WorldWideScience

Sample records for antibody-targeted radiation cancer

  1. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, Seiji [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu [Department of Research and Development, Nichirei Biosciences Inc., Tokyo 104-8402 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC{sub 50} values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  2. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that can ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ...

  4. Affinity Maturation of Monoclonal Antibody 1E11 by Targeted Randomization in CDR3 Regions Optimizes Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Choi, Soyoung; Cui, Lei Guang; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Shim, Hyunbo; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HER2 murine monoclonal antibody 1E11 has strong and synergistic anti-tumor activity in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells when used in combination with trastuzumab. We presently optimized this antibody for human therapeutics. First, the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the murine antibody were grafted onto human germline immunoglobulin variable genes. No difference in affinity and biological activity was observed between chimeric 1E11 (ch1E11) and humanized 1E11 (hz1E11). Next, affinity maturation of hz1E11 was performed by the randomization of CDR-L3 and H3 residues followed by stringent biopanning selection. Milder selection pressure favored the selection of more diverse clones, whereas higher selection stringency resulted in the convergence of the panning output to a smaller number of clones with improved affinity. Clone 1A12 had four amino acid substitutions in CDR-L3, and showed a 10-fold increase in affinity compared to the parental clone and increased potency in an in vitro anti-proliferative activity assay with HER2-overepxressing gastric cancer cells. Clone 1A12 inhibited tumor growth of NCI-N87 xenograft model with similar efficacy to trastuzumab alone, and the combination treatment of 1A12 and trastuzumab completely removed the established tumors. These results suggest that humanized and affinity matured monoclonal antibody 1A12 is a highly optimized molecule for future therapeutic development against HER2-positive tumors.

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled anti-CD11b Antibody Targeting Inflammatory Microenvironment for Colon Cancer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Zou, Weihong; Li, Xiao; Xiu, Yan; Tan, Hui; Shi, Hongcheng; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    CD11b, an active constituent of innate immune response highly expressed in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), can be used as a marker of inflammatory microenvironment, particularly in tumor tissues. In this research, we aimed to fabricate a (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b antibody as a probe for CD11b(+) myeloid cells in colon cancer imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In situ murine colon tumor model was established in histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc(-/-)) mice by chemicals induction. (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b was obtained with labeling yields of over 30% and radiochemical purity of over 95%. Micro-SPECT/CT scans were performed at 6 h post injection to investigate biodistributions and targeting of the probe. In situ colonic neoplasma as small as 3 mm diameters was clearly identified by imaging; after dissection of the animal, anti-CD11b immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify infiltration of CD11b+ MDSCs in microenvironment of colonic neoplasms. In addition, the images displayed intense signal from bone marrow and spleen, which indicated the origin and migration of CD11b(+) MDSCs in vivo, and these results were further proved by flow cytometry analysis. Therefore, (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b SPECT displayed the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of colon tumor in very early stage via detection of inflammatory microenvironment.

  6. A meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuihua; Yu, Xuetao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-patients treated with standard chemotherapy experienced progression rapidly. A novel therapy based on programed death 1 (PD-1)/programed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors showed an increasing potential in several malignancies including advanced NSCLC. Objectives: This article is a meta-analysis aiming to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of PD-1/PD-L1 agents in patients with NSCLC. Data sources: Data were collected from eligible studies searched from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. Synthesis methods: Pooled hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was estimated to assess the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors versus docetaxel, pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for objective response rate (ORR). The overall frequency was estimated for 1-year OS, 1-year progression-free survival, and ORR. A subgroup analysis among NSCLC patients tested with different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status was also performed to figure out the relationship between EGFR status and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. OR for occurrence of any grade and grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse effect was calculated for evaluating the safety of PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. Results: Nine studies were included in this analysis. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–0.75) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.75–0.91), respectively, the pooled OR for ORR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.41–2.36), indicating a significant improvement in OS, PFS, and ORR. In the results of subgroup analysis, the HR for OS in NSCLC patients was 1.05 (95% CI 0.69–1.59) in patients with mutant EGFR and 0.66 (95% CI 0.57–0.77) in patients with wild-type EGFR status. OR for occurrence was 0.36 (95% CI 0.28–0.46) in any grade treatment-related adverse effect and 0.18 (95% CI 0.14–0.22) in grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse effect, suggesting a superior safety profile of

  7. Experimental on Antibody Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cell Treatment%肝癌干细胞抗体靶向治疗的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力超; 赵璇; 孙立新; 遇珑; 杨治华; 冉宇靓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics and function of the anti- hepatocellular carcinoma cancer stem cells (HCC-CSC) monoclonal antibody 15B7 in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate whether the targeting liver stem cells can inhibit recurrence, spontaneous lung metastasis and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Methods Monoclonal antibody 15B7 which could recognize HCC-CSC was identified by two-color immunofluorescence, two-color flow cytometry and subcutaneous tumor formation assay. CD133+ phenotype cells were sorted from BEL7402 cell lines by the flow cytometry and cultured in serum free medium. The function of 15B7 was identified by CCK8 cell proliferation, invasion assay, migration assay and flow cytometry. The inhibition of implanted tumor growth and spontaneous lung metastasis of monoclonal antibody 15B7 were studied by tumor treatment experiments and the survival of mice was also observed. The antigen of 15B7 was identified by western blotting. Results The results of two-color immunofluorescence and two-color flow cytometry showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could recognized cells which also were partly co-stained with ESA or CD133. 15B7+ or ESA+ cells or CD133+ cells sorted by flow cytometry could form mammospheres after serum-free suspension culture. 1 × 104 15B7+ cells were inoculated into the nude mice and developed visible tumors in 2 months. In vitro functional experiments showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CD133+ cells, and the inhibition rates was 13. 8%, 15. 7% and 30. 9%, respectively. Furthermore, CD133+ cells incubated with monoclonal antibody 15B7 were induced G1 phase arrest.Animal experiment revealed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 significantly inhibited tumor growth by 60. 5%. Conclusion 15B7 not only inhibited tumor growth. The results indicated that targeting cancer stem cell antibody therapy had significant advantages and monoclonal antibody 15B7

  8. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  9. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  10. Discovery of functional antibodies targeting ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I; Gardener, Matthew J; Williams, Wendy A

    2015-04-01

    Ion channels play critical roles in physiology and disease by modulation of cellular functions such as electrical excitability, secretion, cell migration, and gene transcription. Ion channels represent an important target class for drug discovery that has been largely addressed, to date, using small-molecule approaches. A significant opportunity exists to target these channels with antibodies and alternative formats of biologics. Antibodies display high specificity and affinity for their target antigen, and they have the potential to target ion channels very selectively. Nevertheless, isolating antibodies to this target class is challenging due to the difficulties in expression and purification of ion channels in a format suitable for antibody drug discovery in addition to the complexity of screening for function. In this article, we will review the current state of ion channel biologics discovery and the progress that has been made. We will also highlight the challenges in isolating functional antibodies to these targets and how these challenges may be addressed. Finally, we also illustrate successful approaches to isolating functional monoclonal antibodies targeting ion channels by way of a number of case studies drawn from recent publications.

  11. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  12. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic unit of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation . It can be thought of as a bundle ... 3D-CRT uses very sophisticated computer software and advanced treatment machines to deliver radiation to very precisely shaped target areas. Many other ...

  13. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in human cancer: concise review and rationale for development of IMC-18F1 (Human antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan D; Rowinsky, Eric K; Youssoufian, Hagop; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Wu, Yan

    2010-02-15

    The human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1, or Flt-1) is widely expressed in normal and pathologic tissue and contributes to the pathogenesis of both neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. In human cancer, VEGFR-1 mediated signaling is responsible for both direct tumor activation and angiogenesis. VEGFR-1 mediated activation of nonmalignant supporting cells, particularly stromal, dendritic, hematopoietic cells, and macrophages, is also likely important for cancer pathogenesis. VEGFR-1 is also hypothesized to enable the development of cancer metastases by means of activation and premetastatic localization in distant organs of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells, which express VEGFR-1. IMC-18F1 is a fully human IgG(1) antibody that binds to VEGFR-1 and has been associated with the inhibition of cancer growth in multiple in vitro and human tumor xenograft models. The preliminary results of phase 1 investigations have also indicated a favorable safety profile for IMC-18F1 at doses that confer antibody concentrations that are associated with relevant antitumor activity in preclinical models.

  15. Mobile Phone Radiation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    A possible link between cancer and the usage of mobile phones has been widely discussed in the media in the last 10 years. It is no surprise that students keep asking their physics teacher for advice regarding the handling of mobile phones and mobile phone radiation. This article aims to help teachers include this interesting topic in the classroom. It provides basic information and summarizes the facts made available by 11 recent peer-reviewed studies. First some information about the physical facts and medical information on brain cancer are given. Then the different studies are presented. Last but not least, different possibilities to implement this topic in the high school classroom are given.

  16. Radiation treatment of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, S.; Arai, T.; Kurisu, A. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical results obtained in 129 primary malignant ovarian cancer patients who had been treated by 4 modes of postoperative irradiation between 1961 and 1980 at NIRS. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 52% (45/86) and 43% (32/75) in total and 71% (20/28) and 59% (10/17) in whole abdominal irradiation cases, respectively. Leucopenia (>2,000) occurred in 48%, ileus in 5.2% of the latter cases. The necessity of combining radiation therapy with surgery and chemotherapy was emphasized.

  17. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...

  18. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our......, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120 cancers at various sites. For all types of ionizing radiation, the annual total will be 4420 cancer cases, or 3.9% of all...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  20. Building immunity to cancer with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikerwal, Suresh J; Hagekyriakou, Jim; MacManus, Michael; Martin, Olga A; Haynes, Nicole M

    2015-11-28

    Over the last decade there has been a dramatic shift in the focus of cancer research toward understanding how the body's immune defenses can be harnessed to promote the effectiveness of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies. The ability of ionizing radiation to elicit anti-cancer immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth has led to the emergence of promising combination-based radio-immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. Herein we review the immunoadjuvant properties of localized radiation therapy and discuss how technological advances in radio-oncology and developments in the field of tumor-immunotherapy have started to revolutionize the therapeutic application of radiotherapy.

  1. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  2. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  3. Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstock, Clive L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

  4. Radiation-induced cancer in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shoji; Sekizuka, Eiichi [National Saitama Hospital, Wako (Japan); Yamashita, Hisao [Keio Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takami, Akira [Yamawaki Coll., Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-12-01

    Results of two questionnaire surveys on radiation-induced malignant tumors conducted in 1977 and 1984 in Japan are briefly summarized. A total of 234 universities and general hospitals (139 in 1977, and 95 in 1984) responded and provided data from 1945 to 1977 and from 1978 to 1984. The number of patients with benign disease who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 150 in the first survey (1977) and 86 in the second survey (1984). The underlying benign diseases of these patients included tuberculous lymphadenitis, skin disease, hemangioma, and thyroid disease, and the most frequent radiation-induced malignant tumors in these patients were malignant tumors of the pharynx (80), cancer of the larynx (26), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (22), cancer of the esophagus (219), and skin cancer (21). In patients with head and neck diseases the highest correlation between underlying benign disease and radiation-induced malignant tumors was between cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and tumors of the pharynx (67 patients), followed by cancer of the larynx (19), and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (11). There were also correlations between thyroid disease and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (8 patients), hemangioma and skin cancer (7), and skin disease and skin cancer (8). The ratio of the observed values to predicted values (O/E ratio) in these patients was highest for cancer of the pharynxy (118), followed by cancer of the parotid gland (42), skin cancer (31), cancer of the esophagus (22), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (21), and cancer of the larynx (16). The number of patients with malignant tumors who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 140 in 1977 and 108 in 1984, and the underlying malignant tumors in these patients included tumors of the uterus (106), breast (32), and head and neck (80). The most frequent secondary malignant tumors were soft tissue tumors, followed by leukemia

  5. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and whether this difference changed the outcome for palliative patients, 6) use of the Calypso system, and other advanced radiation therapy equipment...use of advanced technology radiation therapy techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, in treating palliative patients. The main obstacle to overcome in...treating low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an electromagnetic localization system. IMRT

  6. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  7. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  8. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  9. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1

  11. Characterization of single chain antibody targets through yeast two hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielemeyer Ole

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their unique ability to bind their targets with high fidelity, antibodies are used widely not only in biomedical research, but also in many clinical applications. Recombinant antibodies, including single chain variable fragments (scFv, are gaining momentum because they allow powerful in vitro selection and manipulation without loss of function. Regardless of the ultimate application or type of antibody used, precise understanding of the interaction between the antibody's binding site and its specific target epitope(s is of great importance. However, such data is frequently difficult to obtain. Results We describe an approach that allows detailed characterization of a given antibody's target(s using the yeast two-hybrid system. Several recombinant scFv were used as bait and screened against highly complex cDNA libraries. Systematic sequencing of all retained clones and statistical analysis allowed efficient ranking of the prey fragments. Multiple alignment of the obtained cDNA fragments provided a selected interacting domain (SID, efficiently narrowing the epitope-containing region. Interactions between antibodies and their respective targets were characterized for several scFv. For AA2 and ROF7, two conformation-specific sensors that exclusively bind the activated forms of the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab1 respectively, only fragments expressing the entire target protein's core region were retained. This strongly suggested interaction with a non-linear epitope. For two other scFv, TA10 and SF9, which recognize the large proteins giantin and non-muscle myosin IIA, respectively, precise antibody-binding regions within the target were defined. Finally, for some antibodies, secondary targets within and across species could be revealed. Conclusions Our method, utilizing the yeast two-hybrid technology and scFv as bait, is a simple yet powerful approach for the detailed characterization of antibody targets. It allows precise

  12. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  13. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  14. GABARAPL1 antibodies: target one protein, get one free!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, Jaclyn Nicole; Chakrama, Fatima Zahra; Seguin-Py, Stéphanie; Fraichard, Annick; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Jouvenot, Michèle; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël

    2011-11-01

    Atg8 is a yeast protein involved in the autophagic process and in particular in the elongation of autophagosomes. In mammals, several orthologs have been identified and are classed into two subfamilies: the LC3 subfamily and the GABARAP subfamily, referred to simply as the LC3 or GABARAP families. GABARAPL1 (GABARAP-like protein 1), one of the proteins belonging to the GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) family, is highly expressed in the central nervous system and implicated in processes such as receptor and vesicle transport as well as autophagy. The proteins that make up the GABARAP family demonstrate conservation of their amino acid sequences and protein structures. In humans, GABARAPL1 shares 86% identity with GABARAP and 61% with GABARAPL2 (GATE-16). The identification of the individual proteins is thus very limited when working in vivo due to a lack of unique peptide sequences from which specific antibodies can be developed. Actually, and to our knowledge, there are no available antibodies on the market that are entirely specific to GABARAPL1 and the same may be true of the anti-GABARAP antibodies. In this study, we sought to examine the specificity of three antibodies targeted against different peptide sequences within GABARAPL1: CHEM-CENT (an antibody raised against a short peptide sequence within the center of the protein), PTG-NTER (an antibody raised against the N-terminus of the protein) and PTG-FL (an antibody raised against the full-length protein). The results described in this article demonstrate the importance of testing antibody specificity under the conditions for which it will be used experimentally, a caution that should be taken when studying the expression of the GABARAP family proteins.

  15. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  16. Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People With Cancer ... Copy This booklet covers: Questions and Answers About Radiation Therapy. Answers common questions, such as what radiation ...

  17. Humanization of high-affinity antibodies targeting glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have generated a group of high-affinity mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting GPC3. Here, we report the humanization and testing of these antibodies for clinical development. We compared the affinity and cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxins containing mouse single-chain variable regions fused with a Pseudomonas toxin. To humanize the mouse Fvs, we grafted the combined KABAT/IMGT complementarity determining regions (CDR) into a human IgG germline framework. Interestingly, we found that the proline at position 41, a non-CDR residue in heavy chain variable regions (VH), is important for humanization of mouse antibodies. We also showed that two humanized anti-GPC3 antibodies (hYP7 and hYP9.1b) in the IgG format induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent-cytotoxicity in GPC3-positive cancer cells. The hYP7 antibody was tested and showed inhibition of HCC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. This study successfully humanizes and validates high affinity anti-GPC3 antibodies and sets a foundation for future development of these antibodies in various clinical formats in the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27667400

  18. Potential risk and benefit of the combination of trastuzumab to chemotherapy and radiation therapy in non-metastatic breast cancer; Benefice et risques potentiels de l'association du trastuzumab a la chimiotherapie et a la radiotherapie dans le cancer du sein non metastatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, Y. [CLCC Oscar-Lambret, Universite de Lille-2, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Laharie-Mineur, H. [CLCC, institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Gligorov, J. [APHP, Hopital Tenon, Cancer-Est, 75 - Paris (France); Azria, D. [CLCC Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, Inserm, EMI 0227, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-09-15

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is the first humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 antigen in breast cancer. HER2 receptor has been individualised 20 years ago. During the past 10 years, trastuzumab administration has radically modified the prognosis of the patients that are treated for HER2 positive breast cancer. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. While, trastuzumab based-regimens became the standard of care in the treatment of HER2/neu positive breast cancer, the optimal combination (concurrently or sequentially) to chemotherapy and radiation therapy is still unknown. Indeed, while the concurrent administration of trastuzumab and anthracyclines is not recommended because of a high risk of cardiac toxicity, there is no published data on the best sequence of trastuzumab and radiation therapy administration, particularly when internal mammary chain is involved. The benefit/risk ratio of the concurrent and sequential administration of trastuzumab with chemotherapy and radiation therapy will be discussed in this review. (authors)

  19. Cancer of the breast. Radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Deutsch, M

    1979-01-01

    There are many questions that have to be answered concerning the role of radiotherapy in the management of primary breast cancer. Hopefully, prospective clinical trials will provide some answers, but more basic research into the biology of breast cancer and the host-tumor relationship will be needed. There are indications that radiotherapy alone, or following minimal extirpative surgery in selected cases, may be as effective for control of breast cancer as conventional mastectomies. The role of radiotherapy following segmental mastectomy, with or without axillary dissection, needs to be clarified. The possibility exists that high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation such as neutron or pi meson beams may provide better local control than conventional radiation. Thus, it may be possible to treat effectively all primary breast cancers with such radiations and obviate the need for any type of mastectomy. It remains to be demonstrated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is as effective as radiotherapy in preventing chest wall and regional node recurrences. If it is not, there may be a place for both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Likewise, effective chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy may increase the local and regional control achieved with radiotherapy alone and make more primary lesions suitable for treatment without mastectomy. Meyer (1970) recently called attention to the leukopenia and cellualr immune deficiency produced by irradiation to the thorax and mediastinum. Further study is necessary to define exactly how much immunosuppression results from radiotherapy, its clinical significance and what can be done to avoid or counter it. If Stjervsward's thesis (1974) concerning the deleterious effects of radiotherapy on survival is correct, then it is of great importance to identify those patients most likely to be adversely affected by radiotherapy. Conversely, it may be possible in the future to identify a

  20. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  1. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  2. Radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideomi; Yamashita; Wataru; Takahashi; Akihiro; Haga; Keiichi; Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)has a locacontrol rate of 95%at 2 years for non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and should improve the prognosis oinoperable patients,elderly patients,and patients withsignificant comorbidities who have early-stage NSCLCThe safety of SBRT is being confirmed in internationalmulti-institutional PhaseⅡtrials for peripheral lungcancer in both inoperable and operable patients,bureports so far have found that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for early-stage NSCLC and early metastatic lung cancer.Radiation pneumonitis(RP)is oneof the most common toxicities of SBRT.Although mospost-treatment RP is Grade 1 or 2 and either asymptomatic or manageable,a few cases are severe,symptomatic,and there is a risk for mortality.The reportedrates of symptomatic RP after SBRT range from 9%to28%.Being able to predict the risk of RP after SBRT isextremely useful in treatment planning.A dose-effecrelationship has been demonstrated,but suggesteddose-volume factors like mean lung dose,lung V20and/or lung V2.5 differed among the reports.We foundthat patients who present with an interstitial pneumo-nitis shadow on computed tomography scan and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D have a high rate of severe radiation pneumo-nitis after SBRT.At our institution,lung cancer patients with these risk factors have not received SBRT since 2006,and our rate of severe RP after SBRT has de-creased significantly since then.

  3. New radiation techniques in gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, A; Jhingran, A

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been a major therapeutic modality for eradicating malignant tumors over the past century. In fact, it was not long after the discovery of radium that the first woman with cervical cancer underwent intracavitary brachytherapy. Progress in the way that this cytotoxic agent is manipulated and delivered has seen an explosive growth over the past two decades with technological developments in physics, computing capabilities, and imaging. Although radiation oncologists are educated in and familiar with the wealth of new revolutionary techniques, it is not easy for other key members of the team to keep up with the rapid progress and its significance. However, to fully exploit these enormous gains and to communicate effectively, medical and gynecological oncologists are expected to be aware of state-of-the-art radiation oncology. Here, we elucidate and illustrate contemporary techniques in radiation oncology, with particular attention paid to the external beam radiotherapy used for adjuvant and primary definitive management of malignancies of the female pelvis.

  4. Solar ultraviolet radiation from cancer induction to cancer prevention: solar ultraviolet radiation and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J

    2015-09-01

    Although decades have elapsed, researchers still debate the benefits and hazards of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. On the one hand, humans derive most of their serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], which has potent anticancer activity, from solar UVB radiation. On the other hand, people are more aware of the risk of cancer incidence associated with harmful levels of solar UVR from daily sunlight exposure. Epidemiological data strongly implicate UV radiation exposure as a major cause of melanoma and other cancers, as UVR promotes mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. This review highlights the impact of the different mutagenic effects of solar UVR, along with the cellular and carcinogenic challenges with respect to sun exposure.

  5. Personalized Radiation Therapy (PRT) for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses approaches and strategies of personalized radiation therapy (PRT) for lung cancers at four different levels: (1) clinically established PRT based on a patient's histology, stage, tumor volume and tumor locations; (2) personalized adaptive radiation therapy (RT) based on image response during treatment; (3) PRT based on biomarkers; (4) personalized fractionation schedule. The current RT practice for lung cancer is partially individualized according to tumor histology, stage, size/location, and combination with use of systemic therapy. During-RT PET-CT image guided adaptive treatment is being tested in a multicenter trial. Treatment response detected by the during-RT images may also provide a strategy to further personalize the remaining treatment. Research on biomarker-guided PRT is ongoing. The biomarkers include genomics, proteomics, microRNA, cytokines, metabolomics from tumor and blood samples, and radiomics from PET, CT, SPECT images. Finally, RT fractionation schedule may also be personalized to each individual patient to maximize therapeutic gain. Future PRT should be based on comprehensive considerations of knowledge acquired from all these levels, as well as consideration of the societal value such as cost and effectiveness.

  6. Engineering therapeutic antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Migyeong; Jung, Sang Taek

    2016-02-05

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most attractive therapeutic target classes because of their critical roles in intracellular signaling and their clinical relevance to a variety of diseases, including cancer, infection and inflammation. However, high conformational variability, the small exposed area of extracellular epitopes and difficulty in the preparation of GPCR antigens have delayed both the isolation of therapeutic anti-GPCR antibodies as well as studies on the structure, function and biochemical mechanisms of GPCRs. To overcome the challenges in generating highly specific anti-GPCR antibodies with enhanced efficacy and safety, various forms of antigens have been successfully designed and employed for screening with newly emerged systems based on laboratory animal immunization and high-throughput-directed evolution.

  7. Advances in the use of radiation for gynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Akila N

    2012-02-01

    Radiation plays an integral role in the management of gynecologic cancers. The specific regimen must be carefully coordinated based on the details of a patient's personal history and pathologic findings. An integrated multidisciplinary approach that merges pathology, radiology, medical oncology, gynecologic oncology, and radiation oncology results in a greater understanding and, ideally, better outcomes for women suffering from gynecologic cancer.

  8. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

  9. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  10. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin canc

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  12. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  13. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Morimatu, Takafumi (and others)

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  14. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer using cylinder diffuse radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenming; Li, Li; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of diseases with high mortality in man. Many clinical imaging modalities are utilized for the detection, grading and staging of prostate cancer, such as ultrasound, CT, MRI, etc. But they lacked adequate sensitivity and specificity for finding cancer in transition or central zone of prostate. To overcome these problems, we propose a photoacoustic imaging modality based on cylinder diffuse radiation through urethra for prostate cancer detection. We measure the related parameters about this system like lateral resolution (~2mm) and axial resolution(~333μm). Finally, simulated sample was imaged by our system. The results demonstrate the feasibility for detecting prostate cancer by our system.

  15. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissecti

  16. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  18. Radiation treatment for newly diagnosed esophageal cancer with prior radiation to the thoracic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States); Lenards, Nishele [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kusano, Aaron; Patel, Shilpen [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate the use of single-positron emission computed tomography scan in planning radiation treatments for patients with a history of radiation to the thoracic cavity. A patient presented with obstructive esophageal cancer, having previously received chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the mediastinum for non-Hodgkin lymphoma 11 years earlier. Owing to a number of comorbidities, the patient was not a surgical candidate and was referred to the University of Washington Medical Center for radiation therapy. Prior dose to the spinal cord and lung were taken into account before designing the radiation treatment plan.

  19. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  20. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadec, Chann [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  1. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of radiation: what is next for cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Simon, Samantha S; Moody, Tomika D; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Despite its former reputation as being immunosuppressive, it has become evident that radiation therapy can enhance antitumor immune responses. This quality can be harnessed by utilizing radiation as an adjuvant to cancer immunotherapies. Most studies combine the standard radiation dose and regimens indicated for the given disease state, with novel cancer immunotherapies. It has become apparent that low-dose radiation, as well as doses within the hypofractionated range, can modulate tumor cells making them better targets for immune cell reactivity. Herein, we describe the range of phenotypic changes induced in tumor cells by radiation, and explore the diverse mechanisms of immunogenic modulation reported at these doses. We also review the impact of these doses on the immune cell function of cytotoxic cells in vivo and in vitro.

  3. [Radiation therapy for prostate cancer in modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide overview of the latest research trend on technique of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3D -CRT) has achieved better outcome of treatment for prostate cancer than 2-dimensional radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) is considered to be superior to 3D-CRT at certain points. Image-guided (IG) radiation therapy (IGRT), mainly IG-IMRT, is investigated what kind of influence it has on an outcome, both tumor control rate and adverse events. Particle therapy is a most ideal therapy theoretically. There is, however, few evidence which revealed that the therapy is superior to any other modalities.

  4. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  5. Progress in the development of therapeutic antibodies targeting prion proteins and β-amyloid peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by protein misfolding, and can lead to dementia. However, prion diseases are infectious and transmissible, while AD is not. The similarities and differences between these diseases have led researchers to perform comparative studies. In the last 2 decades, progress has been made in immunotherapy using anti-prion protein and anti-β-amyloid antibodies. In this study, we review new ideas and strategies for therapeutic antibodies targeting prion diseases and AD through conformation dependence.

  6. Delayed damage after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki [Osaka Dental Univ., Hirakata (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    I investigated radiation damage, including osteoradionecrosis, arising from tooth extraction in fields that had received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and evaluated the effectiveness of pilocarpine for xerostomia. Between January 1990 and April 1996, I examined 30 patients for bone changes after tooth extraction in fields irradiated at the Department of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University Hospital. Nineteen of the patients had been treated for nasopharyngeal cancer and 11 for oropharyngeal cancer. Between January and April 1996, 4 additional patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (3-mg, 6-mg and 9-mg of KSS-694 orally three times a day) for 12 weeks and evaluated every 4 weeks as a base line. One had been treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two for cancer of the cheek and one for an unknown carcinoma. Eighteen of the patients (11 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 7 with oropharyngeal carcinoma) had extractions. Use of preoperative and postoperative radiographs indicated that damage to the bone following tooth extraction after radiation exposure was related to whether antibiotics were administered the day before the extraction, whether forceps or elevators were used, and whether the tooth was in the field of radiation. Xerostomia improved in all 4 of the patients who received 6-mg or 9-mg of pilocarpine. It improved saliva production and relieved the symptoms of xerostomia after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, although there were minor side effects such as fever. This information can be used to improve the oral environment of patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and to better understand their oral environment. (author)

  7. Immunotherapy of melanoma with the immune costimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Yan Li, Yizhen Liu Cancer Research Institute, Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA Abstract: Knowledge of how the immune system recognizes and attempts to control cancer growth and development has improved dramatically. The advent of immunotherapies for cancer has resulted in robust clinical responses and confirmed that the immune system can significantly inhibit tumor progression. Until recently, metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. CD137 (also known as 4-1BB a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily, is an activation-induced T cell costimulator molecule. Growing evidence indicates that anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies possess strong antitumor properties, the result of their powerful capability to activate CD8+ T cells, to produce interferon (IFN-γ, and to induce cytolytic markers. Combination therapy of anti-CD137 with other anticancer agents, such as radiation, has robust tumor-regressing abilities against nonimmunogenic or poorly immunogenic tumors. Of importance, targeting CD137 eliminates established tumors, and the fact that anti-CD137 therapy acts in concert with other anticancer agents and/or radiation therapy to eradicate nonimmunogenic and weakly immunogenic tumors is an additional benefit. Currently, BMS-663513, a humanized anti-CD137 antibody, is in clinical trials in patients with solid tumors, including melanoma, renal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and B-cell malignancies. In this review, we discuss the basis of the therapeutic potential of targeting CD137 in cancer treatment, focusing in particular, on BMS-663513 as an immune costimulatory monoclonal antibody for melanoma immunotherapy. Keywords: anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies, immune costimulator molecule, BMS-663513

  8. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  9. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk.

  10. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    technique for treating left-sided breast cancer, which allows sparing of the heart. The Calypso system provides a previously unavailable level of...from both centers. Task 6. Post-prostatectomy Daily Target Guided Radiotherapy Using Real-Time, State-of-the-Art Motion Tracking with the Calypso...the skin surface to track breathing motion during a breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer treatment. Analysis would reveal the

  11. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Mo Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR, such as X-rays and gamma (γ-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR.

  12. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Liu, Pengda; Lim, Ji Hong; Lee, Yong Heon; Lee, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyu Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-11-10

    Ionizing radiation (IR), such as X-rays and gamma (γ)-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR.

  13. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.).

  14. Bedside etiology of childhood cancer. [X radiation, /sup 224/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: adenocarcinomas of the vagina in young women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol; neuroblastoma in children exposed prenatally to hydantoin; increased frequency of leukemia in Japanese children surviving the atomic bomb; cancer in adults following administration of /sup 224/Ra during childhood; increased risk of lung cancer following environmental exposure of children to asbestos; lung cancer in adults following exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic; association of chromosomal aberrations with leukemia in children exposed to x radiation and benzene; immunosuppression in lymphoma patients; renal dysplasia in patients with Wilms' tumor; and aggregation of neoplasms in families. (HLW)

  15. Radiation therapy of prostate cancer applied with cooling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, Akihiko; Ogawa, Katsuaki; Miyazaki, Machiko; Iwai, Hiroshi [Yokosuka National Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Takeda, Takashi

    1995-05-01

    The radio-sensitivity of prostate carcinoma is a resistant one. Also a prostate locates close to rectum, urethra and bladder of which mucus membranes are intermediate sensitive for irradiation, and causes side effects frequently. In this study, we applied with hyperfraction and local membrane cooling to the radiation therapy of the prostate cancer. This brought favorable clinical results with decreased morbidities. (author).

