, Dongfeng

    2016-05-01

    A class of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) heptamethine cyanine dyes that are taken up and accumulated specifically in cancer cells without chemical conjugation have recently emerged as promising tools for tumor imaging and targeting. In addition to their fluorescence and nuclear imaging-based tumor-imaging properties, these dyes can be developed as drug carriers to safely deliver chemotherapy drugs to tumors. They can also be used as effective agents for photodynamic therapy with remarkable tumoricidal activity via photodependent cytotoxic activity. The preferential uptake of dyes into cancer but not normal cells is co-operatively mediated by the prevailing activation of a group of organic anion-transporting polypeptides on cancer cell membranes, as well as tumor hypoxia and increased mitochondrial membrane potential in cancer cells. Such mechanistic explorations have greatly advanced the current application and future development of NIRF dyes and their derivatives as anticancer theranostic agents. This review summarizes current knowledge and emerging advances in NIRF dyes, including molecular characterization, photophysical properties, multimodal development and uptake mechanisms, and their growing potential for preclinical and clinical use.

  16. Benzene-poly-carboxylic acid complex, a novel anti-cancer agent induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Fares

    Full Text Available Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1 on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and apoptosis was detected by Flow Cytometry and by annexin V/FITC/PI assay. Caspases were detected by western blot analysis and gene expression was measured by using the Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® Array Plates. The results showed that exposure of the cells to BP-C1 for 48 h, significantly (P<0.001 reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and activated caspase 8 and caspace 9. Moreover, gene expression experiments indicated that BP-C1 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP8AP1, TNFRSF21, NFkB2, FADD, BCL10 and CASP8 and lowered the level of mRNA transcripts of inhibitory apoptotic genes (BCL2L11, BCL2L2 and XIAP. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of human cancer using BP-C1 analog.

  17. Structure and biological properties of mixed-ligand Cu(II) Schiff base complexes as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Li, Jinlong; Fan, Boyi; Xu, Bohui; Zhou, Min; Yang, Feng

    2017-07-07

    We synthesized two mixed-ligand Cu(II) complexes containing different aroylhydrazone ligands and a pyridine co-ligand, namely, [Cu(L1)(Py)] (C1) and [Cu(L2)(Py)(Br)] (C2) (L1 = (E)-2-hydroxy-N'-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide, Py = pyridine, L2 = (E)-2-hydroxy-N'-(phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide), and assessed their chemical and biological properties to understand their marked activity. C2 showed better anticancer activity than C1 in various human cancer cell lines, including the cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell line A549cisR. Both Cu(II) complexes, especially C2, displayed promising anti-metastatic activity against HepG2 cells. Spectroscopic titration and agarose gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that C2 exhibited binding affinity toward calf-thymus DNA and efficient pBR322 DNA-cleaving ability. Further mechanistic studies showed that C2 effectively induced DNA damage and thus led to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and also stimulated mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by reactive oxygen species and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-n-hexyl/13-n-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-n-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-n-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted in vivo. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-n-hexyl/13-n-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  19. Stimuli-responsive protamine-based biodegradable nanocapsules for enhanced bioavailability and intracellular delivery of anticancer agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishna; Thomas, Midhun B.; Pulakkat, Sreeranjini [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Gnanadhas, Divya P.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology (India); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India)

    2015-08-15

    Enzyme- and pH-responsive polyelectrolyte nanocapsules having diameters in the range of 200 ± 20 nm were fabricated by means of Layer-by-Layer assembly of biopolymers, protamine, and heparin, and then loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin. The incorporation of the FDA-approved peptide drug protamine as a wall component rendered the capsules responsive to enzyme stimuli. The stimuli-responsive drug release from these nanocapsules was evaluated, and further modulation of capsule permeability to avoid premature release was demonstrated by crosslinking the wall components. The interaction of the nanocapsules with cancer cells was studied using MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These capsules were readily internalized and disintegrated inside the cells, culminating in the release of the loaded doxorubicin and subsequent cell death as observed by confocal microscopy and MTT Assay. The bioavailability studies performed using BALB/c mice revealed that the encapsulated doxorubicin exhibited enhanced bioavailability compared to free doxorubicin. Our results indicate that this stimuli-responsive system fabricated from clinically used FDA-approved molecules and exhibiting minimal premature release has great potential for drug-delivery applications.

  20. Discovery and development of anticancer agents from marine sponges: perspectives based on a chemistry-experimental therapeutics collaborative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriote, Frederick A; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Edelstein, Matthew; Johnson, Tyler A; Amagata, Taro; Crews, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative program was initiated in 1990 between the natural product chemistry laboratory of Dr. Phillip Crews at the University of California Santa Cruz and the experimental therapeutics laboratory of Dr. Fred Valeriote at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. The program focused on the discovery and development of anticancer drugs from sponge extracts. A novel in vitro disk diffusion, solid tumor selective assay was used to examine 2,036 extracts from 683 individual sponges. The bioassay-directed fractionation discovery component led to the identification of active pure compounds from many of these sponges. In most cases, pure compound was prepared in sufficient quantities to both chemically identify the active compound(s) as well as pursue one or more of the biological development components. The latter included IC50, clonogenic survival-concentration exposure, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic assessment studies. Solid tumor selective compounds included fascaplysin and 10-bromofascaplysin (Fascaplysinopsis), neoamphimedine, 5-methoxyneoamphimedine and alpkinidine (Xestospongia), makaluvamine C and makaluvamine H (Zyzzya), psymberin (Psammocinia and Ircinia), and ethylplakortide Z and ethyldidehydroplakortide Z (Plakortis). These compounds or analogs thereof continue to have therapeutic potential.

  1. Biological evaluation of octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Pawłowska, Natalia; Czajkowska, Anna; Czarnomysy, Robert; Bielawska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Michalak, Olga; Staszewska-Krajewska, Olga; Kałuża, Zbigniew

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic activity and antiproliferative potency of novel octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives (1-7) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Annexin V binding assay and disruption of the mitochondrial potential were performed to determine apoptosis. The activity of caspases 3, 8, 9, and 10 was measured after 24 h of incubation with tested compounds to explain detailed molecular mechanism of induction of apoptosis. The results from experiments were compared with effects obtained after incubation in the presence of camptothecin and etoposide. Our study demonstrated that the most active compounds in both analyzed breast cancer cell lines were compounds 3 and 4. We also observed that all compounds induced apoptosis. We demonstrated the higher activity of caspases 3, 8, 9, and 10, which confirmed that induction of apoptosis is associated with external and internal cell death pathway. Our study revealed that the novel compounds in group of diisoquinoline derivatives are promising candidates in anticancer treatment by activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  2. Synthesis of some new heterocyclic compounds bearing a sulfonamide moiety and studying their combined anticancer effect with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hossary, E.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In search for new cytotoxic agents with improved anticancer profile, some new halogen-containing quinoline and pyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline derivatives bearing a free sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro anticancer screening against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The most potent compounds, as concluded from the in vitro anticancer screening, were selected to be evaluated again for their in vitro anticancer activity in combination with radiation. Also, the newly synthesized compounds were docked in the active site of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme

  3. Investigation of the interaction of radiation and cardiotoxic anticancer agents using a fetal mouse heart organ culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Rethorst, R.D.; Cox, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The fetal mouse heart organ culture was utilized in an attempt to predict the cardiotoxic effects of combinations of radiation, Adriamycin (ADR), and Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), antineoplastic agents which have been shown to produce clinical cardiomyopathy. Seventeen-day fetal hearts were removed and placed in a culture system of micro-titer plates. A single heart was placed in each well on a piece of aluminum mesh to keep the heart above the culture medium but bathed by capillary action. The plates were then placed in a 100% oxygen environment at 37 0 C. Treatments were performed on day 1 after culture: radiation doses (Cs-137) of 10, 20, or 40 Gy; drug treatment with 10, 30, or 100 μg/ml of ADR; 5, 20, or 50 μg/ml of DHAQ; and combinations and sequences of drug and radiation. Hearts were checked every day for functional activity as evidenced by a continuous heart beat. Untreated hearts beat rhythmically for up to 9 days; treated hearts stopped beating earlier. Using an endpoint of functional retention time, dose response curves were obtained for all individual agents and for combinations of agents. This system may help to predict the cardiotoxic effects that result from the use of these drugs and radiation. It may also aid in the development of new anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents that lack cardiotoxicity

  4. Assessment of a novel VEGF targeted agent using patient-derived tumor tissue xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketao Jin

    Full Text Available The lack of appropriate tumor models of primary tumors and corresponding metastases that can reliably predict for response to anticancer agents remains a major deficiency in the clinical practice of cancer therapy. It was the aim of our study to establish patient-derived tumor tissue (PDTT xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastases useful for testing of novel molecularly targeted agents. PDTT of primary colon carcinoma, lymphatic and hepatic metastases were used to create xenograft models. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, genome-wide gene expression analysis, pyrosequencing, qRT-PCR, and western blotting were used to determine the biological stability of the xenografts during serial transplantation compared with the original tumor tissues. Early passages of the PDTT xenograft models of primary colon carcinoma, lymphatic and hepatic metastases revealed a high degree of similarity with the original clinical tumor samples with regard to histology, immunohistochemistry, genes expression, and mutation status as well as mRNA expression. After we have ascertained that these xenografts models retained similar histopathological features and molecular signatures as the original tumors, drug sensitivities of the xenografts to a novel VEGF targeted agent, FP3 was evaluated. In this study, PDTT xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastasis have been successfully established. They provide appropriate models for testing of novel molecularly targeted agents.

  5. Protein phosphatase 2A inhibition and circumvention of cisplatin cross-resistance by novel TCM-platinum anticancer agents containing demethylcantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kenneth K W; Wang, Xinning; Yu, Chun Wing; Ho, Yee-Ping; Au-Yeung, Steve C F

    2004-09-01

    Novel TCM-platinum compounds [Pt(C(8)H(8)O(5))(NH(2)R)(2)] 1-5, derived from integrating demethylcantharidin, a modified component from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with a platinum moiety, possess anticancer and protein phosphatase 2A inhibition properties. The compounds are able to circumvent cisplatin resistance by apparently targeting the DNA repair mechanism. Novel isosteric analogues [Pt(C(9)H(10)O(4))(NH(2)R)(2)] A and B, devoid of PP2A-inhibitory activity, were found to suffer from an enhanced DNA repair and were cross-resistant to cisplatin. The results advocate a well-defined structure-activity requirement associating the PP2A-inhibiting demethylcantharidin with the circumvention of cisplatin cross-resistance demonstrated by TCM-Pt compounds 1-5.

  6. Design of an Anticancer Copper(II) Prodrug Based on the Lys199 Residue of the Active Targeting Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticle Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Zhenlei; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zuping; Liang, Hong; Yang, Feng

    2017-06-05

    We not only modified the types and numbers of coordinated ligands in a metal agent to enhance its anticancer activity, but we also designed a metal prodrug based on the N-donor residues of the human serum albumin (HSA) IIA subdomain to improve its delivery efficiency and selectivity in vivo. However, there may be a conflict in simultaneously achieving the two goals because Lys199 and His242 in the IIA subdomain of HSA can replace its two coordinated ligands, which will decrease its anticancer activity relative to the original metal agent. Thus, to improve the delivery efficiency of the metal agent and simultaneously avoid decreasing its anticancer activity in vivo, we decided to develop an anticancer metal prodrug by regulating its pharmacophore ligand so that it would not be displaced by the Lys199 residue of the folic acid (FA)-functionalized HSA nanoparticle (NP) carrier. To this end, we first synthesized two (E)-N'-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide Schiff base (HL) Cu(II) compounds by designing a second ligand with a different coordinating atom with Cu 2+ /Cu(L)(QL)(Br) [C1, QL = quinolone] and Cu(L)(DMF)(Br) [C2, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide]. As revealed by the structures of the two HSA complexes, the Cu compounds bind to the hydrophobic cavity in the HSA IIA subdomain. The QL ligand of C1 is replaced by Lys199, which coordinates with Cu 2+ , whereas the DMF ligand of C2 is kept intact and His242 is replaced with Br - of C2 and coordinates with Cu 2+ . The cytotoxicity of the Cu compounds was enhanced by the FA-HSA NPs in the Bel-7402 cells approximately 2-4-fold; however, they raise the cytotoxicity levels in the normal cells in vitro, and the FA-HSA NPs did not. Importantly, the in vivo data showed that FA-HSA-C2 NPs increased selectivity and the capacity to inhibit tumor growth and were less toxic than HSA-C2 NPs and C2. Moreover, C2/HSA-C2 NPs/FA-HSA-C2 NPs induced Bel-7402 cell death by potentially multiple mechanisms.

  7. Tumor microenvironment in focus: LA-ICP-MS bioimaging of a preclinical tumor model upon treatment with platinum(IV)-based anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiner, Sarah; Kornauth, Christoph; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Egger, Alexander E; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of drug candidates for entering clinical development relies on in vivo testing in (solid) tumor animal models. However, the heterogeneity of tumor tissue (e.g. in terms of drug uptake or tissue composition) is rarely considered when testing novel drug candidates. Therefore, we used the murine colon cancer CT-26 tumor model to study the spatially-resolved drug distribution in tumor tissue upon repetitive treatment of animals over two weeks with three investigational platinum(IV)-based anticancer agents, oxaliplatin or satraplatin. A quantitative laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging method revealed a heterogeneous platinum distribution, which correlated well with the histologic features of the tumor and surrounding tissue at the microscopic level. In most of the cases, higher amounts of intratumoral platinum were found in the surrounding tissue than in the malignant parts of the sample. This indicates that determination of average platinum amounts (e.g. by microwave-assisted digestion of the sample followed by analysis with ICP-MS) might overestimate the drug uptake in tumor tissue causing misleading conclusions. In addition, we studied the platinum distribution in the kidneys of treated animals to probe if accumulation in the cortex and medulla predict potential nephrotoxicity. A 10-fold increase of platinum in the cortex of the kidney over the medulla was observed for oxaliplatin and satraplatin. Although these findings are similar to those in the platinum distribution of the nephrotoxic anticancer drug cisplatin, treatment with the compounds of our study did not show signs of nephrotoxicity in clinical use or clinical trials (oxaliplatin, satraplatin) and did not result in the alteration of renal structures. Thus, predicting the side effects based on bioimaging data by LA-ICP-MS should be considered with caution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first LA-ICP-MS study on spatially-resolved platinum

  8. Study of Bioreductive Anticancer Agent RH-1-Induced Signals Leading the Wild-Type p53-Bearing Lung Cancer A549 Cells to Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulpinas, Aurimas; Imbrasaitė, Aušra; Krestnikova, Natalija; Šarlauskas, Jonas; Čėnas, Narimantas; Kalvelytė, Audronė Valerija

    2016-01-19

    Aziridinylquinone RH-1 (2,5-diaziridinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione) is a potential anticancer agent. RH-1 action is associated with quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) which reduces this diaziridinylbenzoquinone into DNA-alkylating hydroquinone and is overexpressed in many tumors. Another suggested mechanism of RH-1 toxicity is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from its redox cycling. In order to improve anticancer action of this and similar antitumor quinones, we investigated the involvement of different signaling molecules in cytotoxicity induced by RH-1 by using wild-type tumor suppressor p53 bearing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma A549 cells as a model. Gradual and prolonged increase of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK, P38, and JNK phosphorylation was observed during 24-h RH-1 treatment. In parallel, activation of DNA damage-sensing ATM kinase, upregulation, and phosphorylation of TP53 (human p53) took place. Inhibition studies revealed that RH-1-induced A549 apoptosis involved the NQO1-ATM-p53 signaling pathway and ROS generation. TP53 participated in ROS- and DNA damage-induced cell death differently. Moreover, MAP kinase JNK was another TP53 activator and death inducer in A549 cells. At the same time, rapid and prolonged activation of AKT kinase during RH-1 treatment was found, and it proved to be antiapoptotic kinase in our model system. Therefore, we identified that different and opposite cell death regulating signaling pathways, which may counteract one another, are induced in cancer cells during chemotherapeutic RH-1 treatment.