  16. The Immunoregulatory Potential of Particle Radiation in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Daniel K.; Tinganelli, Walter; Helm, Alexander; Bisio, Alessandra; Yamada, Shigeru; Kamada, Tadashi; Shimokawa, Takashi; Durante, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Cancer treatment, today, consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and most recently immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy-radiotherapy (CIR) has experienced a surge in public attention due to numerous clinical publications outlining the reduction or elimination of metastatic disease, following treatment with specifically ipilimumab and radiotherapy. The mechanism behind CIR, however, remains unclear, though it is hypothesized that radiation transforms the tumor into an in situ vaccine which immunotherapy modulates into a larger immune response. To date, the majority of attention has focused on rotating out immunotherapeutics with conventional radiation; however, the unique biological and physical benefits of particle irradiation may prove superior in generation of systemic effect. Here, we review recent advances in CIR, with a particular focus on the usage of charged particles to induce or enhance response to cancerous disease. PMID:28220126

  17. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario.

  18. Colon cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Rikiya; Kitagawa, Shinji; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Ikehara, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Iwanaga, Shinichi [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Nakamura, Yuichi [Nakamura Gastroenterology, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A 70-year-old female presented with abdominal pain in February 1994. She had undergone barium enema examination at a local hospital, and a stricture was pointed out in the rectosigmoid colon. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation. Double-contrast small-bowel examination revealed strictures involving long segments of the distal ileum. Repeated barium enemas showed tumor in the sigmoid colon. Because she had a past history of radiation therapy for uterine cancer 27 years previously, radiation-associated colon cancer was suspected. She underwent Miles' operation and partial resection of the ileum. Intraoperative colonoscopy showed a polypoid lesion of type 1 in the sigmoid colon. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen showed mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with radiation enterocolitis. (author)

  19. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Radiologicaland Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  20. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology St...

  1. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  2. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  3. Results of Radiation Therapy in Stage III Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Woo; Shin, Byung Chul; Yum, Ha Yong; Jeung, Tae Sig; Yoo, Myung Jin [Kosin University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the survival rate, treatment failure and complication of radiation therapy alone in stage III uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods : From January 1980 through December 1985, 227 patients with stage II uterine cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy at Kosin Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Among 227 patients, 72 patients(31.7%) were stage IIIa, and 155 patients(68.3%) were stage IIIb according to FIGO classification. Age distribution was 32-71 years(median: 62 years). Sixty nine patients(95.8%) in stage IIIa and 150 patients(96.8%) in stage IIIb were squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 8 patients (11.1%) in stage IIIa and 29 patients(18.7%) in stage IIIb. Among 72 patients with stage IIIa, 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone by conventional technique (180-200 cGy/fr). And 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy with intracavitary radiotherapy(ICR) with Cs137 sources, and among 155 patients with stage IIIb, 80 patients(51.6%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone and 75 patients(48.4%) were treated with external radiation therapy with ICR. Total radiation doses of stage IIIa and IIIb were 65-105 Gy(median : 78.5 Gy) and 65-125.5 Gy (median :83.5 Gy). Survival rate was calculated by life-table method. Results : Complete response rates were 58.3% (42 patients) in state IIIa and 56.1%(87 patients) in stage Iiib. Overall 5 year survival rates were 57% in stage IIIa and 40% in stage IIIb. Five year survival rates by radiation technique in stage IIIa and IIIb were 64%, 40% in group treated in combination of external radiation and ICR, and 50%, 40% in the group of external radiation therapy alone(P=NS). Five year survival rates by response of radiation therapy in stage IIIa and IIIb were 90%, 66% in responder group, and 10%, 7% in non-responder group (P<0.01). There were statistically no

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgias, George; Hajiioannou, Jiannis; Tolia, Maria; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Lachanas, Vasileios; Skoulakis, Charalambos; Skarlatos, Ioannis; Rapidis, Alexandros; Bizakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Multimodality therapy constitutes the standard treatment of advanced and recurrent head and neck cancer. Since locoregional recurrence comprises a major obstacle in attaining cure, the role of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) as an add-on in improving survival and local control of the disease has been investigated. IORT allows delivery of a single tumoricidal dose of radiation to areas of potential residual microscopic disease while minimizing doses to normal tissues. Advantages of IORT include the conformal delivery of a large dose of radiation in an exposed and precisely defined tumor bed, minimizing the risk of a geographic miss creating the potential for subsequent dose reduction of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). This strategy allows for shortening overall treatment time and dose escalation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent published work on the use of IORT as an adjuvant modality to treat common head and neck cancer in the primary or recurrent setting. Methods: We searched the Medline, Scopus, Ovid, Cochrane, Embase, and ISI Web of Science databases for articles published from 1980 up to March 2016. Results: Based on relevant publications it appears that including IORT in the multimodal treatment may contribute to improved local control. However, the benefit in overall survival is not so clear. Conclusion: IORT seems to be a safe, promising adjunct in the management of head and neck cancer and yet further well organized clinical trials are required to determine its role more precisely. PMID:27977569

  5. Conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, B L; Orel, S G; Jardines, L

    1993-07-01

    In selected patients with early-stage breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation represent an alternative equal to mastectomy in terms of local recurrence, distant metastasis, survival, and long-term complications. Patients with early-stage breast cancer who are candidates for conservative surgery and radiation include those whose primary tumor is less than 4 to 5 cm in size without evidence of gross multicentricity or diffuse microcalcifications. Patients with an extensive intraductal component may be appropriate candidates provided that margins of resection are negative. Young age is not a contraindication to the conservative treatment. A preexisting history of collagen vascular disease or prior mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a contraindication to conservative surgery and radiation because of the potential for severe complications. An additional contraindication is the pregnant woman in whom delivery cannot be accomplished before the initiation of radiation. Mammography is essential in the pretreatment evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of the conservatively treated patient. The goal of the pretreatment mammogram is to assess the extent of disease in the ipsilateral breast as well as to evaluate the contralateral breast. In patients who present with microcalcifications, a postbiopsy mammogram before radiation is essential to document complete removal of all malignant-appearing microcalcifications. Mammography is an essential part of the follow-up program in order to detect a recurrence in the treated breast as well as a cancer in the contralateral breast cancer. The optimal interval for follow-up mammography has not been determined, although programs employing mammography on a yearly basis after treatment have been associated with the detection of early recurrences and excellent survival after salvage mastectomy for these recurrences.

  6. The regulatory effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor on liver cancer cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Radiation has been an effective tool for treating cancer for a long time. Radiation therapy induces DNA damage within cancer cells and destroys their ability to reproduce. Radiation therapy is often combined with other treatments, like surgery and chemotherapy. Here, we describe the effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostain A, on cell cycle regulation in hepatoma cells. Results demonstrate that the treatment of radiation TSA induces cell cycle arrest, thereby stimulating cell death in hepatoma cells. In addition, since different cells or tissues have different reactivity to radiation and TSA, these results might be an indicator for the combination therapy with radiation and drugs in diverse cancers.

  7. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Gregory R Wojtkiewicz; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen; Weissleder, Ralph; Jacks, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non–small-cell lung cancer with micro–computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor ...

  8. A case of radiation induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchikawa, Kohzo; Sato, Akira; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A case of carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa is presented. The case was suspected to have been induced by irradiation therapy for a carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. An external radiotherapy, 6-MeV Linac, had been done for the carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa in a 55-year-old female, with single lateral direction from the left to the right in 1977. In 1985, a papillary lesion on the right buccal mucosa was detected, and histological examination revealed a papilloma without atypism. In 1991, as an ulcer on the right upper buccal fold as well as three papillary lesions in the central portion of the right buccal mucosa were found, the patient was referred to our clinic. Microscopical findings were consistent with the early invasive carcinomas. A surgical excision of these whole lesions and skin graft were completed. The criteria of this case for the suspicion of radiation-induced carcinoma were as follows. There was a long latent period of 14 years. The previous dose of irradiation, 60 Gy, was sufficient. The right buccal mucosa was involved in the radiation field. A severe scar on the left cheek resulted from the previous irradiation. Anatomically, there is no evidence of the secondary carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa with the primary carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. No evidence for recurrence of the tumors on both sides of buccal mucosa has been detected so far. Further observations will be necessary to detect other tumors in the irradiated field later on. (author).

  9. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  10. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  11. [Radiation therapy of patients with inoperable cancer of the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankudinov, V A; Morozov, A I; Barkanov, A I; Zverev, M P; Karleshenko, N I

    1976-01-01

    Radiotherapy was employed in 60 patients, symptomatic treatment--in 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, 9 of them had the disease in stage III. Radiotherapy, using betatron 25 Mev, was conducted by a longitudinal method, distant gammatherapy--through a wolfram and the radiation source focused grid. Single focal dosage was 150--200 rad, total--5000--8000 rad. The treatment proved to be uneffective in 31.7 per cent of patients.

  12. DUAL THEORY OF ACTION IONIZING RADIATION AND SPONTANEOUS CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Gubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for radiogenic increasing of mortality was proposed, taking into account spontaneous background damages of the genetic material, that always occur in cells due to the influence of non-radiation internal and environmental factors. The model is based on the representation of indistinguishability between radiogenic andspontaneous cancers and on the postulates of the Kellerer-Rossi dual action theory. It was proposed that duringformation of premalignant damages dual interactions occur both between primary radiation damages, and betweenradiation and spontaneous primary damages (hybrid interactions. The role of the latter is particularly important at low levels exposure that corresponds to a linear dependence of cancer incidence on dose. Their significance is indicated by the following factor: at the adopted value of the nominal (radiation risk factor (0,05 Sv-1 and cancer mortality share among the population (0,15–0,2, the contribution of non-radiative carcinogenic factors for the total life is equivalent to radiation dose of 3–4 Sv or radiation at a constant dose rate of 40–50 mSv / year.The model assumes formation in DNA of both spaced apart (single damages with high probability of recovery, and nearby (double damages, which are more likely to interact, entering into the permanent state. Permanent damages being formed in certain portions of DNA can be inherited to daughter cells as premalignant defects. The relative role of spontaneous primary damages is greater the more single damages are formed as compared to double ones within the area of potential interaction.It was shown within this model that the presence of background cancer mortality for initial and finite population in the used by ICRP expression for interpopulation risk transfer has logical and biophysical justifications. Accounting of spontaneous primary damages and hybrid interactions enhances the capabilities for development of radiation risk models.

  13. Sensitivity to Radiation-Induced Cancer in Hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull. Richard J.; Anderson, Larry E.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this pilot project using HFE-knockout homozygotes and heterozygotes are to (1) determine whether the knock-out mice have greater sensitivity to radiation-induced cancer of the colon, liver and breast, (2) establish the dependence of this sensitivity on the accumulation of iron, (3) determine the extent to which cell replication and apoptosis occur in these target tissues with varying iron load, and (4) correlate the increases in sensitivity with changes in insulin-related signaling in tumors and normal tissue from each target organ. Three experimental designs will be used in the pilot project. The sequence of experiments is designed to first explore the influence of iron load on the response and demonstrate that HFE knockout mice are more sensitive than the wild type to radiation-induced cancer in one or more of three target tissues (liver, colon and breast). The dose response relationships with a broader set of radiation doses will be explored in the second experiment. The final experiment is designed to explore the extent to which heterozygotes display the increased susceptibility to cancer induction and to independently assess the importance of iron load to the initiation versus promotion of tumors.

  14. Role of Local Radiation Therapy in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Sandra; Golden, Encouse B; Formenti, Silvia C

    2015-12-01

    The recent success of cancer immunotherapy has demonstrated the power of the immune system to clear tumors, generating renewed enthusiasm for identifying ways to induce antitumor immune responses in patients. Natural antitumor immune responses are detectable in a fraction of patients across multiple malignant neoplasms and can be reactivated by targeting rate-limiting immunosuppressive mechanisms. In most patients, however, interventions to induce a de novo antitumor immune response are necessary. We review growing evidence that radiation therapy targeted to the tumor can convert it into an in situ tumor vaccine by inducing release of antigens during cancer cell death in association with proinflammatory signals that trigger the innate immune system to activate tumor-specific T cells. In addition, radiation's effects on the tumor microenvironment enhance infiltration of activated T cells and can overcome some of the barriers to tumor rejection. Thus, the complementary effects of radiation on priming and effector phases of antitumor immunity make it an appealing strategy to generate immunity against a patient's own individual tumor, that through immunological memory, can result in long-lasting systemic responses. Several anecdotal cases have demonstrated the efficacy of combining radiation with available immunotherapies, and results of prospective trials are forthcoming.

  15. Adaptive Radiation: application in lung cancer; Radioterapia adaptativa: aplicacion en cancer de pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Mazon, J.; Raba Diez, J. I.; Vazquez Rodriguez, J. a.; Pacheco Baldor, M. T.; Mendiguren Santiago, M. A.; Menendez Garcia, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The previous updates are a form of adaptive radiation that can be used to account for changes in the size, shape and location of both the tumor and healthy tissue. Are especially useful in the case of lung cancer which typically is associated with significant anatomical changes due to the response to treatment.In the present study, the variation in tumor volume and dosimetric effects from a new CT and replanning during the course of treatment in patients with lung cancer.

  16. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il; Cho, Kyung Ja; Kim, Byung Gi; Lee, Kee Ho; Nam, Myung Jin

    1999-04-01

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy.

  17. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  18. Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Jannet C; van Luijk, Peter; Widder, Joachim; Langendijk, Johannes A; Muijs, Christina T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also

  19. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B.; Fleischer, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999–2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  20. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers.

  1. A Patterns of Care Study of the Various Radiation Therapies for Prostate Cancer among Korean Radiation Oncologists in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-06-15

    To conduct a nationwide academic hospital patterns of the practice status and principles of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The survey will help develop the framework of a database of Korean in Patterns of Case Study. A questionnaire about radiation treatment status and principles was sent to radiation oncologists in charge of prostate cancer treatment at thirteen academic hospitals in Korea. The data was analyzed to find treatment principles among the radiation oncologists when treating prostate cancer. The number of patients with prostate cancer and treated with radiation ranged from 60 to 150 per academic hospital in Seoul City and 10 to 15 outside of Seoul City in 2006. The primary diagnostic methods of prostate cancer included the ultrasound guided biopsy on 6 to 12 prostate sites (mean=9), followed by magnetic resonance imaging and a whole body bone scan. Internal and external immobilizations were used in 61.5% and 76.9%, respectively, with diverse radiation targets. Whole pelvis radiation therapy (dose ranging from 45.0 to 50.4 Gy) was performed in 76.9%, followed by the irradiation of seminal vesicles (54.0{approx}73.8 Gy) in 92.3%. The definitive radiotherapy doses were increased as a function of risk group, but the range of radiation doses was wide (60.0 to 78.5 Gy). Intensity modulated radiation therapy using doses greater than 70 Gy, were performed in 53.8% of academic hospitals. In addition, the simultaneous intra-factional boost (SIB) technique was used in three hospitals; however, the target volume and radiation dose were diverse. Radiation therapy to biochemical recurrence after a radical prostatectomy was performed in 84.6%; however, the radiation dose was variable and the radiation field ranged from whole pelvis to prostate bed. The results of this study suggest that a nationwide Korean Patterns of Care Study is necessary for the recommendation of radiation therapy guidelines of prostate cancer.

  2. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Diehn, Felix E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  3. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonggoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, the beneficial effects of radiation can extend beyond direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Delivery of localized radiation to tumors often leads to systemic responses at distant sites, a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect which has been attributed to the induction and enhancement of the endogenous anti-tumor innate and adaptive immune response. The mechanisms surrounding the abscopal effect are diverse and include trafficking of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment, enhanced tumor recognition and killing via up-regulation of tumor antigens and antigen presenting machinery and, induction of positive immunomodulatory pathways. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms of radiation-induced enhancement of the anti-tumor response through its effect on the host immune system and explore potential combinational immune-based strategies such as adoptive cellular therapy using ex vivo expanded NK and T cells as a means of delivering a potent effector population in the context of radiation-enhanced anti-tumor immune environment.

  4. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S. [Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays ({<=} 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study.

  5. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. PMID:26216991

  6. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-11

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions.

  7. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  8. Acute myelogenous leukemia following chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Teijiro; Hirota, Yuichi; Kondou, Seiji; Matsumoto, Isao; Matsuzaka, Toshimitsu; Iwashita, Akinori

    1989-03-01

    In August 1982, a 44-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, histologically diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominoperineal resection and colostomy were performed. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy with mitomycin C up to a total dose of 100 mg. In September 1986, lung metastasis occurred and he was treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In the following year, radiation treatment (total: 6900 rad) was given for a recurrent pelvic lesion. Peripheral blood on April 30, 1988, showed anemia, thrombocytopenia and appearance of myeloblasts, and a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB: M1) was made. Combination chemotherapy (including aclarubicin, vincristine, behenoyl ara-C, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, etoposide and prednisolone) failed to induce remission and the patient died in June 1988. This case was thought to be one of secondary leukemia occurring after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for rectal cancer. This case clearly indicates the need for a careful follow-up of long-term survivors who have received cancer therapy. (author).

  9. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  11. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Current management of patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The best management for small mucosal esophageal cancer is generally endoscopic mucosal resection. However, for submucosal cancer and extensive mucosal caner, either radical surgery or radiation seems to be an equally efficacious option. Radiation therapy concurrent with chemotherapy is more effective than radiation therapy alone for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. The key drugs are cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, for patients with poor performance status or for aged patients, radiation therapy alone is still a choice of treatment. Surgery has generally been indicated for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. However, outcomes of concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be comparable with those of surgery. Therefore, a prospective randomized study should be performed to determine the best management for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The usefulness of intra-cavitary irradiation for esophageal cancer has not been clarified. A prospective randomized trial with a large number of patients is necessary to determine the effectiveness of intra-cavitary irradiation. The best management for patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery has not been determined. Intensive therapy should be considered if the site of recurrence is limited and the time interval from surgery to recurrence is long. Chemotherapy is essential in the management of patients with small cell esophageal cancer. However, the best local therapy has not been determined. (author)

  12. MR imaging of endometrial cancer that occurs after radiation therapy for cervix cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Jeong [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Yeon; Lim, Nam Yeol [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Seok Wan [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2007-05-15

    We wanted to describe the MR imaging findings of endometrial cancer in patients with a history of prior radiation therapy for cervical cancer (ECRT) and we compare them to the MR imaging findings of patients with spontaneously occurring endometrial cancer (SEC). Twenty-two patients with endometrial cancer that was diagnosed by operation or endometrial biopsy were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of past RT for cervical cancer: ECRT (n = 4) and SEC (n = 18). The MR images were retrospectively analyzed by consensus of two experienced radiologists. The MR imaging findings were analyzed by the size, shape and signal intensity of the mass, distension of the uterine cavity, the presence of cervical stenosis and the nature of the fluid collection. For the mass shape, all the ECRT lesions were polypoid masses. However, the SEC patients had 5 polypoid masses and 13 wall thickenings. The maximal diameter, signal intensity and enhancement pattern of the masses were not different between the ECRT and SEC patients. The width of the endometrial cavity varied between 3.9 cm in the ECRT patients and 0.4 cm in the SEC patients ({rho} = 0.002). All the ECRT patients had cervical stenosis. However, none of the SEC patients had cervical stenosis. MR imaging of ECRT patients demonstrated prominent distension of their uterine cavity and cervical stenosis, which may be the result of radiation fibrosis in the uterus.

  13. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  14. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  15. Application of multileaf collimator in breast cancer radiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Marzena; Dupla, Dorota; Nowakowski, Grzegorz

    2004-07-01

    Modern radiation therapy tools allow a precise delivery of a high dose to a target area (so-called planning target volume -- PTV) and spare, at the same time, critical organs in the vicinity of cancerous lesions. One of the tools of conformal therapy is a multi-leaf collimator, which provides the opportunity to optimally adjust the therapeutic field to the tumor area. More difficult areas for radiation therapy include: mamma, after BCT, and chest after mammectomy with regional lymph nodes. The objective of the study is to present technical and physical aspects of breast carcinoma irradiation when applying a multi-leaf collimator. The following techniques were applied: (a) the isocentric technique of tangent fields (from two to four) for the mamma after BCT; (b) the method of a common isocenter, for the areas of mamma and for regional lymph nodes; (c) the technique of complementary photon + electron fields, for the area of chest after mammectomy and lymph nodes. The presented techniques were implemented as standard procedures in the preparation of breast carcinoma radiation treatment in the Lower Silesian Oncology Center.

  16. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Stewart, James [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, Valerie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xie, Jason [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moseley, Joanne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Löf, Johan [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael, E-mail: mike.milosevic@rmp.uhn.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  17. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  18. Photothermal killing of Staphylococcus aureus using antibody-targeted gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millenbaugh NJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nancy J Millenbaugh,1 Jonathan B Baskin,1 Mauris N DeSilva,1 W Rowe Elliott,1 Randolph D Glickman2 1Maxillofacial Injury and Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Unit San Antonio, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USAPurpose: The continued emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial infections and the decline in discovery of new antibiotics are major challenges for health care throughout the world. This situation has heightened the need for novel antimicrobial therapies as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. The combination of metallic nanoparticles and laser exposure has been proposed as a strategy to induce physical damage to bacteria, regardless of antibiotic sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to test the antibacterial effect of antibody-targeted gold nanoparticles combined with pulsed laser irradiation.Methods: Gold nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies specific to Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan were incubated with suspensions of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA. Bacterial suspensions were then exposed to 8 ns pulsed laser irradiation at a wavelength of 532 nm and fluences ranging from 1 to 5 J/cm2. Viability of the bacteria following laser exposure was determined using colony forming unit assays. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm the binding of nanoparticles to bacteria and the presence of cellular damage.Results: The laser-activated nanoparticle treatment reduced the surviving population to 31% of control in the MSSA population, while the survival in the MRSA population was reduced to 58% of control. Significant decreases in bacterial viability occurred when the laser fluence exceeded 1 J/cm2, and this effect was linear from 0 to 5 J/cm2 (r2=0.97. Significantly less bactericidal effect was observed for nonfunctionalized nanoparticles or

  19. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heui Kwan [Prebyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  20. Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial activity and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A Elbaz

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solid tumors including pancreatic cancer, but the effectiveness of treatment is limited by radiation resistance. Resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration and drugs that stimulate mitochondrial respiration may decrease radiation resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of (--epicatechin to stimulate mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells and to selectively sensitize cancer cells to radiation. We investigated the natural compound (--epicatechin for effects on mitochondrial respiration and radiation resistance of pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cells using a Clark type oxygen electrode, clonogenic survival assays, and Western blot analyses. (--Epicatechin stimulated mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption in Panc-1 cells. Human normal fibroblasts were not affected. (--Epicatechin sensitized Panc-1, U87, and MIA PaCa-2 cells with an average radiation enhancement factor (REF of 1.7, 1.5, and 1.2, respectively. (--Epicatechin did not sensitize normal fibroblast cells to ionizing radiation with a REF of 0.9, suggesting cancer cell selectivity. (--Epicatechin enhanced Chk2 phosphorylation and p21 induction when combined with radiation in cancer, but not normal, cells. Taken together, (--epicatechin radiosensitized cancer cells, but not normal cells, and may be a promising candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment when combined with radiation.

  1. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  2. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  3. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Demas, Kristina; Uhm, Sunghae; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Suy, Simeng; Davis, Kimberly M.; Sween, Jennifer; Collins, Sean; Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common side effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment. Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a...

  4. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjeev eDash; Kristina eDemas; Sunghae eUhm; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Simeng eSuy; Davis, Kimberly M.; Jennifer eSween; Sean eCollins; Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, an...

  5. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  6. Radiation therapy for metastatic lesions from breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes radiation therapy in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 70% of breast cancer patients, and the goals of radiation therapy for bone metastasis are: palliation of pain, prevention and treatment of neuropathic symptoms, and prevention of pathologic fractures. The prognosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer is known to be better than that of bone metastasis from other solid tumors. Local-field radiation, hemibody (or wide-field) radiation, and systemic radionuclide treatment are the major methods of radiation therapy for pain palliation. Although many studies have shown that breast cancer is more responsive to radiation therapy for pain palliation than other solid tumors, some studies found no significant difference. Local-field radiation therapy, which includes multi-fraction irradiation and single-fraction irradiation, is currently the most generally used method of radiotherapy for pain palliation. Pain palliation has been reported to be achieved in approximately 80% to 90% of patients treated with local-field external beam irradiation. Three types of multi-fraction irradiation therapy are administered depending on the prognosis: high-dose fraction irradiation (36-50 Gy/12-25 Fr/2.4-5 wk), short-course irradiation (20-30 Gy/10-15 Fr/2-3 wk), and ultra-short-course irradiation (15-25 Gy/2-5 Fr/1 wk). The most common irradiation schedule is 30 Gy/10 Fr/2 wk. Although many reports indicate no significant difference in pain palliation according to the dose, the percentage of patients who show a complete cure is significantly higher in those treated with doses of 30 Gy or more, and thus the total irradiation dose should be at least 30 Gy. High-dose fraction irradiation is indicated for patients with an expected survival time of 6 months or more while short-course or single-fraction irradiation is indicated for those with an expected survival time of 3 months or more. Single

  7. Targeting apoptosis: preclinical and early clinical experience with mapatumumab, an agonist monoclonal antibody targeting TRAIL-R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Patricia; Hotte, Sébastien J

    2009-03-01

    In spite of the advances in survival with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, many cancer patients continue to experience failure with treatments. Advances in molecular oncology and the development of numerous targeted therapies, used by themselves or in combination with at present available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, will hopefully improve the fate of these patients. It has been well understood for many years now that deregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark of cancer cells. Mapatumumab, a fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1, has been developed to induce apoptosis in cancer cells although having minimal effects on normal cells. This paper reviews the preclinical and early clinical data of this exciting new agent and discusses options for future development of mapatumumab, mostly in combinations with other therapies.

  8. Early effects of preoperative radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Shigeo; Igarashi, Tatsuo; Ito, Haruo

    1983-10-01

    22 patients with high grade invasive bladder cancer were treated with preoperative radiation therapy (910 rad by fast neutron or 3000 rad by X ray during 2 weeks) followed by radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. 62.5 % of patients showed reduction in tumor size more than 50% evaluated by cystogram. Stage down was observed in 38% of patients compared between clinical and pathological stage. Histopathological effect of GII or GIII, according to the criteria described by Ohboshi, was noticed in 79 % of the patients. Better effect seemed to be obtained in fast neutron treated group than in X ray group. 19 patients received curative surgery, and 18 patients were alive without recurrence after 10 months (mean observed term). One died from lung metastasis 4.5 months after surgery. 50% of the patients complained of side effects of irradiation although they were tolerable, and 32% of the patients had major complications of surgery.

  9. Dental management of patients irradiated for oral cancer. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regezi, J.A.; Courtney, R.M.; Kerr, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Management of patients irradiated for oral cancer should include consideration of their oral health prior to, and after, radiation therapy. Data from 130 patients, followed for a period of 1 to 10 years, are presented and evaluated. The philosophy of retention and maintenance of as many teeth as possible is supported by this data. Extraction of teeth with severe periodontal disease after irradiation also proves to be a relatively safe operation. Osteoradionecrosis tends to be limited in extent and is generally well tolerated by the patient when treated conservatively. A treatment regimen is presented that significantly reduces the morbidity from therapeutic irradiation of the jaws. A comprehensive dental evaluation and follow-up plan coupled with patient cooperation are instrumental to the success of this program.

  10. Mathematical optimization of the combination of radiation and differentiation therapies of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff W.N. Bachman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSC are considered to be a major driver of cancer progression and successful therapies must control CSCs. However, CSC are often less sensitive to treatment and they might survive radiation and/or chemotherapies. In this paper we combine radiation treatment with differentiation therapy. During differentiation therapy, a differentiation promoting agent is supplied (e.g. TGF-beta such that CSCs differentiate and become more radiosensitive. Then radiation can be used to control them. We consider three types of cancer: head and neck cancer, brain cancers (primary tumors and metastatic brain cancers, and breast cancer; and we use mathematical modelling to show that combination therapy of the above type can have a large beneficial effect for the patient; increasing treatment success and reducing side effects.

  11. ROLES OF RADIATION DOSE AND CHEMOTHERAPY IN THE ETIOLOGY OF STOMACH CANCER AS A SECOND MALIGNANCY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Besseling, Gijs; de Bruin, Marie L.; Hauptmann, Michael; van 't Veer, Mars B.; de Wit, Ronald; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated

  12. Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Safran, Howard, E-mail: hsafran@lifespan.org [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

  13. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  14. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  15. Second Primary Lung Cancers Demonstrate Better Survival with Surgery than Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Lee, Dong-Seok D; Kaufman, Andrew; Wolf, Andrea; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Gomez, Jorge; Flores, Raja M

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have had curative surgery for lung cancer are at the highest risk of developing a new lung cancer. Individual studies are usually underpowered to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in second primary lung cancer (SPLC). The goal of this study is to determine which treatment is best associated with survival in patients who develop a new primary lung cancer. All pathologically proven stage I lung cancer cases that received cancer-directed surgery included in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database between 2004 and 2010 were selected. Cases that received radiation therapy were excluded. Cases that developed a SPLC 6 or more months after the diagnosis of the first cancer were analyzed. The original data set consisted of 9564 stage I lung cancer cases treated with surgery; 520 of them developed a second primary, and completed data were available for 494 of them. Stage I disease was diagnosed in 272 patients with SPLCs (58.5%); 45.8% of these underwent cancer surgery alone, and 31.6% received radiation alone. Surgery was performed more frequently in early stages and younger patients. Surgical patients had statistically significant longer survival than patients treated with radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001) or not treated with surgery or radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001). The incidence of SPLCs was 5.4%. Stage I second primaries had improved survival when compared with later stage disease, and surgery conferred an increased survival benefit as compared with radiation.

  16. Influential Factors and Synergies for Radiation-Gene Therapy on Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-gene therapy, a dual anticancer strategy of radiation therapy and gene therapy through connecting radiation-inducible regulatory sequence to therapeutic gene, leading to the gene being induced to express by radiation while radiotherapy is performed and finally resulting in a double synergistic antitumor effect of radiation and gene, has become one of hotspots in the field of cancer treatment in recent years. But under routine dose of radiation, especially in the hypoxia environment of solid tumor, it is difficult for this therapy to achieve desired effect because of low activity of radiation-inducible regulatory elements, low level and transient expression of target gene induced by radiation, inferior target specificity and poor biosecurity, and so on. Based on the problems existing in radiation-gene therapy, many efforts have been devoted to the curative effect improvement of radiation-gene therapy by various means to increase radiation sensitivity or enhance target gene expression and the expression’s controllability. Among these synergistic techniques, gene circuit, hypoxic sensitization, and optimization of radiation-induced sequence exhibit a good application potential. This review provides the main influential factors to radiation-gene therapy on cancer and the synergistic techniques to improve the anticancer effect of radiation-gene therapy.

  17. Roles of radiation dose and chemotherapy in the etiology of stomach cancer as a second malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Aleman, Berthe M P; Besseling, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated...... in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated....... Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-related excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach...

  18. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy; Dysfonctions sexuelles apres irradiation pour cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droupy, S. [Service d' urologie-andrologie, CHU Caremeau, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2010-10-15

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  19. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow-up. A sign......A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow...

  20. Optimization of Radiation Therapy Techniques for Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Rectum Spacers: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Intégré de Cancérologie de Laval, Centre de Santé et de Services Sociaux de Laval, Laval, Québec (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radiation Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Benz, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Vallee, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Zilli@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-10-01

    Dose-escalated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer improves disease control but is also associated with worse rectal toxicity. A spacer placed between the prostate and rectum can be used to displace the anterior rectal wall outside of the high-dose radiation regions and potentially minimize radiation-induced rectal toxicity. This systematic review focuses on the published data regarding the different types of commercially available prostate-rectum spacers. Dosimetric results and preliminary clinical data using prostate-rectum spacers in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by curative radiation therapy are compared and discussed.

  1. Radiation induced skin cancer the chest wall 30 years later from breast cancer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Togawa, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Matsuo, Youichi

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the skin cancer on the frontal chest wall induced by postoperative irradiation 30 years later from mastectomy. The patients was a 62-year-old woman, who received mastectomy of the right breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, comedo type) at 31 years old, and received the postoperative radiotherapy of total 11,628 rad over 38 times. On the first medical examination in author`s hospital, the patient had an ulcer of about 10 cm diameter and was diagnosed the radiation induced skin cancer (well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) in the biopsy. Because of the general condition of the patient was extremely bad and the skin cancer had highly developed, the excision was thought to be impossible. The radiotherapy (16 Gy) and combined local chemotherapy by OK 432 and Bleomycin were performed. In spite of the short term treatment, these therapies were effective on the reduction of the tumor size and the hemostasis, and brought the patient the improvement of QOL. The general condition of the patient improved to be stable and she recovered enough to go out from the hospital for 6 months. After 10 months, she showed anorexia and dyspnea and died after about 1 year from the admission. The present case is extremely rare, and it is required the radical therapy like the excision of chest wall at early stage. (K.H.)

  2. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

  3. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  4. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  5. Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Gammon, Luke; Biddle, Adrian; Emich, Helena; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2015-12-22

    There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that human tumors are driven and maintained by a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSC). In the case of head and neck cancer, such cells have been characterised by high expression levels of CD44 cell surface glycoprotein, while we have previously shown the presence of two diverse oral CSC populations in vitro, with different capacities for cell migration and proliferation. Here, we examined the response of oral CSC populations to ionising radiation (IR), a front-line measure for the treatment of head and neck tumors. We show that oral CSC initially display resistance to IR-induced growth arrest as well as relative apoptotic resistance. We propose that this is a result of preferential activation of the DNA damagerepair pathway in oral CSC with increased activation of ATM and BRCA1, elevated levels of DNA repair proteins RAD52, XLF, and a significantly faster rate of DNA double-strand-breaks clearance 24 hours following IR. By visually identifying CSC sub-populations undergoing EMT, we show that EMT-CSC represent the majority of invasive cells, and are more radio-resistant than any other population in re-constructed 3D tissues. We provide evidence that IR is not sufficient to eliminate CSC in vitro, and that sensitization of CD44hi/ESAlow cells to IR, followed by secondary EMT blockade, could be critical in order to reduce primary tumor recurrence, but more importantly to be able to eradicate cells capable of invasion and distant metastasis.

  6. Dysuria Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsley-Marie eJanowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysuria following prostate radiation therapy is a common toxicity that adversely affects patients’ quality of life and may be difficult to manage. Methods: 204 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT from 2007 to 2010 for localized prostate carcinoma with a minimum follow up of three years were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. All patients were treated to 35-36.25Gy in 5 fractions delivered with robotic SBRT with real time fiducial tracking. Dysuria and other lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed via Question 4b (Pain or burning on urination of the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26 and the American Urological Association (AUA Symptom Score at baseline and at routine follow up. Results: 204 patients (82 low-, 105 intermediate-, and 17 high risk according to the D’Amico classification at a median age of 69 years (range 48-91 received SBRT for their localized prostate cancer with a median follow up of 47 months. Bother associated with dysuria significantly increased from a baseline of 12% to a maximum of 43% at one month (p<0.0001. There were two distinct peaks of moderate to severe dysuria bother at 1 month and at 6-12 months, with 9% of patients experiencing a late transient dysuria flare. While a low level of dysuria was seen through the first two years of follow-up, it returned to below baseline by two years (p=0.91. The median baseline AUA score of 7.5 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p<0.0001 and returned to 7 at 3 months (p= 0.54. Patients with dysuria had a statistically higher AUA score at baseline and at all follow-ups up to 30 months. Dysuria significantly correlated with dose and AUA score on multivariate analysis. Frequency and strain significantly correlated with dysuria on stepwise multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The rate and severity of dysuria following SBRT is comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities.

  7. Reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis following local radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Persis; Foley, Raymond; Kosowicz, Lynn

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we describe the case of an 81-year-old male with reactivation tuberculosis following local radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The patient was asymptomatic except for an unintentional 20-pound weight loss and was incidentally found to have a pulmonary infiltrate in the right upper lobe on imaging for shoulder pain. The medical history was not able for recently treated prostate cancer. After further investigation, the patient was determined to have Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. It is important to have a high level of suspicion for reactivation tuberculosis in patients with a pulmonary infiltrate following radiation therapy due to the impact of radiation on the host's immune system. We will review the literature on reactivation tuberculosis following radiation therapy and explore the mechanism of immunosuppression in this process. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of tuberculosis reactivation following local radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  8. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  9. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwenge, Milly; Cammelli, Silvia; Ammendolia, Ilario; Tolento, Giorgio; Zamagni, Alice; Arcelli, Alessandra; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Morganti, Alessio G

    2017-01-01

    Background Owing to highly conformed dose distribution, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to improve treatment results of radiotherapy (RT). Postoperative RT is a standard adjuvant treatment in conservative treatment of breast cancer (BC). The aim of this review is to analyze available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IMRT in BC, particularly in terms of reduction of side effects. Methods A literature search of the bibliographic database PubMed, from January 1990 through November 2016, was performed. Only RCTs published in English were included. Results Ten articles reporting data from 5 RCTs fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in our review. Three out of 5 studies enrolled only selected patients in terms of increased risk of toxicity. Three studies compared IMRT with standard tangential RT. One study compared the results of IMRT in the supine versus the prone position, and one study compared standard treatment with accelerated partial breast IMRT. Three studies reported reduced acute and/or late toxicity using IMRT compared with standard RT. No study reported improved quality of life. Conclusion IMRT seems able to reduce toxicity in selected patients treated with postoperative RT for BC. Further analyses are needed to better define patients who are candidates for this treatment modality. PMID:28293119

  10. Breast cancer induced by radiation. Relation to mammography and treatment of acne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.

    1977-02-21

    A report is given of cases of 16 women in whom cancer of the breast developed after radiation therapy for acne or hirsutism, suggesting another group at higher risk than is generally expected for cancer of the breast. It is prudent to regard the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the breast as proportional to dose without a threshold. Mammography in young women should be ordered only selectively, not for screening.

  11. Rectum separation in patients with cervical cancer for treatment planning in primary chemo-radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Marnitz Simone; Budach Volker; Weißer Friederike; Burova Elena; Gebauer Bernhard; Vercellino Filiberto; Köhler Christhardt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To proof feasibility of hydrogel application in patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing chemo-radiation in order to reduce rectal toxicity from external beam radiation as well as brachytherapy. Material and methods Under transrectal sonographic guidance five patients with proven cervical cancer underwent hydro gel (20 cc) instillation into the tip of rectovaginal septum adherent to posterior part of the visible cervical tumor. Five days after this procedure all pati...

  12. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  13. Surgeons' Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Role of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hawley, Sarah T.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Janz, Nancy K. [Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sabel, Michael S. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Katz, Steven J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies suggest underuse of radiation therapy, especially after mastectomy. Because radiation oncology is a referral-based specialty, knowledge and attitudes of upstream providers, specifically surgeons, may influence patients' decisions regarding radiation, including whether it is even considered. Therefore, we sought to evaluate surgeons' knowledge of pertinent risk information, their patterns of referral, and the correlates of surgeon knowledge and referral in specific breast cancer scenarios. Methods and Materials: We surveyed a national sample of 750 surgeons, with a 67% response rate. We analyzed responses from those who had seen at least 1 breast cancer patient in the past year (n=403), using logistic regression models to identify correlates of knowledge and appropriate referral. Results: Overall, 87% of respondents were general surgeons, and 64% saw >10 breast cancer patients in the previous year. In a scenario involving a 45-year-old undergoing lumpectomy, only 45% correctly estimated the risk of locoregional recurrence without radiation therapy, but 97% would refer to radiation oncology. In a patient with 2 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 30% would neither refer to radiation oncology nor provide accurate information to make radiation decisions. In a patient with 4 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 9% would not refer to radiation oncology. Fewer than half knew that the Oxford meta-analysis revealed a survival benefit from radiation therapy after lumpectomy (45%) or mastectomy (32%). Only 16% passed a 7-item knowledge test; female and more-experienced surgeons were more likely to pass. Factors significantly associated with appropriate referral to radiation oncology included breast cancer volume, tumor board participation, and knowledge. Conclusions: Many surgeons have inadequate knowledge regarding the role of radiation in breast cancer management, especially after mastectomy. Targeted educational

  14. Anorectal Cancer: Critical Anatomic and Staging Distinctions That Affect Use of Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Mamon, Harvey J; Fuchs, Charles S; Doyle, Leona A; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Rosenthal, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Although rectal and anal cancers are anatomically close, they are distinct entities with different histologic features, risk factors, staging systems, and treatment pathways. Imaging is at the core of initial clinical staging of these cancers and most commonly includes magnetic resonance imaging for local-regional staging and computed tomography for evaluation of metastatic disease. The details of the primary tumor and involvement of regional lymph nodes are crucial in determining if and how radiation therapy should be used in treatment of these cancers. Unfortunately, available imaging modalities have been shown to have imperfect accuracy for identification of nodal metastases and imaging features other than size. Staging of nonmetastatic rectal cancers is dependent on the depth of invasion (T stage) and the number of involved regional lymph nodes (N stage). Staging of nonmetastatic anal cancers is determined according to the size of the primary mass and the combination of regional nodal sites involved; the number of positive nodes at each site is not a consideration for staging. Patients with T3 rectal tumors and/or involvement of perirectal, mesenteric, and internal iliac lymph nodes receive radiation therapy. Almost all anal cancers warrant use of radiation therapy, but the extent and dose of the radiation fields is altered on the basis of both the size of the primary lesion and the presence and extent of nodal involvement. The radiologist must recognize and report these critical anatomic and staging distinctions, which affect use of radiation therapy in patients with anal and rectal cancers.

  15. TGF-beta, radiation-induced pulmonary Injury and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Groen, HJM

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether changes in TGF-beta plasma levels during radiation therapy may be useful in predicting radiation-induced pulmonary injury and tumour response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Plasma TGF-beta was investigated in 27 patients with stag

  16. Analysis of gene expression using gene sets discriminates cancer patients with and without late radiation toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Svensson; L.J.A. Stalpers; R.E.E. Esveldt-van Lange; N.A.P. Franken; J. Haveman; B. Klein; I. Turesson; H. Vrieling; M. Giphart-Gassler

    2006-01-01

    Background Radiation is an effective anti-cancer therapy but leads to severe late radiation toxicity in 5%-10% of patients. Assuming that genetic susceptibility impacts this risk, we hypothesized that the cellular response of normal tissue to X-rays could discriminate patients with and without late

  17. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities.

  18. Sepsis in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: literature review and consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mirabile; G. Numico; E.G. Russi; P. Bossi; F. Crippa; A. Bacigalupo; V. De Sanctis; S. Musso; A. Merlotti; M.G. Ghi; M.C. Merlano; L. Licitra; F. Moretto; N. Denaro; O. Caspiani; M. Buglione; S. Pergolizzi; A. Cascio; J. Bernier; J. Raber-Durlacher; J.B. Vermorken; B. Murphy; M.V. Ranieri; R.P. Dellinger

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of infection/sepsis in chemo/radiation-treated head and neck cancer patients is sparse and the problem is underestimated. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of infecti

  19. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer patien

  20. Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yu Su; Pei-Dang Liu; Hao Wu; Ning Gu

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy performs an important function in cancer treatment. However, resistance of tumor cells to radiation therapy still remains a serious concern, so the study of radiosensitizers has emerged as a persistent hotspot in radiation oncology. Along with the rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years, the potential value of nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers has been discovered. hTis review summarizes the latest experimental ifndings bothin vitro andin vivo and attempts to highlight the underlying mechanisms of response in nanoparticle radiosensitization.

  1. ETS Gene Fusions as Predictive Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0582 TITLE: ETS Gene Fusions as Predictive Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...ETS gene fusion status associated with clinical outcomes following radiation therapy , by analyzing both the collected biomarker and clinical data...denotes absence of an ERG fusion). ETS gene fusions status did not predict outcomes following radiation therapy , as demonstrated by Kaplan Meier

  2. Combination of internal radiation therapy and hyperthermia to treat liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, E.D.; McLaren, J.; Auda, S.P.; McGinley, P.H.

    1983-09-01

    Sixteen patients were treated for liver cancer (primary and metastatic) by a combination of internal radiation therapy with intra-arterial yttrium 90 microspheres and regional hyperthermia with electromagnetic radiation. Four patients have their liver disease apparently controlled; two had a partial regression of more than 50%; and two had a partial regression of less than 50%. The complications consisted of one case of radiation hepatitis and one of peptic ulcer.

  3. Synergistic effect of phenformin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ionizing radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xia, Shi'an; Zhu, Zhizhen

    2015-03-01

    Biguanides, used for anti-diabetic drugs, bring more attention in cancer research for their beneficial effects. Phenformin is more potent than metformin. However its potential application as a anti-cancer regent is far behind metformin. In order to investigate any beneficial effect of combination of Phenformin and radiotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 were exposure under different dose of ionizing radiation with or without Phenformin. Results indicated Phenformin showed synergistic effect and could induce more cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth compared with ionizing radiation alone. Furthermore, this synergistic effect may be through different pathway according to cancer cell genotype background. Our results showed Phenformin induced AMPK activation in A549 but not H1299. However, Phenformin activated eIF2α in both cell lines. Our findings implicated Phenformin may be used as radiosensitizer for non-small cell lung cancer therapy.

  4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells......; this binding was inhibitable by pure Tn antigen, and indications were found that this inhibition occurred at a pre-entry step. Boosting the naturally occurring low-titer anti-Tn activity may be of prophylactic value, as suggested by the in vitro neutralization found in this study....

  5. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M;

    1991-01-01

    . This inhibition was found in infection of both lymphocytic cells and monocytoid cells. Viruses tested included six HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates propagated in different cells, as well as infectious plasma from AIDS patients. The antiviral effect of anti-Tn MAbs occurred by specific binding of the MAb to the virus......The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells...

  6. Prevention of normal tissue complications in radiation therapy of head and neck cancer : the role of 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.B. Wijers (Oda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn The Netherlands. head and neck cancer (3.9%) ranks the eighth most frequemly diagnoscd malignant tumor. Radiation therapy (IIT) plays an important role in the treatmem of patients with head and neck cancer, as they constitute approximately 6% of those treated in a routine radiation th

  7. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oliai, Caspian; Lanciano, Rachelle; Sprandio, Brian; Yang, Jun; Lamond, John; Arrigo, Steven; Good, Michael; Mooreville, Michael; Garber, Bruce; Brady, Luther W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The low alpha/beta ratio of prostate cancer suggests that hypofractionated schemes of dose-escalated radiotherapy should be advantageous. We report our experience using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the primary treatment of prostate cancer to assess efficacy and toxicity. Methods From 2007 to 2010, 70 patients (51 % low risk, 31 % intermediate risk, and 17 % high risk) with localized prostate cancer were treated with SBRT using the CyberKnife system. One-third of pa...

  8. Radiation-Induced Immune Modulation in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Research Society, Philadelphia, PA, 2006. McBride, William H. Invited Lecture: “Sense of Danger from Radiation,” Department of Radiation...Oncology, New York University, NY, April 2006. McBride, William H. Invited Speaker: “A Sense of Danger from Ionizing Radiation,” International...were treated with 0 or 10 Gy irradiation. Irradiation Mice were anesthetized with an i.p. injection of ketamine/ xylazine (80 mg/4 mg/kg of mouse

  9. Preclinical evaluation of MORAb-009, a chimeric antibody targeting tumor-associated mesothelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Raffit; Ebel, Wolfgang; Routhier, Eric L.; Patel, Rina; Kline, J. Bradford; Zhang, Jingli; Chao, Qimin; Jacob, Sara; Turchin, Howard; Gibbs, Lester; Phillips, Martin D.; Mudali, Shiyama; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Moreno, Maria; Pastan, Ira; Sass, Philip M.; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.

    2007-01-01

    Novel therapeutic agents that are safe and effective are needed for the treatment of pancreatic, ovarian, lung adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas. Mesothelin is a glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein of 40 kDa over-expressed in all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma, in >70% of ovarian adenocarcinoma, and in non-small cell lung and colorectal cancers. The biological functions of mesothelin are not known, although it appears to be involved in cell adhesion via its interaction with MUC16. We have recently developed MORAb-009, a mouse-human chimeric IgG1κ monoclonal antibody with an affinity of 1.5 nM for human mesothelin. Here we provide evidence that MORAb-009 prevents adhesion of mesothelin-bearing tumor cells to MUC16 positive cells and can elicit cell-mediated cytotoxicity on mesothelin-bearing tumor cells. Treatment that included MORAb-009 in combination with chemotherapy led to a marked reduction in tumor growth of mesothelin-expressing tumors in nude mice compared to chemotherapy or MORAb-009 treatment alone. No adverse effects of MORAb-009 were noted during toxicology studies conducted in non-human primates. The preclinical data obtained from our studies warrants pursuing clinical testing of MORAb-009. We have in fact initiated a Phase I clinical study enrolling patients with mesothelin-positive pancreatic, mesothelioma, non-small cell lung and ovarian cancers. PMID:18088084

  10. Cancer risk in diagnostic radiation workers in Korea from 1996–2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-14

    This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years) were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range) follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04-7) years in males and 3.75 (0.04-7) years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose) was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48-3.10, p-trend: <0.0001) and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17-9.04, p-trend: <0.0001), compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose). Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05-287.8, p-trend: 0.04) and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09-13.75, p-trend: 0.01) in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99-5.67, p-trend: 0.02). The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08-128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70-1,075.00, respectively). Although the present study

  11. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  12. Assessment of Lymphedema Risk Following Lymph Node Dissection and Radiation Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Semin Radiat Oncol 2002 Jan ;12(1 Suppl 1):20-5. Czerniecki BJ, Bedrosian I, Faries M, Alavi A. Revolutionary impact of lymphoscintigraphy and...edema in breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. Jan 17 2001;93(2):96-111. 17. Johansson S, Svensson H, Denekamp J. Dose response and latency...radiation for breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. Feb 2006;29(1):66-70. 42. Fogliata A, Nicolini G, Alber M, et al. IMRT for breast. a planning study

  13. Capecitabine with radiation is an effective adjuvant therapy in gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee; Kian; Tham; Su; Pin; Choo; Donald; Yew; Hee; Poon; Han; Chong; Toh; Simon; Yew; Kuang; Ong; Sze; Huey; Tan; Michael; Lian; Chek; Wang; Kian; Fong; Foo

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the outcome of patients who received concurrent capecitabine(Xeloda) and radiation(XRT) compared to the established concurrent 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) with radiation(5FU-RT) and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment in gastric cancers.METHODS:All patients with gastric cancers who received adjuvant treatment at the National Cancer Centre Singapore between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed.Treatment outcomes of patients who received XRT were compared with those who had 5FU-RT o...

  14. Effective Dose from Stray Radiation for a Patient Receiving Proton Therapy for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J; Krishnan, Sunil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Yepes, Pablo; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-01-01

    Because of its advantageous depth-dose relationship, proton radiotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for patients with liver cancer. Although the proton dose distribution conforms to the target, healthy tissues throughout the body receive low doses of stray radiation, particularly neutrons that originate in the treatment unit or in the patient. The aim of this study was to calculate the effective dose from stray radiation and estimate the corresponding risk of second cancer fatality for a patient receiving proton beam therapy for liver cancer. Effective dose from stray radiation was calculated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a double-scattering proton therapy treatment unit and a voxelized human phantom. The treatment plan and phantom were based on CT images of an actual adult patient diagnosed with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. For a prescribed dose of 60 Gy to the clinical target volume, the effective dose from stray radiation was 370 mSv; 61% of this dose was from neutrons originating outside of the patient while the remaining 39% was from neutrons originating within the patient. The excess lifetime risk of fatal second cancer corresponding to the total effective dose from stray radiation was 1.2%. The results of this study establish a baseline estimate of the stray radiation dose and corresponding risk for an adult patient undergoing proton radiotherapy for liver cancer and provide new evidence to corroborate the suitability of proton beam therapy for the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:20865142

  15. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  16. Fractionated radiation exposure amplifies the radioresistant nature of prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, N.; Meunier, A.; Mooney, B.; Nortey, G.; Hernandez, C.; Hurley, S.; Lynam-Lennon, N.; Barsoom, S. H.; Bowman, K. J.; Marples, B.; Jones, G. D. D.; Marignol, L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of recurrence following radiation therapy remains high for a significant number of prostate cancer patients. The development of in vitro isogenic models of radioresistance through exposure to fractionated radiation is an increasingly used approach to investigate the mechanisms of radioresistance in cancer cells and help guide improvements in radiotherapy standards. We treated 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells with fractionated 2 Gy radiation to a cumulative total dose of 60 Gy. This process selected for 22Rv1-cells with increased clonogenic survival following subsequent radiation exposure but increased sensitivity to Docetaxel. This RR-22Rv1 cell line was enriched in S-phase cells, less susceptible to DNA damage, radiation-induced apoptosis and acquired enhanced migration potential, when compared to wild type and aged matched control 22Rv1 cells. The selection of radioresistant cancer cells during fractionated radiation therapy may have implications in the development and administration of future targeted therapy in conjunction with radiation therapy. PMID:27703211

  17. Autophagy promotes radiation-induced senescence but inhibits bystander effects in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Huei; Yang, Pei-Ming; Chuah, Qiu-Yu; Lee, Yi-Jang; Hsieh, Yi-Fen; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Ionizing radiation induces cellular senescence to suppress cancer cell proliferation. However, it also induces deleterious bystander effects in the unirradiated neighboring cells through the release of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) that promote tumor progression. Although autophagy has been reported to promote senescence, its role is still unclear. We previously showed that radiation induces senescence in PTTG1-depleted cancer cells. In this study, we found that autophagy was required for the radiation-induced senescence in PTTG1-depleted breast cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy caused the cells to switch from radiation-induced senescence to apoptosis. Senescent cancer cells exerted bystander effects by promoting the invasion and migration of unirradiated cells through the release of CSF2 and the subsequently activation of the JAK2-STAT3 and AKT pathways. However, the radiation-induced bystander effects were correlated with the inhibition of endogenous autophagy in bystander cells, which also resulted from the activation of the CSF2-JAK2 pathway. The induction of autophagy by rapamycin reduced the radiation-induced bystander effects. This study reveals, for the first time, the dual role of autophagy in radiation-induced senescence and bystander effects.

  18. Cancer Mortality Among People Living in Areas With Various Levels of Natural Background Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Dobrzyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many places on the earth, where natural background radiation exposures are elevated significantly above about 2.5 mSv/year. The studies of health effects on populations living in such places are crucially important for understanding the impact of low doses of ionizing radiation. This article critically reviews some recent representative literature that addresses the likelihood of radiation-induced cancer and early childhood death in regions with high natural background radiation. The comparative and Bayesian analysis of the published data shows that the linear no-threshold hypothesis does not likely explain the results of these recent studies, whereas they favor the model of threshold or hormesis. Neither cancers nor early childhood deaths positively correlate with dose rates in regions with elevated natural background radiation.

  19. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  20. A case of leukoencephalopathy caused by radiation and chemotherapy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sonoo, Hiroshi; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Ohkubo, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Hiratsuka, Junichi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A case of treatment-related leukoencephalopathy is presented. A patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and distant lymph nodes was treated with whole brain radiation and docetaxcel. Eleven months after radiation, magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-two months after radiation, the patient had gait disturbance, parkinsonism, dementia and urinary incontinence. From this experience, stereotactic radiosurgery such as cyber knife and gamma knife therapy, representing a new modality for delivering intense focal radiation, should be come preferred techniques for treating patients with brain metastases, to avoid the potential cognitive side effects of fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Inhibiting angiogenesis with human single-chain variable fragment antibody targeting VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hossien; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Ebrahimizadeh, Walead; Dehbidi, Gholamreza Rafiei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific angiogenesis factor which has crucial roles in the angiogenesis of tumors. Anti-angiogenesis agents can inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells. Single-chain variable fragments (scFv) have the same affinity as whole antibodies and smaller size, thus result in more tissue permeability and higher production yield. In this research we aim to isolate a human scFv antibody against VEGF that inhibits angiogenesis. For that, we have used human scFv phage library to isolate a specific scFv antibody against binding site of VEGF. The human scFv phage library was amplified according to the manufacture protocol and panned against recombinant VEGF. ScFv antibody was isolated after five rounds of panning. Phage ELISA was used for detection of the highest affinity binder (HR6). Soluble HR6 scFv was expressed in non-suppressor strain of Escherichia coli HB2151 and purified using Ni-NTA chromatography. In vivo and in vitro function of the HR6 scFv was analyzed by chorioallantoic membrane assay and endothelial cell proliferation assay on VEGF stimulated HUVECs. Result of the cross reactivity showed that HR6 scFv specifically bounds to VEGF. The affinity was calculated to be 1.8×10(-7)M. HR6 could stop HUVEC proliferation in a dose dependent manner and anti-angiogenesis activity was observed using 10μg of HR6 in chorioallantoic membrane assay. In this work, we demonstrate that a HR6 scFv selected from human library phage display specifically blocks VEGF signaling, furthermore, this scFv has an anti-angiogenesis effect and because of its small size has more tissue diffusion. The HR6 antibody was isolated form a human library thus, it is not immunogenic for humans and could serve as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer.

  2. A novel llama antibody targeting Fn14 exhibits anti-metastatic activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebing, Johannes; Lang, Isabell; Chopra, Martin; Salzmann, Steffen; Moshir, Mahan; Silence, Karen; Riedel, Simone S; Siegmund, Daniela; Beilhack, Andreas; Otto, Christoph; Wajant, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is typically low in healthy adult organisms, but strong Fn14 expression is induced in tissue injury and tissue remodeling. High Fn14 expression is also observed in solid tumors, which is why this receptor is under consideration as a therapeutic target in oncology. Here, we describe various novel mouse-human cross-reactive llama-derived recombinant Fn14-specific antibodies (5B6, 18D1, 4G5) harboring the human IgG1 Fc domain. In contrast to recombinant variants of the established Fn14-specific antibodies PDL192 and P4A8, all three llama-derived antibodies efficiently bound to the W42A and R56P mutants of human Fn14. 18D1 and 4G5, but not 5B6, efficiently blocked TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis(TWEA K) binding at low concentrations (0.2–2 μg/ml). Oligomerization and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding converted all antibodies into strong Fn14 agonists. Variants of 18D1 with enhanced and reduced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity were further analyzed in vivo with respect to their effect on metastasis. In a xenogeneic model using human colon carcinoma cancer cells, both antibody variants were effective in reducing metastasis to the liver. In contrast, only the 18D1 variant with enhanced ADCC activity, but not its ADCC-defective counterpart, suppressed lung metastasis in the RE NCA model. In sum, this suggests that Fn14 targeting might primarily act by triggering of antibody effector functions, but also by blockade of TWEA K-Fn14 interaction in some cases

  3. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in rectal cancer patient: safety and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Asari Sami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility due to pelvic radiation for advanced rectal cancer treatment is a major concern particularly in young patients. Pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition may offer preservation of ovarian function during the treatment however its use is limited. Aim The study investigates the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition and its effect on ovarian function in the treatment o locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Charts review of all young female patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer, underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition, then received preoperative radiotherapy at king Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 2003–2007. Results During the period studied three single patients age between 21–27 years underwent pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition for advanced rectal cancer. All required pretreatment laparoscopic diversion stoma due to rectal stricture secondary to tumor that was performed at the same time. One patient died of metastatic disease during treatment. The ovarian hormonal levels (FSH and LH were normal in two patients. One has had normal menstrual period and other had amenorrhoea after 4 months follow-up however her ovarian hormonal level were within normal limits. Conclusions Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in advanced rectal cancer treatment is an effective and feasible way of preservation of ovarian function in young patients at risk of radiotherapy induced ovarian failure. However, this procedure is still under used and it is advisable to discuss and propose it to suitable patients.

  4. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  5. Resistance of colorectal cancer cells to radiation and 5-FU is associated with MELK expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seungho [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja-Lok, E-mail: kujalok@snu.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} MELK expression significantly increased when the cells are exposed to radiation or 5-FU. {yields} Suppression of MELK caused cell cycle changes and decrease in proliferation. {yields} Radiation or 5-FU treatment after MELK suppression by siRNA induced growth inhibition. -- Abstract: It was reported that the local recurrence would be caused by cancer stem cells acquiring chemo- and radio-resistance. Recently, one of the potential therapeutic targets for colorectal and other cancers has been identified, which is maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). MELK is known as an embryonic and neural stem cell marker, and associated with the cell survival, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, SNU-503, which is a rectal cancer cell line, was treated with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and elevation of the MELK expression level was observed. Furthermore, the cell line was pre-treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MELK mRNA before treatment of radiation or 5-FU and its effects on cell cycle and proliferation were observed. We demonstrated that knockdown of MELK reduced the proliferation of cells with radiation or 5-FU treatment. In addition, MELK suppression caused changes in cell cycle. In conclusion, MELK could be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cancer cells against radiation and 5-FU.

  6. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  7. Radiation-Therapeutic Agent Clinical Trials: Leveraging Advantages of a National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Naoko; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bernhard, Eric J; Zwiebel, James; Norman Coleman, C; Kunos, Charles A

    2016-10-01

    A number of oncology phase II radiochemotherapy trials with promising results have been conducted late in the overall experimental therapeutic agent development process. Accelerated development and approval of experimental therapeutic agents have stimulated further interest in much earlier radiation-agent studies to increase the likelihood of success in phase III trials. To sustain this interest, more forward-thinking preclinical radiobiology experimental designs are needed to improve discovery of promising radiochemotherapy plus agent combinations for clinical trial testing. These experimental designs should better inform next-step radiation-agent clinical trial dose, schedule, exposure, and therapeutic effect. Recognizing the need for a better strategy to develop preclinical data supporting radiation-agent phase I or II trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and the NCI-Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch of the Radiation Research Program have partnered to promote earlier radiobiology studies of CTEP portfolio agents. In this Seminars in Radiation Oncology article, four key components of this effort are discussed. First, we outline steps for accessing CTEP agents for preclinical testing. Second, we propose radiobiology studies that facilitate transition from preclinical testing to early phase trial activation. Third, we navigate steps that walk through CTEP agent strategic development paths available for radiation-agent testing. Fourth, we highlight a new NCI-sponsored cooperative agreement grant supporting in vitro and in vivo radiation-CTEP agent testing that informs early phase trial designs. Throughout the article, we include contemporary examples of successful radiation-agent development initiatives.