  9. Targeted therapies for malignant gliomas: novel agents, same barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, F.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are common and devastating brain malignancies. Despite this extensive treatment the mean overall survival is still only 14.6 months and more effective treatments are urgently needed. Targeted therapy holds the promise for the new generation of chemotherapy due to the selectively

  10. Use of Bifunctional Immunotherapeutic Agents to Target Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    enhanced effi- cacy and reduced cyto- toxicity (47–49). Therefore, we envisioned that compound 4 could serve as an archetype of a traditional targeted...4313. [54] A. K. Sarkar, K. L. Matta, Carbohydr. Res. 1992, 233, 245. [55] K. H. Jung , M. Hoch, R. R. Schmidt, Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1989, 1099. [56] P

  11. Synergy between vascular targeting agents and antibody-directed therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedley, R. Barbara; El-Emir, Ethaar; Flynn, Aiden A.; Boxer, Geoffrey M.; Dearling, Jason; Raleigh, James A.; Hill, Sally A.; Stuart, Sam; Motha, Reeya; Begent, Richard H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor heterogeneity necessitates the use of combined therapies. We have shown that combining antibody-directed therapy with antivascular agents converts a subcurative to a curative treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate, by radioluminographic and microscopic techniques, the regional effects of the two complementary therapies. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing colorectal tumors were injected with 125 I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody, and images were obtained for antibody distribution and modeling studies using radioluminography. For therapy studies, the mice were given radioimmunotherapy alone ( 131 I-A5B7 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody), the antivascular agent combretastatin A-4 3-0-phosphate (200 mg/kg), or both. Extra mice were used to study the regional tumor effects of these therapies over time: relevant histochemical procedures were performed on tissue sections to obtain composite digital microscopic images of apoptosis, blood vessels, perfusion, hypoxia, and morphology. Results: Antibody distribution, modeling, and immunohistochemistry showed how radioimmunotherapy (7.4 MBq/40 μg antibody) effectively treated the outer, well-oxygenated tumor region only. Combretastatin A-4 3-0-phosphate treated the more hypoxic center, and in doing so altered the relationship between tumor parameters. Conclusion: The combined complementary therapies produced cures by destroying tumor regions with different pathophysiologies. Relating these regional therapeutic effects to the relevant tumor parameters microscopically allows optimization of therapy and improved translation to clinical trials

  12. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  13. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  14. Anti-cancer effects of newly developed chemotherapeutic agent, glycoconjugated palladium (II) complex, against cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Yano, Shigenobu; Ohi, Hiromi; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Shibahara, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mori, Yoshinori; Tanida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various types of advanced cancer, including gastric cancer. However, almost all cancer cells acquire resistance against CDDP, and this phenomenon adversely affects prognosis. Thus, new chemotherapeutic agents that can overcome the CDDP-resistant cancer cells will improve the survival of advanced cancer patients. We synthesized new glycoconjugated platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes, [PtCl 2 (L)] and [PdCl 2 (L)]. CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cell lines were established by continuous exposure to CDDP, and gene expression in the CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells was analyzed. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by [PtCl 2 (L)] and [PdCl 2 (L)] in CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells were evaluated. DNA double-strand breaks by drugs were assessed by evaluating phosphorylated histone H2AX. Xenograft tumor mouse models were established and antitumor effects were also examined in vivo. CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells exhibit ABCB1 and CDKN2A gene up-regulation, as compared with CDDP-sensitive gastric cancer cells. In the analyses of CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells, [PdCl 2 (L)] overcame cross-resistance to CDDP in vitro and in vivo. [PdCl 2 (L)] induced DNA double-strand breaks. These results indicate that [PdCl 2 (L)] is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for CDDP-resistant gastric cancer and may have clinical applications

  15. Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of sulphur-substituted alpha-alkyl phenethylamines as a new class of anticancer agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Keating, John J.; Butler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine transport......The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine...... transporters. In this study, a novel library of structurally diverse 4-MTA analogues were synthesised with or without N-alkyl and/or C-alpha methyl or ethyl groups so that their potential SERT-dependent antiproliferative activity could be assessed. Many of the compounds displayed SERT-binding activity as well...... as cytotoxic activity. While there was no direct correlation between these two effects, a number of derivatives displayed anti-tumour effects in lymphoma, leukaemia and breast cancer cell lines, showing further potential to be developed as possible chemotherapeutic agents. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All...

  16. Development of Antibacterials Targeting the MEP Pathway of Select Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Yersinia pestis will serve as effective antibiotics by blocking isoprene biosynthesis . In strong support of this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the dose... antibiotic resistant strains and the ease by which antibiotic resistance can be engineered into bacteria further highlights the need for continued...development of novel antibiotics against new bacterial targets. This research project directly addresses this need through the development of a broad spectrum

  17. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surfactant protein-D predicts prognosis of interstitial lung disease induced by anticancer agents in advanced lung cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kota; Kato, Motoyasu; Shukuya, Takehito; Mori, Keita; Sekimoto, Yasuhito; Ihara, Hiroaki; Kanemaru, Ryota; Ko, Ryo; Shibayama, Rina; Tajima, Ken; Koyama, Ryo; Shimada, Naoko; Nagashima, Osamu; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Sasaki, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-05-02

    Interstitial lung diseases induced by anticancer agents (ILD-AA) are rare adverse effects of anticancer therapy. However, prognostic biomarkers for ILD-AA have not been identified in patients with advanced lung cancer. Our aim was to analyze the association between serum biomarkers sialylated carbohydrate antigen Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), and clinical characteristics in patients diagnosed with ILD-AA. Between April 2011 and March 2016, 1224 advanced lung cancer patients received cytotoxic agents and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors at Juntendo University Hospital and Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital. Of these patients, those diagnosed with ILD-AA were enrolled in this case control study. ΔKL-6 and ΔSP-D were defined as the difference between the levels at the onset of ILD-AA and their respective levels prior to development of ILD-AA. We evaluated KL-6 and SP-D at the onset of ILD-AA, ΔKL-6 and ΔSP-D, the risk factors for death related to ILD-AA, the chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and survival time in patients diagnosed with ILD-AA. Thirty-six patients diagnosed with ILD-AA were enrolled in this study. Among them, 14 patients died of ILD-AA. ΔSP-D in the patients who died was significantly higher than that in the patients who survived. However, ΔKL-6 did not differ significantly between the two groups. Moreover, ΔSP-D in patients who exhibited diffuse alveolar damage was significantly higher than that in the other patterns on HRCT. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to set the optimal cut off value for ΔSP-D at 398 ng/mL. Survival time for patients with high ΔSP-D (≥ 398 ng/mL) was significantly shorter than that for patients with low ΔSP-D. Multivariate analysis revealed that ΔSP-D was a significant prognostic factor of ILD-AA. This is the first research to evaluate high ΔSP-D (≥ 398 ng/mL) in patients with ILD-AA and to

  19. Studies in Multifunctional Drug Development: Preparation and Evaluation of 11beta-Substituted Estradiol-Drug Conjugates, Cell Membrane Targeting Imaging Agents, and Target Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, KinhLuan Lenny D.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease in the United State. Despite extensive research in development of antitumor drugs, most of these therapeutic entities often possess nonspecific toxicity, thus they can only be used to treat tumors in higher doses or more frequently. Because of the cytotoxicity and severe side effects, the drug therapeutic window normally is limited. Beside the toxicity issue, antitumor drug are also not selectively taken up by tumor cells, thus the necessitating concentrations that would eradicate the tumor can often not be used. In addition, tumor cells tend to develop resistance against the anticancer drugs after prolonged treatment. Therefore, alleviating the systemic cytotoxicity and side effects, improving in tumor selectivity, high potency, and therapeutic efficacy are still major obstacles in the area of anticancer drug development. A more promising approach for developing a selective agent for cancer is to conjugate a potent therapeutic drug, or an imaging agent with a targeting group, such as antibody or a high binding-specificity small molecule, that selectively recognize the overexpressed antigens or proteins on tumor cells. My research combines several approaches to describe this strategy via using different targeting molecules to different diseases, as well as different potent cytotoxic drugs for different therapies. Three studies related to the preparation and biological evaluation of new therapeutic agents, such as estradiol-drug hybrids, cell membrane targeted molecular imaging agents, and multifunctional NPs will be discussed. The preliminary results of these studies indicated that our new reagents achieved their initial objectives and can be further improved for optimized synthesis and in vivo experiments. The first study describes the method in which we employed a modular assembly approach to synthesize a novel 11beta-substituted steroidal anti-estrogen. The key intermediate was synthesized

  20. Intracellular uptake and behavior of two types zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) micelles, SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP as anticancer agents; unique intracellular disintegration of SMA micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Gahininath, Bharate; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2011-11-07

    SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP are micellar drugs, encapsulating zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) with styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and covalent conjugate of ZnPP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) respectively. Their intracellular uptake rate and subcellular localization were investigated. We found SMA-ZnPP showed higher and more efficient (about 2.5 times) intracellular uptake rate than PEG-ZnPP, although both SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP micelles were localized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibited the target enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) similarly. Both micellar ZnPP were taken up into the tumor cells by endocytosis. Furthermore SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP were examined for their drug releasing mechanisms. Liberation of ZnPP from the SMA micelle appears to depend on cellular amphiphilic components such as lecithin, while that for PEG-ZnPP depends on hydrolytic cleavage. These results indicate that these micelle formulations make water insoluble ZnPP to water soluble practical anticancer agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of anti-cancer effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, K.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of the variations in the spectroscopic patterns of the key bio molecules using Native fluorescence spectroscopy, without exogenous labels, has emerged as a new trend in the characterization of the Physiological State and the Discrimination of Pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues as the relative concentration of these bio-molecules serve as markers in evaluating the presence of cancer in the body. The aim of this unique study is to use these features of Optical spectroscopy in monitoring the behavior of cells to treatment and thus to evaluate the response to Chemotherapeutic agents and Radiation in Breast Cancer Patients. The results of the study conducted using NFS of Human blood plasma of biopsy proved Breast Cancer patients undergoing treatment are promising, enhancing the scope of Native fluorescence Spectroscopy emerging as a promising technology in the evaluation of Therapeutic Response in Breast Cancer Patients.

  2. Potential Development of Tumor-Targeted Oral Anti-Cancer Prodrugs: Amino Acid and Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Drelich, Adam J; Smith, David E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-08-10

    One of the main obstacles for cancer therapies is to deliver medicines effectively to target sites. Since stroma cells are developed around tumors, chemotherapeutic agents have to go through stroma cells in order to reach tumors. As a method to improve drug delivery to the tumor site, a prodrug approach for gemcitabine was adopted. Amino acid and dipeptide monoester prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were determined and compared to their parent drug, gemcitabine. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was faster in pancreatic cell homogenates than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. All prodrugs exhibited great stability in HFF cell homogenate, enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase, and deamination by cytidine deaminase compared to their parent drug. All gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher uptake in HFF cells and better permeability across HFF monolayers than gemcitabine, suggesting a better delivery to tumor sites. Cell antiproliferative assays in Panc-1 and Capan-2 pancreatic ductal cell lines indicated that the gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of gemcitabine prodrugs suggest their potential for delayed enzymatic bioconversion and enhanced resistance to metabolic enzymes, as well as for enhanced drug delivery to tumor sites, and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. These attributes would facilitate the prolonged systemic circulation and improved therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine prodrugs.

  3. Targeting Malassezia species for Novel Synthetic and Natural Antidandruff Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolella, Letizia; Carradori, Simone; Maccallini, Cristina; Giusiano, Gustavo; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic yeasts not only present in the normal skin microflora, but also responsible of skin-related diseases (pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic/atopic dermatitis and dandruff) as well as systemic fungal infections in humans and animals. Their treatment and eradication are mainly based on old azole drugs, which are characterized by poor compliance, unpredictable clinical efficacy, emerging resistance and several side effects. These drawbacks have prompted the research toward novel synthetic and natural derivatives/ nanomaterials targeting other pivotal enzymes/pathways such as carbonic anhydrase (MgCA) and lipases, alone or in combination, in order to improve the eradication rate of this fungus. This review accomplished an update on this important topic dealing with the latest discoveries of synthetic scaffolds and natural products for the treatment of Malassezia spp.-related diseases, thus suggesting new opportunities to design innovative and alternative anti-dandruff drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Pt(IV/Re(I Chitosan Conjugates as a Flexible Platform for the Transport of Therapeutic and/or Diagnostic Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Gabano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New chitosan derivatives modified with (3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (1 and coupled with (OC-6-44-diammine(4-carboxypropanoatodichloridoethanolatoplatinum(IV (2, were synthesized and their preliminary biological evaluation carried out in human tumor cells. Some of these derivatives were also loaded with a chelating ligand (3 that was derived from bis(quinolin-2-ylmethylamine to obtain chitosan-based nanoparticles for an EPR-mediated delivery of Pt(IV prodrugs and Re(I tricarbonyl complexes (4, to explore a multimodal theranostic approach to cancer. The cytotoxicity of the different chitosan conjugates (C12, C123, and C1234, carrying different combinations of the Pt(IV complex, the chelator and the Re(I complex, was evaluated in the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line using the MTT assay. The Pt(IV-containing nanosystems showed low to moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 values in the range 13.5–33.7 µM and was comparable to that found for the free Pt(IV complex (IC50 = 13.7 µM. Therefore, the Pt(IV-chitosan conjugation did not enhance the cytotoxic activity of the Pt(IV prodrug, which certainly reflects the inefficient cellular uptake of the nanoconjugates. Nevertheless, a clearer view of their potential for the delivery of anticancer agents requires further in vivo tests because the EPR effect increases extravasation and retention within the tumor tissue, not necessarily within the tumor cells.

  5. Supramolecular chiro-biomedical assays and enantioselective HPLC analyses for evaluation of profens as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, potential anticancer agents and common xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Hussain, Iqbal; Saleem, Kishwar; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2008-06-01

    The permanent world-wide increase in therapeutic administration of racemic profens as easy available non-prescribed analgesic drugs and a common first-choice anti-inflammatory agents was recently linked with renewed interest in their beneficial use, also as enantiopure formulations, to treat and/or prevent a variety of human malignancies including its four major types as colorectal, breast, lung, and prostate cancer. This underlies the continuous need of selecting perfectly suited chiral separation methods of profens capable to determine nanolevels of a distomer in presence of the eutomer in a variety of complex biological and environmental media. Thus, current improvements for direct enantiomeric separations of profens by well defined supramolecular-based chiral HPLC and recently developed monolithic, combinatorial, bimodal and polymeric chiral stationary phases employing a modern supramolecular chirality concepts has been outlined in this review. The use of diverse supramolecular approaches for chiral HPLC as an easy accessible tool enabling fast development of nanoscale enantioselective, high-throughput and gradient screening procedures for in situ monitoring of stereoselective ADME properties of profens in range of anticancer drug discovery technologies has been also addressed.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 6-Hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff Bases as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza de Lucas Chazin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of discovering new anticancer agents, we have designed and synthesized novel 6-hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff bases. The synthesis started with the selective nitration at 5-position of 6-hydroxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one (1 leading to the nitro derivative 2. The nitro group of 2 was reduced to give the amino intermediate 3. Schiff bases 4a–r were obtained from coupling reactions between 3 and various benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes. All the new compounds were fully identified and characterized by NMR (1H and 13C and specifically for 4q by X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated against cancer cell lines (ACP-03, SKMEL-19 and HCT-116 by using MTT assay. Schiff bases 4b and 4o exhibited promising cytotoxicity against ACP-03 and SKMEL-19, respectively, with IC50 values lower than 5 μM. This class of compounds can be considered as a good starting point for the development of new lead molecules in the fight against cancer.

  7. 2,3-Diaryl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives as potential anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Marie Kirwen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the suitability of the 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ring system in developing novel anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents incorporating a diaryl pharmacophore. Eight 2,3-diaryl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives retrieved from our in-house database were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against nine cancer cell lines. The results indicated that the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, K562 and SaOS2 cells, with K562 being the most sensitive among the four cancer cell lines. The eight 2,3-diaryl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives were also evaluated for their COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity in vitro. The results showed that compound 3f exhibited 2-fold selectivity with IC50 values of 9.2 and 21.8 µmol/L against COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. Molecular docking studies on the most active compound 3f revealed a binding mode similar to that of celecoxib in the active site of the COX-2 enzyme.

  8. Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Quantitation of BA-TPQ, a Novel Iminoquinone Anticancer Agent, and an Initial Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Hongxia; Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Xu; Gurpinar, Evrim; Yang, Xinyi; Sommers, Charnell I.; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2013-01-01

    We herein describe the development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitation of 7-(benzylamino)-1, 3, 4, 8-tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one (BA-TPQ), a newly synthesized iminoquinone anticancer agent. BA-TPQ was extracted from plasma and tissue samples by first precipitating proteins with acetonitrile followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was carried out using a gradient flow rate on a Zorbax SB C-18 column, and the effluent was monitored by UV detection at 346 nm. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific, with a linear range from 3.91 to 1955.0 ng/mL in plasma, 19.55 to 1955.0 ng/mL in spleen, brain, and liver homogenates, and 19.55 to 3910.0 ng/mL in heart, lung and kidney homogenates. The method was stable under all relevant conditions. Using this method, we also carried out an initial study determining plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of BA-TPQ in mice following intravenous administration. In summary, this simple and sensitive HPLC method can be used in future preclinical and clinical studies of BA-TPQ. PMID:20845374

  9. Evaluation of SD-208, a TGF-β-RI Kinase Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent in Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadakar, Puran; Akbari, Abolfazl; Ghassemi, Fariba; Mobini, Gholam Reza; Mohebi, Masoumeh; Bolhassani, Manzar; Abed Khojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-06-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children resulting from genetic alterations and transformation of mature retinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SD-208, TGF-β-RI kinase inhibitor, on the expression of some miRNAs including a miR-17/92 cluster in retinoblastoma cells. Prior to initiate this work, the cell proliferation was studied by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Then, the expression patterns of four miRNAs (18a, 20a, 22, and 34a) were investigated in the treated SD-208 (0.0, 1, 2 and 3 µM) and untreated Y-79 cells. A remarkable inhibition of the cell proliferation was found in Y-79 cells treated with SD-208 versus untreated cells. Also, the expression changes were observed in miRNAs 18a, 20a, 22 and 34a in response to SD-208 treatment (Pretinoblastoma cell line. To the best of the researchers' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the SD-208 could alter the expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs as well as oncomiRs in vitro. In conclusion, the present data suggest that SD-208 could be an alternative agent in retinoblastoma treatment.

  10. Production and evaluation of cytotoxic effects of DT386-BR2 fusion protein as a novel anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a fusion protein consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects for targeted eradication of cancer cells. For this purpose, The DT386-BR2 structure was predicted using Modeller 9.14 and the best predicted model was selected based on the minimum DOPE score. A synthetic gene encoding DT386-BR2 was cloned in pET28a expression vector, expressed and purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the expression of the DT386-BR2 fusion protein by revealing a band of about 47kDa after the induction of the expression. Finally, the purified protein was subjected to MTT assay for evaluation of its cyto-lethal effects on cancer and normal cell lines. Statistical analysis showed significant reduction in survival percent of HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells in comparison to negative control (PBS), while the cytotoxic effect was not significant on the normal cells, i.e. HUVEC and HEK 293. The IC50 of DT386-BR2 for HeLa and MCF-7 was about 0.55 and 2.08μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the production and purification of DT386-BR2 fusion protein was successfully achieved and its cytotoxic effects on the studied cancer cell lines was established. The promising cytotoxic effects of this newly constructed fusion protein made it a suitable candidate for targeted therapy of cancer, and further in vitro and in vivo studies on this fusion protein is underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural flora and anticancer regime: milestones and roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Cancer has long been an area of extensive research both at the molecular as well as pharmaceutical level. However, lack of understanding of the underlying molecular signalling and the probable targets of therapeutics is a major concern in successful treatment of cancer. The situation becomes even worse, with the increasing side effects of the existing synthetic commercial drugs. Natural compounds especially those derived from plants have been best explored for their anticancer properties and most of them have been efficient against the known molecular targets of cancer. However, advent of biotechnology and resulting advances in medical arena have let to the increasing knowledge of newer carcinogenic signaling agents which has made the anticancer drug discovery even more demanding. The present review aims to bring forward the molecular mediators of cancer and compiles the plant derived anticancer agents with special emphasis on their clinical status. Since marine arena has proved to be a tremendous source of pharmaceutical agents, this review also focuses on the anticancer potential of marine plants especially algae. This is a comprehensive review covering major aspects of cancer mediation and utilization of marine flora for remediation of this deadly disease.

  12. Development of a chimeric recombinant disintegrin as a cost-effective anticancer agent with promising translational potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minea, Radu; Helchowski, Corey; Rubino, Barbara; Brodmann, Kyle; Swenson, Stephen; Markland, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Vicrostatin (VCN) is a chimeric recombinant disintegrin generated in Origami B (DE3) E. coli as a genetic fusion between the C-terminal tail of a viperid disintegrin echistatin and crotalid disintegrin contortrostatin (CN). The therapeutic modulation of multiple integrin pathways via soluble disintegrins was previously shown by us and others to elicit potent anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects in several animal cancer models. Despite these favorable attributes, these polypeptides are notoriously difficult to produce recombinantly in significant quantity due to their structure which requires the correct pairing of multiple disulfide bonds for biological activity. In this report, we show that VCN can be reliably produced in large amounts (yields in excess of 200mg of active purified disintegrin per liter of bacterial culture) in Origami B (DE3), an E. coli expression strain engineered to support the folding of disulfide-rich heterologous proteins directly in its oxidative cytoplasmic compartment. VCN retains the integrin binding specificity of both parental molecules it was derived from, but with a different binding affinity profile. While competing for the same integrin receptors that are preferentially upregulated in the tumor microenvironment, VCN exerts a potent inhibitory effect on endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner, by forcing these cells to undergo significant actin cytoskeleton reorganization when exposed to this agent in vitro. Moreover, VCN has a direct effect on breast cancer cells inhibiting their in vitro motility. In an effort to address our main goal of developing a clinically relevant delivery method for recombinant disintegrins, VCN was efficiently packaged in liposomes (LVCN) and evaluated in vivo in an animal breast cancer model. Our data demonstrate that LVCN is well tolerated, its intravenous administration inducing a significant delay in tumor growth and an increase in animal survival, results

  13. Bacteriophages displaying anticancer peptides in combined antibacterial and anticancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Majewska, Joanna; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Piotrowicz, Agnieszka; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Lecion, Dorota; Hodyra, Katarzyna; Nasulewicz-Goldeman, Anna; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Novel anticancer strategies have employed bacteriophages as drug carriers and display platforms for anticancer agents; however, bacteriophage-based platforms maintain their natural antibacterial activity. This study provides the assessment of combined anticancer (engineered) and antibacterial (natural) phage activity in therapies. An in vivo BALB/c mouse model of 4T1 tumor growth accompanied by surgical wound infection was applied. The wounds were located in the areas of tumors. Bacteriophages (T4) were modified with anticancer Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) peptides by phage display and injected intraperitoneally. Tumor growth was decreased in mice treated with YIGSR-displaying phages. The acuteness of wounds, bacterial load and inflammatory markers in phages-treated mice were markedly decreased. Thus, engineered bacteriophages combine antibacterial and anticancer activity.

  14. A multi-target protein of hTERTR-FAM96A presents significant anticancer potent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Yu; Wang, Jie-Ping

    2017-04-01

    The abilities to escape apoptosis induced by anticancer drugs are an essential factor of carcinogenesis and a hallmark of resistance to cancer therapy. In this study, we identified hTERTR-FAM96A (human telomerase reverse transcriptase-family with sequence similarity 96 member A) as a new efficient agent for apoptosome-activating and anti-tumor protein and investigated the potential tumor suppressor function in hepatocellular carcinoma. The hTERTR-FAM96A fusion protein was constructed by genetic engineering and its anticancer function of hTERTR-FAM96A was explored in vitro and in vivo by investigating the possible preclinical outcomes. Effects of hTERTR-FAM96A on improvement of apoptotic sensitivity and inhibition of migration and invasion were examined in cancer cells and tumors. Our results showed that the therapeutic effects of hTERTR-FAM96A were highly effective for inhibiting tumor growth and inducing apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in H22-bearing nude mice. The hTERTR-FAM96A fusion protein could specifically bind with Apaf-1 and hTERT, which further induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and improved apoptosis sensitivity. Our results indicated that hTERTR-FAM96A treatment enhanced cytotoxic effects by upregulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, interferon-γ release, and T lymphocyte infiltration. In addition, hTERTR-FAM96A led to tumor-specific immunologic cytotoxicity through increasing apoptotic body on hepatocellular tumors. Furthermore, hTERTR-FAM96A dramatically inhibited tumor growth, reduced death rate, and prolonged mice survival in hepatocellular carcinoma mice derived from three independent hepatocellular carcinoma mice cohorts compared to control groups. In summary, our data suggest that hTERTR-FAM96A may serve as an efficient anti-tumor agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of sonic hedgehog-receptor and inhibitor complexes and their applications for potential anticancer agent discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan Hwang

    Full Text Available The sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is necessary for a variety of development and differentiation during embryogenesis as well as maintenance and renascence of diverse adult tissues. However, an abnormal activation of the signaling pathway is related to various cancers. In this pathway, the Shh signaling transduction is facilitated by binding of Shh to its receptor protein, Ptch. In this study, we modeled the 3D structure of functionally important key loop peptides of Ptch based on homologous proteins. Using this loop model, the molecular interactions between the structural components present in the pseudo-active site of Shh and key residues of Ptch was investigated in atomic level through molecular dynamics (MD simulations. For the purpose of developing inhibitor candidates of the Shh signaling pathway, the Shh pseudo-active site of this interface region was selected as a target to block the direct binding between Shh and Ptch. Two different structure-based pharmacophore models were generated considering the key loop of Ptch and known inhibitor-induced conformational changes of the Shh through MD simulations. Finally two hit compounds were retrieved through a series of virtual screening combined with molecular docking simulations and we propose two hit compounds as potential inhibitory lead candidates to block the Shh signaling pathway based on their strong interactions to receptor or inhibitor induced conformations of the Shh.

  16. Ethyl Pyruvate: An Anti-Microbial Agent that Selectively Targets Pathobionts and Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Debebe, Tewodros; Kr?ger, Monika; Huse, Klaus; Kacza, Johannes; M?hlberg, Katja; K?nig, Brigitte; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. A causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. Therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. Here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. Ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and...

  17. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  18. Synthesis and DFT study on Hantzsch reaction to produce asymmetrical compounds of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives for P-glycoprotein inhibition as anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Shirin; Moosavi, Fatemeh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Seifi, Mahmoud; Behravan, Javad; Iman, Maryam

    2018-02-19

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) causes the efflux of cancer chemotherapy drugs from tumor cells, so it's inhibition can be one target for design and synthesis of new anticancer drugs. In this study new compounds of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) were recommended as inhibitors of P-gp. We synthesized new symmetrical DHP with 36% - 43% yield by the reaction of new reactants. In biological studies, these compounds have high lipophilicity, and thus low water solubility. Four reactants I with different reactivity was computed and compared using DFT study. The LUMO-map was differently distributed on each reactant. Amine intermediate underwent tautomerism as atransition state and it seems to play important role in reaction progress. Calculations were performed to select suitable reactants. Two different reactants I, including one polar group and a non-polar group, were used to produce asymmetric compounds with 49%-60% yield. These asymmetric DHPs were more soluble than symmetric DHPs. In the final step another selected symmetric product (by elimination of chlorine atom) was synthesized with high yield (74%) with using DFT study. In this study, selected reactants by DFT calculation have increased yield of reaction from 36% to 74% without any catalyst. Diversity of products is noticeable topic. Racemic asymmetric compounds with R and S enantiomers have potential for enantiomeric separation. Each of these enantiomers could have different physiological effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Realizing the Potential of Vascular Targeted Therapy: The Rationale for Combining Vascular Disrupting Agents and Anti-Angiogenic Agents to Treat Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemann, D W; Chaplin, D J; Horsman, M R

    2017-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies (VTTs) are agents that target tumor vasculature and can be classified into two categories: those that inhibit angiogenesis and those that directly interfere with established tumor vasculature. Although both the anti-angiogenic agents (AAs) and the vascular disrupting a...

  20. Targeting iron homeostasis induces cellular differentiation and synergizes with differentiating agents in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Celine; Coulon, Séverine; Naudin, Jerome; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Boissel, Nicolas; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Wang, Pamella Huey Mei; Agarwal, Saurabh; Tamouza, Houda; Paubelle, Etienne; Asnafi, Vahid; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Dessen, Philippe; Canioni, Danielle; Chandesris, Olivia; Rubio, Marie Therese; Beaumont, Carole; Benhamou, Marc; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Monteiro, Renato C; Moura, Ivan C; Hermine, Olivier

    2010-04-12

    Differentiating agents have been proposed to overcome the impaired cellular differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, only the combinations of all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide with chemotherapy have been successful, and only in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (also called AML3). We show that iron homeostasis is an effective target in the treatment of AML. Iron chelating therapy induces the differentiation of leukemia blasts and normal bone marrow precursors into monocytes/macrophages in a manner involving modulation of reactive oxygen species expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). 30% of the genes most strongly induced by iron deprivation are also targeted by vitamin D3 (VD), a well known differentiating agent. Iron chelating agents induce expression and phosphorylation of the VD receptor (VDR), and iron deprivation and VD act synergistically. VD magnifies activation of MAPK JNK and the induction of VDR target genes. When used to treat one AML patient refractory to chemotherapy, the combination of iron-chelating agents and VD resulted in reversal of pancytopenia and in blast differentiation. We propose that iron availability modulates myeloid cell commitment and that targeting this cellular differentiation pathway together with conventional differentiating agents provides new therapeutic modalities for AML.

  1. Targeting iron homeostasis induces cellular differentiation and synergizes with differentiating agents in acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Celine; Coulon, Séverine; Naudin, Jerome; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Boissel, Nicolas; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Wang, Pamella Huey Mei; Agarwal, Saurabh; Tamouza, Houda; Paubelle, Etienne; Asnafi, Vahid; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Dessen, Philippe; Canioni, Danielle; Chandesris, Olivia; Rubio, Marie Therese; Beaumont, Carole; Benhamou, Marc; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Monteiro, Renato C.

    2010-01-01

    Differentiating agents have been proposed to overcome the impaired cellular differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, only the combinations of all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide with chemotherapy have been successful, and only in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (also called AML3). We show that iron homeostasis is an effective target in the treatment of AML. Iron chelating therapy induces the differentiation of leukemia blasts and normal bone marrow precursors into monocytes/macrophages in a manner involving modulation of reactive oxygen species expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). 30% of the genes most strongly induced by iron deprivation are also targeted by vitamin D3 (VD), a well known differentiating agent. Iron chelating agents induce expression and phosphorylation of the VD receptor (VDR), and iron deprivation and VD act synergistically. VD magnifies activation of MAPK JNK and the induction of VDR target genes. When used to treat one AML patient refractory to chemotherapy, the combination of iron-chelating agents and VD resulted in reversal of pancytopenia and in blast differentiation. We propose that iron availability modulates myeloid cell commitment and that targeting this cellular differentiation pathway together with conventional differentiating agents provides new therapeutic modalities for AML. PMID:20368581

  2. Organometallic Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes with New Mechanisms of Action: NCI-60 Screening, Mitochondrial Targeting, and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (IrIII) complexes [Ir(Cpx)(XY)Cl]+/0 (Cpx = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cpx ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cpx = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these IrIII complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic IrIII complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands. PMID:23618382

  3. Synergistic antiproliferative effect of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) and a new anticancer agent, plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaevich, I S; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K

    1991-01-01

    The action of a new anticancer agent, the semisynthetic alkyl-phospholipid plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (sPNAE), namely 1-O-octadecyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-palmitoyl)-ethanolamine, on protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated, and it was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner PKC isolated from mouse brain. The inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphatidylserine (K(i) = 20 microM). Lyso-PNAE, a possible cell metabolite of sPNAE, also inhibited PKC. A two-site model was used to calculate the binding affinity and the number of binding sites for phorbol ester in a culture of human melanoma BRO cells. The values of Kd, the dissociation constant, were K'd = 0.5 nM and K"d = 72 nM, whereas the values of Bmax, the number of binding sites, were B'max = 4.6 x 10(4) sites cell-1, and B"max = 2.9 x 10(5) sites cell-1. sPNAE was able to reduce the affinity of BRO cells for phorbol ester with almost no changes in the number of binding sites: K'd = 1.6 nM, K"d = 557 nM, and B'max = 4 x 10(4), B"max = 1.9 x 10(5). These data suggest that sPNAE may inhibit PKC in intact cells. Since various inhibitors of PKC may enhance the antiproliferative activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP), we investigated the effect of the combination of sPNAE and cis-DDP on the proliferation of BRO cells. sPNAE synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of cis-DDP.

  4. Hybrid ligand-alkylating agents targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Filippo; Nadai, Matteo; Folini, Marco; Di Antonio, Marco; Germani, Luca; Percivalle, Claudia; Sissi, Claudia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Alcaro, Stefano; Artese, Anna; Richter, Sara N; Freccero, Mauro

    2012-04-14

    The synthesis, physico-chemical properties and biological effects of a new class of naphthalene diimides (NDIs) capable of reversibly binding telomeric DNA and alkylate it through an electrophilic quinone methide moiety (QM), are reported. FRET and circular dichroism assays showed a marked stabilization and selectivity towards telomeric G4 DNA folded in a hybrid topology. NDI-QMs' alkylating properties revealed a good reactivity on single nucleosides and selectivity towards telomeric G4. A selected NDI was able to significantly impair the growth of melanoma cells by causing telomere dysfunction and down-regulation of telomerase expression. These findings points to our hybrid ligand-alkylating NDIs as possible tools for the development of novel targeted anticancer therapies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of guanylhydrazones. Synthesis of 2-(2-methylthio-2-aminovinyl)-1-methylpyridinium iodides and 2-(2-methylthio-2-aminovinyl)-1-methylquinolinium iodides as potential radioprotective and anticancer agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassian, B.

    1985-01-01

    The finding of appreciable antileukemic activity in a series of 2-(2-methylthio-2-amino)vinyl-1-methylquinolinium iodides (Foye et al., 1980, 1983) suggested that greater basicity, as compared with the corresponding dithioacetic acids, was contributing to the increase in activity. The addition of a greater degree of basicity in the design of anticancer possibilities in this series was considered worth investigation, particularly in view of the activity of a series of bis(quanylhydrazones) synthesized at Lederle Laboratories. Accordingly, a series of guanylhydrazones of 4-pyridine-,2-pyridine- and 4-quinolinecarboxyaldehydes was synthesized for anticancer as well as antibacterial screening. Also, substitution of additional basic functions in the 2-(2-methylthio-2-amino) vinyl-1-methylquinolinium and pyridinium iodide series has been made. Appreciable antimicrobial activities have been found with both 2-pyridine and 4-quinolinealdehyde guanylhydrazones, as well as with 2-(2-methylthio-2-amino)vinyl-1-methyl-pyridinium iodides. The overall approach to the synthesis of potential anticancer agents in this project is thus to observe the effect of increasing basicity of these compounds on DNA binding and anticancer activity

  6. Novel Bone-Targeting Agent for Enhanced Delivery of Vancomycin to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Zaineb A. F.; Sunkara, Manjula; Schmidt-Malan, Suzannah M.; Karau, Melissa J.; Morris, Andrew J.; Steckelberg, James M.; Patel, Robin; Breen, Philip J.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Taylor, K. Grant; Merten, Kevyn E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetic properties of vancomycin conjugated to a bone-targeting agent (BT) with high affinity for hydroxyapatite after systemic intravenous administration. The results confirm enhanced persistence of BT-vancomycin in plasma and enhanced accumulation in bone relative to vancomycin. This suggests that BT-vancomycin may be a potential carrier for the systemic targeted delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of bone infections, potentially reducing the reliance on surgical debridement to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome. PMID:26666918

  7. Hyaluronic acid for anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Franco; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Fattal, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in anticancer drug delivery, since it is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic; moreover, HA receptors are overexpressed on many tumor cells. Exploiting this ligand-receptor interaction, the use of HA is now a rapidly-growing platform for targeting CD44-overexpressing cells, to improve anticancer therapies. The rationale underlying approaches, chemical strategies, and recent advances in the use of HA to design drug carriers for delivering anticancer agents, are reviewed. Comprehensive descriptions are given of HA-based drug conjugates, particulate carriers (micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, microparticles), inorganic nanostructures, and hydrogels, with particular emphasis on reports of preclinical/clinical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delivery of TLR7 agonist to monocytes and dendritic cells by DCIR targeted liposomes induces robust production of anti-cancer cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, Thomas Christopher Bogh; Laursen, Janne Marie; Zucker, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tumor immune escape is today recognized as an important cancer hallmark and is therefore a major focus area in cancer therapy. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), which are central to creating a robust anti-tumor immune response and establishing an anti-tumorigenic microenvironment, are directly...... as their immune activating potential in blood-derived monocytes, myeloid DCs (mDCs), and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Monocytes and mDCs were targeted with high specificity over lymphocytes, and exhibited potent TLR7-specific secretion of the anti-cancer cytokines IL-12p70, IFN-α 2a, and IFN-γ. This delivery system...... could be a way to improve cancer treatment either in the form of a vaccine with co-formulated antigen or as an immunotherapeutic vector to boost monocyte and DC activity in combination with other treatment protocols such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy is a powerful new tool...