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamrezaei, Ali, E-mail: Gholamrezaei@med.mui.ac.ir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursina Hakim Research Institution, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemati, Simin [Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  9. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  10. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

  11. What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsli, Tijen [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA (United States); University of Tennessee, Pediatric Intensive Care, Memphis, TN (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep K. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Self, Julie L.; Rosenfeld, Jason Anders; Butler, Susan [Emory University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Atlanta, GA (United States); Simoneaux, Stephen [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a subsidiary of the Food and Drug Administration, has declared that X-ray radiation at low doses is a human carcinogen. The purpose of our study was to determine if informed consent should be obtained for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiation-based imaging. Institutional review board approval was obtained for the prospective survey of 456 physicians affiliated with three tertiary hospitals by means of a written questionnaire. Physicians were asked to state their subspecialty, number of years in practice, frequency of referral for CT scanning, level of awareness about the risk of radiation-induced cancer associated with CT, knowledge of whether such information is provided to patients undergoing CT, and opinions about the need for obtaining informed consent as well as who should provide information about the radiation-induced cancer risk to patients. Physicians were also asked to specify their preference among different formats of informed consent for communicating the potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. Most physicians stated that informed consent should be obtained from patients undergoing radiation-based imaging (71.3%, 325/456) and the radiology department should provide information about the risk of radiation-induced cancer to these patients (54.6%, 249/456). The informed consent format that most physicians agreed with included modifications to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services report on cancer risk from low-dose radiation (20.2%, 92/456) or included information on the risk of cancer from background radiation compared to that from low-dose radiation (39.5%, 180/456). Most physicians do not know if patients are informed about cancer risk from radiation-based imaging in their institutions. However, they believe that informed consent for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer

  12. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5-7 years) and acute and late toxicity (cancer-specific mortality) cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm), and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway.

  13. Severe prostatic calcification after radiation therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W A; Miller, E V; Sullivan, L D; Chapman, W H

    1979-06-01

    Severe symptomatic prostatic calcification was seen in 3 patients who had carcinoma of the prostate treated initially with transurethral resection, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by definitive radiation therapy. This complication is probably preventable if an interval of 6 weeks is allowed between transurethral resection of the prostate and radiation therapy.

  14. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  15. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  16. Low-power laser irradiation did not stimulate breast cancer cells following ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Cabral, F. V.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Cancer has become a public health problem worldwide. Radiotherapy may be a treatment to a number of types of cancer, frequently using gamma-radiation with sources such as 137Cs and 60Co, with varying doses, dose rates, and exposure times to obtain a better as a stimulant for cell proliferation and tissue healing process. However, its effects on cancer cells are not yet well elucidated. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of the LPL on breast cancer cultures after ionizing radiation. The breast cancer-MDA-MB-231 cells were gamma irradiated by a 60Co source, with dose of 2.5 Gy. After 24h, cells were submitted to LPL irradiation using a red laser emitting at λ= 660 nm, with output power of 40 mW and exposure time of 30 s and 60 s. The plates were uniformly irradiated, with energy of 1.2 J and 2.4 J, respectively. Cell viability was analyzed using the exclusion method with trypan blue. Our results show that breast cancer cells submitted to LPL after ionizing radiation remained 95 % viable. No statistically significant differences were observed between laser and control untreated cells, (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that LPL did not influenced cancer cells viability.

  17. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avkshtol V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz,* Nicholas G Zaorsky* Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5–7 years and acute and late toxicity (<6% grade 3–4 late toxicities. Other outcomes (eg, overall and cancer-specific mortality cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm, and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV. Finally

  18. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  19. Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Techniques for Rectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.E. Nuyttens (Joost)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The third most common malignancy in the Netherlands is colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer affects every year around 2000 new patients. The highest incidence is found at an age above 70 years, and in men (sex ratio: 1.48). In Europe, the treatment of preference for locally

  20. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: “neoplasias/neoplasms” AND “radioterapia/radiotherapy” AND “radiação/radiation”. After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: “Late endocrine effects” and “Late non-endocrine effects”. Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses.

  1. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: “neoplasias/neoplasms” AND “radioterapia/radiotherapy” AND “radiação/radiation”. After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: “Late endocrine effects” and “Late non-endocrine effects”. Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  2. Development of system technology for radiation cancer therapy with the dexterous auto lesions tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungho; Jeong, Kyungmin; Jung, Seungho; Lee, Namho; and others

    2013-01-15

    The project objectives are to establish the fundamental core technologies for precise auto lesions tracking radiation cancer therapy and developing related system technology as well. Radiation cancer therapy apparatus should be domestically produced to reduce medical expenses, hence advanced technologies are suggested and developed to make cost down medical expenses and save expenditure for importing 10 million dollars/set from overseas. To achieve these targets, we have carried out reviewing of domestic and foreign technology trend. Based on review of state-of-the-art technology, radiation sensory system is studied. 3m high precise image processing technique and intelligent therapy planning software are developed. Also precedent study on the redundant robot for dexterous motion control system has been performed for developing of radiation cancel therapy robot system.

  3. Raman spectroscopy identifies radiation response in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Samantha J.; Isabelle, Martin; Devorkin, Lindsay; Smazynski, Julian; Beckham, Wayne; Brolo, Alexandre G.; Lum, Julian J.; Jirasek, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    External beam radiation therapy is a standard form of treatment for numerous cancers. Despite this, there are no approved methods to account for patient specific radiation sensitivity. In this report, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used to identify radiation-induced biochemical changes in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Chemometric analysis revealed unique radiation-related Raman signatures that were specific to nucleic acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate spectral features. Among these changes was a dramatic shift in the accumulation of glycogen spectral bands for doses of 5 or 15 Gy when compared to unirradiated tumours. When spatial mapping was applied in this analysis there was considerable variability as we found substantial intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity in the distribution of glycogen and other RS spectral features. Collectively, these data provide unique insight into the biochemical response of tumours, irradiated in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of RS for detecting distinct radiobiological responses in human tumour xenografts.

  4. Psychology and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Chung, Woong Ki [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The object of this study is to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, psychology, self-esteem and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy and to provide useful information for therapeutic approach to cancer patients on radiation therapy. The subjects were 36 patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and 20 normal people. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics of cancer patients on radiation therapy were investigated, and symptom checklist-90-revised, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for self esteem, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument for quality of life were administered to subjects. And Spearman's correlation analysis was used among these. The tendency of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility in cancer group were significantly higher than normal group. Self esteem and quality of life in cancer group were significantly lower than normal group. No significant difference was found in comparison of psychology, self esteem and quality of life according to sociodemographic variables. Among clinical characteristics, in the presence of metastasis in cancer patients, the scores of anxiety, phobia and paranoid ideation were higher. In patients with pain, the score of somatization was higher. And in case of weight loss, the score of somatization was higher. The higher score of depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. And higher score of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Understanding and management of psychological symptoms, such as somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility, and pain control are necessary to improve quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy.

  5. Cancer stem cell overexpression of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase enhances cellular radiation resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Andrea, Filippo P.; Safwat, Akmal; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundCancer stem cells are thought to be a radioresistant population and may be the seeds for recurrence after radiotherapy. Using tumorigenic clones of retroviral immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell with small differences in their phenotype, we investigated possible genetic expression...... that could explain cancer stem cell radiation resistance. MethodsTumorigenic mesenchymal cancer stem cell clones BB3 and CE8 were irradiated at varying doses and assayed for clonogenic surviving fraction. Altered gene expression before and after 2Gy was assessed by Affymetric exon chip analysis and further...... found the genes involved in cancer, proliferation, DNA repair and cell death. ConclusionsThe higher radiation resistance in clone CE8 is likely due to NNMT overexpression. The higher levels of NNMT could affect the cellular damage resistance through depletion of the accessible amounts of nicotinamide...

  6. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  7. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  8. Lenalidomide and Radiation for Children with Brain Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    n this trial, patients up to age 18 who are newly diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) or who have other incompletely resected high-grade gliomas will undergo radiation therapy and receive oral lenalidomide, followed by lenalidomide.

  9. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Soto, Gissela; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto, E-mail: arojasmtz@gmail.com, E-mail: augusto.rojasm@uanl.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. (author)

  10. Emotional aspects and pranayama in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Chakrabarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbances are commonly experienced by cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of certain Pranayama techniques on the emotional aspects such as impatience, worry, anxiety, and frustration among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy in India. Methods: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited when they were seeking radiation therapy for breast cancer. They were allocated into two groups using block randomization technique. The experimental group performed Pranayama along with radiation therapy, whereas the control group received only routine care. Results: Emotional aspects of the two groups were compared at the end of the treatment. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison as the data were not following normality. It showed a significant difference between the two groups with the group who performed Pranayama showing a lesser mean score for these negative emotions. Conclusions: Pranayama might help in controlling the negative emotions likely to be faced by breast cancer patients, and it can be used as a supportive therapy for breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy.

  11. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer; Radiochimiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire pour cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  13. Lethal iron deprivation induced by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting transferrin receptor 1 in malignant B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José A; Luria-Pérez, Rosendo; López-Valdés, Héctor E; Casero, David; Daniels, Tracy R; Patel, Shabnum; Avila, David; Leuchter, Richard; So, Sokuntheavy; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Bonavida, Benjamin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Charles, Andrew C; Pellegrini, Matteo; Helguera, Gustavo; Penichet, Manuel L

    2011-11-01

    A number of antibodies have been developed that induce lethal iron deprivation (LID) by targeting the transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71) and either neutralizing transferrin (Tf) binding, blocking internalization of the receptor and/or inducing its degradation. We have developed recombinant antibodies targeting human TfR1 (ch128.1 and ch128.1Av), which induce receptor degradation and are cytotoxic to certain malignant B-cells. We now show that internalization of TfR1 bound to these antibodies can lead to its sequestration and degradation, as well as reduced Tf uptake, and the induction of a transcriptional response consistent with iron deprivation, which is mediated in part by downstream targets of p53. Cells resistant to these antibodies do not sequester and degrade TfR1 after internalization of the antibody/receptor complex, and accordingly maintain their ability to internalize Tf. These findings are expected to facilitate the rational design and clinical use of therapeutic agents targeting iron import via TfR1 in hematopoietic malignancies.

  14. Monoclonal antibody targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c ameliorates obesity and glucose intolerance via central mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lelliott

    Full Text Available We have generated a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human FGFR1c (R1c mAb that caused profound body weight and body fat loss in diet-induced obese mice due to decreased food intake (with energy expenditure unaltered, in turn improving glucose control. R1c mAb also caused weight loss in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin receptor-mutant db/db mice, and in mice lacking either the melanocortin 4 receptor or the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1. In addition, R1c mAb did not change hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of Agrp, Cart, Pomc, Npy, Crh, Mch, or Orexin, suggesting that R1c mAb could cause food intake inhibition and body weight loss via other mechanisms in the brain. Interestingly, peripherally administered R1c mAb accumulated in the median eminence, adjacent arcuate nucleus and in the circumventricular organs where it activated the early response gene c-Fos. As a plausible mechanism and coinciding with the initiation of food intake suppression, R1c mAb induced hypothalamic expression levels of the cytokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and 3 and ERK1/2 and p70 S6 kinase 1 activation.

  15. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Reducing stray radiation dose to patients receiving passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J; Fontenot, Jonas D; Zheng Yuanshui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Lee, Andrew K; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 94, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: wnewhaus@mdanderson.org

    2008-04-21

    Proton beam radiotherapy exposes healthy tissue to stray radiation emanating from the treatment unit and secondary radiation produced within the patient. These exposures provide no known benefit and may increase a patient's risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. The aim of this study was to explore strategies to reduce stray radiation dose to a patient receiving a 76 Gy proton beam treatment for cancer of the prostate. The whole-body effective dose from stray radiation, E, was estimated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a passively scattered proton treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. The predicted value of E was 567 mSv, of which 320 mSv was attributed to leakage from the treatment unit; the remainder arose from scattered radiation that originated within the patient. Modest modifications of the treatment unit reduced E by 212 mSv. Surprisingly, E from a modified passive-scattering device was only slightly higher (109 mSv) than from a nozzle with no leakage, e.g., that which may be approached with a spot-scanning technique. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the suitability of passively scattered proton beams for the treatment of prostate cancer, confirm that the effective dose from stray radiation was not excessive, and, importantly, show that it can be substantially reduced by modest enhancements to the treatment unit.

  17. Managing Lunar and Mars Mission Radiation Risks. Part 1; Cancer Risks, Uncertainties, and Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2005-01-01

    This document addresses calculations of probability distribution functions (PDFs) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). PDFs are used to test the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Monte-Carlo techniques are used to propagate uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. The cancer risk uncertainty is about four-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missins (shielding. For long-duration (>180 d) lunar or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits. While shielding materials are marginally effective in reducing GCR cancer risks because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativisitc particles, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding. Therefore, improving our knowledge of space radiobiology to narrow uncertainties that lead to wide PDFs is the best approach to ensure radiation protection goals are met for space exploration.

  18. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: estimates of radiation-related cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Bernar, J; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Diez Sacristan, A; Eklöf, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2007-04-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow-up. A significant association was seen between radiation dose and all-cause mortality [excess relative risk (ERR) 0.42 per Sv, 90% CI 0.07, 0.79; 18,993 deaths]. This was mainly attributable to a dose-related increase in all cancer mortality (ERR/Sv 0.97, 90% CI 0.28, 1.77; 5233 deaths). Among 31 specific types of malignancies studied, a significant association was found for lung cancer (ERR/Sv 1.86, 90% CI 0.49, 3.63; 1457 deaths) and a borderline significant (P = 0.06) association for multiple myeloma (ERR/Sv 6.15, 90% CI risk estimates.

  19. Cost of palliative radiation to the bone for patients with bone metastases secondary to breast or prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Gregory

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the costs (paid amounts of palliative radiation episodes of care (REOCs to the bone for patients with bone metastases secondary to breast or prostate cancer. Methods Claims-linked medical records from patients at 98 cancer treatment centers in 16 US states were analyzed. Inclusion criteria included a primary neoplasm of breast or prostate cancer with a secondary neoplasm of bone metastases; ≥2 visits to ≥1 radiation center during the study period (1 July 2008 through 31 December 2009 on or after the metastatic cancer diagnosis date; radiation therapy to ≥1 bone site; and ≥1 complete REOC as evidenced by a >30-day gap pre- and post-radiation therapy. Results The total number of REOCs was 220 for 207 breast cancer patients and 233 for 213 prostate cancer patients. In the main analysis (which excluded records with unpopulated costs the median number of fractions per a REOC for treatment of metastases was 10. Mean total radiation costs (i.e., radiation direct cost + cost of radiation-related procedures and visits per REOC were $7457 for patients with breast cancer and $7553 for patients with prostate cancer. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses excluding patients with unpopulated costs. Conclusions In the US, current use of radiation therapy for bone metastases is relatively costly and the use of multi-fraction schedules remains prevalent.

  20. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for

  1. A case of radiation gastritis required surgical treatment in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)

  2. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  3. Cancer risk above 1 Gy and the impact for space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Analyses of the epidemiological data on the Japanese A-bomb survivors, who were exposed to γ-rays and neutrons, provide most current information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer. Since the dose span of main interest is usually between 0 and 1 Gy, for radiation protection purposes, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is often focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than 1 Gy are becoming more important for long-term manned space missions. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses larger than 1 Gy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The present analysis of the A-bomb survivors data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories and applying organ-averaged dose instead of the colon-weighted dose. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear and a linear-exponential dose-response relationship using a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of both one and two. The work presented here implies that the use of organ-averaged dose, a dose-dependent neutron RBE and the bending-over of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancer could result in a reduction of radiation risk by around 50% above 1 Gy. This could impact radiation risk estimates for space crews on long-term mission above 500 days who might be exposed to doses above 1 Gy. The consequence of using a DDREF of one instead of two increases cancer risk by about 40% and would therefore balance the risk decrease described above.

  4. Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers in xenograft tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Wang, Bo-Shen; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Fu-Du; Avirmed, Shiirevnyamba; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-12-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

  5. Radiation-sparing managements for cervical cancer: a developing countries perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Garza Jaime

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer worldwide but more than 80% of cases occur in developing countries. Till date, radiation therapy with external beam and brachytherapy remains as the core treatment for most stages of cervical cancer. However, radiation treatment protocols and equipment modelled on the best developed countries can be seldom applied directly to developing countries owing to financial constraints and lack of qualified personnel, thus, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to even palliative radiation therapy. Treatment options when the standard therapy is either not available or difficult to reproduce in particular settings is highly desirable with the potential to save lives that otherwise could be lost by the lack of adequate treatment. These options of treatment ideally had to have show, 1 that these are not inferior to the "standard" in terms of either survival or quality of life; 2 that these can be delivered in settings were the "standard" is not available or if available its quality is poor; and 3 that the treatment option be accepted by the population to be treated. Based on these considerations, it is obvious that cervical cancer patients, particularly those who live in countries with limited resources and therefore may not have sufficient radiation therapy resources are in need of newer therapeutical options. There is now a considerable amount of information emanating from clinical studies where surgery has a major role in treating this disease. These forms of "radiation-sparing" treatments include total mesometrial resection that could make unnecessary the use of adjuvant radiation; neoadjuvant chemotherapy that could avoid the use of adjuvant radiation in around 85% of patients and preoperative chemoradiation that could make brachytherapy dispensable. The feasibility and therapeutical value of these potential forms of management need to be prospectively evaluated.

  6. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  7. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy: necessity of precautious radiation health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Reiners, Christoph; Drozd, Valentina; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-12-01

    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human TSH has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan.

  8. Effects of radiation on levels of DNA damage in normal non-adjacent mucosa from colorectal cancer cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo.

  9. Animal studies of life shortening and cancer risk from space radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    The U. S. Air Force study of the delayed effects of single, total body exposures to simulated space radiation in rhesus monkeys is now in its 21st year. Observations on 301 irradiated and 57 age-matched control animals indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be expressed as a logarithmic function of the dose. The primary causes of life shortening are cancer and endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Life shortening estimates permit comparison of the risk associated with space radiation exposures to be compared with that of other occupational and environmental hazards, thereby facilitating risk/benefit decisions in the planning and operational phases of manned space missions. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of human is, therefore, critical to the assessment of life-time cancer risk.

  10. Nonlinear quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction model based on NCI-60 cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunying; Girard, Luc; Das, Amit; Chen, Sun; Zheng, Guangqiang; Song, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a nonlinear model to perform a novel quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction. We used the NCI-60 panel, which consists of nine different cancer types, as the platform to train our model. Important radiation therapy (RT) related genes were selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). Orthogonal latent variables (LVs) were then extracted by the partial least squares (PLS) method as the new compressive input variables. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) regression model was trained with these LVs to predict the SF2 (the surviving fraction of cells after a radiation dose of 2 Gy γ-ray) values of the cell lines. Comparison with the published results showed significant improvement of the new method in various ways: (a) reducing the root mean square error (RMSE) of the radiation sensitivity prediction model from 0.20 to 0.011; and (b) improving prediction accuracy from 62% to 91%. To test the predictive performance of the gene signature, three different types of cancer patient datasets were used. Survival analysis across these different types of cancer patients strongly confirmed the clinical potential utility of the signature genes as a general prognosis platform. The gene regulatory network analysis identified six hub genes that are involved in canonical cancer pathways.

  11. Supportive care in early rehabilitation for advanced-stage radiated head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, J.A.M. de; Berg, M.G. van den; Achterberg, T. van; Merkx, M.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and supportive follow-up care needs 1 month posttreatment for patients with advanced-stage (stage III or IV) radiated head and neck cancer (HNC) who were treated with curative intent. Study Design An exploratory, descriptive analysi

  12. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  13. Assesment of Lymphedema Risk Following Lymph Node Dissection and Radiation Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0622 TITLE: Assesment of Lymphedema Risk Following...01-09-2008 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 AUG 2007 - 10 AUG 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assesment of Lymphedema ...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common, chronic, and potentially devastating complication of primary breast cancer therapy. Radiation increases

  14. Red blood cell glutathione levels in lung cancer patients treated by radiation and continuously infused carboplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, HJM; Meijer, C; DeVries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    1996-01-01

    Intrinsic resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) curtails the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) may be one of the factors responsible for this phenomenon as it counteracts the cytotoxic effects of platinum containing drugs and radiation. GSH levels were studied i

  15. Nonlinear Quantitative Radiation Sensitivity Prediction Model Based on NCI-60 Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a nonlinear model to perform a novel quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction. We used the NCI-60 panel, which consists of nine different cancer types, as the platform to train our model. Important radiation therapy (RT related genes were selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM. Orthogonal latent variables (LVs were then extracted by the partial least squares (PLS method as the new compressive input variables. Finally, support vector machine (SVM regression model was trained with these LVs to predict the SF2 (the surviving fraction of cells after a radiation dose of 2 Gy γ-ray values of the cell lines. Comparison with the published results showed significant improvement of the new method in various ways: (a reducing the root mean square error (RMSE of the radiation sensitivity prediction model from 0.20 to 0.011; and (b improving prediction accuracy from 62% to 91%. To test the predictive performance of the gene signature, three different types of cancer patient datasets were used. Survival analysis across these different types of cancer patients strongly confirmed the clinical potential utility of the signature genes as a general prognosis platform. The gene regulatory network analysis identified six hub genes that are involved in canonical cancer pathways.

  16. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouette, R.; Causse, N.; Elkhadri, M.; Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Houlard, J.P.; Racaldini, L.; Demeaux, H.

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  17. Some Brain Cancer Patients Have Radiation Options: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The report was published July 26 in the Journal of the American Medical Association . In the past, whole brain radiation was ... New Hyde Park, N.Y.; July 26, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  18. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  19. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Ha, Wi-Ho; Seo, Songwon; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively.

  20. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, Daniel W [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47909 (United States); Harb, Wael [Horizon Oncology, The Care Group, Unity Medical Center, Lafayette, IN 47901 (United States); Jevremovic, Tatjana [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47909 (United States)

    2006-03-21

    A novel radiation targeted therapy is investigated for HER-2 positive breast cancers. The proposed concept combines two known approaches, but never used together for the treatment of advanced, relapsed or metastasized HER-2 positive breast cancers. The proposed radiation binary targeted concept is based on the anti HER-2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) that would be used as vehicles to transport the nontoxic agent to cancer cells. The anti HER-2 MABs have been successful in targeting HER-2 positive breast cancers with high affinity. The proposed concept would utilize a neutral nontoxic boron-10 predicting that anti HER-2 MABs would assure its selective delivery to cancer cells. MABs against HER-2 have been a widely researched strategy in the clinical setting. The most promising antibody is Trastuzumab (Herceptin (registered) ). Targeting HER-2 with the MAB Trastuzumab has been proven to be a successful strategy in inducing tumour regression and improving patient survival. Unfortunately, these tumours become resistant and afflicted women succumb to breast cancer. In the proposed concept, when the tumour region is loaded with boron-10 it is irradiated with neutrons (treatment used for head and neck cancers, melanoma and glioblastoma for over 40 years in Japan and Europe). The irradiation process takes less than an hour producing minimal side effects. This paper summarizes our recent theoretical assessments of radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers on: the effective drug delivery mechanism, the numerical model to evaluate the targeted radiation delivery and the survey study to find the neutron facility in the world that might be capable of producing the radiation effect as needed. A novel method of drug delivery utilizing Trastuzumab is described, followed by the description of a computational Monte Carlo based breast model used to determine radiation dose distributions. The total flux and neutron energy spectra of five currently available

  1. Targeted therapies and radiation for the treatment of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on novel radiation treatments for head and neck cancer. Despite the remarkable advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy techniques, the management of advanced head and neck cancer remains challenging. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an appealing target for novel therapies in head and neck cancer because not only EGFR activation stimulates many important signaling pathways associated with cancer development and progression, and importantly, resistance to radiation. Furthermore, EGFR overexpression is known to be portended for a worse outcome in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Two categories of compounds designed to abrogate EGFR signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies (Cetuximab) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ZD1839 and OSI-774) have been assessed and have been most extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials. Additional TKIs in clinical trials include a reversible agent, Cl-1033, which blocks activation of all erbB receptors. Encouraging preclinical data for head and neck cancers resulted in rapid translation into the clinic. Results from initial clinical trials show rather surprisingly that only minority of patients benefited from EGFR inhibition as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. In this review, we begin with a brief summary of erbB-mediated signal transduction. Subsequently, we present data on prognostic-predictive value of erbB receptor expression in HNC followed by preclinical and clinical data on the role of EGFR antagonists alone or in combination with radiation in the treatment of HNC. Finally, we discuss the emerging thoughts on resistance to EGFR blockade and efforts in the development of multiple-targeted therapy for combination with chemotherapy or radiation. Current challenges for investigators are to determine (1) who will benefit from targeted agents and which agents are most appropriate to combine with radiation and/or chemotherapy, (2

  2. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Stefania, E-mail: clemente_stefania@libero.it [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Nigro, Roberta [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Oliviero, Caterina [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Marchioni, Chiara [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Esposito, Marco [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Giglioli, Francesca Romana [Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Marino, Carmelo [Humanitas Centro Catanese di Oncologia, Catania (Italy); Russo, Serenella [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano di Torino, Torino (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  3. Current status of radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has been extensively explored in the past. Along with the comprehensive understanding of the biology of prostate cancer and rapid advances in terms of technology, the outcome of treatment for the patients with prostate cancer has improved. The authors review radiotherapy as the primary treatment for the disease, with particular emphasis on the technological advances from both the radiobiological and radiophysics aspects. Nonconventional fractionated irradiation like hyper- or hypo-fractionation has been implemented in the clinic, the final results still need to be confirmed in the future. Technological advances like IMRT, IGRT,in the last two decades have significantly improved the delivery of external radiotherapy to the prostate. This has resulted in an overall increase in the total dose that can be safely delivered to the prostate, which has led to modest improvements in the biochemical outcome. However, establishing the standard therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. It is hoped that the next decades will bring continued advances in the development of biologicals that will further improve current clinical outcomes.

  4. Radiation passport: an iPhone and iPod touch application to track radiation dose and estimate associated cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Talanow, Roland; Baerlocher, Adrian F

    2010-04-01

    The rapid increase in the use of radiology and related exams and procedures has led to a concomitant increase in associated radiation risk. An application for the iPhone and iPod Touch called 'Radiation Passport' is described, which provides radiation dose estimates and associated cancer risks (non fatal and fatal) and serves as a method by which to track an individual's cumulative exposure.

  5. Increased risk of colon cancer after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Zanetti, Roberto; Schmidlin, Franz; Shubert, Hyma; Merglen, Arnaud; Miralbell, Raymond; Bouchardy, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Radiotherapy can induce second cancers. Controversies still exist regarding the risk of second malignancies after irradiation for prostate cancer. We evaluated the risk of developing colon and rectum cancers after prostate cancer in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry, we included in the study all men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1998 who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. Of the 1,134 patients, 264 were treated with external radiotherapy. Patients were followed for occurrence of colorectal cancer up to 31 December, 2003. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates for the general population to obtain the expected cancer incidence. The cohort yielded to 3,798 person-years. At the end of follow-up 19 patients had developed a colorectal cancer. Among irradiated patients the SIR for colorectal cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-6.0). Compared to the general population, the risk was significantly higher for colon cancer (SIR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.8-7.6), but not for rectal cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.2-7.2). The risk of colon cancer was increased in the period of 5-9 years after diagnosis (SIR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-9.2). The overall SIR of secondary cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy was 1.35 (p = 0.056). Nonirradiated patients did not have any increased risk of rectal or colon cancer. This study shows a significant increase of colon but not rectum cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The risk of second cancer after irradiation, although probably small, needs nevertheless to be carefully monitored.

  6. Low Dose Radiation Cancer Risks: Epidemiological and Toxicological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Hoel, PhD

    2012-04-19

    The basic purpose of this one year research grant was to extend the two stage clonal expansion model (TSCE) of carcinogenesis to exposures other than the usual single acute exposure. The two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis incorporates the biological process of carcinogenesis, which involves two mutations and the clonal proliferation of the intermediate cells, in a stochastic, mathematical way. The current TSCE model serves a general purpose of acute exposure models but requires numerical computation of both the survival and hazard functions. The primary objective of this research project was to develop the analytical expressions for the survival function and the hazard function of the occurrence of the first cancer cell for acute, continuous and multiple exposure cases within the framework of the piece-wise constant parameter two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. For acute exposure and multiple exposures of acute series, it is either only allowed to have the first mutation rate vary with the dose, or to have all the parameters be dose dependent; for multiple exposures of continuous exposures, all the parameters are allowed to vary with the dose. With these analytical functions, it becomes easy to evaluate the risks of cancer and allows one to deal with the various exposure patterns in cancer risk assessment. A second objective was to apply the TSCE model with varing continuous exposures from the cancer studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs. Using step functions to estimate the retention functions of the pulmonary exposure of plutonium the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model was to be used to estimate the beagle dog lung cancer risks. The mathematical equations of the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model were developed. A draft manuscript which is attached provides the results of this mathematical work. The application work using the beagle dog data from plutonium exposure has not been completed due to the fact

  7. Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongoh [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungho [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weonkuu; Jahng, Geonho; Kim, Dongwook [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  8. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  9. Cancer patients with cardiac pacemakers needing radiation treatment: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With improving average life expectancy of individuals in most countries, there has been increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Radiation oncologists therefore are likely to encounter an increasing number of cancer patients with in situ cardiac pacemaker devices needing radiation treatments. Pacemaker technology has advanced rapidly in recent years. As a result, the potential interactions of these devices with radiation therapy have changed since American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM issued guidelines in 1994. Current approaches to treatment in patients who have these devices vary among radiation oncology centers. Furthermore, the recommendations given by the devices′ manufacturers differ considerably. Common knowledge about pacemaker in radiation oncology community is vital as radiation management needs to be tailored to individual patients in accordance to the information of available for the device. Some general practical guidelines can be gleaned from the literature. It is felt that more robust information is required using web based database sharing to develop total safe practice guidelines in such patients. This article reviews the information available to help create such guidelines and presents recommendations for treatment in this increasingly common clinical situation.

  10. A human esophageal epithelial cell model for study of radiation induced cancer and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is associated with radiation exposure, as revealed by the significant enhanced in incidence rates for this type of cancer in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also associated with poor nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies, which are also important issues for long duration spaceflight. The possible synergies between nutritional issues and radiation exposure are unknown. Here we present the results of preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron.

  11. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel, E-mail: Swisher-Mcclure@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin [Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert [Division of Urologic Oncology, Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University Health System, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment.

  12. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.tuomi@vgregion.se [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Andréll, Paulin [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Finizia, Caterina [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  13. GSK3β and β-Catenin Modulate Radiation Cytotoxicity in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Watson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of factors and mechanisms contributing to the inherent radioresistance of pancreatic cancer may improve cancer treatment. Irradiation inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β by phosphorylation at serine 9. In turn, release of cytosolic membrane β-catenin with subsequent nuclear translocation promotes survival. Both GSK3β and β-catenin have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to death. METHODS: We investigated pancreatic cancer cell survival after radiation in vitro and in vivo, with a particular focus on the role of the function of the GSK3β/β-catenin axis. RESULTS: Lithium chloride, RNAi-medicated silencing of GSK3β, or the expression of a kinase dead mutant GSK3β resulted in radioresistance of Panc1 and BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3β resulted in radiosensitization of Panc1 cells. GSK3β silencing increased radiation-induced β-catenin target gene expression asmeasured by studies of AXIN2 and LEF1 transcript levels. Western blot analysis of total and phosphorylated levels of GSK3β and β-catenin showed that GSK3β inhibition resulted in stabilization of β-catenin. Xenografts of both BxPC3 and Panc1 with targeted silencing of GSK3β exhibited radioresistance in vivo. Silencing of β-catenin resulted in radiosensitization, whereas a nondegradable β-catenin construct induced radioresistance. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that GSK3β modulates the cellular response to radiation in a β-catenin-dependent mechanism. Further understanding of this pathway may enhance the development of clinical trials combining drugs inhibiting β-catenin activation with radiation and chemotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  14. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  15. Radiation-Associated Toxicities in Obese Women with Endometrial Cancer: More Than Just BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita V. Dandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study characterizes the impact of obesity on postoperative radiation-associated toxicities in women with endometrial cancer (EC. Material and Methods. A retrospective study identified 96 women with EC referred to a large urban institution’s radiation oncology practice for postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT and/or intracavitary vaginal brachytherapy (ICBT. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained. Toxicities were graded according to RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 11 years (median 2 years. Data were analyzed by χ2, logistic regression, and recursive partitioning analyses. Results. 68 EC patients who received WPRT and/or ICBT were analyzed. Median age was 52 years (29–73. The majority were Hispanic (71%. Median BMI at diagnosis was 34.5 kg/m2 (20.5–56.6 kg/m2. BMI was independently associated with radiation-related cutaneous (p=0.022 and gynecologic-related (p=0.027 toxicities. Younger women also reported more gynecologic-related toxicities (p=0.039. Adjuvant radiation technique was associated with increased gastrointestinal- and genitourinary-related toxicities but not gynecologic-related toxicity. Conclusions. Increasing BMI was associated with increased frequency of gynecologic and cutaneous radiation-associated toxicities. Additional studies to critically evaluate the radiation treatment dosing and treatment fields in obese EC patients are warranted to identify strategies to mitigate the radiation-associated toxicities in these women.