  9. Multi-agent target tracking using particle filters enhanced with context data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claessens, R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework for Multi-Agent Target Tracking supports i) tracking of objects and ii) search and rescue based on the fusion of very heterogeneous data. The system is based on a novel approach to fusing sensory observations, intelligence...

  10. Ethyl Pyruvate: An Anti-Microbial Agent that Selectively Targets Pathobionts and Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Tewodros; Krüger, Monika; Huse, Klaus; Kacza, Johannes; Mühlberg, Katja; König, Brigitte; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    The microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. A causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. Therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. Here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. Ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fungi independent of the genera and prevailing drug resistance. Surprisingly, this anti-microbial agent preserves symbionts like Lactobacillus species. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevents the formation of biofilms and promotes matured biofilms dissolution. This potentially new anti-microbial and anti-biofilm agent could have a tremendous positive impact on human, veterinary medicine and technical industry as well.

  11. Ethyl Pyruvate: An Anti-Microbial Agent that Selectively Targets Pathobionts and Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Debebe

    Full Text Available The microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. A causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. Therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. Here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. Ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fungi independent of the genera and prevailing drug resistance. Surprisingly, this anti-microbial agent preserves symbionts like Lactobacillus species. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevents the formation of biofilms and promotes matured biofilms dissolution. This potentially new anti-microbial and anti-biofilm agent could have a tremendous positive impact on human, veterinary medicine and technical industry as well.

  12. Câncer e agentes antineoplásicos ciclo-celular específicos e ciclo-celular não específicos que interagem com o DNA: uma introdução Cancer and cell cicle-specific and cell cicle nonspecific anticancer DNA-interactive agents: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapy agents against cancer may be classified as "cell cycle-specific" or "cell cycle-nonspecific". Nevertheless, several of them have their biological activity related to any kind of action on DNA such as: antimetabolic agents (DNA synthesis inhibition, inherently reactive agents (DNA alkylating electrophilic traps for macromolecular nucleophiles from DNA through inter-strand cross-linking - ISC - alkylation and intercalating agents (drug-DNA interactions inherent to the binding made due to the agent penetration in to the minor groove of the double helix. The earliest and perhaps most extensively studied and most heavily employed clinical anticancer agents in use today are the DNA inter-strand cross-linking agents.

  13. Targeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma: moving from molecular agents to specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedke, Jens; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Stevanović, Stefan; Behnes, Carl-Ludwig; Stenzl, Arnulf

    2014-02-01

    Non-specific immunotherapy has been for a long time a standard treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma but was redeemed by specific targeted molecular therapies, namely the VEGF and mTOR inhibitors. After moving treatment for mRCC to specific molecular agents with a well-defined mode of action, immunotherapy still needs this further development to increase its accuracy. Nowadays, an evolution from a rather non-specific cytokine treatment to sophisticated targeted approaches in specific immunotherapy led to a re-launch of immunotherapy in clinical studies. Recent steps in the development of immunotherapy strategies are discussed in this review with a special focus on peptide vaccination which aims at a tumor targeting by specific T lymphocytes. In addition, different combinatory strategies with immunomodulating agents like cyclophosphamide or sunitinib are outlined, and the effects of immune checkpoint modulators as anti-CTLA-4 or PD-1 antibodies are discussed.

  14. Cell-type-specific, Aptamer-functionalized Agents for Targeted Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehua Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred years ago, Dr. Paul Ehrlich popularized the “magic bullet” concept for cancer therapy in which an ideal therapeutic agent would only kill the specific tumor cells it targeted. Since then, “targeted therapy” that specifically targets the molecular defects responsible for a patient's condition has become a long-standing goal for treating human disease. However, safe and efficient drug delivery during the treatment of cancer and infectious disease remains a major challenge for clinical translation and the development of new therapies. The advent of SELEX technology has inspired many groundbreaking studies that successfully adapted cell-specific aptamers for targeted delivery of active drug substances in both in vitro and in vivo models. By covalently linking or physically functionalizing the cell-specific aptamers with therapeutic agents, such as siRNA, microRNA, chemotherapeutics or toxins, or delivery vehicles, such as organic or inorganic nanocarriers, the targeted cells and tissues can be specifically recognized and the therapeutic compounds internalized, thereby improving the local concentration of the drug and its therapeutic efficacy. Currently, many cell-type-specific aptamers have been developed that can target distinct diseases or tissues in a cell-type-specific manner. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use of cell-specific aptamers for targeted disease therapy, as well as conjugation strategies and challenges.

  15. Vitamin E analogues as a novel group of mitocans: Anti-cancer agents that act by targeting mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L.F.; Ramanathapuram, L.; Hahn, T.; Chladová, Miroslava; Wang, X. F.; Zobalová, Renata; Procházka, L.; Gold, M.; Freeman, R.; Turánek, J.; Akporiaye, E.T.; Dyason, J.C.; Ralph, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, 5-6 (2007), s. 607-645 ISSN 0098-2997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tocopherol analogues * apoptosis * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.386, year: 2007

  16. Mitocans as anti-cancer agents targeting mitochondria: lessons from studies with vitamin E analogues, inhibitors of complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Dyason, J.C.; Freeman, R.; Dong, L.F.; Procházka, L.; Wang, X. F.; Scheffler, I.; Ralph, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2007), s. 65-72 ISSN 0145-479X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mitocans * mitochondria * complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.634, year: 2007

  17. Minimalism in fabrication of self-organized nanogels holding both anti-cancer drug and targeting moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwon; Park, Kyong Mi; Ko, Jin Young; Kwon, Ick Chan; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Kang, Dongmin; Yu, In Tag; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Na, Kun

    2008-05-01

    Recent researches to develop nano-carrier systems in anti-cancer drug delivery have focused on more complicated design to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce side effects. Although such efforts have great impact to biomedical science and engineering, the complexity has been a huddle because of clinical and economic problems. In order to overcome the problems, a simplest strategy to fabricate nano-carriers to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) was proposed in the present study. Two significant subjects (i) formation of nanoparticles loading and releasing DOX and (ii) binding specificity of them to cells, were examined. Folic acid (FA) was directly coupled with pullulan (Pul) backbone by ester linkage (FA/Pul conjugate) and the degree of substitution (DS) was varied, which were confirmed by 1H NMR and UV spectrophotometry. Light scattering results revealed that the nanogels possessed two major size distributions around 70 and 270 nm in an aqueous solution. Their critical aggregation concentrations (CACs) were less than 10 microg/mL, which are lower than general critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of low-molecular-weight surfactants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed well-dispersed nanogel morphology in a dried state. Depending on the DS, the nanogels showed different DOX-loading and releasing profiles. The DOX release rate from FA8/Pul (with the highest DS) for 24h was slower than that from FA4/or FA6/Pul, indicating that the FA worked as a hydrophobic moiety for drug holding. Cellular uptake of the nanogels (KB cells) was also monitored by confocal microscopy. All nanogels were internalized regardless of the DS of FA. Based on the results, the objectives of this study, to suggest a new method overcoming the complications in the drug carrier design, were successfully verified.

  18. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Aurora kinases as druggable targets in pediatric leukemia: heterogeneity in target modulation activities and cytotoxicity by diverse novel therapeutic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi Jayanthan

    Full Text Available Leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy, constituting more than 30% of all childhood cancers. Although cure rates have improved greatly, approximately one in five children relapse and poor survival rates post relapse remain a challenge. Given this, more effective and innovative therapeutic strategies are needed in order to improve prognosis. Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for the regulation of several mitotic processes, have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapeutics. Elevated expression of Aurora kinases has been demonstrated in several malignancies and is associated with aberrant mitotic activity, aneuploidy and alterations in chromosomal structure and genome instability. Based on this rationale, a number of small molecule inhibitors have been formulated and advanced to human studies in the recent past. A comparative analysis of these agents in cytotoxicity and target modulation analyses against a panel of leukemia cells provides novel insights into the unique mechanisms and codependent activity pathways involved in targeting Aurora kinases, constituting a distinctive preclinical experimental framework to identify appropriate agents and combinations in future clinical studies.

  20. Multi-target consensus circle pursuit for multi-agent systems via a distributed multi-flocking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the multi-target consensus pursuit problem of multi-agent systems. For solving the problem, a distributed multi-flocking method is designed based on the partial information exchange, which is employed to realise the pursuit of multi-target and the uniform distribution of the number of pursuing agents with the dynamic target. Combining with the proposed circle formation control strategy, agents can adaptively choose the target to form the different circle formation groups accomplishing a multi-target pursuit. The speed state of pursuing agents in each group converges to the same value. A Lyapunov approach is utilised to analyse the stability of multi-agent systems. In addition, a sufficient condition is given for achieving the dynamic target consensus pursuit, and which is then analysed. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  1. Bayesian Nonparametric Estimation of Targeted Agent Effects on Biomarker Change to Predict Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Rebecca; Guindani, Michele; Thall, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of a targeted agent on a cancer patient's clinical outcome putatively is mediated through the agent's effect on one or more early biological events. This is motivated by pre-clinical experiments with cells or animals that identify such events, represented by binary or quantitative biomarkers. When evaluating targeted agents in humans, central questions are whether the distribution of a targeted biomarker changes following treatment, the nature and magnitude of this change, and whether it is associated with clinical outcome. Major difficulties in estimating these effects are that a biomarker's distribution may be complex, vary substantially between patients, and have complicated relationships with clinical outcomes. We present a probabilistically coherent framework for modeling and estimation in this setting, including a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for biomarkers that we use to define a functional profile of pre-versus-post treatment biomarker distribution change. The functional is similar to the receiver operating characteristic used in diagnostic testing. The hierarchical model yields clusters of individual patient biomarker profile functionals, and we use the profile as a covariate in a regression model for clinical outcome. The methodology is illustrated by analysis of a dataset from a clinical trial in prostate cancer using imatinib to target platelet-derived growth factor, with the clinical aim to improve progression-free survival time. PMID:25319212

  2. Self-assembled Multifunctional DNA Nanoflowers for the Circumvention of Multidrug Resistance in Targeted Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lei; Zhu, Guizhi; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Cuichen; Chen, Huapei; Liang, Hao; Cansiz, Sena; Lv, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    Cancer chemotherapy has been impeded by side effects and multidrug resistance (MDR) partially caused by drug efflux from cancer cells, which call for targeted drug delivery systems additionally able to circumvent MDR. Here we report multifunctional DNA nanoflowers (NFs) for targeted drug delivery to both chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells and circumvent MDR in both leukemia and breast cancer cell models. NFs are self-assembled via liquid crystallization of DNA generated by Rolling Circle Replication, during which NFs are incorporated with aptamers for specific cancer cell recognition, fluorophores for bioimaging, and Doxorubicin (Dox)-binding DNA for drug delivery. NF sizes are tunable (down to ~200 nm in diameter), and the densely packed drug-binding motifs and porous intrastructures endow NFs with high drug loading capacity (71.4%, wt/wt). The Dox-loaded NFs (NF-Dox) are stable at physiological pH, yet drug release is facilitated in acidic or basic conditions. NFs deliver Dox into target chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells, preventing drug efflux and enhancing drug retention in MDR cells. Consequently, NF-Dox induces potent cytotoxicity in both target chemosensitive cells and MDR cells, but not nontarget cells, thus concurrently circumventing MDR and reducing side effects. Overall, these NFs are promising to circumvent MDR in targeted cancer therapy.

  3. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  4. Targeted nanodiamonds as phenotype-specific photoacoustic contrast agents for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-03-01

    The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly targeted contrast agent for high-resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with PEG to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-HER2 peptide with a final nanoparticle size of approximately 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near-infrared laser. PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 h. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are nontoxic. PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high-resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype-specific monitoring of cancer growth.

  5. Synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as liver targeting MRI contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farshad; Fattahi, Bahare; Azizi, Najmodin

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was the preparation of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as a liver targeting contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with silica via the Stober method and finally the coated nanoparticles were functionalized with mebrofenin. Formation of crystalline magnetite particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) of the final product showed that silica had been effectively bonded onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles and the coated nanoparticles functionalized with mebrofenin. The magnetic resonance imaging of the functional nanoparticles showed that the Fe3O4-SiO2-mebrofenin composite is an effective MRI contrast agent for liver targeting.

  6. Agent-based multi-platform control, collaboration, and target hand-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Norm; Tirabassi, Ben; MacKenzie, Doug

    2007-04-01

    Deploying a world wide force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point on the spectrum of conflict involves the cooperative system development and use of advanced technologies that yield revolutionary capabilities to support the war-fighters needs. This presentation describes an agent based control architecture and prototype implementation developed by ARDEC that enables command and control of multiple unmanned platforms and associated mission packages for collaborative target hand-off/engagement. Current prototypes provide the ability to remotely locate, track and predict the movement of enemy targets on the battlefield using a variety of sensor systems hosted on multiple, non-homogeneous SUAVs and UGVs.

  7. Comparing methods of targeting obesity interventions in populations: An agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment. We develop an ABM to compare conventional targeting methods (random selection, based on individual obesity risk, and vulnerable areas) with network-based targeting methods. We adapt a previously published and validated model of network diffusion of obesity-related behavior. We then build social networks among agents using a more realistic approach. We calibrate our model first against national-level data. Our results show that network-based targeting may lead to greater population impact. We also present a new targeting method that outperforms other methods in terms of intervention effectiveness at the population level.

  8. Double-targeting Using A TrkC-Ligand Conjugated To BODIPY-based PDT Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkaew, Anyanee; Burgess, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A molecule 1 (IY-IY-PDT) was designed to contain a fragment (IY-IY) that targets the TrkC receptor, and a photosensitizer that acts as an agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Molecule 1 had sub-micromolar photocytotoxicities to cells that were either engineered to stably express TrkC (NIH3T3-TrkC) or that naturally express high levels of TrkC (SY5Y neuroblastoma lines). Control experiments showed 1 is not cytotoxic in the dark, and has significantly less photocytotoxicity towards cells that do not express TrkC (NIH3T3-WT). Other controls featuring a similar agent 2 (YI-YI-PDT) which is identical and isomeric with 1 except that the targeting region is scrambled (a YI-YI motif, see text) showed 1 is considerably more photocytotoxic than 2 on TrkC+ cells. Imaging live TrkC+ cells after treatment with a fluorescent agent 1 (IY-IY-PDT) proved that 1 permeates into TrkC+ cells and localizes in the lysosomes. This observation indirectly indicates agent 1 enters the cells via the TrkC receptor. Consistent with this, the dose-dependent PDT effects of 1 can be competitively reduced by the natural TrkC ligand, neurotrophin NT3. PMID:24063347

  9. Selective Targeting of Antiviral and Immunomodulating Agents in the Treatment of Arenavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    designated by other authorized documents. aCURqY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE R T M A PForm Approved REPORT DOCUMEN[ATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188 la...protected mice from viral infections in which the liver or lung served as the primary site of virus infection. Liposome-encapsulated ribavirin was more...report summarizes our findings using liposomes as carriers for the selective targeting of antiviral and immunomodulating agents in viral infections

  10. Eco-sustainable synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-phenyl 1,3-benzodioxole derivatives as anticancer, DNA binding and antibacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Dutta Gupta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research and development scenario in medicinal chemistry demands small molecules synthesized in a simple, fast and effective way with enhanced activity and fewer side effects than the existing ones. Therefore, one-pot, microwave assisted green and efficient synthesis of a series of derivatives belonging to 2-phenyl 1,3-benzodioxole (1a–14a and 2-phenyl 1,3-benzodioxole-4-ol (1b–14b class were carried out and subsequently investigated for their anticancer, antibacterial and DNA binding potential. Compound 3c proved to be the most active one among the screened derivatives possessing anticancer and antibacterial potency greater than the standard reference compound (cisplatin and cinoxacin for anticancer and antibacterial activity, respectively. The most active compound in terms of DNA binding capacity was found to be 5b. A rewarding feature of the work is a facile, convenient, eco friendly one step synthesis of compounds demonstrating attenuated activity against cancer and bacterial cell with an inherent potential of binding to DNA. Subsequently, a hit molecule for further anticancer, antibacterial (compound 3c and DNA binding studies (compound 5b was also identified.

  11. Inherent characteristics of metachronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jang Hee; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ham, Won Sik; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Yoon, Young Eun

    2017-10-03

    To assess the prognostic and predictive factors of time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS), respectively, in patients with metachronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who were treated with targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed metachronous mRCC patients, defined as individuals diagnosed with metastatic disease >3 months after initial nephrectomy, treated at an institute since 2005. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to discover the most determinant variables associated with TTF and OS. Sarcomatoid features, absence of metastasectomy, multiple site metastasis, time to metastasis risk group (0-1 risk factors) did not reach the median OS, whereas the OS for the intermediate (2 risk factors) and high risk groups (3-5 risk factors) were 58.6 and 23.6 months, respectively (prisk criteria models. Initial tumor size or T stage did not affect TTF or OS. Patients who could not undergo metastasectomy and rapidly developed multiple metastases with higher corrected calcium and initial tumors with sarcomatoid features were less likely to benefit from targeted therapy; thus, the new agents under development or clinical trials could be more helpful than the use of standard targeted agents.

  12. Synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as liver targeting MRI contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Farshad, E-mail: fyazdani@ccerci.ac.ir; Fattahi, Bahare; Azizi, Najmodin

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this research was the preparation of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as a liver targeting contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with silica via the Stober method and finally the coated nanoparticles were functionalized with mebrofenin. Formation of crystalline magnetite particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) of the final product showed that silica had been effectively bonded onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles and the coated nanoparticles functionalized with mebrofenin. The magnetic resonance imaging of the functional nanoparticles showed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SiO{sub 2}-mebrofenin composite is an effective MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by simple and economical method. • Preperation of functional MNPs as a MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. • Gaining a good r{sub 2} relaxivity of the coated functional nanoparticles.

  13. New treatment options and emerging drugs for axial spondyloarthritis: biological and targeted synthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and axial spondyloarthritis (ax SpA) are chronic inflammatory diseases mainly involving the axial skeleton. Pharmacological treatments for AS and ax SpA usually include local glucocorticoid injections, NSAIDs and anti-TNFα agents. Since around 30% to 40% of patients are non responders or intolerant to anti-TNFα agents, we need new therapeutic options for AS and ax SpA. Areas covered: This review describes the new biological agents that can be used or are in development for AS or ax SpA as well as emerging synthetic targeted drugs. Expert opinion: Based on the rationale of the involvement of the IL-23/Th17 axis in AS, novel biological agents have been developed and include secukinumab, an anti-IL-17A agent and ustekinumab, an anti-IL-23 antibody. New compounds in the class of synthetic drugs are apremilast, a PDE4 inhibitor, and inhibitors of kinase pathways. Secukinumab gave positive results in the treatment of AS. Ustekinumab yielded promising results in AS in an open labeled study. Apremilast is not effective in AS while results with kinase inhibitors are preliminary. Future studies will clarify the place of secukinumab in the therapeutic management of AS, its influence on radiographic progression and its effects on the non radiographic form of the disease.

  14. HSP32 (HO-1) inhibitor, copoly(styrene-maleic acid)-zinc protoporphyrin IX, a water-soluble micelle as anticancer agent: In vitro and in vivo anticancer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Greish, Khaled; Qin, Haibo; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Takeya, Motohiro; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We reported previously the antitumor effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibition by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). ZnPP per se is poorly water soluble and thus cannot be used as anticancer chemotherapeutic. Subsequently, we developed water-soluble micelles of ZnPP using styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA), which encapsulated ZnPP (SMA-ZnPP). In this report, the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic effects of SMA-ZnPP are described. In vitro experiments using 11 cultured tumor cell lines and six normal cell lines revealed a remarkable cytotoxicity of SMA-ZnPP against various tumor cells; average IC(50) is about 11.1 μM, whereas the IC(50) to various normal cells is significantly higher, that is, more than 50 μM. In the pharmacokinetic study, we found that SMA-ZnPP predominantly accumulated in the liver tissue after i.v. injection, suggesting its applicability for liver cancer. As expected, a remarkable antitumor effect was achieved in the VX-2 tumor model in the liver of rabbit that is known as one the most difficult tumor models to cure. Antitumor effect was also observed in murine tumor xenograft, that is, B16 melanoma and Meth A fibrosarcoma. Meanwhile, no apparent side effects were found even at the dose of ∼7 times higher concentration of therapeutics dose. These findings suggest a potential of SMA-ZnPP as a tool for anticancer therapy toward clinical development, whereas further investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing the Sniper: Improving Targeted Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins for Anti-Cancer Therapy via Molecular Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochicchio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs are humanized immunotoxins for selective treatment of different diseases including cancer. They are composed of a ligand specifically binding to target cells genetically linked to a human apoptosis-inducing enzyme. hCFPs target cancer cells via an antibody or derivative (scFv specifically binding to e.g., tumor associated antigens (TAAs. After internalization and translocation of the enzyme from endocytosed endosomes, the human enzymes introduced into the cytosol are efficiently inducing apoptosis. Under in vivo conditions such enzymes are subject to tight regulation by native inhibitors in order to prevent inappropriate induction of cell death in healthy cells. Tumor cells are known to upregulate these inhibitors as a survival mechanism resulting in escape of malignant cells from elimination by immune effector cells. Cytosolic inhibitors of Granzyme B and Angiogenin (Serpin P9 and RNH1, respectively, reduce the efficacy of hCFPs with these enzymes as effector domains, requiring detrimentally high doses in order to saturate inhibitor binding and rescue cytolytic activity. Variants of Granzyme B and Angiogenin might feature reduced affinity for their respective inhibitors, while retaining or even enhancing their catalytic activity. A powerful tool to design hCFPs mutants with improved potency is given by in silico methods. These include molecular dynamics (MD simulations and enhanced sampling methods (ESM. MD and ESM allow predicting the enzyme-protein inhibitor binding stability and the associated conformational changes, provided that structural information is available. Such “high-resolution” detailed description enables the elucidation of interaction domains and the identification of sites where particular point mutations may modify those interactions. This review discusses recent advances in the use of MD and ESM for hCFP development from the viewpoints of scientists involved in both fields.

  16. Novel anti-cancer strategy in bone tumors by targeting molecular and cellular modulators of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brounais, Bénédicte; Ruiz, Carmen; Rousseau, Julie; Lamoureux, François; Blanchard, Frédéric; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    Tumor cells alter the balanced process of bone formation and bone resorption mediated respectively by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to the disruption of the normal equilibrium and resulting in a spectrum of osteolytic to osteoblastic lesions. This review will summarize research on molecules that play direct and essential roles in the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, and the role of these molecules in bone destruction caused by cancer. Results from experimental models suggest that the Receptor Activator of NF-kB Ligand (RANKL), a member of the TNF superfamily is a common effector of bony lesions in osteolysis caused by primary and secondary bone tumors. Therefore, osteoclast represents an attractive target across a broad range of tumors that develop in bone. Elucidation of the mechanisms of RANKL interactions with its activator (RANK) and decoy (osteoprotegerin: OPG) receptors has enable the development of pharmacological inhibitors of RANKL (and of its signalling pathway) which have been recently patented, with potential for the treatment of cancer-induced bone disease. Blocking bone resorption by specific other drugs such as bisphosphonates, inhibitors of cathepsin K (the main enzyme involved in bone resorption mechanisms) or signalling pathways regulating osteoclast differentiation and activation is also a promising target for the treatment of osteolysis associated to bone tumors.

  17. Ultrasound molecular imaging of ovarian cancer with CA-125 targeted nanobubble contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Hernandez, Christopher; Yuan, Hai-Xia; Lilly, Jacob; Kota, Pavan; Zhou, Haoyan; Wu, Hanping; Exner, Agata A

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasound is frequently utilized in diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Because epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is often characterized by overexpression of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), ultrasound contrast agents able to target this molecular signature could be a promising complementary strategy. In this work, we demonstrate application of CA-125-targeted echogenic lipid and surfactant-stabilized nanobubbles imaged with standard clinical contrast harmonic ultrasound for imaging of CA-125 positive OVCAR-3 tumors in mice. Surface functionalization of the nanobubbles with a CA-125 antibody achieved rapid significantly (P CA-125 negative SKOV-3 tumors. Targeted nanobubbles also exhibited increased tumor retention and prolonged echogenicity compared to untargeted nanobubbles. Data suggest that ultrasound molecular imaging using CA-125 antibody-conjugated nanobubbles may contribute to improved diagnosis of EOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotin-Pt (IV)-indomethacin hybrid: A targeting anticancer prodrug providing enhanced cancer cellular uptake and reversing cisplatin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Fang, Lei; Hua, Wuyang; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-10-01

    A Pt(IV) prodrug (2) composed of cancer-targeting biotin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in the axial positions of the six-coordinated octahedral geometry derived from cisplatin was developed, which could be highly accumulated in cancer cells more than normal ones and activated by endogenous reducing molecules to release cisplatin and indomethacin moieties simultaneously to inhibit tumor progression synergistically. In vitro assays revealed that 2 exhibited significantly selective inhibition to the tested cancer cell lines and sensitivity to cisplatin resistant cancer cells. Moreover, 2 presented cyclooxygenases inhibition properties to reduce tumor-associated inflammation, reduced the invasiveness of the highly aggressive PC-3 cells, and disrupted capillary-like tube formation in EA.hy926 cells. In all, this study offers a new strategy to enhance sensitivity and reduce toxicity of cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcription factor HBP1 is a direct anti-cancer target of transcription factor FOXO1 in invasive oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Roth, Mendel M; Chou, I-Tai; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2017-02-28

    Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (oral tumors. To investigate if HBP1 is a direct transcription target of FOXO1, we searched potential FOXO1 binding sites in the HBP1 promoter using the MAPPER Search Engine, and two putative FOXO1 binding sites located in the HBP1 promoter -132 to -125 bp and -343 to -336 bp were predicted. These binding sites were then confirmed by both reporter gene assays and the in cellulo ChIP assay. In addition, Akt activity manipulated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt mutants was shown to negatively affect FOXO1-mediated HBP1 promoter activation and gene expression. Last, the biological significance of the FOXO1-HBP1 axis in oral cancer malignancy was evaluated in cell growth, colony formation, and invasiveness. The results indicated that HBP1 knockdown potently promoted malignant phenotypes of oral cancer and the suppressive effect of FOXO1 on cell growth, colony formation, and invasion was alleviated upon HBP1 knockdown in invasive oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for HBP1 as a direct downstream target of FOXO1 in oral cancer malignancy.

  20. Phytochemical, Anticancer and Antioxidant Evaluation of Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Key words: anticancer, antioxidant, C. surinamensis, phytochemical investigation, plant extract ... agents active against cancer and infectious diseases ..... (2004). Wine polyphenols and ethanol do not significantly scavenge superoxide nor affect endothelial nitric oxide production. Journal of. Nutritional. Biochemistry.

  1. Curcumin binds in silico to anti-cancer drug target enzyme MMP-3 (human stromelysin-1) with affinity comparable to two known inhibitors of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerah, Ahmed; Hobani, Yahya; Kumar, B Vinod; Bidwai, Anil

    2015-01-01

    In silico interaction of curcumin with the enzyme MMP-3 (human stromelysin-1) was studied by molecular docking using AutoDock 4.2 as the docking software application. AutoDock 4.2 software serves as a valid and acceptable docking application to study the interactions of small compounds with proteins. Interactions of curcumin with MMP-3 were compared to those of two known inhibitors of the enzyme, PBSA and MPPT. The calculated free energy of binding (ΔG binding) shows that curcumin binds with affinity comparable to or better than the two known inhibitors. Binding interactions of curcumin with active site residues of the enzyme are also predicted. Curcumin appears to bind in an extendended conformation making extensive VDW contacts in the active site of the enzyme. Hydrogen bonding and pi-pi interactions with key active site residues is also observed. Thus, curcumin can be considered as a good lead compound in the development of new inhibitors of MMP-3 which is a potential target of anticancer drugs. The results of these studies can serve as a starting point for further computational and experimental studies.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new C-12(α/β)-(N-) sulfamoyl-phenylamino-14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandanur, Sai Giridhar Sarma; Nanduri, Srinivas; Golakoti, Nageswara Rao

    2017-07-01

    Andrographolide, the major diterpenoidal constituent of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) and its derivatives have been reported to possess plethora of biological properties including potent anti-cancer activity. In this work, synthesis and in-vitro anti-cancer evaluation of new C-12-substituted aryl amino 14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives (III a-f) are reported. The substitutions include various sulfonamide moieties -SO 2 -NH-R 1 . The new derivatives (III a-e) exhibited improved cytotoxicity (GI 50 , TGI and LC 50 ) compared to andrographolide (I) and the corresponding 3,14,19-O-triacetyl andrographolide (II) when evaluated against 60 NCI cell line panel. Compounds III c and III e are found to be non-toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cells compared to reference drug THZ-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frondoside A from sea cucumber and nymphaeols from Okinawa propolis: Natural anti-cancer agents that selectively inhibit PAK1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2017-05-30

    A sulfated saponin called "Frondoside A" (FRA) from sea cucumber and ingredients from Okinawa propolis (OP) have been previously shown to suppress the PAK1-dependent growth of A549 lung cancer as well as pancreatic cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying their anti-cancer action still remains to be clarified. In this study, for the first time, we found that both FRA and OP directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner (far more effectively than two other oncogenic kinases, LIMK and AKT). Furthermore, at least two major anti-cancer ingredients of OP, nymphaeols A and C, also directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner. To the best of our knowledge, FRA is the first marine compound that selectively inhibits PAK1. Likewise, these nymphaeols are the first propolis ingredients that selectively inhibit PAK1.

  4. Modern dose-finding designs for cancer phase I trials drug combinations and molecularly targeted agents

    CERN Document Server

    Hirakawa, Akihiro; Daimon, Takashi; Matsui, Shigeyuki

    2018-01-01

    This book deals with advanced methods for adaptive phase I dose-finding clinical trials for combination of two agents and molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) in oncology. It provides not only methodological aspects of the dose-finding methods, but also software implementations and practical considerations in applying these complex methods to real cancer clinical trials. Thus, the book aims to furnish researchers in biostatistics and statistical science with a good summary of recent developments of adaptive dose-finding methods as well as providing practitioners in biostatistics and clinical investigators with advanced materials for designing, conducting, monitoring, and analyzing adaptive dose-finding trials. The topics in the book are mainly related to cancer clinical trials, but many of those topics are potentially applicable or can be extended to trials for other diseases. The focus is mainly on model-based dose-finding methods for two kinds of phase I trials. One is clinical trials with combinations of tw...

  5. Development of Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Delivery of Imaging Agents into Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    targeted therapy. Targeted delivery of a combined imaging and therapy agent to cancer cells is an avenue to develop a new generation of effective and...ligands for targeting HER-2/neu on breast cancer cells . In near future we will test these nanoparticles with SK-BR-3 (HER-2/neu+) and MDA-MD-468 (HER-2/neu-) breast cancer cell lines.

  6. Anticancer chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This document examines chemotherapeutic agents for use in veterinary oncology. It lists some of the most common categories of chemotherapeutic drugs, such as alkylating agents and corticosteroids. For each category, the paper lists some example drugs, gives their mode of action, tumors usually susceptible to the drug, and common side effects. A brief discussion of mechanisms of drug resistance is also provided. (MHB)

  7. Inhibition of microRNA-500 has anti-cancer effect through its conditional downstream target of TFPI in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bing; Chen, Wei; Pan, Yue; Chen, Hongde; Zhang, Yirong; Weng, Zhiliang; Li, Yeping

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the prognostic potential and regulatory mechanism of microRNA-500 (miR-500), and human gene of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in prostate cancer. MiR-500 expression was assessed by qRT-PCR in prostate cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Cancer patients' clinicopathological factors and overall survival were analyzed according to endogenous miR-500 level. MiR-500 was downregulated in DU145 and VCaP cells. Its effect on prostate cancer proliferation, invasion in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo, were probed. Possible downstream target of miR-500, TFPI was assessed by luciferase assay and qRT-PCR in prostate cancer cells. In miR-500-downregulated DU145 and VCaP cells, TFPI was silenced to see whether it was directly involved in the regulation of miR-500 in prostate cancer. TFPI alone was either upregulated or downregulated in DU145 and VCaP cells. Their effect on prostate cancer development was further evaluated. MiR-500 is upregulated in both prostate cancer cells and primary tumors. In prostate cancer patients, high miR-500 expression is associated with poor prognosis and overall survival. In DU145 and VCaP cells, miR-500 downregulation inhibited cancer proliferation, invasion in vitro, and explant growth in vivo. TFPI was verified to be associated with miR-500 in prostate cancer. Downregulation of TFPI reversed anti-cancer effects of miR-500 downregulation in prostate cancer cells. However, neither TFPI upregulation nor downregulation alone had any functional impact on prostate cancer development. MiR-500 may be a potential biomarker and molecular target in prostate cancer. TFPI may conditionally regulate prostate cancer in miR-500-downregualted prostate cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An Aspartyl Cathepsin Targeted PET Agent: Application in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Jonatan A; Suchy, Mojmir; Bindseil, Geron A; Kovacs, Michael; Chronik, Blaine A; Hudson, Robert H E; Pasternak, Stephen H; Bartha, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is a serious challenge for both diagnosis and clinical trials. The aspartyl protease, Cathepsin D (CatD), is overexpressed in AD and could be a biomarker of disease. We have previously designed a unique contrast agent (CA) for dual-optical and magnetic resonance imaging of the activity of the CatD class of enzymes. To compare the uptake and retention of a novel, more sensitive, and clinically-translatable 68Ga PET tracer targeting CatD activity in 5XFAD mice and non-Tg littermates. The targeted CA consisted of an HIV-1 Tat cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a specialized cleavage sequence targeting aspartyl cathepsins and a DOTA conjugate chelating 68Ga. PET images were acquired using a Siemens Inveon preclinical microPET in female Tg AD mice and non-Tg age matched female littermates (n = 5-8) following intravenous CA administration at 2, 6, and 9 months of age. Additionally, 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging was performed at 10 months to measure glucose uptake. The Tg mice showed significantly higher relative uptake rate of the targeting CA in the forebrain relative to hindbrain at all ages compared to controls, consistent with histology. In contrast, no differences were seen in CA uptake in other organs. Additionally, the Tg mice did not show any differences in relative uptake of FDG at 10 months of age in the forebrain relative to the hindbrain compared to age matched non-Tg controls. Elevated aspartryl cathepsin activity was detected in vivo in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD using a novel targeted PET contrast agent.