  16. Cellular characterization of ultrasound-stimulated microbubble radiation enhancement in a prostate cancer xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Al-Mahrouki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor radiation resistance poses a major obstacle in achieving an optimal outcome in radiation therapy. In the current study, we characterize a novel therapeutic approach that combines ultrasound-driven microbubbles with radiation to increase treatment responses in a prostate cancer xenograft model in mice. Tumor response to ultrasound-driven microbubbles and radiation was assessed 24 hours after treatment, which consisted of radiation treatments alone (2 Gy or 8 Gy or ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles only, or a combination of radiation and ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles. Immunohistochemical analysis using in situ end labeling (ISEL and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL revealed increased cell death within tumors exposed to combined treatments compared with untreated tumors or tumors exposed to radiation alone. Several biomarkers were investigated to evaluate cell proliferation (Ki67, blood leakage (factor VIII, angiogenesis (cluster of differentiation molecule CD31, ceramide-formation, angiogenesis signaling [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF], oxygen limitation (prolyl hydroxylase PHD2 and DNA damage/repair (γH2AX. Results demonstrated reduced vascularity due to vascular disruption by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles, increased ceramide production and increased DNA damage of tumor cells, despite decreased tumor oxygenation with significantly less proliferating cells in the combined treatments. This combined approach could be a feasible option as a novel enhancing approach in radiation therapy.

  17. Combination Adriamycin and radiation therapy in gynecologic cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watring, W.G.; Byfield, J.E.; Lagasse, L.D.; Lee, Y.D.; Juillard, G.; Jacobs, M.; Smith, M.L.

    1974-12-01

    Anthracyclic antibiotics, of which adriamycin is representative, have the ability to bind to cellular DNA and thereby interfere with the X ray repair process. When radiation survival curves of tissue cultures were studied, increased cell-killing was noted in those cultures with adriamycin over those without the drug. The mechanism by which this occurs may be related to a reduced rate of DNA strand break rejoining, as demonstrated by use of alkaline sucrose gradient techniques. A preliminary clinical Phase I study, in which patients with advanced gynecologic malignancy were treated by simultaneous adriamycin and X radiation, suggests that combined therapy is well-tolerated, and that such combinations may prove useful in selected patients.

  18. Debate: Pro intraoperative radiation therapy in breast cancer; Debat: pour la radiotherapie peroperatoire dans le cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J.B.; Lemanski, C.; Azria, D. [Departement de radiotherapie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, 208, rue des Apothicaires, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Gutowski, M.; Rouanet, P.; Saint-Aubert, B. [Departement de chirurgie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, 208, rue des Apothicaires, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-10-15

    The use of intraoperative radiation therapy in breast cancer patients started about 20 years ago. Several retrospective and prospective studies have been published. Intraoperative radiation therapy was initially given as a boost to the tumour bed, followed by whole-breast irradiation. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of the technique, with local control rates and cosmetic results similar to those obtained with standard treatments. Accelerated partial breast irradiation yields local recurrence rates as low as those observed after whole-breast irradiation. Intraoperative radiation therapy as a single irradiation modality with a unique dose has been investigated in recent prospective studies showing satisfactory local results. Intraoperative radiation therapy can be proposed either as a boost or as a unique treatment in selected cases (tumour size, nodal and hormonal status, patient's age). Intraoperative radiation therapy can be delivered by orthovoltage (50 kV) X-rays from mobile generators, or by electrons from linear accelerators, mobile or fixed, dedicated or not to intraoperative radiation therapy. (authors)

  19. Reducing Toxicity of Radiation Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and Aggarwal, B.B. 2006. A synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me, inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase and enhances apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic... inhibiting recruitment of myeloid cells obviates radiation protection of normal tissues by RTA 408. Others described that effects on myeloid cells also...underlie tumor growth inhibition by synthetic triterpenoids. This circumstance raises the interesting perspective of a potential ‘convergent’ phenotype

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on transcription of colorectal cancer MDR1 gene of HCT-8 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Li; Lin Ma; Jing Lu; Li-Xia Kong; Xiao-Hua Long; Su-Huan Liao; Bao-Rong Chi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss effect of ionizing radiation on transcription of colorectal cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene of HCT-8 cells. Methods: Total RNA was extracted by guanidine thiocyanate one-step method. Northern blot was applied to detect transcription level of MDR1 gene. The expression of P-gp protein was detected by flow cytometry. Results: The expression of MDR1 of normal colorectal cancer HCT-8 cells was low. It was increased by 8.35 times under stimulus with 2 Gy. When treated with low doses in advance, high expressed MDR was decreased significantly under 0.05, 0.1 Gy, which was 69.00%, 62.89% in 2 Gy group and 5.77 times, 5.25 times in sham irradiation group. No obvious difference was detected between (0.2+2) Gy group and 2 Gy group. Compared with sham irradiation group, the percentage of P-gp positive cells after radiation of a high 2 Gy dose was increased significantly (P<0.01). When treated with high radiation dose following low radiation dose (0.05 Gy, 0.1 Gy) in advance, the percentage of P-gp positive cells were also increased significantly. The percentage of P-gp positive cells were increased obviously in 0.2 Gy and 2 Gy groups. Compared with simple high radiation 2 Gy group, the percentage of P-gp positive cells was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions:Low radiation dose can reverse multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer cells caused by high radiation dose.

  1. Combined preoperative therapy for oral cancer with nedaplatin and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Masatoshi; Shibata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Munehiro [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    We performed preoperative combined therapy using nedaplatin (CDGP) and radiation in 12 patients with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the oral cavity and maxillary sinus, and examined for any adverse events that may have occurred during this therapeutic regimen. Regarding the irradiation, external irradiation utilizing a 6 MV linac (linear accelerator) at a dose of 2.0 Gy/day was performed 5 times a week, with the target total radiation dose set at 40 Gy. In addition, CDGP was intravenously administered 30 minutes before irradiation at a dose of 5 mg/m{sup 2}/day. Mucositis was observed in all 12 subjects, however, the severity was observed to be grade 1-2 with no major differences in comparison to the patients given standard radiation monotherapy. Two subjects developed grade 3 leucopenia and were thus given granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). In addition, grade 2 and grade 3 thrombocytopenia were both observed in one subject each. The subject with grade 3 thrombocytopenia required a platelet transfusion during surgery. No marked changes in serum creatinine levels were noted. These findings are therefore considered to provide evidence supporting the safety of this combination therapy. (author)

  2. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  3. Gene expression in response to ionizing radiation and family history of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Silvestrini, Francesco; Siniscalchi, Ester; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2011-03-01

    Genes and molecular pathways involved in familial clustering of gastric cancer have not yet been identified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate gene expression changes in response to a cellular stress, and its link with a positive family history for this neoplasia. To this aim leukocytes of healthy first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients and controls were challenged in vitro with ionizing radiation and gene expression evaluated 4 h later on microarrays with 1,800 cancer-related genes. Eight genes, mainly involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation, were differentially expressed in healthy relatives of gastric cancer cases. Functional class scoring by Gene Ontology classification highlighted two G-protein related pathways, implicated in the proliferation of neoplastic tissue, which were differentially expressed in healthy subjects with positive family history of gastric cancer. The relative expression of 84 genes related to these pathways was examined using the SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR. The results confirmed the indication of an involvement of G-protein coupled receptor pathways in GC familiarity provided by microarray analysis. This study indicates a possible association between familiarity for gastric cancer and altered transcriptional response to ionizing radiation.

  4. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni Soundouss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Case presentation A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. Conclusion We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  5. Complication of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Se; Kim, Sung Kyu; Song, Sung Kyo; Kim, Hong Jin; Kwan, Koing Bo; Kim, Heung Dae [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    Local control is the important prognostic factor in cancer treatment because local control decrease the relative risk of metastatic spread and increase distant metastasis free survival. IORT is the modality which could increase local control without increasing complication, combined with curative operation. Even though we could achieve significant decreased local failure by IORT and curative resection, it should not be committed as a main treatment modality without proving acceptable complications. Therapeutic Radiology Department of Yeungnam University Medical Center have tried 58 IORT from June 15, 1988, and performed 53 IORT in patients with gastric cancer. No local failure has been report? by regular follow up so far. Nine cases(17%) of treatment related complication were reported including intestinal obstruction, hemorrhage, sepsis, and bone marrow depression. These complications could be comparable to Jo 25.2% (chemotherapy + operation), Kim 18% (chemotherapy only in inoperable patients), because our treatment regimen is consisted of IORT (1500 cGy), external irradiation(--4500 cGy) and extensive chemotherapy (FAM, 5FU+MMC, BACOP). Our data encouraged us to re-inforce further IORT in stomach cancer treatment.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: radiation dosage constraint at the anterior mandible.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Jong, J.M. de; Granzier, M.E.; Nieman, F.H.; Baat, C. de; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Because the survival of endosseous implants in irradiated bone is lower than in non-irradiated bone, particularly if the irradiation dose exceeds 50Gy, a study was carried out to assess the irradiation dose in the anterior mandible, when intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used. The hypo

  7. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy for one to three axillary node positive early breast cancer: To radiate or not to radiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT in early breast cancer has long been a matter of debate among oncologists. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO recommend the use of PMRT for patients, whose primary tumor is larger than 5 cm and/or patients who have four or more involved axillary lymph nodes (ALNs. Recently, few trials have been published showing the positive impact of PMRT on overall survival (OS even in patients having 1-3 positive ALNs with T1-T2 primary disease or early breast cancer (EBC. So, it has become a matter of controversy whether to radiate or not to radiate? We have made an extensive search in the internet in Pubmed and other sites of medical publication mentioning our topic of discussion and reviewed the relevant articles. We nearly got 3,220 articles. After reviewing the available publications in the internet, we blended the elixir with our experience and tried to find an answer of our question. In conclusion, PMRT significantly and substantially improved loco-regional control and overall survival in patients with 1-3 positive nodes as in patients with 4 or more positive nodes, and nearly the same number of patients is needed to treat to avoid a loco-regional recurrence and/or death in both groups. We should reconsider the current guidelines for the indication for PMRT.

  8. Local control of piriform sinus cancer treated by radiation therapy alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Takashi [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Aruga, Moriyo [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Ode, Shigeomi [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Local control rate by radical radiation therapy was analyzed in 33 patients with a piriform sinus cancer. Twenty-five patients (76%) were in stage T3+T4. Local recurrence-free survival at 3 years was 49% in T1+T2 and 25% in T3+T4 (p=0.01). In T1+T2 lesions, a biologically effective dose for an acute reaction over 80 Gy and total treatment time less than 70 days appeared to improve local control. In T3+T4 lesions, good radiation response assessed by the regaining of laryngeal mobility affected local control favorably. An esophageal involvement and destruction of the laryngeal cartilage as well as soft tissue extension precluded the possibility of local control by radiation therapy alone. In addition to the T-stage, other tumor factors should also be considered for predicting local control with radiation therapy. (orig.).

  9. Efficacy of small bowel displacement system in post-operative pelvic radiation therapy of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Chan; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Moon Kyung; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Dae Yong; Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    This study is to evaluate the efficacy of small bowel displacement system(SBDS) in post-operative pelvic radiation therapy(RT) of rectal cancer patients by measurement of small bowel volume included in the radiation fields receiving therapeutic dose. Ten consecutive new rectal cancer patients referred to the department of Radiation Oncology of Samsung Medical Center in May of 1997 were included in this study. All patients were asked to drink Gastro-graphin before simulation and were laid prone for conventional simulation and CT scans with and without SBDS. The volume of opacified small bowel on CT scans, which was to be included in the radiation fields receiving therapeutic dose, was measured using picture archiving and communication system(PACS). The average small bowel volumes with and without SBDS were 176.0ml(5.2-415.6ml) and 185.1m;(54.5-434.2ml), respectively. the changes of small bowel volume with SBDS compared to those without SBDS were more than 10% decrease in three, less than 10% decrease in two, less than 10% increase in three, and more than 10% increase in two patients. No significant advantage of using SBDS in post-operative pelvic RT for rectal cancer patients has been shown by small bowel volume measurement using CT scan considering additional effort and time needed for simulation and treatment setup.

  10. Enhancement of ionizing radiation response by histamine in vitro and in vivo in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Cortina, Jorge E; Ventura, Clara; Sterle, Helena A; Valli, Eduardo; Balestrasse, Karina B; Blanco, Horacio; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of histamine on healthy tissue has been previously demonstrated. The aims of this work were to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine or its receptor ligands and gamma radiation in vitro on the radiobiological response of 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing action and to evaluate the histamine-induced radiosensitization in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. Results indicate that histamine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. This effect was mimicked by the H1R agonist 2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)histamine and the H4R agonists (Clobenpropit and VUF8430) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Histamine and its agonists enhanced radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and senescence. These effects were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, which correlated with the inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. Histamine was able also to potentiate in vivo the anti-tumoral effect of radiation, increasing the exponential tumor doubling time. We conclude that histamine increased radiation response of breast cancer cells, suggesting that it could be used as a potential adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy.

  11. Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Satoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yoshimura, Kiyoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C. [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); De Marzo, Angelo M. [Department of Pathology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.

  12. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Vikram [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Roberts, Kenneth B. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT.

  13. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Beant S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Jeff F. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Krivak, Thomas C. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Laskey, Robin A.; Ross, Malcolm S.; Lesnock, Jamie L. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  14. When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to resolve the debate about whether non-ionizing radiation (NIR) can cause cancer-a debate that has been ongoing for decades. The rationale, put forward mostly by physicists and accepted by many health agencies, is that, "since NIR does not have enough energy to dislodge electrons, it is unable to cause cancer." This argument is based on a flawed assumption and uses the model of ionizing radiation (IR) to explain NIR, which is inappropriate. Evidence of free-radical damage has been repeatedly documented among humans, animals, plants and microorganisms for both extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and for radio frequency (RF) radiation, neither of which is ionizing. While IR directly damages DNA, NIR interferes with the oxidative repair mechanisms resulting in oxidative stress, damage to cellular components including DNA, and damage to cellular processes leading to cancer. Furthermore, free-radical damage explains the increased cancer risks associated with mobile phone use, occupational exposure to NIR (ELF EMF and RFR), and residential exposure to power lines and RF transmitters including mobile phones, cell phone base stations, broadcast antennas, and radar installations.

  15. A short latency between radiation exposure from nuclear plants and cancer in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Joseph J

    2006-01-01

    Previous reports document a short latency of cancer onset in young children exposed to low doses of radioactivity. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) for cancer in children dying before age ten rose in the period 6-10 years after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents in populations most exposed to fallout. SMRs near most nuclear power plants were elevated 6-10 years after startup, particularly for leukemia. Cancer incidence in children under age ten living near New York and New Jersey nuclear plants increased 4-5 years after increases in average strontium-90 in baby teeth, and declined 4-5 years after Sr-90 averages dropped. The assumption that Sr-90 and childhood cancer are correlated is best supported for a supralinear dose-response, meaning the greatest per-dose risks are at the lowest doses. Findings document that the very young are especially susceptible to adverse effects of radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses.

  16. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 inhibitor, Ubenimex, enhances radiation sensitivity in human cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy can be used to treat all stages of cervical cancer. For improving local control via radiotherapy, it is important to use additional antitumor agents. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13, a 150-kDa metalloproteinase, is a multifunctional cell surface aminopeptidase with ubiquitous expression. Recent studies have suggested that APN/CD13 plays an important role in tumor progression in several human malignancies. Methods We investigated whether the suppression of APN/CD13 using Ubenimex, an inhibitor of APN/CD13 activity, may affect tumor radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface APN/CD13 activity in HeLa cells was calculated using alanine-p-nitroanilido as a substrate. For colony formation assays, single-dose radiation and/or Ubenimex were administered to each dish of HeLa cells, and these dishes were cultured for 14 days. Molecular changes of apoptosis were determined by Western blot. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V PI staining (flow cytometry analysis and the Tunel method. Moreover, we investigated the effect of combining Ubenimex and low-dose radiation on tumor growth using nude mice. Results We demonstrated that Ubenimex enhanced the effectiveness of radiotherapy, acting as a radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. In colony formation assays, a significant decline in clonogenic survival was observed in Ubenimex-treated cells. Mice treated with a combination of radiation and Ubenimex showed a significant prolongation of the tumor-doubling time compared with the control, Ubenimex, or radiation-alone groups. We also showed that ubenimex enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Although further studies are needed, this report suggests that Ubeniemx acts as a radiosensitizer in cervical cancer treatment, and that the inhibition of APN/CD13 activity may represent a new approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for uterine

  17. [Increase in the number of cancer stem cells after exposure to low-LET radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamulaeva, I A; Matchuk, O N; Selivanova, E I; Andreev, V G; Lipunov, N M; Makarenko, S A; Zhavoronkov, L P; Saenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Radioresistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is regarded as one of the possible causes of cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. Since the regularities and mechanisms of radiation effects on this population of cells have not been sufficiently studied, the aim of this work is to elucidate the changes in the CSC number after γ-irradiation in stable cultures of tumor cells in vitro and tumor tissue in vivo (in the course of radiation therapy of patients with cancers of the upper respiratory tract). CSCs were identified in the cell lines B16, MCF-7, HeLa by the ability to exclude the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 (SP method) 48-72 h after irradiation at the doses of 1-20 Gy and in biopsy material by immunophenotype CD44+CD24(-/low) before and 24 h after irradiation at the total dose of 10 Gy. The essential differences in the response of CSCs and other cancer cells were found after exposure to low-LET radiation. The absolute number of CSCs increased after a single exposure at the doses ranging from 1 to 5-10 Gy in different cell cultures, but a further dose increase maintained the current number of CSCs or decreased it. At the same time, the number of non CSCs significantly decreased with increasing doses of radiation exposure, as expected. Fractionated irradiation in vivo at a total dose of 10 Gy increased the relative amount of CSCs in most patients. The registered changes are an integral indicator of cell death, cell division delay immediately after irradiation, proliferation at a later time, possible dedifferentiation of non CSCs, etc. The exact contribution of each of them to the radiation-induced increase of the CSCs number is of considerable interest and requires further research.

  18. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  19. Why are breast cancer stem cells resistant to radiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    mammosphere formation assay. Xenograft Tumor Formation MDA-MB-231 CSC-like cells or non-stem cells (16104 cells in 0.1 ml of sterile 0.9% NaCl and 0.1 ml of...cells in 0.1 ml of sterile 0.9% NaClFig. 1. Characterization ofMDA-MB-231 andMDA-MB-453 cancer stem cell-like (CSC-like) and under the Oct-3/4 promoter...a nanoscale generation 3 dendrimer in an in vivo colorectal metastatic rat model. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology , Biology, and Medicine, 7, 249-258

  20. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.manley@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P [North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  1. Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Thymic Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, TX 77054 (United States)

    2012-03-14

    For many thoracic malignancies, surgery, when feasible, is the preferred upfront modality for local control. However, adjuvant radiation plays an important role in minimizing the risk of locoregional recurrence. Tumors in the thoracic category include certain subgroups of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as thymic malignancies. The indications, radiation doses, and treatment fields vary amongst subtypes of thoracic tumors, as does the level of data supporting the use of radiation. For example, in the setting of NSCLC, postoperative radiation is typically reserved for close/positive margins or N2/N3 disease, although such diseases as superior sulcus tumors present unique cases in which the role of neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant treatment is still being elucidated. In contrast, for thymic malignancies, postoperative radiation therapy is often used for initially resected Masaoka stage III or higher disease, with its use for stage II disease remaining controversial. This review provides an overview of postoperative radiation therapy for thoracic tumors, with a separate focus on superior sulcus tumors and thymoma, including a discussion of acceptable radiation approaches and an assessment of the current controversies involved in its use.

  2. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, Anna N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Aherne, Noel J., E-mail: noel.aherne@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Shakespeare, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  3. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Cléro, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Munzer, Martine; N'guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, David; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Bénichou, Jacques; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-05-01

    Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated between 1942 and 1986 in France and Britain has been followed prospectively. We collected detailed information on treatments received during childhood cancer. Additionally, an innovative methodology has been developed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between bone sarcoma and radiation dose throughout this cohort. The median follow-up was 26 years, and 39 patients had developed bone sarcoma. It was found that the overall incidence was 45-fold higher [standardized incidence ratio 44.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 31.0-59.8] than expected from the general population, and the absolute excess risk was 35.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 24.0-47.1). The risk of bone sarcoma increased slowly up to a cumulative radiation organ absorbed dose of 15 Gy [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.2, 95 % CI 1.6-42.9] and then strongly increased for higher radiation doses (HR for 30 Gy or more 117.9, 95 % CI 36.5-380.6), compared with patients not treated with radiotherapy. A linear model with an excess relative risk per Gy of 1.77 (95 % CI 0.6213-5.935) provided a close fit to the data. These findings have important therapeutic implications: Lowering the radiation dose to the bones should reduce the incidence of secondary bone sarcomas. Other therapeutic solutions should be preferred to radiotherapy in bone sarcoma-sensitive areas.

  4. Focused interventional cancer radiation therapy using lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The overall goal in cancer therapy is to achieve complete tumor eradication while causing minimal damage to healthy organs and tissue. Based on the broadly accepted theory of tumor control being a probabilistic event, every fraction of radiation treatment kills a portion of cancer cells and higher radiation dose should result in improved tumor control. Ultimately, radiation oncologists must balance the delivery of high enough radiation to tumors for achieving tumor control while not delivering so much radiation as to cause unacceptable normal tissue risk. This project centers on the locoregional delivery of lipid (liposome) nanoparticle-carried therapeutic radionuclides (186Re/ 188Re) to apply a focal and ablative radiation dose to target regions while greatly decreasing normal tissue toxicity of surrounding tissues. Specific Aim 1 includes the development of dosimetric and radiobiological models to assess small animal / patient specific radionuclide therapy at a voxel level. This will be used for a proof of concept study to characterize a novel technique to treat the post-lumpectomy wall for residual early stage breast cancer while simultaneously treating draining lymph nodes. Specific Aim 2 will look at methods of improving therapeutic ratio by evaluating in vivo characteristics of different liposome formulations and tumor vasculature modification chemicals following direct intratumoral infusion of 99m Tc-liposomes within a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (HNSCC) model in nude rats. Specific Aim 3 will evaluate the therapy potential for direct intratumoral injection of 186Re-liposomes within a human HNSCC xenograft model in nude rats using the dosimetric and radiobiological models of Aim 1 with improved treatment modifications from Aim 2.

  5. Protein disulphide isomerase as a target for nanoparticle-mediated sensitisation of cancer cells to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, L. E.; McMahon, S. J.; Butterworth, K. T.; Currell, F. J.; Schettino, G.; Prise, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Radiation resistance and toxicity in normal tissues are limiting factors in the efficacy of radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be effective at enhancing radiation-induced cell death, and were initially proposed to physically enhance the radiation dose deposited. However, biological responses of GNP radiosensitization based on physical assumptions alone are not predictive of radiosensitisation and therefore there is a fundamental research need to determine biological mechanisms of response to GNPs alone and in combination with ionising radiation. This study aimed to identify novel mechanisms of cancer cell radiosensitisation through the use of GNPs, focusing on their ability to induce cellular oxidative stress and disrupt mitochondrial function. Using N-acetyl-cysteine, we found mitochondrial oxidation to be a key event prior to radiation for the radiosensitisation of cancer cells and suggests the overall cellular effects of GNP radiosensitisation are a result of their interaction with protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). This investigation identifies PDI and mitochondrial oxidation as novel targets for radiosensitisation.

  6. Radiation-Induced Changes in Serum Lipidome of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jelonek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer radiotherapy (RT induces response of the whole patient’s body that could be detected at the blood level. We aimed to identify changes induced in serum lipidome during RT and characterize their association with doses and volumes of irradiated tissue. Sixty-six patients treated with conformal RT because of head and neck cancer were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected before, during and about one month after the end of RT. Lipid extracts were analyzed using MALDI-oa-ToF mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The major changes were observed when pre-treatment and within-treatment samples were compared. Levels of several identified phosphatidylcholines, including (PC34, (PC36 and (PC38 variants, and lysophosphatidylcholines, including (LPC16 and (LPC18 variants, were first significantly decreased and then increased in post-treatment samples. Intensities of changes were correlated with doses of radiation received by patients. Of note, such correlations were more frequent when low-to-medium doses of radiation delivered during conformal RT to large volumes of normal tissues were analyzed. Additionally, some radiation-induced changes in serum lipidome were associated with toxicity of the treatment. Obtained results indicated the involvement of choline-related signaling and potential biological importance of exposure to clinically low/medium doses of radiation in patient’s body response to radiation.

  7. Optimization of combined radiation therapy of the cervix cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Philippenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of a new combination of known medical products - inhibitorsenzyme of cyclooxigenase-2 (diclofenac, ketoprofen with smalldoses cytostatics (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil as“nonconventional” radiosensibilizators for optimization of combinedradial treatment of cervical cancer is offered. One hundred andtwenty patients with cervix cancer were involved into research(average age - 52.5±3.3, mainly II stage of process (50.8±4.6%,morphologically - nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma(65.0±4.4%. Frequency of full regress of a tumor in the basicgroups has reached in 77.5±6.6% (1-basic group and 82.5±6.0% (2-basic group in comparison with a control group 70.0±7.2%(р<0.05. By results of the cytological research in cells thepathomorphosis of IV degree was recorded in 1-basic group - 60.0%(superficial smears and 57.5% (a puncture biopsy, in 2-basic group- 85.0% (superficial smears and 82.5% (a puncture biopsy incomparison with the control - 55.0% (superficial smears and apuncture biopsy, р<0.05.

  8. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R. [Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.

  9. Combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroaki; Nomura, Yoshio; Terada, Katsuhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ogata, Jiro [Oita Medical Univ., Hasama (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-three patients with invasive bladder cancer (T2 in 17, T3 in 6) were treated initially with combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy. Cisplatin (50 mg) was infused into the internal iliac artery through a subcutaneous reservoir twice a week over three weeks while concurrent radiation therapy with 30 Gy, delivered in 15 fractions, was given. In 23 patients, 6 received additional cisplatin infusion and the other 17 had transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Two of the patients undergoing total cystectomy exhibited a complete response (CR). Thus overall response rate was 87% (CR in 13 and partial response in 7). CR was achieved in 53% for T2 patients and 67% for T3 patients. CR was slightly higher in patients with non-papillary cancer than those with papillary one. Toxic reaction included a decrease in bladder capacity in 2 patients and severe diarrhea due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colitis in one. The other toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, were tolerable. All except for one are alive. Seven patients had a local recurrence of bladder cancer. One patient developed invasive bladder cancer reaching the prostatic urethra. One other patient had recurrence at the same site as the previous tumor. Five others had superficial bladder cancer and were managed by TURBT. Bladder function was preserved in 65% at a mean follow-up of 29 months. In conclusion, the combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy is useful for the initial treatment of invasive bladder cancer. (N.K.).

  10. Effect of radiation therapy on small-cell lung cancer is reduced by ubiquinone intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, E L; Quistorff, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of oral ubiquinone (Q10) intake on the in vivo response of tumors to single dose radiotherapy was examined. The human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) line CPH 054A, which is sensitive to relatively low doses of X-radiation, was grown as subcutaneous transplants in the flanks of nude nu...... radiation dose of 5 Gy, using a 300 kV therapeutic unit. The macroscopic growth pre- and posttreatment was analyzed according to a transformed Gompertz algorithm using the software program GROWTH. Treatment with Q10 or soy oil alone had no effect on tumor growth compared with untreated controls. Groups...

  11. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION REACTIONS IN CANCER PATIENTS OF THE TECHA RIVER COHORT AND EURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ya. Mozerova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For revealing the main factors determining the frequency of radiation reactions and radiation complications in cancer patients previously exposed to chronic accidental exposure associated with the activity of the plant «Mayak», the data from medical records of 89 patients, treated with external beam radiotherapy from 1995 to 2011, and had reference to chronic radiation exposure history are analyzed. The assessment of peripheral blood, the nature and severity of radiation reactions and complications was performed. Statistical processing of the data revealed that the factors determining the frequency and severity of radiation reactions did not differ in features in cancer patients with chronic radiation exposure history. The value of absorbed dose has no significant effect on the frequency of radiation reactions.

  13. Up-regulation of BRAF activated non-coding RNA is associated with radiation therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-xiang; Chen, Ming; Zheng, Yuan-da; Wang, Sheng-ye; Shen, Zhu-ping

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy has become more effective in treating primary tumors, such as lung cancer. Recent evidence suggested that BRAF activated non-coding RNAs (BANCR) play a critical role in cellular processes and are found to be dysregulated in a variety of cancers. The clinical significance of BANCR in radiation therapy, and its molecular mechanisms controlling tumor growth are unclear. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated Lewis lung cancer cells and exposed to radiation therapy, then BANCR expression was analyzed using qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blot were performed to calculate the enrichment of histone acetylation and HDAC3 protein levels in Lewis lung cancer cells, respectively. MTT assay was used to evaluate the effects of BANCR on Lewis lung cancer cell viability. Finally, we found that BANCR expression was significantly increased in C57BL/6 mice receiving radiation therapy (Pcancer cells. Histone deacetylation was observed to involve in the regulation of BANCR in Lewis lung cancer cells. Moreover, over expression HDAC3 reversed the effect of rays on BANCR expression. MTT assay showed that knockdown of BANCR expression promoted cell viability surviving from radiation. In conclusion, these findings indicated that radiation therapy was an effective treatment for lung cancer, and it may exert function through up-regulation BANCR expression.