  9. Tailor-Made Temperature-Sensitive Micelle for Targeted and On-Demand Release of Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, S; Dey, G; Bharti, R; Kumari, K; Maiti, T K; Mandal, M; Chattopadhyay, S

    2016-05-18

    The design of nanomedicines from the tuned architecture polymer is a leading object of immense research in recent years. Here, smart thermoresponsive micelles were prepared from novel architecture four-arm star block copolymers, namely, pentaerythritol polycaprolactone-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and pentaerythritol polycaprolactone-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam). The polymers were synthesized and tagged with folic acid (FA) to render them as efficient cancer cell targeting cargos. FA-conjugated block copolymers were self-assembled to a nearly spherical (ranging from 15 to 170 nm) polymeric micelle (FA-PM) with a sufficiently lower range of critical micelle concentration (0.59 × 10(-2) to 1.52 × 10(-2) mg/mL) suitable for performing as an efficient drug carrier. The blocks show lower critical solution temperature (LCST) ranging from 30 to 39 °C with high DOX-loading content (24.3%, w/w) as compared to that reported for a linear polymer in the contemporary literature. The temperature-induced reduction in size (57%) of the FA-PM enables a high rate of DOX release (78.57% after 24 h) at a temperature above LCST. The DOX release rate has also been tuned by on-demand administration of temperature. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the blank and DOX-loaded FA-PMs have been studied by the MTT assay. The cellular uptake study proves selective internalization of the FA-PM into cancerous cells (C6 glioma) compared that into normal cells (HaCaT). In vivo administration of the DOX-loaded FA-PMs into the C6 glioma rat tumor model resulted in significant accumulation in tumor sites, which drastically inhibited the tumor volume by ∼83.9% with respect to control without any significant systemic toxicity.

  10. Multifunctional pH-sensitive magnetic nanoparticles for simultaneous imaging, sensing and targeted intracellular anticancer drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Chen, D-H

    2008-01-01

    A novel multifunctional magnetic nanocarrier was fabricated for synchronous cancer therapy and sensing. The nanocarrier, programed to display a response to environmental stimuli (pH value), was synthesized by coupling doxorubicin (DOX) to adipic dihydrazide-grafted gum arabic modified magnetic nanoparticles (ADH-GAMNP) via the hydrolytically degradable pH-sensitive hydrazone bond. The resultant nanocarrier, DOX-ADH-GAMNP, had a mean diameter of 13.8 nm and the amount of DOX coupled was about 6.52 mg g -1 . Also, it exhibited pH triggered release of DOX in an acidic environment (pH 5.0) but was relatively stable at physiological pH (pH 7.4). Furthermore, both GAMNP and DOX were found to possess fluorescence properties when excited in the near-infrared region due to the two-photon absorption mechanism. The coupling of DOX to GAMNP resulted in a reversible self-quenching of fluorescence through the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between the donor GAMNP and acceptor DOX. The release of DOX from DOX-ADH-GAMNP when exposed to acidic media indicated the recovery of fluorescence from both GAMNP and DOX. The change in the fluorescence intensity of DOX-ADH-GAMNP on the release of DOX can act as a potential sensor to sense the delivery of the drug. The analysis of zeta potential and plasmon absorbance in different pH conditions also confirmed the pH sensitivity of the product. This multifunctional nanocarrier is a significant breakthrough in developing a drug delivery vehicle that combines drug targeting as well as sensing and therapy at the same time.

  11. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  12. GE11 Peptide as an Active Targeting Agent in Antitumor Therapy: A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Genta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of solid tumors are characterized by uncontrolled signal transduction triggered by receptors related to cellular growth. The targeting of these cell receptors with antitumor drugs is essential to improve chemotherapy efficacy. This can be achieved by conjugation of an active targeting agent to the polymer portion of a colloidal drug delivery system loaded with an antitumor drug. The goal of this minireview is to report and discuss some recent results in epidermal growth factor receptor targeting by the GE11 peptide combined with colloidal drug delivery systems as smart carriers for antitumor drugs. The minireview chapters will focus on explaining and discussing: (i Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR structures and functions; (ii GE11 structure and biologic activity; (iii examples of GE11 conjugation and GE11-conjugated drug delivery systems. The rationale is to contribute in gathering information on the topic of active targeting to tumors. A case study is introduced, involving research on tumor cell targeting by the GE11 peptide combined with polymer nanoparticles.

  13. Peptide-based proteasome inhibitors in anticancer drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Nicola; Scarbaci, Kety; Troiano, Valeria; Ettari, Roberta; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the key role of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome in regulated intracellular proteolysis and its importance as a target in many pathological conditions wherein the proteasomal activity is defective (e.g., malignancies, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.) prompted several research groups to the development of specific inhibitors of this multicatalytic complex with the aim of obtaining valid drug candidates. In regard to the anticancer therapy, the peptide boronate bortezomib (Velcade®) represents the first molecule approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma in 2003 and mantle cell lymphoma in 2006. Since then, a plethora of molecules targeting the proteasome have been identified as potential anticancer agents and a few of them reached clinical trials or are already in the market (i.e., carfilzomib; Kyprolis®). In most cases, the design of new proteasome inhibitors (PIs) takes into account a proven peptide or pseudopeptide motif as a base structure and places other chemical entities throughout the peptide skeleton in such a way to create an efficacious network of interactions within the catalytic sites. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth look at the current state of the research in the field of peptide-based PIs, specifically those ones that might find an application as anticancer agents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anticancer Synergy Between Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lewandowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention has recently gained a new dimension due to the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of chemopreventive agents at the molecular level. Many compounds have been proved to inhibit early stages of carcinogenesis in experimental models. These compounds include both recognized drugs (such as tamoxifen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and natural constituents of edible and therapeutic plants, particularly polyphenols. Phenolics are characterized by high structural diversity and, consequently, a very broad spectrum of biological activities. They are increasingly looked upon as a valuable alternative or a support for synthetic drugs, as evidenced by a growing number of clinical trials regarding the use of phenolic compounds and polyphenol-rich extracts in chemoprevention and therapy. In the present work, we discuss the effectiveness of natural polyphenols as cancer preventive and therapeutic agents resulting from their synergy with synthetic or semisynthetic anticancer drugs as well as with other phenolic compounds of plant origin.

  15. Design of a modular protein-based MRI contrast agent for targeted application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grum

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers a non-radioactive alternative for the non-invasive detection of tumours. Low molecular weight MRI contrast agents currently in clinical use suffer either from a lack of specificity for tumour tissue or from low relaxivity and thus low contrast amplification. In this study, we present the newly designed two domain fusion protein Zarvin, which is able to bind to therapeutic IgG antibodies suitable for targeting, while facilitating contrast enhancement through high affinity binding sites for Gd(3+. We show that the Zarvin fold is stable under serum conditions, specifically targets a cancer cell-line when bound to the Cetuximab IgG, and allows for imaging with high relaxivity, a property that would be advantageous for the detection of small tumours and metastases at 1.5 or 3 T.

  16. Combination of chemotherapy and cancer stem cell targeting agents: Preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Atkinson, Katharine; Zhang, Tao

    2017-06-28

    The cancer stem cell model claims that the initiation, maintenance, and growth of a tumor are driven by a small population of cancer cells termed cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells possess a variety of phenotypes associated with therapeutic resistance and often cause recurrence of the diseases. Several strategies have been investigated to target cancer stem cells in a variety of cancers, such as blocking one or more self-renewal signaling pathways, reducing the expression of drug efflux and ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters, modulating epigenetic aberrations, and promoting cancer stem cell differentiation. A number of cell and animal studies strongly support the potential benefits of combining chemotherapeutic drugs with cancer stem cell targeting agents. Clinical trials are still underway to address the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of combination treatment. This mini-review provides an updated discussion of these preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repurposing Auranofin, Ebselen, and PX-12 as Antimicrobial Agents Targeting the Thioredoxin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C. May

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As microbial resistance to drugs continues to rise at an alarming rate, finding new ways to combat pathogens is an issue of utmost importance. Development of novel and specific antimicrobial drugs is a time-consuming and expensive process. However, the re-purposing of previously tested and/or approved drugs could be a feasible way to circumvent this long and costly process. In this review, we evaluate the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested drugs auranofin, ebselen, and PX-12 as antimicrobial agents targeting the thioredoxin system. These drugs have been shown to act on bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and helminth pathogens without significant toxicity to the host. We propose that the thioredoxin system could serve as a useful therapeutic target with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  18. Exploring the Effect of Polypyridyl Ligands on the Anticancer Activity of Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes: From Proteosynthesis Inhibitors to Photodynamic Therapy Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracharova, Jitka; Vigueras, Gloria; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Cutillas, Natalia; Janiak, Christoph; Kostrhunova, Hana; Kasparkova, Jana; Ruiz, José; Brabec, Viktor

    2018-03-26

    A series of five kinetically inert bis-cyclometalated Ir III complexes of general formula [Ir(C^N) 2 (N^N)][PF 6 ] [C^N=2-phenyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-κN,C; N^N=1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn, 4), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-10,11-imidazolone (dppz-izdo, 5)] were designed and synthesized to explore the effect of the degree of π conjugation of the polypyridyl ligand on their toxicity in cancer cells. We show that less-lipophilic complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the highest toxicity [sub-micromolar inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values] in A2780, HeLa, and MCF-7 cancer cells, and they are markedly more efficient than clinically used platinum drugs. It is noteworthy that the investigated Ir agents display the capability to overcome acquired and inherent resistance to conventional cisplatin (in A2780cisR and MCF-7 cells, respectively). We demonstrate that the Ir complexes, unlike clinically used platinum antitumor drugs, do not kill cells through DNA-damage response. Rather, they kill cells by inhibiting protein translation by targeting preferentially the endoplasmic reticulum. Our findings also reveal that the toxic effect of the Ir complexes can be significantly potentiated by irradiation with visible light (by more than two orders of magnitude). The photopotentiation of the investigated Ir complexes can be attributed to a marked increase (≈10-30-fold) in intracellular reactive oxygen species. Collectively, these data highlight the functional diversity of antitumor metal-based drugs and the usefulness of a mechanism-based rationale for selecting candidate agents that are effective against chemoresistant tumors for further preclinical testing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The role of cytoreductive surgery in the era of targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Allard; Stewart, Grant D; Bex, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Two randomized trials were initiated to define the role and sequence of cytoreductive nephrectomy in combination with VEGF-targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell cancer. While these trials will not report before the end of 2016, recent retrospective population-based studies published real-world data on incidence, treatment, prognosis and outcome that may help to better define the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy for this heterogeneous patient population in the targeted therapy era. Since the introduction of targeted agents, utilization of cytoreductive nephrectomy has declined. Potentially more patients are being treated with their primary tumours in place. Some countries also observed an additional decline in the incidence of primary metastatic disease. Although large population-based studies consistently demonstrate a survival benefit after cytoreductive nephrectomy, confounding factors preclude definite conclusions. However, patients with a life expectancy of less than 1 year or at least four IMDS risk factors may not benefit from cytoreductive nephrectomy. Recent retrospective data suggest a more refined use of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the targeted therapy era. With the exception of patients in whom cytoreductive nephrectomy and resection of solitary or oligometastasis may result in cure or delay of systemic therapy, performance, prognostic models and life expectancy estimates help to define the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the individual patient.

  20. Targeted Nanodiamonds as Phenotype Specific Photoacoustic Contrast Agents for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly-targeted contrast agent for high resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Materials & Methods The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) peptide (KCCYSL) with a final nanoparticle size of ca. 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2 positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near infrared laser. Results PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 hours. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are non-toxic. Conclusions PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype specific monitoring of cancer growth. PMID:25723091

  1. BF066, a novel dual target antiplatelet agent without significant bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangE Pan

    Full Text Available In this study, we report BF066, a novel adenine derivative, inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis via the adenosine receptor (A(2A activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibition. BF066 inhibits platelet aggregation and ATP releasing induced by multiple platelet agonists in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of BF066 on ADP-induced aggregation is potentiated by adenosine and can be dramatically antagonized by the A(2A antagonist SCH58261. BF066 also inhibits the PDE activity and platelet spreading on fibrinogen. In FeCl(3-injured mouse mesenteric arterial thrombosis model, BF066 prevents thrombus formation effectively, similar to clopidogrel. Intriguingly, at dose achieving similar antithrombotic effect compared to clopidogrel, BF066 does not increase bleeding significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that BF066 may be an effective and safe antiplatelet agent targeting both PDE and A(2A. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, BF066 may be further developed as a novel dual target antiplatelet agent.

  2. BF066, a Novel Dual Target Antiplatelet Agent without Significant Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianqin; Liu, Guangda; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Yan; Du, Hongguang; Ding, Zhongren

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report BF066, a novel adenine derivative, inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis via the adenosine receptor (A2A) activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition. BF066 inhibits platelet aggregation and ATP releasing induced by multiple platelet agonists in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of BF066 on ADP-induced aggregation is potentiated by adenosine and can be dramatically antagonized by the A2A antagonist SCH58261. BF066 also inhibits the PDE activity and platelet spreading on fibrinogen. In FeCl3-injured mouse mesenteric arterial thrombosis model, BF066 prevents thrombus formation effectively, similar to clopidogrel. Intriguingly, at dose achieving similar antithrombotic effect compared to clopidogrel, BF066 does not increase bleeding significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that BF066 may be an effective and safe antiplatelet agent targeting both PDE and A2A. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, BF066 may be further developed as a novel dual target antiplatelet agent. PMID:22815749

  3. Targeting Bacterial Dsb Proteins for the Development of Anti-Virulence Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne P. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of novel antibiotics. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat the growing threat posed by multidrug resistant bacterial infections. The Dsb disulfide bond forming pathways are potential targets for the development of antimicrobial agents because they play a central role in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the DsbA/DsbB system catalyses disulfide bond formation in a wide array of virulence factors, which are essential for many pathogens to establish infections and cause disease. These redox enzymes are well placed as antimicrobial targets because they are taxonomically widespread, share low sequence identity with human proteins, and many years of basic research have provided a deep molecular understanding of these systems in bacteria. In this review, we discuss disulfide bond catalytic pathways in bacteria and their significance in pathogenesis. We also review the use of different approaches to develop inhibitors against Dsb proteins as potential anti-virulence agents, including fragment-based drug discovery, high-throughput screening and other structure-based drug discovery methods.

  4. Contrast agent based on nano-emulsion for targeted biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging agents are essential in combination with X-ray computed tomography to improve contrast enhancement aiming at providing complete visualization of blood vessels and giving structural and functional information on lesions allowing the detection of a tumor. As well as it is fundamental tool to discriminate between healthy cells and pathogens. We successfully limit the problems presented in commercial X-ray contrast agents like poor contrasting in Fenestra VC associated with short blood circulation time and to avoid rapid renal elimination from the body as found in Xenetix (Iobitriol). We developed nontoxic and blood pool iodine-containing nano-emulsion contrast agents serving in preclinical X-ray μ-CT imaging such as, a- Tocopherol (vitamin E), Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), Castor oil, Capmul MCMC8 oil and oleic acid. Those formulated nano emulsions were prepared by low energy spontaneous emulsification technic with slight modification for each platform. They showed new specific features rendering them promising agents in in vivo experiments as improving the balance between the efficacy and the toxicity of targeted therapeutic interventions. We investigate the effect of size and the chemical composition of the nanoparticles on their biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. They demonstrated that the chemical structures of the droplet's cores have significant role in targeting for example vitamin E was mainly accumulated in liver and castor oil formulation was passively accumulated in spleen explaining the proof-of-concept of EPR effect. On the other hand, two different platform sizes of Cholecalciferol molecule revealing that no real impact on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution but presented remarkable effect on the toxicity. Of particular interest is studying the effect of the surface charge of nanoparticles on their biodistribution, this is why oleic acid nano-emulsion was selected to proceed this study by presence of amphiphilic

  5. Pro-oxidant activity of dietary chemopreventive agents: an under-appreciated anti-cancer property [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/15s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfar S Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was quoted by Hippocrates more than two thousand years ago and since ancient times the health benefits of different natural agents have been exploited. In modern research, the disease preventive benefits of many such natural agents, particularly dietary compounds and their derivatives, has been attributed to their well recognized activity as the regulators of redox state of the cell. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on their antioxidant activity. A large body of evidence indicates that a major fraction of these agents can elicit pro-oxidant (radical generating behavior which has been linked to their anti-cancer effects. This editorial provides an overview of the under-appreciated pro-oxidant activity of natural products, with a special focus on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of transition metal ions, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. An integrated Drosophila model system reveals unique properties for F14512, a novel polyamine-containing anticancer drug that targets topoisomerase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Chelouah

    Full Text Available F14512 is a novel anti-tumor molecule based on an epipodophyllotoxin core coupled to a cancer-cell vectoring spermine moiety. This polyamine linkage is assumed to ensure the preferential uptake of F14512 by cancer cells, strong interaction with DNA and potent inhibition of topoisomerase II (Topo II. The antitumor activity of F14512 in human tumor models is significantly higher than that of other epipodophyllotoxins in spite of a lower induction of DNA breakage. Hence, the demonstrated superiority of F14512 over other Topo II poisons might not result solely from its preferential uptake by cancer cells, but could also be due to unique effects on Topo II interactions with DNA. To further dissect the mechanism of action of F14512, we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants whose genetic background leads to an easily scored phenotype that is sensitive to changes in Topo II activity and/or localization. F14512 has antiproliferative properties in Drosophila cells and stabilizes ternary Topo II/DNA cleavable complexes at unique sites located in moderately repeated sequences, suggesting that the drug specifically targets a select and limited subset of genomic sequences. Feeding F14512 to developing mutant Drosophila larvae led to the recovery of flies expressing a striking phenotype, "Eye wide shut," where one eye is replaced by a first thoracic segment. Other recovered F14512-induced gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes similarly correspond to precise genetic dysfunctions. These complex in vivo results obtained in a whole developing organism can be reconciled with known genetic anomalies and constitute a remarkable instance of specific alterations of gene expression by ingestion of a drug. "Drosophila-based anticancer pharmacology" hence reveals unique properties for F14512, demonstrating the usefulness of an assay system that provides a low-cost, rapid and effective complement to mammalian models and permits the elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of

  7. Discovery of Novel Bromophenol Hybrids as Potential Anticancer Agents through the Ros-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of bromophenol hybrids with N-containing heterocyclic moieties were designed, and their anticancer activities against a panel of five human cancer cell lines (A549, Bel7402, HepG2, HCT116 and Caco2 using MTT assay in vitro were explored. Among them, thirteen compounds (17a, 17b, 18a, 19a, 19b, 20a, 20b, 21a, 21b, 22a, 22b, 23a, and 23b exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the tested cancer cell lines. The structure-activity relationships (SARs of bromophenol derivatives were discussed. The promising candidate compound 17a could induce cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and induce apoptosis in A549 cells, as well as caused DNA fragmentations, morphological changes and ROS generation by the mechanism studies. Furthermore, compound 17a suppression of Bcl-2 levels (decrease in the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and down-regulation in the expression levels of Bcl-2 in A549 cells were observed, along with activation caspase-3 and PARP, which indicated that compound 17a induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro through the ROS-mediated apoptotic pathway. These results might be useful for bromophenol derivatives to be explored and developed as novel anticancer drugs.

  8. Mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Damia, G.; D‘Incalci, M.

    1998-01-01

    Alkylating agents are the most widely used anticancer drugs whose main target is the DNA, although how exactly the DNA lesions cause cell death is still not clear. The emergence of resistance to this class of drugs as well as to other antitumor agents is one of the major causes of failure of cancer treatment. This paper reviews some of the best characterized mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents. Pre- and post-target mechanisms are recognized, the former able to limit the formation of...

  9. Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Bingliang

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors

  10. Novel Anthra[1,2-c][1,2,5]Thiadiazole-6,11-Diones as Promising Anticancer Lead Compounds: Biological Evaluation, Characterization & Molecular Targets Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Atef Ahmed Ali

    Full Text Available The novel compounds NSC745885 and NSC757963 developed at our laboratory were tested against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines at the National Cancer Institute, USA, and a panel of 39 cancer cell lines at the Japanese Foundation of Cancer Research. Both compounds demonstrated selective unique multi-log differential patterns of activity, with GI50 values in the sub-micro molar range against cancer cells rather than normal cardiac cells. NSC757963 showed high selectivity towards the leukemia subpanel. Activities of both compounds strongly correlated to expression of NFKB1 and CSNK2B genes, implying that they may inhibit the NF-κB pathway. Immunocytochemical microscopy of OVCAR-3 cells showed clear cytosolic accumulation of the NF-κB p65 subunit following treatment. Western blotting showed dose dependent inhibition of the nuclear expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit with subsequent accumulation in the cytosol following treatment. Docking experiments showed binding of both compounds to the NF-κB activator IKKβ subunit preventing its translocation to the nucleus. Collectively, these results confirm the ability of our compounds to inhibit the constitutively active NF-κB pathway of OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, COMPARE analysis indicated that the activity of NSC757963 is similar to the antituberculosis agent rifamycin SV, this was confirmed by testing the antimycobacterial activity of NSC757963 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, results revealed potent activity suitable for use in clinical practice. Molecular properties and Lipinski's parameters predicted acceptable bioavailability properties with no indication of mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, irritability and reproductive effects. Oral absorption experiments using the human Caco-2 model showed high intestinal absorption of NSC745885 by passive transport mechanism with no intestinal efflux or active transport mechanisms. The unique molecular characterization as well as the illustrated anticancer

  11. Anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenberg, Jeffrey P.

    2017-04-04

    A subject afflicted with a cancer or precancerous condition is treated by administering an agent that increases expression of somatostatin receptors, and a cytotoxic recognition ligand. In an alternative embodiment, somatostatin analogs, which are radiolabeled are used to treat cancer or precancerous conditions.

  12. Activity Based Protein Profiling Leads to Identification of Novel Protein Targets for Nerve Agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmany, Dan; Walz, Andrew J; Hsu, Fu-Lian; Benton, Bernard; Burnett, David; Gibbons, Jennifer; Noort, Daan; Glaros, Trevor; Sekowski, Jennifer W

    2017-04-17

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents continue to be a threat at home and abroad during the war against terrorism. Human exposure to nerve agents such as VX results in a cascade of toxic effects relative to the exposure level including ocular miosis, excessive secretions, convulsions, seizures, and death. The primary mechanism behind these overt symptoms is the disruption of cholinergic pathways. While much is known about the primary toxicity mechanisms of nerve agents, there remains a paucity of information regarding impacts on other pathways and systemic effects. These are important for establishing a comprehensive understanding of the toxic mechanisms of OP nerve agents. To identify novel proteins that interact with VX, and that may give insight into these other mechanisms, we used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) employing a novel VX-probe on lysates from rat heart, liver, kidney, diaphragm, and brain tissue. By making use of a biotin linked VX-probe, proteins covalently bound by the probe were isolated and enriched using streptavidin beads. The proteins were then digested, labeled with isobarically distinct tandem mass tag (TMT) labels, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Quantitative analysis identified 132 bound proteins, with many proteins found in multiple tissues. As with previously published ABPP OP work, monoacylglycerol lipase associated proteins and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were shown to be targets of VX. In addition to these two and other predicted neurotransmitter-related proteins, a number of proteins involved with energy metabolism were identified. Four of these enzymes, mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (IDH3), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and succinyl CoA (SCS) ligase, were assayed for VX inhibition. Only IDH2 NADP+ activity was shown to be inhibited directly. This result is consistent with other work reporting animals exposed to OP compounds exhibit

  13. Autophagy as a target for cancer therapy: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, Jennifer S; Kelly, Kevin R; Nawrocki, Steffan T

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that eliminates cytosolic proteins, macromolecules, organelles, and protein aggregates. Activation of autophagy may function as a tumor suppressor by degrading defective organelles and other cellular components. However, this pathway may also be exploited by cancer cells to generate nutrients and energy during periods of starvation, hypoxia, and stress induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, induction of autophagy has emerged as a drug resistance mechanism that promotes cancer cell survival via self-digestion. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy enhances the activity of a broad array of anticancer agents. Thus, targeting autophagy may be a global anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of many standard of care agents. These results have led to multiple clinical trials to evaluate autophagy inhibition in combination with conventional chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the anticancer agents that have been reported to modulate autophagy and discuss new developments in autophagy inhibition as an anticancer strategy

  14. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Tripathy, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Choudhary, Alka [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Aili, Pavan Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Chatterjee, Anupam [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Singh, Inder Pal [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Banerjee, Uttam Chand, E-mail: ucbanerjee@niper.ac.in [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India)

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0} and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC{sub 50} value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic

  15. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Tripathy, Debabrata; Choudhary, Alka; Aili, Pavan Kumar; Chatterjee, Anupam; Singh, Inder Pal; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag + to Ag 0 and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC 50 value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic apoptosis effect of

  16. Distribution of withaferin A, an anticancer potential agent, in different parts of two varieties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, A S; Dharmadasa, R M; Samarasinghe, Kosala

    2013-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at lambda(max) = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (R(f) 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf > bark > stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.

  17. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents including curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2009-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly. Deposition of amyloid beta plaque and associated neuroinflammation are the major hallmarks of AD. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated microglial cells contribute to neuronal loss, nuclear factor kappaB and apolipoprotein E participate in inflammatory process of AD. Current FDA approved drugs provide only symptomatic relief in AD. For broad spectrum of activity, some natural products are also being tested. Turmeric is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine in various regions of Asia. Curcumin, which is a yellow colored polyphenol compound present in turmeric, showed anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we discuss the neurobiological and neuroinflammatory pathways of AD, evaluate different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents, including curcumin, for the treatment of AD.

  18. H2O2-responsive molecularly engineered polymer nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion-targeted nanotherapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwon; Bae, Soochan; Hong, Donghyun; Lim, Hyungsuk; Yoon, Joo Heung; Hwang, On; Park, Seunggyu; Ke, Qingen; Khang, Gilson; Kang, Peter M.

    2013-07-01

    The main culprit in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most abundant form of ROS produced during I/R, causes inflammation, apoptosis and subsequent tissue damages. Here, we report H2O2-responsive antioxidant nanoparticles formulated from copolyoxalate containing vanillyl alcohol (VA) (PVAX) as a novel I/R-targeted nanotherapeutic agent. PVAX was designed to incorporate VA and H2O2-responsive peroxalate ester linkages covalently in its backbone. PVAX nanoparticles therefore degrade and release VA, which is able to reduce the generation of ROS, and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. In hind-limb I/R and liver I/R models in mice, PVAX nanoparticles specifically reacted with overproduced H2O2 and exerted highly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities that reduced cellular damages. Therefore, PVAX nanoparticles have tremendous potential as nanotherapeutic agents for I/R injury and H2O2-associated diseases.

  19. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  20. β-Lactone natural products and derivatives inactivate homoserine transacetylase, a target for antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Gianfranco; Nazi, Ishac; Harrison, Paul H M; Wright, Gerard D

    2011-07-01

    Homoserine transacetylase (HTA) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the hydroxyl group of homoserine. This is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of methionine (Met) from aspartic acid in many fungi, Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. The enzyme is absent in higher eukaryotes and is important for microorganism growth in Met-poor environments, such as blood serum, making HTA an attractive target for new antimicrobial agents. HTA catalyzes acetyl transfer via a double displacement mechanism facilitated by a classic Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad located at the bottom of a narrow actives site tunnel. We explored the inhibitory activity of several β-lactones to block the activity of HTA. In particular, the natural product ebelactone A, a β-lactone with a hydrophobic tail was found to be a potent inactivator of HTA from Haemophilus influenzae. Synthetic analogs of ebelactone A demonstrated improved inactivation characteristics. Covalent modification of HTA was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and peptide mapping identified Ser143 as the modified residue, consistent with the known structure and mechanism of the enzyme. These results demonstrate that β-lactone inhibitors are excellent biochemical probes of HTA and potential leads for new antimicrobial agents.

  1. Somatostatin receptor-targeted organometallic iridium(III) complexes as novel theranostic agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novohradský, Vojtěch; Zamora, A.; Gandioso, A.; Brabec, Viktor; Ruiz, J.; Marchan, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 40 (2017), s. 5523-5526 ISSN 1359-7345 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : anticancer activity * peptide-hormones * cancer-therapy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  2. A Functional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with PLA-PEG-DG as Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Hu, Ke; Yu, Haoli; Zhou, Lijun; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianping; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe 3 O 4 @OA NPs. The stability and anti phagocytosis of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG was tested in vitro; the MRI efficiency and toxicity was also detected in vivo. These functional magnetic nanoparticles demonstrated good biocompatibility and stability both in vitro and in vivo. Cell experiments showed that Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles exist good anti phagocytosis and high targetability. In vivo MRI images showed that the contrast effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles prevailed over the commercial non tumor-targeting magnetic nanomaterials MRI agent at a relatively low dose. The DG can validly enhance the tumor-targetting effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG nanoparticle. Maybe MRI agents with DG can hold promise as tumor-targetting development in the future.

  3. Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery Using Carbohydrate-Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbari, Javad; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Tabarzad, Maryam; Hejazi, Maryam; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2018-02-12

    Polymeric drug delivery systems in the form of nanocarriers are the most interesting vehicles in anticancer therapy. Among different types of biocompatible polymers, carbohydrate-based polymers or polysaccharides are the most common natural polymers with complex structures consisting of long chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units bound by glycosidic linkages. Their appealing properties such as availability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, high chemical reactivity, facile chemical modification and low cost led to their extensive applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields including development of nano-vehicles for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Generally, reducing systemic toxicity, increasing short half-lives and tumor localization of agents are the top priorities for a successful cancer therapy. Polysaccharide-based or - coated nanosystems with respect to their advantageous features as well as accumulation in tumor tissue due to enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect can provide promising carrier systems for the delivery of noblest impressive agents. Most challenging factor in cancer therapy was the toxicity of anti-cancer therapeutic agents for normal cells and therefore, targeted delivery of these drugs to the site of action can be considered as an interesting therapeutic strategy. In this regard, several polysaccharides exhibited selective affinity for specific cell types, and so they can act as a targeting agent in drug delivery systems. Accordingly, different aspects of polysaccharide applications in cancer treatment or diagnosis were reviewed in this paper. In this regard, after a brief introduction of polysaccharide structure and its importance, the pharmaceutical usage of carbohydrate-based polymers was considered according to the identity of accompanying active pharmaceutical agents. It was also presented that the carbohydrate based polymers have been extensively considered as promising materials in

  4. Synergistic antitumor effect of S-1 and HER2-targeting agents in gastric cancer with HER2 amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Junko; Okamoto, Isamu; Takezawa, Ken; Tsukioka, Sayaka; Uchida, Junji; Kiniwa, Mamoru; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    Amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been detected in 20% to 30% of gastric cancers and is associated with a poor outcome. Combination therapies with HER2-targeting agents and cytotoxic agents are considered a potential therapeutic option for gastric cancer with HER2 amplification. We have now investigated the effects of combination treatment with the oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 and the HER2-targeting agents lapatinib or trastuzumab in gastric cancer cells with or without HER2 amplification. We used 5-fluorouracil (5FU) instead of S-1 for in vitro experiments, given that tegafur, a component of S-1, is metabolized to 5FU in the liver. The combination of 5FU and HER2-targeting agents synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and exhibited an enhanced proapoptotic effect in gastric cancer cells with HER2 amplification, but not in those without it. Lapatinib or trastuzumab also induced downregulation of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and activity only in cells with HER2 amplification. The combination of 5FU and TS depletion by RNA interference also exhibited an enhanced proapoptotic effect in cells with HER2 amplification. These observations thus suggest that lapatinib-induced or trastuzumab-induced downregulation of TS is responsible, at least in part, for the synergistic antitumor effect of combined treatment with 5FU and HER2-targeting agents. The antitumor effect of the combination of S-1 and HER2-targeting agents in vivo was also greater than that of either drug alone. Our preclinical findings thus indicate that the combination of S-1 and HER2-targeting agents is a promising treatment option for gastric cancer with HER2 amplification.

  5. RNA glycosidase and other agents target Tat to inhibit HIV-1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrich, David; Jin, Hongping

    2018-03-20

    The HIV-1 tat gene encodes a small 86-104 amino acid protein depending on the HIV-1 strain. Tat is essential for HIV-1 replication through interactions with numerous cellular transcription factors. The interaction between Tat and P-TEFb, which is a cellular protein complex composed of cyclin T1 and CDK9, delivers P-TEFb to the newly transcribed viral mRNAs where phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CDK9 leads to highly efficient mRNA transcription. It has long been recognized that Tat is a potential anti-HIV-1 target and possibly a viral Achilles' heel. However, specifically targeting Tat without affecting normal host cell functions has been challenging. Means to inactivate Tat have been reported that includes small compounds, transdominant negative Tat proteins, and by plant-derived antivirals. Investigations of these agents have reported encouraging outcomes that inform and may hopefully affect strategies for a functional HIV-1 cure. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Chalcone scaffolds as anti-infective agents: structural and molecular target perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Asati, Vivek

    2015-08-28

    In recent years, widespread outbreak of numerous infectious diseases across the globe has created havoc among the population. Particularly, the inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical regions are mainly affected by these pathogens. Several natural and (semi) synthetic chalcones deserve the credit of being potential anti-infective candidates that inhibit various parasitic, malarial, bacterial, viral, and fungal targets like cruzain-1/2, trypanopain-Tb, trans-sialidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fumarate reductase, falcipain-1/2, β-hematin, topoisomerase-II, plasmepsin-II, lactate dehydrogenase, protein kinases (Pfmrk and PfPK5), and sorbitol-induced hemolysis, DEN-1 NS3, H1N1, HIV (Integrase/Protease), protein tyrosine phosphatase A/B (Ptp-A/B), FtsZ, FAS-II, lactate/isocitrate dehydrogenase, NorA efflux pump, DNA gyrase, fatty acid synthase, chitin synthase, and β-(1,3)-glucan synthase. In this review, a comprehensive study (from Jan. 1982 to May 2015) of the structural features of anti-infective chalcones, their mechanism of actions (MOAs) and structure activity relationships (SARs) have been highlighted. With the knowledge of molecular targets, structural insights and SARs, this review may be helpful for (medicinal) chemists to design more potent, safe, selective and cost effective anti-infective agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigator-initiated trials of targeted oncology agents: why independent research is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, L; Berns, B; Dalgleish, A G; von Euler, M; Hecht, T T; Lappin, G L; Reed, N; Palmeri, S; Smyth, J; Embacher-Aichorn, S; Zwierzina, H

    2010-08-01

    Drug development traditionally has relied upon the complementary contributions of clinicians and scientists at academic institutions and at pharmaceutical companies. Greater regulatory burdens, increased bureaucratic requirements, restricted reimbursement, and spiralling research and development costs are exerting pressure on the drug development pipeline. The result is a de-emphasis of exploratory research, particularly independent academic research, despite its proven value in identifying new drug targets and developing innovative cancer therapies. An expert panel assembled by the Biotherapy Development Association-a nonprofit international forum for academic and industry researchers, patients, and government regulatory and postregulatory agencies-examined the growing schism between academia and industry and identified several causes of declining academic research. The authors propose solutions to sustain investigator-initiated research and provide a new model whereby expert organisations provide a forum for academia and industry to plan studies within a regulatory framework to support licensure/authorisation and reimbursement for new molecularly targeted agents and biomarkers. Investigator-initiated trials have led to the discovery and development of innovative, safe, and effective cancer treatments. To ensure that such research continues, action will be required on the parts of legislative and regulatory bodies, industry, universities, patient advocacy organisations, and preclinical and clinical academic scientists.