  14. Arsenic trioxide enhances the radiation sensitivity of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Chiu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. In the present study, LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells and PC-3 cells (androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR combined with arsenic trioxide (ATO and to determine the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We found that IR combined with ATO increases the therapeutic efficacy compared to individual treatments in LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In addition, combined treatment showed enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation compared to treatment with ATO or IR alone in PC-3 cells. Combined treatment induced autophagy and apoptosis in LNCaP cells, and mainly induced autophagy in PC-3 cells. The cell death that was induced by the combined treatment was primarily the result of inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that the combined treatment of cells pre-treated with 3-MA resulted in a significant change in AO-positive cells and cytotoxicity. In an in vivo study, the combination treatment had anti-tumor growth effects. These novel findings suggest that combined treatment is a potential therapeutic strategy not only for androgen-dependent prostate cancer but also for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  15. Neoplastic human embryonic stem cells as a model of radiation resistance of human cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Steve; Lee, Jung Bok; Guezguez, Borhane; Fiebig, Aline; McNicol, Jamie; Boreham, Douglas; Collins, Tony J; Bhatia, Mick

    2015-09-08

    Studies have implicated that a small sub-population of cells within a tumour, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have an enhanced capacity for tumour formation in multiple cancers and may be responsible for recurrence of the disease after treatment, including radiation. Although comparisons have been made between CSCs and bulk-tumour, the more important comparison with respect to therapy is between tumour-sustaining CSC versus normal stem cells that maintain the healthy tissue. However, the absence of normal known counterparts for many CSCs has made it difficult to compare the radiation responses of CSCs with the normal stem cells required for post-radiotherapy tissue regeneration and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that transformed human embryonic stem cells (t-hESCs), showing features of neoplastic progression produce tumours resistant to radiation relative to their normal counterpart upon injection into immune compromised mice. We reveal that t-hESCs have a reduced capacity for radiation induced cell death via apoptosis and exhibit altered cell cycle arrest relative to hESCs in vitro. t-hESCs have an increased expression of BclXL in comparison to their normal counterparts and re-sensitization of t-hESCs to radiation upon addition of BH3-only mimetic ABT737, suggesting that overexpression of BclXL underpins t-hESC radiation insensitivity. Using this novel discovery platform to investigate radiation resistance in human CSCs, our study indicates that chemotherapy targeting Bcl2-family members may prove to be an adjuvant to radiotherapy capable of targeting CSCs.

  16. The Results and Prognostic Factors of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Early Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the results and prognostic factors for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients at stages I and II of endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1991 and December 2006, 35 patients with FIGO stages I and II disease, who received adjuvant radiation therapy following surgery for endometrial cancer at Ewha Womans University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. A total of 17 patients received postoperative pelvic external beam radiation therapy; whereas, 12 patients received vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 6 patients received both pelvic radiation therapy and vaginal brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 54 months. The 5-yr overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 91.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The 5-yr overall survival rates for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 100%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. In addition, the 5-yr disease-free survival rates were 100%, 70.0%, and 45.7%, respectively. Although no locoregional relapses were identified, distant metastases were observed in 5 patients (14%). The most common site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by bone, liver, adrenal gland, and peritoneum. A univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between distant metastases and risk-group (p=0.018), pathology type (p=0.001), and grade (p=0.019). A multivariate analysis also revealed that distant metastases were correlated with pathology type (p=0.009). Papillary, serous and clear cell carcinoma cases demonstrated a poor patient survival rate compared to cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. The most common complication of pelvic external beam radiation therapy was enteritis (30%), followed by proctitis, leucopenia, and lymphedema. All these complications were of RTOG grades 1 and 2; no grades 3 and 4 were observed. Conclusion: For the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (stages 1 and 2) endometrial

  17. Advanced colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Tomohiko; Sato, Tomoo; Iwai, Keiichirou; Yao, Takashi; Mibu, Ryuichi; Iida, Mitsuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences; Matsumoto, Takayuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital

    2002-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman with a history of irradiation for uterine cervical cancer was admitted to our institute, because of abdominal distension. Barium enema examination and total colonoscopy revealed narrowing, irregular mucosa and an ulcerating tumor in the sigmoid colon and a flat elevation in the transverse colon. Biopsy specimens from these tumors contained adenocarcinoma. Histological examination of the resected colon revealed the tumor in the sigmoid colon to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma invading the subserosa and that in the transverse colon to be an intramucosal adenocarcinoma. There were also areas of low or high grade dysplasia in the sigmoid colon. Histological findings compatible with radiation colitis were found in the sigmoid colon. These clinicopathologic features suggested a diagnosis of colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis. (author)

  18. Function of hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian system in radiation treatment of patients with cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modnikov, O.P. (Kirgizskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Onkologii i Radiologii, Frunze (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    Radioimmunoassay of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian interrelationships was performed in 87 patients with cervical cancer and 37 practically healthy women. The basal level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (ESH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol as well as their response to the administration of the releasing factor of the hypothalamus (luliberin) were studied. Some disorders that manifested themselves in the decreased level of estradiol, were established in the patients with cervical cancer even before irradiation. Concomitant radiation therapy resulted in pronounced changes in the activities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian system that manifested themselves in the lowered rate of LH increment in response to the administration of luliberin and the absence of estradiol response to the load. These changes persisted long after the termination of concomitant radiation therapy.

  19. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center; Buffler, P.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error ({sigma}=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from {minus}15% to {minus}30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was {minus}37.1% for males and {minus}23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased {minus}27.1% for males and {minus}43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors.

  20. Efficacy and toxicity of rectal cancer reirradiation using IMRT for patients who have received prior pelvic radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady F. Youssef, MS

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Rectal cancer reirradiation using IMRT is well-tolerated in the setting of prior pelvic radiation therapy. Given significant risk of local progression, further dose escalation may be warranted for patients with life expectancy exceeding 1 year.

  1. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Sang Jun [Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10{approx}16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13{approx}179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy ({<=}6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks.

  2. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    radiotherapy 39 . Restoring DAB2IP may also improve castration resistance in addition to radiation resistance as DAB2IP expression inversely ...expression inversely correlates with androgen receptor activation status particularly in recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer patients 17 . The DAB2IP...attached to microtubule fibers oriented from opposite poles of the spindle. SAC is maintained by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) through its

  3. Exosomes Derived from Squamous Head and Neck Cancer Promote Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschelknaus, Lisa; Peters, Carsten; Winkler, Klaudia; Yentrapalli, Ramesh; Heider, Theresa; Atkinson, Michael John; Moertl, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles that are believed to function as intercellular communicators. Here, we report that exosomes are able to modify the radiation response of the head and neck cancer cell lines BHY and FaDu. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned medium of irradiated as well as non-irradiated head and neck cancer cells by serial centrifugation. Quantification using NanoSight technology indicated an increased exosome release from irradiated compared to non-irradiated cells 24 hours after treatment. To test whether the released exosomes influence the radiation response of other cells the exosomes were transferred to non-irradiated and irradiated recipient cells. We found an enhanced uptake of exosomes isolated from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells by irradiated recipient cells compared to non-irradiated recipient cells. Functional analyses by exosome transfer indicated that all exosomes (from non-irradiated and irradiated donor cells) increase the proliferation of non-irradiated recipient cells and the survival of irradiated recipient cells. The survival-promoting effects are more pronounced when exosomes isolated from irradiated compared to non-irradiated donor cells are transferred. A possible mechanism for the increased survival after irradiation could be the increase in DNA double-strand break repair monitored at 6, 8 and 10 h after the transfer of exosomes isolated from irradiated cells. This is abrogated by the destabilization of the exosomes. Our results demonstrate that radiation influences both the abundance and action of exosomes on recipient cells. Exosomes transmit prosurvival effects by promoting the proliferation and radioresistance of head and neck cancer cells. Taken together, this study indicates a functional role of exosomes in the response of tumor cells to radiation exposure within a therapeutic dose range and encourages that exosomes are useful objects of study for a better understanding of tumor

  4. A preliminary study on the radiation-resistance mechanism in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to explore the radiation-resistance mechanism by interfering in checkpoints kinase 1 (CHK1 and DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK genes with short hairpin RNA (shRNA transfection into Skov3 cells derived from ovarian cancer and HeLa cells derived from cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: The cultured Skov3 and HeLa cells were transfected with plasmid vectors containing CHK1 shRNA and DNA-PK shRNA, respectively, through Lipofectimine™ 2000 mediation, and cultured for 20 hours before exposure to 2 Gy X-radiation. The cells were harvested 4 and 28 after X-irradiation respectively then washed 3 times with PBS. These cells were stained with Annexin V/PI and applied by flow cytometer to analyze alteration of apoptosis with software CellQuest. Results: The apoptotic response in Skov3 cells to X-radiation was significantly lower than that in HeLa cells at 4 hour (t = 15.22, P < 0.001 and 28 hours (t = 15.78, P < 0.001 of post-irradiation. The shRNA might not affect the apoptosis of Skov3 and HeLa cells, while shRNA-transfection significantly enhanced the apoptotic response in Skov3 cells to X-radiation as compared with that in HeLa cells. Conclusions: The present work suggests that the CHK1 and DNA-PK genes are very likely to play a role in developing a radiation resistance in ovarian cancer.

  5. MicroRNAs, cancer and ionizing radiation: Where are we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study is to describe the biogenesis of microRNA, its relations with carcinogenesis, and the correlation between microRNA and ionizing radiation (IR, focusing on radioresponsiveness. It is known that microRNA biogenesis is well established and involves different enzymatic cleavages, resulting in the production of mature microRNA. MicroRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis. Their interaction is related to the genetic and epigenetic changes associated with activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Several studies have shown that the levels of expression of some microRNAs vary significantly after irradiation. There are evidences that microRNAs can influence cellular response after IR. In addition, microRNAs are related to modulation of the expression of several post-transcriptional targets in DNA damage response pathways, and to the DNA damage repair regulation mechanism. Future studies can clarify a possible clinical use of microRNAs as a new class of radiosensitive agents.

  6. Kelussia odoratissima potentiates cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Kelussia odoratissima (K. odoratissima extract associated with radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells (HeLa cell line.Materials and Methods: Different concentration of the extract (25-500µg/ml was tested in HeLa cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity of the extract and the effects of the extract on radiation (2Gy/min-induced damages were assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometric analysis.Result: K. odoratissima decreased cell viability in HeLa cell line in a concentration and time-dependent manner. When compared to the control,K. odoratissima induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in K. odoratissima-induced toxicity. It was also shown that K. odoratissima sensitizes cells to radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Our result showed the extract increased the radiation effect. This observation may be related to the presence of active compounds such as phthalides and ferulic acid.

  7. Enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity by gold nanoparticles in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Nur Shafawati binti; Rahman, Azhar Abdul [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Shaharum [Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Therapy combined with metallic nanoparticles is a new way to treat cancer, in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are injected through intravenous administration and bound to tumor sites. Radiotherapy aims to deliver a high therapeutic dose of ionizing radiation to the tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance. The use of AuNPs which is a high-atomic-number (Z) material in radiotherapy will provide a high probability for photon interaction by photoelectric effect. These provide advantages in terms of radiation dose enhancement. The high linear energy transfer and short range of photoelectric interaction products (photoelectrons, characteristic x-rays, Auger electrons) produce localized dose enhancement of the tumor. In this work, breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) are seeded in the 96-well plate and were treated with 13 nm AuNPs before they were irradiated with 6 MV and 10 MV photon beam from a medical linear accelerator at various radiation doses. To validate the enhanced killing effect, both with and without AuNPs MCF-7 cells is irradiated simultaneously. By comparison, the results show that AuNPs significantly enhance cancer killing.

  8. Kelussia odoratissima potentiates cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Saeidi Javadi, Shima; Fani-Pakdel, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Kelussia odoratissima (K. odoratissima) extract associated with radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells (HeLa cell line). Materials and Methods: Different concentration of the extract (25-500µg/ml) was tested in HeLa cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity of the extract and the effects of the extract on radiation (2Gy/min)-induced damages were assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometric analysis. Result: K. odoratissima decreased cell viability in HeLa cell line in a concentration and time-dependent manner. When compared to the control, K. odoratissima induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in K. odoratissima-induced toxicity. It was also shown that K. odoratissima sensitizes cells to radiation-induced toxicity. Conclusion: Our result showed the extract increased the radiation effect. This observation may be related to the presence of active compounds such as phthalides and ferulic acid.

  9. Radiation-induced complications in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuddin, A. Yusof [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 53000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, I. Abdul; Mohamed, F. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Siah, N. J. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 53000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saadc, M. [Department of Oncology, University Malaya Medical Center, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ismail, F. [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complications with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer patients that underwent the conformal radiotherapy treatment. 17 prostate cancer patients that have been treated with conformal radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The dosimetric data was retrieved in the form of dose-volume histogram (DVH) from Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System. The DVH was utilised to derived Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) in radiobiological data. Follow-up data from medical records were used to grade the occurrence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between radiation-induced complication with dosimetric and radiobiological parameters. 8 (47%) and 7 (41%) patients were having acute GI and GU complications respectively. The acute GI complication can be associated with V60{sub rectum}, rectal mean dose and NTCP{sub rectum} with p-value of 0.016, 0.038 and 0.049 respectively. There are no significant relationships of acute GU complication with dosimetric and radiobiological variables. Further study can be done by increase the sample size and follow up duration for deeper understanding of the factors that effecting the GU and GI complication in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

  10. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Octogenarians With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Takeshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Respirology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Morita, Satoshi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Division of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate treatment outcomes of stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) for octogenarians with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2012, 109 patients aged ≥80 years with T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were treated with SABR: 47 patients had histology-unproven lung cancer; 62 patients had pathologically proven NSCLC. The prescribed doses were either 50 Gy/5 fractions for peripheral tumors or 40 Gy/5 fractions for centrally located tumors. The treatment outcomes, toxicities, and the correlating factors for overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up duration after SABR was 24.2 (range, 3.0-64.6) months. Only limited toxicities were observed, except for 1 grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. The 3-year local, regional, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.3%, 90.1%, and 76.8%, respectively. The OS and lung cancer-specific survival rates were 53.7% and 70.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that medically inoperable, low body mass index, high T stage, and high C-reactive protein were the predictors for short OS. The OS for the operable octogenarians was significantly better than that for inoperable (P<.01). Conclusions: Stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy for octogenarians was feasible, with excellent OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that operability was one of the predictors for OS. For medically operable octogenarians with early-stage NSCLC, SABR should be prospectively compared with resection.

  11. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  12. Enhanced Radiosensitization of Gold Nanospikes via Hyperthermia in Combined Cancer Radiation and Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ningning; Jiang, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wu, Hao; Myers, John N; Liu, Peidang; Jin, Haizhen; Gu, Ning; He, Nongyue; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2016-10-14

    Metallic nanostructures as excellent candidates for nanosensitizers have shown enormous potentials in cancer radiotherapy and photothermal therapy. Clinically, a relatively low and safe radiation dose is highly desired to avoid damage to normal tissues. Therefore, the synergistic effect of the low-dosed X-ray radiation and other therapeutic approaches (or so-called "combined therapeutic strategy") is needed. Herein, we have synthesized hollow and spike-like gold nanostructures by a facile galvanic replacement reaction. Such gold nanospikes (GNSs) with low cytotoxicity exhibited high photothermal conversion efficiency (η = 50.3%) and had excellent photostability under cyclic near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiations. We have demonstrated that these GNSs can be successfully used for in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation therapy and NIR photothermal therapy. For the in vitro study, colony formation assay clearly demonstrated that GNS-mediated photothermal therapy and X-ray radiotherapy reduced the cell survival fraction to 89% and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the cell survival fraction of the combined radio- and photothermal treatment decreased to 33%. The synergistic cancer treatment performance was attributable to the effect of hyperthermia, which efficiently enhanced the radiosensitizing effect of hypoxic cancer cells that were resistant to ionizing radiation. The sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) of GNSs alone was calculated to be about 1.38, which increased to 1.63 when the GNS treatment was combined with the NIR irradiation, confirming that GNSs are effective radiation sensitizers to enhance X-ray radiation effect through hyperpyrexia. In vivo tumor growth study indicated that the tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in the synergistically treated group reached 92.2%, which was much higher than that of the group treated with the GNS-enhanced X-ray radiation (TGI = 29.8%) or the group treated with the GNS-mediated photothermal therapy (TGI = 70.5%). This research

  13. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Li, Dongdong [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olson, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Centre for the North, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada); McBride, Mary [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  14. Radiation-induced cell inactivation as a cause for cancer promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, W. F.; Paretzke, H. G.

    In space research, estimates of health risks from high-LET radiation, as well as from mixed fields are needed. Features of several applications of the biologically based two step clonal expansion (TSCE) model on data with high-LET radiation, normally α-particles from radon and from Thorotrast, are reviewed. One conclusion is that radiation might not only influence the initiating event in carcinogenesis, but may also act as a promoter. A possible mechanism which gives a promoting action from cell inactivation is presented for the organs "lung", with a two-dimensional arrangement of the cells at risk, and for "liver" where the sensitive cells are distributed in all three dimensions. Inferences for dose-response curves at low doses and dose rates are drawn. For liver, the number and size of premalignant clones is estimated from the cancer data.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Joseph C., E-mail: joseph.hodges@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Beg, Muhammad S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for anal cancer and determine disease, patient, and treatment parameters that influence the result. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision model was designed with the various disease states for the base case of a 65-year-old patient with anal cancer treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Health states accounting for rates of local failure, colostomy failure, treatment breaks, patient prognosis, acute and late toxicities, and the utility of toxicities were informed by existing literature and analyzed with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, mean costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) for IMRT and 3D-CRT were $32,291 (4.81) and $28,444 (4.78), respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $128,233/QALY for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that IMRT was cost-effective in 22%, 47%, and 65% of iterations at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions: In our base model, IMRT was a cost-ineffective strategy despite the reduced acute treatment toxicities and their associated costs of management. The model outcome was sensitive to variations in local and colostomy failure rates, as well as patient-reported utilities relating to acute toxicities.

  16. Size-dependent radiosensitization of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles for cancer radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiu; Chen, Jie; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Pei-Xun; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been conceived as a radiosensitizer in cancer radiation therapy, but one of the important questions for primary drug screening is what size of gold nanoparticles can optimally enhance radiation effects. Herein, we perform in vitro and in vivo radiosensitization studies of 4.8, 12.1, 27.3, and 46.6 nm PEG-coated gold nanoparticles. In vitro results show that all sizes of the PEG-coated gold nanoparticles can cause a significant decrease in cancer cell survival after gamma radiation. 12.1 and 27.3 nm PEG-coated gold nanoparticles have dispersive distributions in the cells and have stronger sensitization effects than 4.8 and 46.6 nm particles by both cell apoptosis and necrosis. Further, in vivo results also show all sizes of the PEG-coated gold nanoparticles can decrease tumor volume and weight after 5 Gy radiations, and 12.1 and 27.3 nm PEG-coated gold nanoparticles have greater sensitization effects than 4.8 and 46.6 nm particles, which can lead to almost complete disappearance of the ...

  17. Telomerase antagonist imetelstat inhibits esophageal cancer cell growth and increases radiation-induced DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuping; Smavadati, Shirin; Nordfjäll, Katarina; Karlsson, Krister; Qvarnström, Fredrik; Simonsson, Martin; Bergqvist, Michael; Gryaznov, Sergei; Ekman, Simon; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva

    2012-12-01

    Telomerase is mainly active in human tumor cells, which provides an opportunity for a therapeutic window on telomerase targeting. We sought to evaluate the potential of the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, imetelstat, as a drug candidate for treatment of esophageal cancer. Our results showed that imetelstat inhibited telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner in esophageal cancer cells. After only 1 week of imetelstat treatment, a reduction of colony formation ability of esophageal cancer cells was observed. Furthermore, long-term treatment with imetelstat decreased cell growth of esophageal cancer cells with different kinetics regarding telomere lengths. Short-term imetelstat treatment also increased γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci staining in the esophageal cancer cell lines indicating a possible induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We also found that pre-treatment with imetelstat led to increased number and size of 53BP1 foci after ionizing radiation. The increase of 53BP1 foci number was especially pronounced during the first 1h of repair whereas the increase of foci size was prominent later on. This study supports the potential of imetelstat as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  18. Enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity in breast-cancer cells by localized attachment of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jing; McQuarrie, Steve; McEwan, Alexander; Roa, Wilson; Chen, Jie; Xing, James Z

    2008-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and modified GNPs having two kinds of functional molecules, cysteamine (AET) and thioglucose (Glu), are synthesized. Cell uptake and radiation cytotoxicity enhancement in a breast-cancer cell line (MCF-7) versus a nonmalignant breast-cell line (MCF-10A) are studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that cancer cells take up functional Glu-GNPs significantly more than naked GNPs. The TEM results also indicate that AET-capped GNPs are mostly bound to the MCF-7 cell membrane, while Glu-GNPs enter the cells and are distributed in the cytoplasm. After MCF-7 cell uptake of Glu-GNPs, or binding of AET-GNPs, the in vitro cytotoxicity effects are observed at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The results show that these functional GNPs have little or no toxicity to these cells. To validate the enhanced killing effect on cancer cells, various forms of radiation are applied such as 200 kVp X-rays and gamma-rays, to the cells, both with and without functional GNPs. By comparison with irradiation alone, the results show that GNPs significantly enhance cancer killing.

  19. Predictive Factors of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Soliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiation-induced lung toxicity is an important dose-limiting toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy, for which there are no generally accepted predictive factors. This study seeks to identify risk factors associated with the development of severe radiation-induced lung toxicity using clinical and dosimetric parameters. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 54 patients with histologically proven stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with three dimensional-conformal radiotherapy at Alexandria Main University Hospital between January 2008 and December 2011. The original treatment plans for those patients were restored and imported to a treatment planning system. Lung dose–volume histograms and various dosimetric parameters were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The following grades of radiation-induced lung toxicity were observed in patients - grade 0: 17 (31.5%, grade 1: 5 (9.3%, grade 2: 13 (24.1%, grade 3: 15 (27.8%, and grade 5: 4 (7.4%. A total of 19 (35.2% patients developed grade ≥3 and were considered to have an event. Univariate analysis showed that age, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and location of the primary tumor had significant associations with severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Other dosimetric variables such as tumor side, histology, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, smoking, and gender showed no significant correlations with severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.001 and location of the primary tumor (P=0.010 were the only predictive factors for severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lower lung lobe tumors have a high risk of severe radiationinduced lung toxicity when treated with combined chemoradiotherapy. These easily obtained

  20. Analysis of radiation therapy in a model of triple-negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, DeeDee; Garcia-Glaessner, Alejandra; Palmieri, Diane; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J; Kramp, Tamalee; Gril, Brunilde; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lyle, Tiffany; Hua, Emily; Cameron, Heather A; Camphausen, Kevin; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    Most cancer patients with brain metastases are treated with radiation therapy, yet this modality has not yet been meaningfully incorporated into preclinical experimental brain metastasis models. We applied two forms of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to the brain-tropic 231-BR experimental brain metastasis model of triple-negative breast cancer. When compared to sham controls, WBRT as 3 Gy × 10 fractions (3 × 10) reduced the number of micrometastases and large metastases by 87.7 and 54.5 %, respectively (both p < 0.01); whereas a single radiation dose of 15 Gy × 1 (15 × 1) was less effective, reducing metastases by 58.4 % (p < 0.01) and 47.1 % (p = 0.41), respectively. Neuroinflammation in the adjacent brain parenchyma was due solely to a reaction from metastases, and not radiotherapy, while adult neurogenesis in brains was adversely affected following both radiation regimens. The nature of radiation resistance was investigated by ex vivo culture of tumor cells that survived initial WBRT ("Surviving" cultures). The Surviving cultures surprisingly demonstrated increased radiosensitivity ex vivo. In contrast, re-injection of Surviving cultures and re-treatment with a 3 × 10 WBRT regimen significantly reduced the number of large and micrometastases that developed in vivo, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. Micrometastases derived from tumor cells surviving initial 3 × 10 WBRT demonstrated a trend toward radioresistance upon repeat treatment (p = 0.09). The data confirm the potency of a fractionated 3 × 10 WBRT regimen and identify the brain microenvironment as a potential determinant of radiation efficacy. The data also nominate the Surviving cultures as a potential new translational model for radiotherapy.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach of early breast cancer: The biology applied to radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azria David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early breast cancer treatment is based on a multimodality approach with the application of clinical and histological prognostic factors to determine locoregional and systemic treatments. The entire scientific community is strongly involved in the management of this disease: radiologists for screening and early diagnosis, gynecologists, surgical oncologists and radiation oncologists for locoregional treatment, pathologists and biologists for personalized characterization, genetic counselors for BRCA mutation history and medical oncologists for systemic therapies. Recently, new biological tools have established various prognostic subsets of breast cancer and developed predictive markers for miscellaneous treatments. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of biological tools in the locoregional management of early breast cancer.

  2. Vascular-targeted photodynamic of prostate cancer phase with Tookad for recurrent prostate cancer following radiation therapy: initial clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Wilson, Brian C.; Bogaards, Arjen; Gertner, Mark R.; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Haider, Masoom A.; Elhilali, Mostafa; Trachtenberg, John

    2007-02-01

    We report on the first clinical application of vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy using a bacteriopheophorbide derivative, Tookad, in patients with localized prostate cancer following external beam radiation therapy. Patients received either escalating intravenous drug doses at a fixed light dose or escalated light doses at the highest photosensitizer dose. Two cylindrically diffusing fibers were placed transperineally in the prostate, along with light monitoring fibers in the prostate, urethra and rectum. Treatment response was assessed with 7-day gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI and 6-month biopsy. Lesion formation was strongly drug and light dose-dependent, with an apparent threshold response. Early biochemical and MRI responses support the clinical potential of TOOKAD-PDT to treat locally-recurrent prostate cancer.

  3. Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy and hyperthermia for recurrent rectal cancer. Efficacy and disadvantage of combined therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Takashi; Fujii, Ikuzo; Yoshino, Masanari; Nagata, Kenji; Imamura, Masahiro; Uda, Mitsunobu; Yamamoto, Keizo; Tanaka, Yoshimasa [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with intrapelvic recurrent rectal cancer were prescribed radiation alone (17 cases), radiation and chemotherapy (18 cases) or radiation with hyperthermia (12 cases) from 1989 to 1995. To discuss efficacies and disadvantages of these combined therapies, tumor response rate, pain control rate, duration of tumor control and pain control, and influence on patients` survival were evaluated. Radiation was delivered to the whole pelvis. Mean total dose was 45.5 Gy (1.5-2 Gy/fraction). Chemotherapy consisted 5-FU or CDDP and ADM. Hyperthermia were added 3-6 times concomitantly to the radiation. In all patients receiving more than 30 Gy radiation, tumor response rate was 56.8%. Tumor response rates were 35.3%, 43.7% and 41.7% in the radiation alone group, radiation and chemotherapy group and radiation with hyperthermia group respectively. Radiation combined chemotherapy was more effective for the tumor less than 5 cm diameter than radiation alone. In cases receiving over 50 Gy radiation, combined treatments were more effective than radiation alone. Pain relief was obtained in 75.9% of patients and there were no difference between three treatment groups. Tumor control was significantly prolonged in combined groups. Median survival periods were 6, 10 and 7 months for radiation alone, radiation and chemotherapy, and radiation with hyperthermia respectively. In PR cases and for tumors under 5 cm in diameter, there were no difference between three groups. In cases receiving over 50 Gy radiation, survival period was prolonged in radiation with hyperthermia. Fourteen patients developed acute toxicity (Leucopenia) and late complication due to bowel obstruction. The incidence of bowel complication was 27.8% for radiation and chemotherapy and 33.3% for radio-hyperthermia, while 17.6%, significantly low percentage, for radiation alone. Bowel obstruction may occur positively correlated with postsurgical adhesions and infections at initial surgery. (K.H.)

  4. A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in cervical cancer (cervix uteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Nina; Tropé, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2003; 42: 357-365). This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7 952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34 024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplatin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages ( >IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications.

  5. Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Planning for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yujiao [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Zhang, Fan [Occupational and Environmental Safety Office, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Jing, E-mail: jing.cai@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of adaptive planning on lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Forty of 66 consecutive lung SBRT patients were selected for a retrospective adaptive planning study. CBCT images acquired at each fraction were used for treatment planning. Adaptive plans were created using the same planning parameters as the original CT-based plan, with the goal to achieve comparable comformality index (CI). For each patient, 2 cumulative plans, nonadaptive plan (P{sub NON}) and adaptive plan (P{sub ADP}), were generated and compared for the following organs-at-risks (OARs): cord, esophagus, chest wall, and the lungs. Dosimetric comparison was performed between P{sub NON} and P{sub ADP} for all 40 patients. Correlations were evaluated between changes in dosimetric metrics induced by adaptive planning and potential impacting factors, including tumor-to-OAR distances (d{sub T-OAR}), initial internal target volume (ITV{sub 1}), ITV change (ΔITV), and effective ITV diameter change (Δd{sub ITV}). Results: 34 (85%) patients showed ITV decrease and 6 (15%) patients showed ITV increase throughout the course of lung SBRT. Percentage ITV change ranged from −59.6% to 13.0%, with a mean (±SD) of −21.0% (±21.4%). On average of all patients, P{sub ADP} resulted in significantly (P=0 to .045) lower values for all dosimetric metrics. Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} was found to correlate with changes in dose to 5 cc (ΔD5cc) of esophagus (r=0.61) and dose to 30 cc (ΔD30cc) of chest wall (r=0.81). Stronger correlations between Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} and ΔD30cc of chest wall were discovered for peripheral (r=0.81) and central (r=0.84) tumors, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric effects of adaptive lung SBRT planning depend upon target volume changes and tumor-to-OAR distances. Adaptive lung SBRT can potentially reduce dose to adjacent OARs if patients present large tumor volume shrinkage during the treatment.

  6. Primary non-small cell lung cancer in a transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskan, F. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg (Saar) (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Manapov, F. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-04-15

    The first case of primary lung cancer in a transplanted lung was described in 2001. Since then, only 5 cases of lung cancer in donated lung have been reported. We present one more patient with non-small cell cancer in the transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. In most cases of primary lung cancer in transplanted lung, rapid progression of the cancer was reported. Occurrence of the locoregional failure in our case could be explained by factors related to the treatment protocol and also to underlying immunosuppression.

  7. Assessment of uncertainties in radiation-induced cancer risk predictions at clinically relevant doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Moteabbed, M.; Paganetti, H., E-mail: hpaganetti@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Theoretical dose–response models offer the possibility to assess second cancer induction risks after external beam therapy. The parameters used in these models are determined with limited data from epidemiological studies. Risk estimations are thus associated with considerable uncertainties. This study aims at illustrating uncertainties when predicting the risk for organ-specific second cancers in the primary radiation field illustrated by choosing selected treatment plans for brain cancer patients. Methods: A widely used risk model was considered in this study. The uncertainties of the model parameters were estimated with reported data of second cancer incidences for various organs. Standard error propagation was then subsequently applied to assess the uncertainty in the risk model. Next, second cancer risks of five pediatric patients treated for cancer in the head and neck regions were calculated. For each case, treatment plans for proton and photon therapy were designed to estimate the uncertainties (a) in the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for a given treatment modality and (b) when comparing risks of two different treatment modalities. Results: Uncertainties in excess of 100% of the risk were found for almost all organs considered. When applied to treatment plans, the calculated LAR values have uncertainties of the same magnitude. A comparison between cancer risks of different treatment modalities, however, does allow statistically significant conclusions. In the studied cases, the patient averaged LAR ratio of proton and photon treatments was 0.35, 0.56, and 0.59 for brain carcinoma, brain sarcoma, and bone sarcoma, respectively. Their corresponding uncertainties were estimated to be potentially below 5%, depending on uncertainties in dosimetry. Conclusions: The uncertainty in the dose–response curve in cancer risk models makes it currently impractical to predict the risk for an individual external beam treatment. On the other hand, the ratio

  8. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  9. Radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: evaluation of complications and influence of radiation timing on outcomes in a large, population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hegarty

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of timing of salvage and adjuvant radiation therapy on outcomes after prostatectomy for prostate cancer.Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1995-2007 who had one or more adverse pathological features after prostatectomy. The final cohort of 6,137 eligible patients included men who received prostatectomy alone (n = 4,509 or with adjuvant (n = 894 or salvage (n = 734 radiation therapy. Primary outcomes were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and erectile dysfunction events and survival after treatment(s.Radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events, but not erectile dysfunction. In adjusted models, earlier treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy was not associated with increased rates of genitourinary or erectile dysfunction events compared to delayed salvage radiation therapy. Early adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with lower rates of gastrointestinal events that salvage radiation therapy, with hazard ratios of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.95 for procedure-defined and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59, 0.83 for diagnosis-defined events. There was no significant difference between ART and non-ART groups (SRT or RP alone for overall survival (HR = 1.13 95% CI = (0.96, 1.34 p = 0.148.Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events. However, earlier radiation therapy is not associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal, genitourinary or sexual events. These findings oppose the conventional belief that delaying radiation therapy reduces the risk of radiation-related complications.