  8. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Martin C; Pouwer, Rebecca H; Gunter, Jennifer H; Lubik, Amy A; Quinn, Ronald J; Nelson, Colleen C

    2014-10-15

    Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular effects of triclosan in a panel of eight malignant and non-malignant prostate cell lines to the well-known FASN inhibitors C75 and orlistat, which target different partial catalytic activities of FASN. Triclosan displayed a superior cytotoxic profile with a several-fold lower IC50 than C75 or orlistat. Structure-function analysis revealed that alcohol functionality of the parent phenol is critical for inhibitory action. Rescue experiments confirmed that end product starvation was a major cause of cytotoxicity. Importantly, triclosan, C75 and orlistat induced distinct changes to morphology, cell cycle, lipid content and the expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism, demonstrating that inhibition of different partial catalytic activities of FASN activates different metabolic pathways. These finding combined with its well-documented pharmacological safety profile make triclosan a promising drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. Ultrastructural changes of erythrocytes in whole blood after exposure to prospective in silico-designed anticancer agents: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Repsold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel, in silico-designed anticancer compounds were synthesized in our laboratory namely, 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10,15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol and 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(1016-tetraene (ESE-16. These compounds were designed to have improved bioavailability when compared to their source compound, 2-methoxyestradiol. This theoretically would be due to their increased binding affinity to carbonic anhydrase II, present in erythrocytes. Since the novel compounds under investigation are proposed to be transported within erythrocytes bound to carbonic anhydrase II, the morphological effect which they may exert on whole blood and erythrocytes is of great significance. A secondary outcome included revision of previously reported procedures for the handling of the whole blood sample. The purpose of this study was twofold. Firstly, the ultrastructural morphology of a healthy female's erythrocytes was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM after exposure to the newly in silico-designed compounds. Morphology of erythrocytes following exposure to ESE-15-ol and ESE-16 for 3 minutes and 24 hours at 22°C were described with the use of SEM. The haemolytic activity of the compounds after 24 hours exposure were also determined with the ex vivo haemolysis assay. Secondly, storage conditions of the whole blood sample were investigated by determining morphological changes after a 24 hour storage period at 22°C and 37°C. RESULTS: No significant morphological changes were observed in the erythrocyte morphology after exposure to the novel anticancer compounds. Storage of the whole blood samples at 37°C for 24 hours resulted in visible morphological stress in the erythrocytes. Erythrocytes incubated at 22°C for 24 hours showed no structural deformity or distress. CONCLUSIONS: From this research the optimal temperature for ex vivo exposure of whole blood samples to ESE-15-ol and ESE-16 for 24 hours was determined to be 22

  10. Advances in the Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Saoirse O; Collins, Dearbhaile C; Sundar, Raghav; Popat, Sanjay; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant global health challenge and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The traditional 'one-size-fits-all' treatment approach has now evolved into one that involves personalized strategies based on histological and molecular subtypes. The molecular era has revolutionized the treatment of patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene aberrations. In the appropriately selected population, anti-tumor agents against these molecular targets can significantly improve progression-free survival. However, the emergence of acquired resistance is inevitable. Novel potent compounds with much improved and rational selectivity profiles, such as third-generation EGFR T790M resistance mutation-specific inhibitors, have been developed and added to the NSCLC armamentarium. To date, attempts to overcome resistance bypass pathways through downstream signaling blockade has had limited success. Furthermore, the majority of patients still do not harbor known driver genetic or epigenetic alterations and/or have no new available treatment options, with chemotherapy remaining their standard of care. Several potentially actionable driver aberrations have recently been identified, with the early clinical development of multiple inhibitors against these promising targets currently in progress. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to significant benefit for advanced NSCLC patients with durable responses observed. Further interrogation of the underlying biology of NSCLC, coupled with modern clinical trial designs, is now required to develop novel targeted therapeutics rationally matched with predictive biomarkers of response, so as to further advance NSCLC therapeutics through the next decade.

  11. Study on the thermodynamics of the binding of iminium and alkanolamine forms of the anticancer agent sanguinarine to human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Maidul; Khan, Asma Yasmeen; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energetics of sanguinarine–human serum albumin has been elucidated. ► The alkanolamine binds stronger than iminium. ► Enthalpy driven binding for iminium was revealed. ► Alkanolamine form binding was favored by negative enthalpy and entropy changes. ► Spectroscopic results support calorimetry data. - Abstract: Sanguinarine is an anticancer plant alkaloid that can exist in the charged iminium and neutral alkanolamine forms. The thermodynamics of the interaction of the two forms with human serum albumin was investigated using calorimetric techniques, and the data supplemented with circular dichroism and spectrofluorimetric studies. The thermodynamic results show that there is only one class of binding for sanguinarine on HSA. The equilibrium constant was four times higher for the alkanolamine (K a = 2.18 · 10 5 M −1 ) than for iminium (K a = 5.97 · 10 4 M −1 ). The binding was enthalpy driven for iminium and favoured by both a negative enthalpy and a stronger favourable entropy contribution for the alkanolamine. Temperature dependent calorimetric data yielded values of ΔC p ∘ that are consistent with the involvement of different molecular forces in the complexation of the two forms of sanguinarine to HSA. The fluorescence quenching data suggest a static quenching mechanism. Synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroic data are consistent with a conformational change in the protein on binding that was also higher for the alkanolamine form.

  12. Synthesis, characterization of some novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds containing 8-hydroxy quinolone moiety as potential antibacterial and anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Mahadev Adimule

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a series of novel derivatives of 8-hydroxy quinolone substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized by convergent synthetic method and studied for their antibacterial and anticancer properties. The cell lines used for cytotoxic evaluation were HeLa, Caco-2 and MCF7. The synthetic chemistry involved conversion of various substituted aromatic acids into ethyl ester 2a-e. The ethyl ester was converted into corresponding carbohydrazide 3a-e. Carbohydrazides are reacted with chloroacetic acid, phosphorous oxytrichloride and irradiated with microwave in order to obtain the various key intermediates 2-(chloromethyl-5-(substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4a-e. The 2-(chloromethyl-5-(substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole was reacted with 8-hydroxy quinolone in presence of sodium hydride and obtained a series of 8-hydroxy quinoline substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles 5a-e. Among the synthesised compounds, the cytotoxicity of the compound 5b i.e. 8-{[5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]methoxy}quinoline against MCF7 with IC50 of 5.3µM and the compound 5e i.e. 8-{[5-(4-bromophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]methoxy}quinoline showed MIC of < 6.25µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus which is comparable with the known standards. The standards used for cytotoxic evaluation was 5-fluorouracil and for antibacterial was nitrofurazone

  13. CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development: 2016 conference insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Victor A; Abrey, Lauren E; Heffron, Timothy P; Tonge, Peter J; Dar, Arvin C; Weiss, William A; Gallo, James M

    2017-07-18

    CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development November 2016, AZ, USA The 2016 second CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference addressed diverse viewpoints about why new drug discovery/development focused on CNS cancers has been sorely lacking. Despite more than 70,000 individuals in the USA being diagnosed with a primary brain malignancy and 151,669-286,486 suffering from metastatic CNS cancer, in 1999, temozolomide was the last drug approved by the US FDA as an anticancer agent for high-grade gliomas. Among the topics discussed were economic factors and pharmaceutical risk assessments, regulatory constraints and perceptions and the need for improved imaging surrogates of drug activity. Included were modeling tumor growth and drug effects in a medical environment in which direct tumor sampling for biological effects can be problematic, potential new drugs under investigation and targets for drug discovery and development. The long trajectory and diverse impediments to novel drug discovery, and expectation that more than one drug will be needed to adequately inhibit critical intracellular tumor pathways were viewed as major disincentives for most pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies. While there were a few unanimities, one consensus is the need for continued and focused discussion among academic and industry scientists and clinicians to address tumor targets, new drug chemistry, and more time- and cost-efficient clinical trials based on surrogate end points.

  14. Development of novel agents for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: progress in target selection and clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Thomas G; Smith, Victoria; Raghu, Ganesh

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal disease. Until recently, the standard therapy for this disease has been essentially supportive, with the exception of a minority of patients who were eligible for lung transplantation. The development pathway for novel medications for IPF has been complicated. There have been several challenges, including an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis, unpredictable clinical course, lack of validated biomarkers, the low clinical predictive value of animal models of lung injury, and the need to commit to large clinical trials of long duration to obtain initial evidence of clinical efficacy. Despite these challenges, the combination of recent advances in translational medicine and the unprecedented increase in clinical data accumulated from recent large clinical trials has stimulated an increase in the number of clinical development programs for IPF. Clinical programs are increasingly characterized by rational target selection, preclinical optimization of therapeutic molecules, and an emphasis on efficient clinical trial design. A lower rate of functional decline in patients treated with pirfenidone and nintedanib was demonstrated in large clinical trials. In October 2014, these two drugs became the first agents to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of IPF. (Pirfenidone had already been approved in several countries outside the United States.) In November 2014, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of nintedanib for IPF. The landscape for management of IPF has markedly changed with the advent of approved therapeutic options for IPF. In this article, we review the strategies that are being used to increase the likelihood of success in clinical development programs of novel disease-modifying agents in IPF.

  15. Analyzing the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using optimal assignment algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Phillips, C.A.; Tovey, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the problem of maximum utilization of a set of mobile robots with limited sensor-range capabilities and limited travel distances. The robots are initially in random positions. A set of robots properly guards or covers a region if every point within the region is within the effective sensor range of at least one vehicle. The authors wish to move the vehicles into surveillance positions so as to guard or cover a region, while minimizing the maximum distance traveled by any vehicle. This problem can be formulated as an assignment problem, in which they must optimally decide which robot to assign to which slot of a desired matrix of grid points. The cost function is the maximum distance traveled by any robot. Assignment problems can be solved very efficiently. Solutions times for one hundred robots took only seconds on a Silicon Graphics Crimson workstation. The initial positions of all the robots can be sampled by a central base station and their newly assigned positions communicated back to the robots. Alternatively, the robots can establish their own coordinate system with the origin fixed at one of the robots and orientation determined by the compass bearing of another robot relative to this robot. This paper presents example solutions to the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using a matching algorithm. Two separate cases with one hundred agents in each were analyzed using this method. They have found these mobile robot problems to be a very interesting application of network optimization methods, and they expect this to be a fruitful area for future research

  16. Analyzing the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using optimal assignment algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tovey, C.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work considers the problem of maximum utilization of a set of mobile robots with limited sensor-range capabilities and limited travel distances. The robots are initially in random positions. A set of robots properly guards or covers a region if every point within the region is within the effective sensor range of at least one vehicle. The authors wish to move the vehicles into surveillance positions so as to guard or cover a region, while minimizing the maximum distance traveled by any vehicle. This problem can be formulated as an assignment problem, in which they must optimally decide which robot to assign to which slot of a desired matrix of grid points. The cost function is the maximum distance traveled by any robot. Assignment problems can be solved very efficiently. Solutions times for one hundred robots took only seconds on a Silicon Graphics Crimson workstation. The initial positions of all the robots can be sampled by a central base station and their newly assigned positions communicated back to the robots. Alternatively, the robots can establish their own coordinate system with the origin fixed at one of the robots and orientation determined by the compass bearing of another robot relative to this robot. This paper presents example solutions to the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using a matching algorithm. Two separate cases with one hundred agents in each were analyzed using this method. They have found these mobile robot problems to be a very interesting application of network optimization methods, and they expect this to be a fruitful area for future research.

  17. Model-based global sensitivity analysis as applied to identification of anti-cancer drug targets and biomarkers of drug resistance in the ErbB2/3 network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Galina; Sorokin, Anatoly; Faratian, Dana; Mullen, Peter; Goltsov, Alexey; Langdon, Simon P.; Harrison, David J.; Goryanin, Igor

    2012-01-01

    High levels of variability in cancer-related cellular signalling networks and a lack of parameter identifiability in large-scale network models hamper translation of the results of modelling studies into the process of anti-cancer drug development. Recently global sensitivity analysis (GSA) has been recognised as a useful technique, capable of addressing the uncertainty of the model parameters and generating valid predictions on parametric sensitivities. Here we propose a novel implementation of model-based GSA specially designed to explore how multi-parametric network perturbations affect signal propagation through cancer-related networks. We use area-under-the-curve for time course of changes in phosphorylation of proteins as a characteristic for sensitivity analysis and rank network parameters with regard to their impact on the level of key cancer-related outputs, separating strong inhibitory from stimulatory effects. This allows interpretation of the results in terms which can incorporate the effects of potential anti-cancer drugs on targets and the associated biological markers of cancer. To illustrate the method we applied it to an ErbB signalling network model and explored the sensitivity profile of its key model readout, phosphorylated Akt, in the absence and presence of the ErbB2 inhibitor pertuzumab. The method successfully identified the parameters associated with elevation or suppression of Akt phosphorylation in the ErbB2/3 network. From analysis and comparison of the sensitivity profiles of pAkt in the absence and presence of targeted drugs we derived predictions of drug targets, cancer-related biomarkers and generated hypotheses for combinatorial therapy. Several key predictions have been confirmed in experiments using human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We also compared GSA-derived predictions with the results of local sensitivity analysis and discuss the applicability of both methods. We propose that the developed GSA procedure can serve as a

  18. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

  19. Synthesis of novel quinoline-based 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles as potential anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Prada, Jonathan; Robledo, Sara M; Vélez, Iván D; Crespo, María Del Pilar; Quiroga, Jairo; Abonia, Rodrigo; Montoya, Alba; Svetaz, Laura; Zacchino, Susana; Insuasty, Braulio

    2017-05-05

    A new series of N-substituted 2-pyrazolines 9a-f, 10a-f, 11a-f, 12a-f and 13a-f were obtained from the cyclocondensation reaction of [(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]chalcones 8a-f with hydrazine hydrate and its derivatives. Fourteen of the synthesized compounds including the starting chalcones were selected by US National Cancer Institute (NCI) for testing their anticancer activity against 60 different human cancer cell lines, with the most important GI 50 values ranging from 0.28 to 11.7 μM (0.13-6.05 μg/mL) and LC 50 values ranging from 2.6 to > 100 μM (1.2 to > 51.7 μg/mL), for chalcones 8a,d and pyrazolines 10c,d. All compounds were assessed for antibacterial activity against wild type and multidrug resistant gram negative and gram positive bacteria, with MIC values ranging from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL. Additionally, the novel compounds were tested for antifungal and antiparasitic properties. Although these compounds showed mild activity against Candida albicans, chalcones 8a and 8e showed high activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC 50  = 7.8 μg/mL. For anti-Plasmodium falciparum activity the 2-pyrazoline 11b was the most active with EC 50  = 5.54 μg/mL. Regarding the activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, compound 10a was highly active with EC 50  = 0.70 μg/mL. Chalcone 8a had good activity against Leishmania panamensis amastigotes with EC 50  = 0.79 μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A chemical preformulation study of a host-guest complex of cucurbit[7]uril and a multinuclear platinum agent for enhanced anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan R; Florence, Alastair J; McInnes, Fiona J; Wheate, Nial J

    2009-10-07

    Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction have been used to examine the host-guest complex of cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and the model dinuclear platinum anticancer complex trans-[{PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)mu-dpzm](2+) (di-Pt, dpzm= 4,4'-dipyrazolylmethane). The single crystal structure shows that the host-guest complex forms with the di-Pt dpzm ligand within the CB[7] cavity and with the platinum groups just beyond the macrocycle portals. Binding is stabilised through hydrophobic interactions and six hydrogen bonds between the platinum ammine ligands and the dpzm pyrazole amine to the CB[7] carbonyls. Each host-guest complex crystallises with two chloride counterions and 5.5 water molecules. The unit cell comprises four asymmetric units, each of which contains three crystallographically independent CB[7]-di-Pt moieties. X-Ray powder diffraction demonstrated structural consistency of the bulk crystals with a single polycrystalline phase that is identical with the single crystal structure. Finally, the effect of CB[7] encapsulation of the thermal stability of di-Pt was examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the TGA experiments it was found that free CB[7] and the CB[7]-di-Pt complex lose 11 and 3.5% of their mass respectively, through the loss of water molecules, upon heating to 160 degrees C. The DSC results showed that the free dpzm ligand melts between 186 and 199 degrees C, with a standard enthalpy of fusion of 27.92 kJ mol(-1). As a 2+ inorganic salt the metal complex does not melt but undergoes several decomposition events between 140 and 290 degrees C. Encapsulation by CB[7] completely stabilises di-Pt with no decomposition of either the macrocycle or metal complex at temperatures up to 290 degrees C.

  1. A Cisplatin Derivative Tetra-Pt(bpy) as an Oncotherapeutic Agent for Targeting ALT Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Nie, Xin; Fang, Yiming; Zhang, Zepeng; Xiao, Yingnan; Mao, Zongwan; Liu, Haiying; Ren, Jian; Wang, Feng; Xia, Lixin; Huang, Junjiu; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In approximately 15% of human cancers, telomere length is maintained independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. Whether the ALT pathway can be exploited for therapeutic treatment remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to develop oncotherapeutic agent to target ALT cancers. Surface plasmon resonance assay, antibody to G-quadruplex, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to discover Tetra-Pt(bpy), a cisplatin derivative that specifically targets telomeric G-quadruplex. We used immunofluorescence, FISH, C-circle assay, and chromosome orientation FISH to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Tetra-Pt(bpy) on ALT activity in human ALT cancers. The shortening of telomere length induced by Tetra-Pt(bpy) was determined by telomere restriction fragment or Q-FISH. Cell destination after Tetra-Pt(bpy) treatment was determined by β-gal staining or apoptosis assay. Nude mice (n = 4 per group) were injected with U2OS cells to evaluate the effects of Tetra-Pt(bpy) on tumor growth. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tetra-Pt(bpy) inhibits the strand invasion/annealing step of telomeric homologous recombination by selectively converting telomeric ssDNA to a G-quadruplex. ALT-cells treated with Tetra-Pt(bpy) show fewer ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (untreated: mean±SD = 5.9±0.2 vs treated: mean±SD = 3.1±0.1, P ALT-cell xenograft tumors in mice (untreated: mean±SD = 57.1±3.7 mm 3 vs treated: mean±SD = 19.0±3.2 mm 3 , P ALT cancer cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  3. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jung Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images