  10. Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Kyung; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keun Chil; Lim Do Hoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Chan; Kwon, O Jung [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the response rate, acute toxicity, and survival rate of a combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer. Forty six patients with limited disease small-cell lung cancer who underwent combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy between October 1994 and April 1998 were evaluated. Six cycles of chemotherapy were planned either using a VIP regimen (etoposide, ifosfamide, and cis-platin) or a EP regimen (etoposide and cis-platin). Thoracic radiation therapy was planned to deliver 44 Gy using 10MV X-ray, starting concurrently with chemotherapy. Response was evaluated 4 weeks after the completion of the planned chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and the prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned only for the patients with complete responses. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the SWOG toxicity criteria, and the overall survival and disease-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier Method. The median follow-up period was 16 months (range:2 to 41 months). Complete response was achieved in 30 (65%) patients, of which 22 patients received prophylactic cranial irradiations. Acute toxicities over grade III were granulocytopenia in 23 (50%), anemia in 17 (37%), thrombo-cytopenia in nine (20%), alopecia in nine (20%), nausea/vomiting in five (11%), and peripheral neuropathy in one (2%). Chemotherapy was delayed in one patient, and the chemotherapy doses were reduced in 58 (24%) out of the total 246 cycles. No radiation esophagitis over grade III was observed, while interruption during radiation therapy for a mean of 8.3 days occurred in 21 patients. The local recurrences were observed in 8 patients and local progressions were in 6 patients, and the distant metastases in 17 patients. Among these, four patients had both the local relapse and the distant metastasis. Brain was the most common metastatic site (10 patients), followed by the liver as the next common site (4 patients). The

  11. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

  12. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after primary stereotactic body radiation therapy using CyberKnife for localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Hyun; Choi, In Young; Yoon, Sei Chul; Jang, Hong Seok; Moon, Hyong Woo; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and report on the oncologic outcomes for patients with localized prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using CyberKnife. Methods We extracted the list and data of 39 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who had undergone primary SBRT using CyberKnife between January 2008 and December 2012 from the Smart Prostate Cancer database system of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Changes in PSA over tim...

  13. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeev eDash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12 months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-SBRT.Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1 month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (p=0.02. Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, testosterone levels, and tumor stage were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side-effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians.

  14. Intensity modulated radiation therapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Results of feasibility study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Rui Bai; Guo-Hua Wu; Wei-Jian Guo; Xu-Dong Wu; Yuan Yao; Yin Chen; Ren-Hua Zhou; Dong-Qin Lu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with chemotherapy could increase radiation dose to gross tumor volume without severe acute radiation related toxicity by decreasing the dose to the surrounding normal tissue in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Twenty-one patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were evaluated in this clinical trial,Patients would receive the dose of IMRT from 21Gy to 30Gy in 7 to 10 fractions within two weeks after conventional radiotherapy of 30Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. The total escalation tumor dose would be 51, 54,57, 60Gy, respectively. 5-fluororacil (5-FU) or gemcitabine was given concurrently with radiotherapy during the treatment course.RESULTS: Sixteen patients who had completed the radiotherapy plan with doses of 51Gy (3 cases), 54Gy (3 cases), 57Gy (3 cases) and 60Gy (7 cases) were included for evaluation. The median levels of CA19-9 prior to and after radiotherapy were 716 U/ml and 255 U/ml respectively (P<0.001) in 13 patients who demonstrated high levels of CA19-9 before radiotherapy. Fourteen patients who suffered from pain could reduce at least 1/3-1/2 amount of analgesic intake and 5 among these patients got complete relief of pain. Ten patients improved in Kamofsky performance status (KPS). The median follow-up period was 8 months and one-year survival rate was 35 %. No patient suffered more than grade Ⅲ acute toxicities induced by radiotherapy.CONCLUSION: Sixty Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with late course IMRT technique combined with concurrent 5-FU chemotherapy can provide a definitely palliative benefit with tolerable acute radiation related toxicity for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  15. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by

  16. The Effects of Radiation and Dose-Fractionation on Cancer and Non-Tumor Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle E. Woloschak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Janus series of radiation experiments, conducted from 1970 to 1992, explored the effects of gamma and neutron radiation on animal lifespan and disease development. Data from these experiments presents an opportunity to conduct a large scale analysis of both tumor and non-tumor disease development. This work was focused on a subset of animals from the Janus series of experiments, comparing acute or fractionated exposures of gamma or neutron radiation on the hazards associated with the development of tumor and non-tumor diseases of the liver, lung, kidney or vascular system. This study also examines how the co-occurrence of non-tumor diseases may affect tumor-associated hazards. While exposure to radiation increases the hazard of dying with tumor and non-tumor diseases, dose fractionation modulates these hazards, which varies across different organ systems. Finally, the effect that concurrent non-cancer diseases have on the hazard of dying with a tumor also differs by organ system. These results highlight the complexity in the effects of radiation on the liver, lung, kidney and vascular system.

  17. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  18. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  19. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  20. Histamine prevents radiation-induced mesenchymal changes in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Tamara E; Mohamad, Nora A; Táquez Delgado, Mónica A; Vedoya, Guadalupe M; Crescenti, Ernesto J; Bergoc, Rosa M; Martín, Gabriela A; Cricco, Graciela P

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a prime option for treatment of solid tumors including breast cancer though side effects are usually present. Experimental evidence shows an increase in invasiveness of several neoplastic cell types through conventional tumor irradiation. The induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is proposed as an underlying cause of metastasis triggered by gamma irradiation. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of histamine on the ionizing radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition events in breast cancer cells with different invasive phenotype. We also evaluated the potential involvement of Src phosphorylation in the migratory capability of irradiated cells upon histamine treatment. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cells were exposed to a single dose of 2Gy of gamma radiation and five days after irradiation mesenchymal-like phenotypic changes were observed by optical microscope. The expression and subcellular localization of E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and Slug were determined by immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence. There was a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin after irradiation. E-cadherin and β-catenin were mainly localized in cytoplasm. Slug positive nuclei, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and cell migration and invasion were significantly increased. In addition, a significant enhancement in Src phosphorylation/activation could be determined by immunoblot in irradiated cells. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells also received 1 or 20μM histamine during 24h previous to be irradiated. Notably, pre-treatment of breast cancer cells with 20μM histamine prevented the mesenchymal changes induced by ionizing radiation and also reduced the migratory behavior of irradiated cells decreasing phospho-Src levels. Collectively, our results suggest that histamine may block events related to epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated mammary cancer

  1. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Helmbold, Irmgard [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Barnett, Gillian; Coles, Charlotte [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom (UK) (United Kingdom); Yarnold, John [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, I.C.M. – Institut regional du Cancer Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Koch, C. Anne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dunning, Alison M. [Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bliss, Judith M. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul; Rattay, Tim [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suga, Tomo [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kerns, Sarah L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NH (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.

  2. Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorek, Daniel L.J., E-mail: dthorek1@jhmi.edu [Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Robin M. [Tri-Institutional Training Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Weill Cornell Medical College, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Qing; Jeong, Jeho; Lupu, Mihaela E. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Alycia M.; Moynahan, Mary E.; Lowery, Maeve [Department of Medicine, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Ulmert, David [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Zanzonico, Pat; Deasy, Joseph O.; Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Russell, James, E-mail: russellj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry. Methods and Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors. Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth. Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response.

  3. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstede, Theresa M. [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lindberg, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  4. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Branch No 1 of State Research Center of Public Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Biophysics Inst.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-05-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external {gamma}-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr{sup -2} (F=44,5; P=0,007). For {sup 239}Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  5. Synthetic Genistein Glycosides Inhibiting EGFR Phosphorylation Enhance the Effect of Radiation in HCT 116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to find new EGFR inhibitors for use in combination with radiotherapy in the treatment of solid tumors has drawn our attention to compounds derived from genistein, a natural isoflavonoid. The antiproliferative potential of synthetic genistein derivatives used alone or in combination with ionizing radiation was evaluated in cancer cell lines using clonogenic assay. EGFR phosphorylation was assessed with western blotting. Genistein derivatives inhibited clonogenic growth of HCT 116 cancer cells additively or synergistically when used in combination with ionizing radiation, and decreased EGFR activation. Our preclinical evaluation of genistein-derived EGFR inhibitors suggests that these compounds are much more potent sensitizers of cells to radiation than the parent isoflavonoid, genistein and indicate that these compounds may be useful in the treatment of colon cancer with radiation therapy.

  6. Effect of Flavopiridol on Radiation-induced Apoptosis of Human Laryngeal and Lung Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suzy [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Eun Kyung; Lee, B. S.; Lee, Seung Hee; Park, B. S.; Wu, Hong Gyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the flavopiridol effect on radiation-induced apoptosis and expression of apoptosisrelated genes of human laryngeal and lung cancer cells. Materials and Methods: A human laryngeal cancer cell line, AMC-HN3 and a human lung cancer cell line, NCI-H460, were used in the study. The cells were divided into four groups according to the type of treatment: 1) control groups; 2) cells that were only irradiated; 3) cells treated only with flavopiridol; 4) cells treated with flavopiridol and radiation simultaneously. The cells were irradiated with 10 Gy of X-rays using a 4 MV linear accelerator. Flavopiridol was administered to the media at a concentration of 100 nM for 24 hours. We compared the fraction of apoptotic cells of each group 24 hours after the initiation of treatment. The fraction of apoptotic cells was detected by measurement of the sub-G1 fractions from a flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis-regulating genes, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), p53, p21, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: The sub-G1 fraction of cells was significantly increased in the combination treatment group, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Western blotting also showed an increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression in cells of the combination treatment group, as compared with cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Treatment with flavopiridol down regulated cyclin D1 expression of both cell lines but its effect on p53 and p21 expression was different according to each individual cell line. Flavopiridol did not affect the expression of phophorylated Akt in both cell lines. Conclusion: Treatment with flavopiridol increased radiation-induced apoptosis of both the human laryngeal and lung cancer cell lines. Flavopiridol effects on p53 and p21 expression were different according

  7. Probiotics for Rectal Volume Variation During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Yongkan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontaek, E-mail: rokwt@hanmail.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Juhye; Park, Dahl; Jeon, Hosang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Honggu; Kim, Taenam [Department of Urology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVC{sub R}), a crucial factor of prostate movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 × 10{sup 8} colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVC{sub R}, defined as the difference in rectal volume between the planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily megavoltage CT images, was analyzed. Results: Forty patients were randomized into 2 groups. The L acidophilus group showed significantly lower median rectal volume and median PVC{sub R} values than the placebo group. L acidophilus showed a significant reduction effect on the PVC{sub R} (P<.001). However, the radiation therapy fraction number did not significantly influence the PVC{sub R}. Conclusions: L acidophilus was useful in reducing the PVC{sub R}, which is the most important determining factor of prostate position, during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  8. Harnessing the Cancer Radiation Therapy by Lanthanide-Doped Zinc Oxide Based Theranostic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Behnaz; Mashinchian, Omid; Mousavi, Tayebeh; Karimi, Roya; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Amani, Amir

    2016-02-10

    In this paper, doping of europium (Eu) and gadolinium (Gd) as high-Z elements into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was designed to optimize restricted energy absorption from a conventional radiation therapy by X-ray. Gd/Eu-doped ZnO NPs with a size of 9 nm were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The cytotoxic effects of Eu/Gd-doped ZnO NPs were determined using MTT assay in L929, HeLa, and PC3 cell lines under dark conditions as well as exposure to ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ radiation. Doped NPs at 20 μg/mL concentration under an X-ray dose of 2 Gy were as efficient as 6 Gy X-ray radiation on untreated cells. It is thus suggested that the doped NPs may be used as photoinducers to increase the efficacy of X-rays within the cells, consequently, cancer cell death. The doped NPs also could reduce the received dose by normal cells around the tumor. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of doped NPs as CT/MRI nanoprobes. Results showed an efficient theranostic nanoparticulate system for simultaneous CT/MR imaging and cancer treatment.

  9. Comparative outcomes for three-dimensional conformal versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, J; Hoffe, S E; Almhanna, K; Dinwoodie, W; Yue, B; Fulp, W; Meredith, K L; Shridhar, R

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data suggests a benefit for using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the management of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed patients treated at our institution who received definitive or preoperative chemoradiation with either IMRT or 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) between October 2000 and January 2012. Kaplan Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate survival outcomes. We evaluated a total of 232 patients (138 IMRT, 94 3DCRT) who received a median dose of 50.4 Gy (range, 44-64.8) to gross disease. Median follow up for all patients, IMRT patients alone, and 3DCRT patients alone was 18.5 (range, 2.5-124.2), 16.5 (range, 3-59), and 25.9 months (range, 2.5-124.2), respectively. We observed no significant difference based on radiation technique (3DCRT vs. IMRT) with respect to median overall survival (OS) (median 29 vs. 32 months; P = 0.74) or median relapse free survival (median 20 vs. 25 months; P = 0.66). On multivariable analysis (MVA), surgical resection resulted in improved OS (HR 0.444; P 20% weight loss (OR 0.51; P = 0.050). Our data suggest that while IMRT-based chemoradiation for esophageal cancer does not impact survival there was significantly less toxicity. In the IMRT group there was significant decrease in weight loss and grade ≥3 toxicity compared to 3DCRT.

  10. Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel Poliglumex (PPX), Cisplatin, and Radiation (RT) for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Fontaine, J.; Dipetrillo, T.; Suntharalingam, M.; Horiba, N.; Oldenburg, N.; Oconnor, B.; Perez, K.; Birnbaum, A.; Battafarano, R.; Burrows, W.; Safran, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Paclitaxel poliglumex (PPX) is a drug conjugate that links paclitaxel to poly-L-glutamic acid thereby increasing its radiation enhancement factor to 4.0–8.0 compared to 1.5–2.0 for paclitaxel. In previous phase I studies, The Brown University Oncology Group evaluated PPX with concurrent radiation and PPX/cisplatin/RT. A phase II study was subsequently performed to evaluate the pathologic response rate of neoadjuvant PPX, cisplatin, and radiation for patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or GE junction with no evidence of distant metastasis. Patients received weekly PPX 50 mg/m2 and cisplatin 25 mg/m2 for 6 weeks with concurrent 50.4 Gy of radiation. Six to eight weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy, patients underwent surgical resection. Results: The study has completed accrual of 40 patients, 37 with adenocarcinoma and 3 with squamous cell cancer. The median age is 62 years. Toxicity data are available for the first 35 patients. Four of 35 patients experienced grade 4 non-hematologic toxicities, which included electrolyte abnormalities, glucose intolerance, hypersensitivity reaction, and thromboembolus. Eleven of 35 patients had grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities including electrolyte abnormalities (n=5), nausea (n=3), dysphagia (n=2), fatigue (n=2), glucose intolerance (n=2), and hypersensitivity reaction (n=1). Grade 3 anorexia was reported in only 1 patient who subsequently was given TPN. No patients required a feeding tube. There were no grade 4 hematologic toxicities; grade 3 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (n=2) and anemia (n=1). Of the first 28 patients undergoing surgery, all with adenocarcinoma, 7 of 28 (25%) have had a pathologic complete response. Conclusion: PPX, cisplatin and concurrent radiation is a well tolerated, easily administered regimen for esophageal cancer with a very low incidence of significant

  11. Current Role and Future Perspectives of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Radiation Oncology for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zapotoczna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic neoplasms are not uniformly distributed within the prostate volume. With recent developments in three-dimensional intensity-modulated and imageguided radiation therapy, it is possible to treat different volumes within the prostate to different thresholds of doses. This approach has the potential to adapt the dose to the biologic aggressiveness of various clusters of tumor cells within the gland. The definition of tumor burden volume in prostate cancer can be facilitated by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The increasing sensitivity and specificity of MRS to the prostate is causing new interest in its potential role in the definition of target subvolumes at higher risk of failure following radical radiotherapy. Prostate MRS might also play a role as a noninvasive predictive factor for tumor response and treatment outcome. We review the use of MRS in radiation therapy for prostate cancer by evaluating its accuracy in the classification of aggressive cancer regions and target definition; its current role in the radiotherapy planning process, with special interest in technical issues behind the successful inclusion of MRS in clinical use; and available early experiences as a prognostic tool.

  12. Breast cancer risk among Swedish hemangioma patients and possible consequences of radiation-induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidemueller, Markus, E-mail: markus.eidemueller@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Holmberg, Erik [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Goeteborg (Sweden); Jacob, Peter [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Lundell, Marie [Department of Medical Physics, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-10-02

    Breast cancer incidence among 17,158 female Swedish hemangioma patients was analyzed with empirical excess relative risk models and with a biologically-based model of carcinogenesis. The patients were treated in infancy mainly by external application of radium-226. The mean and median absorbed doses to the breast were 0.29 and 0.04 Gy, and a total of 678 breast cancer cases have been observed. Both models agree very well in the risk estimates with an excess relative risk and excess absolute risk at the age of 50 years, about the mean age of breast cancer incidence, of 0.25 Gy{sup -1}(95% CI 0.14; 0.37) and 30.7 (10{sup 5}BYRGy){sup -1} (95% CI 16.9; 42.8), respectively. Models incorporating effects of radiation-induced genomic instability were developed and applied to the hemangioma cohort. The biologically-based description of the radiation risk was significantly improved with a model of genomic instability at an early stage of carcinogenesis.

  13. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giorgio, M; Busto, E; Mairal, L; Menendez, P; Roth, B; Sardi, M; Taja, M R; Vallerga, M B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro...

  14. 3D radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer: the Shanghai Cancer Hospital experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available We evaluate the outcomes of irradiation by using three-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-RT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer. Between 2007 and 2010, 50 patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer were treated using 3D-RT or IMRT. The median time interval between the initial treatment and the start of irradiation was 12 (6-51 months. Salvage surgery was performed before irradiation in 5 patients, and 38 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Sixteen patients underwent 3D-RT, and 34 patients received IMRT. Median follow-up for all the patients was 18.3 months. Three-year overall survival and locoregional control were 56.1% and 59.7%, respectively. Three-year progression-free survival and disease-free survival were 65.3% and 64.3%, respectively. Nine patients developed grade 3 leukopenia. Grade 5 acute toxicity was not observed in any of the patients; however, 2 patients developed Grade 3 late toxicity. 3D-RT or IMRT is effective for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer, with the 3-year overall survival of 56.1%, and its complications are acceptable. Long-term follow-up and further studies are needed to confirm the role of 3D-RT or IMRT in the multimodality management of the disease.

  15. SU-E-T-320: The Effect of Survivin Perturbation On the Radiation Response of Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Woodward, W [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family and is well-known for its universal over-expression in human cancers. Due to its role in apoptosis and cellular proliferation, survivin is implicated in the radiation response in several cancer types, and antisurvivin treatments have had success as a radiation sensitizer in many preclinical cancer models. As no studies to date have reported survivin as a factor affecting radiation resistance in breast cancer models, we sought to evaluate the synergistic relationship between survivin function and irradiation in breast cancer cell lines. Methods: Information regarding survivin protein expression in breast cancer was retrieved from three public databases: Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and GOBO. For the in vitro studies, survivin function was compromised by transducing a non-functional mutant form (survivin-DN) into two breast cancer cell lines, the estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 and the triple-negative, inflammatory SUM149. Cell growth was compared in the survivin-DN and control populations with colony-formation assays. To assess how survivin affects radiation response, clonogenic assays were performed by irradiating the cell lines up to 6 Gy. Results: From the public databases, survivin is more highly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer compared to all other subtypes, and is prognostic of poor survival in all breast cancer patients. In MCF7, the survivin-DN population had decreased colony-formation potential; the opposite was true in SUM149. In the clonogenic assays, abrogation of survivin function radio-protected MCF7 cells in monolayer and 3D growth conditions, while SUM149 survivin-DN cells were radiosensitized in monolayer conditions. Conclusion: We observed synergy between survivin function and radiation, although the results between the two cell lines were disparate. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanism of this discrepancy, including evaluation

  16. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  17. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  18. ATM Polymorphisms Predict Severe Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Huihua [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan (China); Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Qiming; Liu, Hongliang [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Li-E [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Qingyi, E-mail: qwei@mdanderson.org [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene mediates detection and repair of DNA damage. We investigated associations between ATM polymorphisms and severe radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: We genotyped 3 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ATM (rs1801516 [D1853N/5557G>A], rs189037 [-111G>A] and rs228590) in 362 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who received definitive (chemo)radiation therapy. The cumulative severe RP probabilities by genotypes were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The associations between severe RP risk and genotypes were assessed by both logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard model with time to event considered. Results: Of 362 patients (72.4% of non-Hispanic whites), 56 (15.5%) experienced grade ≥3 RP. Patients carrying ATM rs189037 AG/GG or rs228590 TT/CT genotypes or rs189037G/rs228590T/rs1801516G (G-T-G) haplotype had a lower risk of severe RP (rs189037: GG/AG vs AA, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.83, P=.009; rs228590: TT/CT vs CC, HR=0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-0.97, P=.036; haplotype: G-T-G vs A-C-G, HR=0.52, 95% CI, 0.35-0.79, P=.002). Such positive findings remained in non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions: ATM polymorphisms may serve as biomarkers for susceptibility to severe RP in non-Hispanic whites. Large prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

  19. A study of the radiobiological modeling of the conformal radiation therapy in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakuryal, Anil Prasad

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortalities in the world. The precise diagnosis of the disease helps the patients to select the appropriate modality of the treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The physics of X-radiation and the advanced imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the efficient diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in cancer. However, the accuracy of the measurements of the metabolic target volumes (MTVs) in the PET/CT dual-imaging modality is always limited. Similarly the external beam radiation therapy (XRT) such as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most common modality in the radiotherapy treatment. These treatments are simulated and evaluated using the XRT plans and the standard methodologies in the commercial planning system. However, the normal organs are always susceptible to the radiation toxicity in these treatments due to lack of knowledge of the appropriate radiobiological models to estimate the clinical outcomes. We explored several methodologies to estimate MTVs by reviewing various techniques of the target volume delineation using the static phantoms in the PET scans. The review suggests that the more precise and practical method of delineating PET MTV should be an intermediate volume between the volume coverage for the standardized uptake value (SUV; 2.5) of glucose and the 50% (40%) threshold of the maximum SUV for the smaller (larger) volume delineations in the radiotherapy applications. Similarly various types of optimal XRT plans were designed using the CT and PET/CT scans for the treatment of various types of cancer patients. The qualities of these plans were assessed using the universal plan-indices. The dose-volume criteria were also examined in the targets and organs by analyzing the conventional dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The biological models such as tumor

  20. Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation. (author)

  1. Treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: multiple daily dose fractionated radiation therapy and sequential multimodal treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M; Browde, S; Bezwoda, W R; de Moor, N G; Derman, D P

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with advanced head and neck cancer were entered into a randomised trial comparing chemotherapy (DDP + bleomycin) alone, multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy plus multiple fractionated radiation therapy. Multimodal therapy gave a significantly higher response rate (69%) than either single-treatment modality. The use of a multiple daily dose fractionation allowed radiation therapy to be completed over 10 treatment days, and the addition of chemotherapy to the radiation treatment did not significantly increase toxicity. Patients receiving multimodal therapy also survived significantly longer (median 50 weeks) than those receiving single-modality therapy (median 24 weeks).

  2. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  3. Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy as monotherapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has been advanced as monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer. We examined the dose distributions and early clinical outcomes using this modality for the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods Forty-one sequential hormone-naïve intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients received 35–36.25 Gy of CyberKnife-delivered SBRT in 5 fractions. Radiation dose distributions were analyzed for coverage of potential microscopic ECE by measuring the distance from the prostatic capsule to the 33 Gy isodose line. PSA levels, toxicities, and quality of life (QOL measures were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results All patients completed treatment with a mean coverage by the 33 Gy isodose line extending >5 mm beyond the prostatic capsule in all directions except posteriorly. Clinical responses were documented by a mean PSA decrease from 7.67 ng/mL pretreatment to 0.64 ng/mL at the median follow-up of 21 months. Forty patients remain free from biochemical progression. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Mean EPIC urinary irritation/obstruction and bowel QOL scores exhibited a transient decline post-treatment with a subsequent return to baseline. No significant change in sexual QOL was observed. Conclusions In this intermediate-risk patient population, an adequate radiation dose was delivered to areas of expected microscopic ECE in the majority of patients. Although prospective studies are needed to confirm long-term tumor control and toxicity, the short-term PSA response, biochemical relapse-free survival rate, and QOL in this interim analysis are comparable to results reported for prostate brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Trial registration The Georgetown Institutional Review Board has approved this retrospective study (IRB 2009–510.

  4. Radiation exposure to surgical staff during F-18-FDG-guided cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.A.; Hesse, B. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chakera, A.H.; Schmidt, G. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery and Burn Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, T.L. [Herlev University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Binderup, T. [University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Grossjohann, H.S. [Section of Ultrasound, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Friis, E. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, C.P. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Abdominal Surgery, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kjaer, A. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-03-15

    High-energy gamma probes have recently become commercially available, developed for {sup 18}F-FDG probe-guided surgery. The radiation received by the staff in the operating room might limit the use of it, but has never been determined. We therefore wanted to measure the absorbed staff doses at operations where patients had received a preoperative injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. Thirty-four patients with different cancers (breast cancer, melanoma, gastrointestinal cancers, respectively) were operated. At every operation the surgeon was monitored with a TLD tablet on his finger of the operating hand and a TLD tablet on the abdomen. The surgeon and anaesthesiologist were also monitored using electronic dosimeters placed in the trousers lining at 25 operations. The dose rate to the surgeon's abdominal wall varied between 7.5-13.2 {mu}Sv/h, depending on tumour location. The doses to the anaesthesiologists and the finger doses to the surgeon were much lower. About 350-400 MBq, i.e. ca. eight times higher activities than those used in the present study are supposed to be necessary for guiding surgery. It can be calculated from the body doses measured that a surgeon can perform between 150-260 h of surgery without exceeding permissible limits for professional workers. The radiation load to the operating staff will generally be so small that it does not present any limitation for FDG-guided surgery. However, it is recommended to monitor the surgical staff considering that the surgeon may be exposed to other radiation sources, and since the staff often includes women of child-bearing age. (orig.)

  5. Clinical and biochemical outcomes of men undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, David; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Safdieh, Joseph; Weiner, Joseph; Rotman, Marvin; Schwartz, David [Veterans Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Rineer, Justin [University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We analyzed outcomes of patients with prostate cancer undergoing either radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) +/- salvage radiation or definitive radiation therapy (RT) +/- androgen deprivation. From 2003-2010 there were 251 patients who underwent RRP and 469 patients who received RT (> or =7,560 cGy) for prostate cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed with the log-rank test to compare biochemical control (bCR), distant metastatic-free survival (DMPFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) between the two groups. The median follow-up was 70 months and 61.3% of the men were African American. For low risk disease the 6-year bCR were 90.3% for RT and 85.6% for RRP (p = 0.23) and the 6-year post-salvage bCR were 90.3% vs. 90.9%, respectively (p = 0.84). For intermediate risk disease the 6-year bCR were 82.6% for RT and 59.7% for RRP (p < 0.001) and 82.6% vs. 74.0%, respectively, after including those salvaged with RT (p = 0.06). For high risk disease, the 6-year bCR were 67.4% for RT and 41.3% for RRP (p < 0.001) and after including those salvaged with RT was 67.4% vs. 43.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to DMPFS or PCSS. Treatment approaches utilizing RRP +/- salvage radiation or RT +/- androgen deprivation yielded equivalent DMPFS and PCSS outcomes. Biochemical control rates, using their respective definitions, appeared equivalent or better in those who received treatment with RT.

  6. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  7. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  8. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Taekyu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, VHS Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyoung [Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungmin [Changduk Girls' High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Won Ki, E-mail: wonki.kang@samsung.com [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Methods and Materials: Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interfering RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. Results: The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. Conclusion: We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted.

  9. Radiation oncology--linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.

  10. Radiation therapy and androgen deprivation in the management of high risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Dal Pra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of radiation therapy (RT and androgen deprivation for patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer is commonly accepted as the standard treatment among uro-oncologists. Preclinical studies have provided rationale for the use of this combination. Additionally, results of phase 3 studies using conventional doses of RT have supported the combined approach. Other phase 3 studies have also shown a benefit for using higher doses of RT; however, the role of androgen deprivation in this context is not clear. The optimal duration of the androgen deprivation, in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting, is still under investigation. This article critically reviews the data on the use of RT combined with androgen deprivation for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer with emphasis on the results of phase 3 trials.

  11. Trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia with various heating modalities in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, S; Ishioka, K; Kawada, Y

    1984-01-01

    A microwave heating apparatus with a frequency of 2,450 MHz and an inductive radio-frequency heating apparatus were developed for hyperthermia for cancer therapy, and clinical trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia were conducted. During the same period, a capacitive type radiofrequency unit was used. The tumors included superficial tumors, cancer of the uterine cervix, recurrent tumors at the stump of the cervix, and some deep-seated tumors. Cases showing complete response were as follows: 5 out of 13 cases treated with 2,450 MHz heating for superficial tumors, 8 out of 17 cases treated with 2,450 MHz intracavitary heating, and 2 out of 15 cases treated with radiofrequency heating. A feasibility study of various heating modalities was performed.

  12. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. RESULTS OF 192IR CONTACT RADIATION THERAPY FOR CERVIX UTERI CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kravets

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of treatment for locally advanced cervix uteri cancer, by applying a 192Ir radioactive source for contact radiation. Three- and five-year overall and relapse-free survival rates have been obtained for stages: 82.5 and 82.5%; 78.4 and 78.4% for Stage IIb; 57 and 52.3%; 41.6 and 41.6 for IIIb; 53.3 and 47.3%; 42.4 and 37.7% for IVb, respectively.

  14. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Freilich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.

  15. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)

  16. Serum Amyloid A as a Predictive Marker for Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Shan [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Heng-Jui [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yue-Cune [Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Su-Chen; Ko, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chih-Chia [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Yu-Wung; Jiang, Jiunn-Song [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, Kwan-Hwa, E-mail: M006565@ms.skh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Science and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate serum markers associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) grade ≥3 in patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment serum samples from patients with stage Ib-IV lung cancer who developed RP within 1 year after radiation therapy were analyzed to identify a proteome marker able to stratify patients prone to develop severe RP by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Dosimetric parameters and 3 biological factors were compared. Results: Serum samples from 16 patients (28%) with severe RP (grade 3-4) and 42 patients (72%) with no or mild RP (grade 0-2) were collected for analysis. All patients received a median of 54 Gy (range, 42-70 Gy) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with a mean lung dose (MLD) of 1502 cGy (range, 700-2794 cGy). An m/z peak of 11,480 Da was identified by SELDI-TOF-MS, and serum amyloid A (SAA) was the primary splitter serum marker. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of SAA (0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.00) was higher than those of C-reactive protein (0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94), interleukin-6 (0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), and MLD (0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77). The best sensitivity and specificity of combined SAA and MLD for predicting RP were 88.9% and 96.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Baseline SAA could be used as an auxiliary marker for predicting severe RP. Extreme care should be taken to limit the lung irradiation dose in patients with high SAA.

  17. Role of Postmastectomy Radiation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowble, Barbara L., E-mail: bfowble@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Einck, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, Danny N. [Athena Breast Health Network, Program Management Office, San Francisco, CA (United States); McCloskey, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayadev, Jyoti [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Yashar, Catheryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chen, Steven L. [Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hwang, E. Shelley [Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF). Methods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from University of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed. Results: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lymphovascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having {<=}10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk. Conclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within University of California Athena Breast Health Network.

  18. Putting into Evidence: The Effect of Oral Glutamine on Radiation-induced Esophagitis among Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Waleed Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral glutamine supplementation is highly effective in preventing and delaying radiation-induced esophagitis, one of the most common discomforting side effects of radiation to the thoracic area among lung cancer patients. According to the literature, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all cancers with the highest incidence worldwide. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of oral glutamine supplementation in preventing radiation-induced esophagitis among lung cancer patients. Several databases have been searched and seven studies included in this review (five randomized control studies, one quasi-experimental study and one systematic review with a total of 453 patients. The patients in these studies were diagnosed with lung cancer regardless of type or stage. The patients were either assigned to an intervention group (glutamine supplementation or a control group. These studies were conducted in the US, Turkey, Spain, and Greece from 2003 until 2012. The results showed that 10 mg of oral glutamine three times per day on a daily basis (from one month before starting radiation until one month after completion of radiationwas effective in preventing and delaying radiation-induced esophagitis.

  19. Perceptions of Radiation Oncologists and Urologists on Sources and Type of Evidence to Inform Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Leona C. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Delpe, Sophia [Department of Urology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Shah, Nilay D. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y. [HealthPartners, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Tilburt, Jon C. [Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Biomedical Ethics Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Karnes, R. Jeffrey [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nguyen, Paul L. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes and Public Policy Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B. [Cancer Outcomes and Public Policy Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Division of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sun, Maxine [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Ranasinghe, Weranja K.B. [Division of Urology, Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kim, Simon P., E-mail: simkim@me.com [Department of Urology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes and Public Policy Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform a national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists about the type of resources used and the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice in localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From a random sample, 1422 physicians were mailed a survey assessing the types of information used and what level of evidence could alter their clinical practice in prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify differences in physician characteristics for each outcome. Results: Survey response rates were similar for radiation oncologists and urologists (44% vs 46%; P=.46). Specialty-specific journals represented the most commonly used resource for informing the clinical practice for radiation oncologists (65%) and urologists (70%). Relative to radiation oncologists, urologists were less likely to report utilizing top-tier medical journals (25% vs 39%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; P=.01) or cancer journals (22% vs 51%; adjusted OR 0.50; P<.001) but more likely to rely on clinical guidelines (46% vs 38%; adjusted OR 1.6; P=.006). Both radiation oncologists and urologists most commonly reported large randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence to change treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer (85% vs 77%; P=.009). Conclusions: Both specialties rely on their own specialty-specific journals and view randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice. Our study provides a context on meaningful ways of disseminating evidence for localized prostate cancer.

  20. Honokiol in combination with radiation targets notch signaling to inhibit colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Mammen, Joshua M V; Ramalingam, Satish; He, Zhiyun; Zhang, Youcheng; Umar, Shahid; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Anant, Shrikant

    2012-04-01

    Cancer stem cells are implicated in resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. Honokiol, a biphenolic compound has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various ailments. In this study, we determined the ability of honokiol to enhance the sensitivity of colon cancer stem cells to IR. The combination of honokiol and IR suppressed proliferation and colony formation while inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells in culture. There were also reduced numbers and size of spheroids, which was coupled with reduced expression of cancer stem cell marker protein DCLK1. Flow cytometry studies confirmed that the honokiol-IR combination reduced the number of DCLK1+ cells. In addition, there were reduced levels of activated Notch-1, its ligand Jagged-1, and the downstream target gene Hes-1. Furthermore, expression of components of the Notch-1 activating γ-secretase complex, presenilin 1, nicastrin, Pen2, and APH-1 was also suppressed. On the other hand, the honokiol effects were mitigated when the Notch intracellular domain was expressed. To determine the effect of honokiol-IR combination on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice tumor xenografts were administered honokiol intraperitoneally and exposed to IR. The honokiol-IR combination significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. In addition, there were reduced levels of DCLK1 and the Notch signaling-related proteins in the xenograft tissues. Together, these data suggest that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer growth that targets the stem cells by inhibiting the γ-secretase complex and the Notch signaling pathway. These studies warrant further clinical evaluation for the combination of honokiol and IR for treating colon cancers.

  1. Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of breast cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D; Freedman, D Michal; Linet, Martha S; Kitahara, Cari M; Liu, Wayne; Cahoon, Elizabeth K

    2016-11-01

    Although there are few environmental risk factors for breast cancer, some epidemiologic studies found that exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR) may lower risk. Prior epidemiologic studies are limited by narrow ambient UVR ranges and lack lifetime exposure assessment. To address these issues, we studied a cohort with residences representing a wide range of ambient UVR. Using the nationwide U.S. Radiologic Technologists study (USRT), we examined the association between breast cancer risk and UVR based on ambient UVR, time outdoors, a combined variable of ambient UVR and time outdoors (combined UVR), and sun susceptibility factors. Participants reported location of residence and hours spent outdoors during five age periods. Ambient UVR was derived by linking satellite-based annual UVR estimates to self-reported residences. Lifetime values were calculated by averaging these measures accounting for years spent in that location. We examined the risk of breast cancer among 36,725 participants (n=716 cases) from baseline questionnaire completion (2003-2005) through 2012-2013 using Cox proportional hazards models. Breast cancer risk was unrelated to ambient UVR (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=1.22, 95% CI: 0.95-1.56, p-trend=0.36), time outdoors (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-1.10, p-trend=0.46), or combined UVR (HR lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile =0.85, 95% CI: 0.67-1.08, p-trend=0.46). Breast cancer risk was not associated with skin complexion, eye or hair color, or sunburn history. This study does not support the hypothesis that UVR exposure lowers breast cancer risk.

  2. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  3. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  4. Solar ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the annual numbers of performed solid organ transplants have continuously increased world-wide. Solid organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greater risk to develop malignancies, with skin cancer representing the most common neoplasia. Additionally, OTRs in general develop a more aggressive form of malignancies. In consequence, dermatologic surveillance is of high importance for OTRs and these patients represent an increasing and significant challenge to clinicians including dermatologists. In OTRs, patient and organ survival have increased considerably and continuously over the past two decades as a result of better immunosuppressive regimens and better posttransplant care. Great progress has been made in our understanding that individual immunosuppressive regiments differ in their effect on skin cancer risk in OTRs, and that effects of individual immunosuppressive regiments on skin cancer risk depend on various other factors including viral infections. Since sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most humans, OTRs, who have to protect themselves consequently against solar or artificial UV radiation, are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is not only associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease, but with other severe health problems including various types of malignancies. As a consequence, screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiency is warranted in OTRs. In this review, we give an update on our present understanding of skin cancer surveillance in OTRs.

  5. Use of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Radiation Treatment Planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Berberoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT plays an important role in the treatment of lung cancer. Accurate diagnosis and staging are crucial in the delivery of RT with curative intent. Target miss can be prevented by accurate determination of tumor contours during RT planning. Currently, tumor contours are determined manually by computed tomography (CT during RT planning. This method leads to differences in delineation of tumor volume between users. Given the change in RT tools and methods due to rapidly developing technology, it is now more significant to accurately delineate the tumor tissue. F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (F18 FDG PET/CT has been established as an accurate method in correctly staging and detecting tumor dissemination in lung cancer. Since it provides both anatomic and biologic information, F18 FDG PET decreases interuser variability in tumor delineation. For instance, tumor volumes may be decreased as atelectasis and malignant tissue can be more accurately differentiated, as well as better evaluation of benign and malignant lymph nodes given the difference in FDG uptake. Using F18 FDG PET/CT, the radiation dose can be escalated without serious adverse effects in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of F18 FDG PET/CT for RT planning in lung cancer.

  6. Radiation therapy before cystectomy in the management of patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Kim, Y; Lee, M; Chang, B; Whitmore, W F

    1982-01-01

    During the preceding two decades, 309 patients with bladder cancer were treated by irradiation before cystectomy at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A radical tumour dose averaging 6000 cGy (rad) in six weeks was given to 104 patients who underwent radical cystectomy +/- one year later for persistent or recurrent cancer. Pre-operative pelvic irradiation was planned in 205 patients who received either 4000 cGy in four weeks (119) or 2000 cGy in one week (86) and underwent radical cystectomy after +/- six weeks and two days, respectively. The determinate five-year survival rates (41-43%) were similar with the three irradiation regimes; mortality under five years was mainly due to cancer recurrence locally and/or distally. Incidence of recurrence with radiation-induced stage reduction (21%) was lower, especially within the pelvis, than with no stage reduction (51%). Treatment results with planned pre-operative irradiation, especially in high stage tumours, were more favourable with the shorter 2000 cGy regimen of high fractional doses than with the conventionally fractionated 4000 cGy regimen.

  7. Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wheeler, David C; Park, Yikyung; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Freedman, D Michal; Abnet, Christian C

    2012-09-15

    Ecologic studies have reported that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with cancer; however, little evidence is available from prospective studies. We aimed to assess the association between an objective measure of ambient UVR exposure and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a large, regionally diverse cohort [450,934 white, non-Hispanic subjects (50-71 years) in the prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study] after accounting for individual-level confounding risk factors. Estimated erythemal UVR exposure from satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data from NASA was linked to the US Census Bureau 2000 census tract (centroid) of baseline residence for each subject. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for quartiles of UVR exposure. Restricted cubic splines examined nonlinear relationships. Over 9 years of follow-up, UVR exposure was inversely associated with total cancer risk (N = 75,917; highest versus lowest quartile; HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99; p-trend exposure was associated with increased melanoma risk (highest versus lowest quartile; HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.13-1.32; p-trend exposure on cancer.

  8. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  9. Does adjuvant radiation therapy benefit women with small mammography-detected breast cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzak, K.; Dudalski, N.; Pritchard, K.; Sun, P.; Narod, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women with small nonpalpable breast tumours have an excellent prognosis. The benefit of radiotherapy in this group of low-risk women is unknown. Methods A cohort of 1595 women with stages i–iii invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery were followed for local recurrence. Using t-tests, baseline demographic data and tumour characteristics were compared for the women who had palpable (n = 1023) and mammography-detected (n = 572) breast cancers. The 15-year actuarial risk of local recurrence was estimated using a Kaplan–Meier method, stratified for adjuvant radiation therapy (yes or no), tumour palpability (palpable or not), and tumour size (≤1 cm or >1 cm). Hazard ratios (hrs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% cis) were calculated using a multivariate Cox regression model. Results were considered statistically significant if 2-tailed p values were less than 0.05. Results Among women with a nonpalpable tumour, the 15-year actuarial rates of local recurrence were, respectively, 13.9% and 18.3% for those treated and not treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (hr: 0.65; 95%ci: 0.40 to 1.06; p = 0.08). Among women with small nonpalpable breast cancers (≤1.0 cm), the rates were 14.6% and 13.4% respectively (p = 0.67). The absolute reduction in 15-year local recurrence was 11.0% for women with palpable tumours. Conclusions Our results suggest that women with small (<1 cm) screen-detected nonpalpable breast cancers likely derive little benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy; however, an adequately powered randomized trial would be required to make definitive conclusions. PMID:28270722

  10. Radiation dose and cancer risk from pediatric CT examinations on 64-slice CT: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shiting [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Law, Martin Wai-Ming [Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Huang Bingsheng [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry [Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Khong, Pek-Lan, E-mail: plkhong@hkucc.hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To measure the radiation dose from CT scans in an anthropomorphic phantom using a 64-slice MDCT, and to estimate the associated cancer risk. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with a 5-year-old phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Four protocols; head CT, thorax CT, abdomen CT and pelvis CT were studied. Cancer risks, in the form of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence, were estimated by linear extrapolation using the organ radiation doses and the LAR data. Results: The effective doses for head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis CT, were 0.7 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 3.0 mSv, 1.3 mSv respectively. The organs with the highest dose were; for head CT, salivary gland (22.33 mGy); for thorax CT, breast (7.89 mGy); for abdomen CT, colon (6.62 mGy); for pelvis CT, bladder (4.28 mGy). The corresponding LARs for boys and girls were 0.015-0.053% and 0.034-0.155% respectively. The organs with highest LARs were; for head CT, thyroid gland (0.003% for boys, 0.015% for girls); for thorax CT, lung for boys (0.014%) and breast for girls (0.069%); for abdomen CT, colon for boys (0.017%) and lung for girls (0.016%); for pelvis CT, bladder for both boys and girls (0.008%). Conclusion: The effective doses from these common pediatric CT examinations ranged from 0.7 mSv to 3.5 mSv and the associated lifetime cancer risks were found to be up to 0.16%, with some organs of higher radiosensitivity including breast, thyroid gland, colon and lungs.

  11. A stochastic model for tumor geometry evolution during radiation therapy in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yifang; Lee, Chi-Guhn [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y., E-mail: tcychan@mie.utoronto.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Islam, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Physics, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop mathematical models to predict the evolution of tumor geometry in cervical cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: The authors develop two mathematical models to estimate tumor geometry change: a Markov model and an isomorphic shrinkage model. The Markov model describes tumor evolution by investigating the change in state (either tumor or nontumor) of voxels on the tumor surface. It assumes that the evolution follows a Markov process. Transition probabilities are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and depend on the states of neighboring voxels. The isomorphic shrinkage model describes tumor shrinkage or growth in terms of layers of voxels on the tumor surface, instead of modeling individual voxels. The two proposed models were applied to data from 29 cervical cancer patients treated at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and then compared to a constant volume approach. Model performance was measured using sensitivity and specificity. Results: The Markov model outperformed both the isomorphic shrinkage and constant volume models in terms of the trade-off between sensitivity (target coverage) and specificity (normal tissue sparing). Generally, the Markov model achieved a few percentage points in improvement in either sensitivity or specificity compared to the other models. The isomorphic shrinkage model was comparable to the Markov approach under certain parameter settings. Convex tumor shapes were easier to predict. Conclusions: By modeling tumor geometry change at the voxel level using a probabilistic model, improvements in target coverage and normal tissue sparing are possible. Our Markov model is flexible and has tunable parameters to adjust model performance to meet a range of criteria. Such a model may support the development of an adaptive paradigm for radiation therapy of cervical cancer.

  12. Calories, carbohydrates, and cancer therapy with radiation: exploiting the five R's through dietary manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J; Champ, Colin E

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive tumors typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to radiation therapy and cancer progression via several molecular and physiologic mechanisms. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms utilize the same molecular pathways that are altered through calorie and/or carbohydrate restriction. Furthermore, poorer prognosis in cancer patients who display a glycolytic phenotype characterized by metabolic alterations, such as obesity and diabetes, is now well established, providing another link between metabolic pathways and cancer progression. We review the possible roles for calorie restriction (CR) and very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) in modulating the five R's of radiotherapy to improve the therapeutic window between tumor control and normal tissue complication probability. Important mechanisms we discuss include (1) improved DNA repair in normal, but not tumor cells; (2) inhibition of tumor cell repopulation through modulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway downstream of insulin and IGF1; (3) redistribution of normal cells into more radioresistant phases of the cell cycle; (4) normalization of the tumor vasculature by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α downstream of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway; (5) increasing the intrinsic radioresistance of normal cells through ketone bodies but decreasing that of tumor cells by targeting glycolysis. These mechanisms are discussed in the framework of animal and human studies, taking into account the commonalities and differences between CR and KDs. We conclude that CR and KDs may act synergistically with radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer patients and provide some guidelines for implementing these dietary interventions into clinical practice.

  13. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  14. Comparison of primary radiation versus robotic surgery plus adjuvant radiation in high-risk prostate cancer: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimranjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare robotic-prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy (RPRAT versus primary RT for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for the HRPCa patients treated in our institution between 2000 and 2010. One hundred and twenty-three patients with high-risk disease were identified. The Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test were used to compare local control and distant failure rates between the two treatment modalities. For prostate-specific antigen comparisons between groups, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months (range: 3-138 months. Local control, biochemical recurrence rate, distant metastasis, toxicity, and disease-free survival were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Primary RT is an excellent treatment option in patients with HRPCa, is equally effective and less expensive treatment compared with RPRAT. A prospective randomized study is required to guide treatment for patients with HRPCa.

  15. Analysis of resveratrol and radiation effects in lung cancer cells by micronucleus assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Santos, Dymes R.A.; Vieira, Daniel P.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: carolina_sm@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Weltman, Eduardo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Aurea S.; Santos, Rezolina P. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid lung carcinoma is frequently manifested by obstructive trachea symptoms. Radiation and drugs combinations are commonly used in the lung cancer treatment. Currently there is a strong tendency to develop therapeutic strategies focused at the administration of high potential compounds to improve the ionizing radiation treatments, so as to increase the radiation effects on tumor cell while minimizing these effects to surrounding normal tissues. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoalexin compound present in wines and several plants. This compound has a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and induction of cell cycle arrest effects. Analysis of biological effects of ionizing radiation in the presence of resveratrol in different cell cultures has been the subject of many studies. To verify the genotoxic effects in cells exposed to ionizing radiation many methods have been proposed. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique is one of the preferred methods. The main of this study was to detect and quantify radioinduced DNA damage in mucoepidermoid lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292) by cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique using cytocalasin-B. The cell culture was irradiated at a single fraction from a TrueBeam® linear accelerator (0, 0.8, 5, and 10 Gy), in the absence or presence of different resveratrol concentrations (0, 15, 30, and 60 μM). The results showed that resveratrol (15 and μM) induced significant increase frequency (p<0.05) of micronucleus formation in NCI-H292 cell culture non-irradiated and exposed at 5 Gy dose. Moreover, resveratrol (30 μM) induced micronucleus formation at 0.8 Gy dose. (author)

  16. A pilot study of intensity modulated radiation therapy with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost in the treatment of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, Eric K; Slack, Rebecca S; Hanscom, Heather N; Lei, Sue; Suy, Simeng; Park, Hyeon U; Kim, Joy S; Sherer, Benjamin A; Collins, Brian T; Satinsky, Andrew N; Harter, K William; Batipps, Gerald P; Constantinople, Nicholas L; Dejter, Stephen W; Maxted, William C; Regan, James B; Pahira, John J; McGeagh, Kevin G; Jha, Reena C; Dawson, Nancy A; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2010-10-01

    Clinical data suggest that large radiation fractions are biologically superior to smaller fraction sizes in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The CyberKnife is an appealing delivery system for hypofractionated radiosurgery due to its ability to deliver highly conformal radiation and to track and adjust for prostate motion in real-time. We report our early experience using the CyberKnife to deliver a hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost to patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Twenty-four patients were treated with hypofractionated SBRT and supplemental external radiation therapy plus or minus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients were treated with SBRT to a dose of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Quality of life data were collected with American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires before and after treatment. PSA responses were monitored; acute urinary and rectal toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v3. All 24 patients completed the planned treatment with an average follow-up of 9.3 months. For patients who did not receive ADT, the median pre-treatment PSA was 10.6 ng/ml and decreased in all patients to a median of 1.5 ng/ml by 6 months post-treatment. Acute effects associated with treatment included Grade 2 urinary and gastrointestinal toxicity but no patient experienced acute Grade 3 or greater toxicity. AUA and EPIC scores returned to baseline by six months post-treatment. Hypofractionated SBRT combined with IMRT offers radiobiological benefits of a large fraction boost for dose escalation and is a well tolerated treatment option for men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Early results are encouraging with biochemical response and acceptable toxicity. These data provide a basis for the design of a phase II clinical

  17. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lamart@nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Curtis, Rochelle E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Travis, Lois [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Kwon, Deukwoo [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Morton, Lindsay M. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower

  18. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: tns3b@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hegarty, Sarah E. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rabinowitz, Carol [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Maio, Vittorio [Jefferson School of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center & Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Louis, Daniel Z. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  19. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel [Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  20. Colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis. A case report and a brief review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshima, Yoshitaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Karimata, Hiroyuki; Muto, Yoshihiro; Otani, Hiroshi [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of a slight rectal bleeding and stenosis in the left colon on a barium study. The patient had undergone a total hysterectomy and received radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer at 35 years of age. Twenty-seven years after the treatment of uterine cervical cancer, the patient presented with slight rectal bleeding. The physical examination revealed a mild-line surgical scar, brown pigmentation of the skin and wall thickness in the lower abdomen consistent with radiation effect. A barium enema study showed stenosis of the descending colon. Colonoscopy was failed because of difficulty in inserting the endoscope. The patient underwent a left colectomy with lymph node dissection. The lower abdominal cavity showed extensive fibrosis (so-called frozen pelvis) which is often associated with the radiation effect. The resected colon showed a macroscopic Type 2 tumor which invaded the retroperitoneal space and the tumor was histologically diagnosed to be well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (stage IV). Severe endoarteritis was also observed in the vicinity of the tumor. The patient is doing well at the time of writing. (author)

  1. Enhancement of Radiation Effects by Ursolic Acid in BGC-823 Human Adenocarcinoma Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested that certain plant-derived polyphenols, i.e., ursolic acid (UA, which are reported to have antitumor activities, might be used to sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting pathways leading to radiation therapy resistance. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of radiosensitization by UA in BGC-823 cell line from human adenocarcinoma gastric cancer in vitro. UA caused cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and we used a sub-cytotoxicity concentration of UA to test radioenhancement efficacy with UA in gastric cancer. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Surviving fraction of the combined group with irradiation and sub-cytotoxicity UA significantly decreased compared with the irradiation group. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, down-regulated Ki-67 level and improved apoptosis. In conclusion, as UA demonstrated potent antiproliferation effect and synergistic effect, it could be used as a potential drug sensitizer for the application of radiotherapy.

  2. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  3. A case of migratory air space infiltration after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Hatakeyama, Shinobu; Tachibana, Akio; Suzuki, Kazue [Yaizu Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Oka, Teruaki [Kantou Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suda, Takahumi; Chida, Kingo; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman underwent conserving surgery for right breast cancer, and received a cumulative dose of 50 Gy of radiation therapy to the remaining part of the right breast. About five months after the termination of irradiation, cough and low-grade fever developed. The chest radiograph showed an infiltrative shadow in the right lung field. Organizing pneumonia was identified in the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. After prednisolone was given to the patient the clinical symptoms and infiltrates seen in the radiograph disappeared. In the course of tapering the prednisolone dose, new infiltrative shadows developed in the upper right lung and the left lung. The histologic changes were shown by transbronchial lung biopsy to be organizing pneumonia. The increased dose of prednisolone resulted in the rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms and chest radiograph abnormalities. This case suggests that breast radiation after conserving surgery for breast cancer may cause a pathologic process similar to that of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. (author)

  4. Rectovesicovaginal fistula following rectovaginal fistula caused by radiation therapy for uterine cancer. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Tsuneo; Shiba, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Oda, Masayoshi; Koide, Takuo [Osaka Koseinenkin Hospital (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A case of rectovesicovaginal fistula caused by pelvic radiation for uterine cancer is presented. A 62-year-old woman visited our department complaining of macroscopic hematuria, mictional pain and pollakisuria. She had a history of total hysterectomy and radiation therapy for cervical cancer 26 years earlier. Melena was noted in March 1994 and an escape of stool from the vagina followed nine months later. She consulted a surgeon about it, however no active treatment was performed before coming under our care. Computed tomography demonstrated that the posterior bladder wall was extremely thin and the possibility of the formation of vesical perforation was strongly suggested. We constructed transverse-colostomy, however, a rectovesicovaginal fistula developed seven months later. Therefore, in order to regain a dry life, an ileal conduit was constructed and her quality of life began to improve. It is probable that the rectovesicovaginal fistula could have been prevented if colostomy had been carried out soon after the appearance of melena or soon after the formation of the rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  5. Proton Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Review of the Clinical Experience to Date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org

    2014-06-01

    Proton beam radiation has been used for cancer treatment since the 1950s, but recent increasing interest in this form of therapy and the construction of hospital-based and clinic-based facilities for its delivery have greatly increased both the number of patients and the variety of tumors being treated with proton therapy. The mass of proton particles and their unique physical properties (ie, the Bragg peak) allow proton therapy to spare normal tissues distal to the tumor target from incidental irradiation. Initial observations show that proton therapy is particularly useful for treating tumors in challenging locations close to nontarget critical structures. Specifically, improvements in local control outcomes for patients with chordoma, chonodrosarcoma, and tumors in the sinonasal regions have been reported in series using proton. Improved local control and survival outcomes for patients with cancer of the head and neck region have also been seen with the advent of improvements in better imaging and multimodality therapy comprising surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. However, aggressive local therapy in the proximity of critical normal structures to tumors in the head and neck region may produce debilitating early and late toxic effects. Great interest has been expressed in evaluating whether proton therapy can improve outcomes, especially early and late toxicity, when used in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. This review summarizes the progress made to date in addressing this question.

  6. Acupuncture for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio do Prado Florence Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in minimizing the severity of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 24 consecutive patients receiving > 5000 cGy radiotherapy (RT involving the major salivary glands bilaterally were assigned to either the preventive acupuncture group (PA, n = 12, treated with acupuncture before and during RT, or the control group (CT, n = 12, treated with RT and not receiving acupuncture. After RT completion, clinical response was assessed in all patients by syalometry, measuring the resting (RSFR and stimulated (SSFR salivary flow rates, and by the visual analogue scale (VAS regarding dry mouth-related symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures using a mixed-effect modeling procedure and analysis of variance. An alpha level of 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance. Although all patients exhibited some degree of impairment in salivary gland functioning after RT, significant differences were found between the groups. Patients in the PA group showed improved salivary flow rates (RSFR, SSFR; p < 0.001 and decreased xerostomia-related symptoms (VAS, p < 0.05 compared with patients in the CT group. Although PA treatment did not prevent the oral sequelae of RT completely, it significantly minimized the severity of radiation-induced xerostomia. The results suggest that acupuncture focused in a preventive approach can be a useful therapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing RT.

  7. Multinucleated Giant Cancer Cells Produced in Response to Ionizing Radiation Retain Viability and Replicate Their Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Scott, April; Wang, Ying W.; Kumar, Piyush; Murray, David

    2017-01-01

    Loss of wild-type p53 function is widely accepted to be permissive for the development of multinucleated giant cells. However, whether therapy-induced multinucleation is associated with cancer cell death or survival remains controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of p53-deficient or p21WAF1 (p21)-deficient solid tumor-derived cell lines to ionizing radiation (between 2 and 8 Gy) results in the development of multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish for long times post-irradiation. Somewhat surprisingly, single-cell observations revealed that virtually all multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent for the duration of the experiments (up to three weeks post-irradiation) retain viability and metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and the majority (>60%) exhibit DNA synthesis. We further report that treatment of multinucleated giant cells with pharmacological activators of apoptosis (e.g., sodium salicylate) triggers their demise. Our observations reinforce the notion that radiation-induced multinucleation may reflect a survival mechanism for p53/p21-deficient cancer cells. With respect to evaluating radiosensitivity, our observations underscore the importance of single-cell experimental approaches (e.g., single-cell MTT) as the creation of viable multinucleated giant cells complicates the interpretation of the experimental data obtained by commonly-used multi-well plate colorimetric assays. PMID:28208747

  8. Ghrelin may reduce radiation-induced mucositis and anorexia in head-neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Nalca Andrieu, Meltem; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Body weight loss is common in cancer patients, and is often associated with poor prognosis, it greatly impairs quality of life (QOL). Radiation therapy (RT) is used in head and neck cancers (HNC) either as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant therapy to surgery. Patients with HNC are most susceptible to malnutrition especially due to anorexia, which is aggravated by RT. Multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha), have been all associated with the development of both anorexia and oral mucositis. Radiation-induced mucositis occurs in almost all patients, who are treated for HNC, it could also cause weight loss. Ghrelin is a novel 28-amino acid peptide, which up-regulates body weight through appetite control, increase food intake, down-regulate energy expenditure and induces adiposity. Furthermore, ghrelin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha which may cause oral mucositis and aneroxia, which are the results of weight loss. Thus weight loss during RT is an early indicator of nutritional decline, we propose that recombinant ghrelin used prophylactically could be useful as an appetite stimulant; and preventive of mucositis because of its anti-inflammatory effect, it might help patients maintain weight over the course of curative RT of the HNC and can improve specific aspects of QOL. This issue warrants further studies.

  9. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  10. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Jennifer D., E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reiner, Anne S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bernstein, Leslie [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States); John, Esther M. [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Mellemkjaer, Lene [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knight, Julia A. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shore, Roy E. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  11. Evaluation of Online/Offline Image Guidance/Adaptation Approaches for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sun, Ying [Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liang, Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs. Results: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid

  12. Solar UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of organ transplantation in clinical medicine has resulted in a constantly increasing, large population of patients that are chronically on immunosuppressive medication. It is well known that skin cancer, especially SCC, in this population has higher incidence rates, behaves more aggressively and has higher rates of metastasis. OTRs who have been treated for many years with immunosuppressive medication are at the highest risk for developing malignant skin tumors. Therefore, the intensity of surveillance for cutaneous lesions is of high importance in OTRs. A full-body skin exam at least once a year and more frequently if skin cancer or precancerous cutaneous lesions develop is recommended. Clinicians should not hesitate to biopsy or to surgically excise any suspicious skin lesion. Of high importance is also the education of OTRs about their increased risk. Protection against solar and artificial UV-radiation and monthly self-examinations are good ways to prevent and to recognize any new suspicious skin lesions. Patients are advised to always wear solar UV-radiation protection (e.g., clothing, sunscreen) before going outdoors. However, investigations have revealed that solar UV-B-exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels positively correlate with decreased risk for various internal malignancies (e.g., breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer) and other severe diseases. As we have shown previously, renal transplant recipients are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)-8 reduces the skin's production of vitamin D by 95%. Clothing completely blocks all solar UVB-radiation and this prevents any vitamin D production. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in solid organ transplant recipients. Optimal management of these patients requires communication between the transplant teams and the treating dermatologist and other clinicians. For advanced or metastatic disease, collaboration

  13. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective

  14. Post-Radiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James D; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on post-radiation 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials Forty-seven head-and-neck cancer patients who received pre- and post-treatment PET/CT imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV2.0-MTV4.0; where MTV2.0 refers to the volume above an SUV threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Multiple post-radiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome, however the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV2.0. An increase in MTV2.0 of 21cm3 (difference between 75th and 25th percentile) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]=2.5, p=0.0001) and death (HR=2.0, p=0.003). In patients with non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma (non-NPC) histology (n=34), MTV2.0<18cm3 and MTV2.0≥18cm3 yielded 2-year DFS rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p=0.006) and 2-year OS rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p=0.009). There was no correlation between MTV2.0 and DFS or OS with NPC histology (n=13). On multivariate analysis only post-radiation MTV2.0 was predictive of DFS (HR=2.47, p=0.0001) and OS (HR=1.98, p=0.003). Conclusions Post-radiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification, and will be valuable in the future with risk-adapted therapies. PMID:20646870

  15. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  16. The characteristics of human antibody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in vivo for radioimmunotherapy in a small animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byoung Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kwang Won; Chang, Ki Hwan; Shin, Yong Won; Ryoo, Kyung Hwan; Shin, Yong Nam; Kim, Se Ho [Green Cross Corp., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an oncogene has led to the development of anticancer therapeutics directed against EGFR, including Erbitux for colon cancer. Many therapeutic approaches are aimed at the EGFR. Erbitux is example of monoclonal antibody inhibitors. The monoclonal antibodies block the extracellular ligand binding domain. EGFR4-2, IgG human monoclonal antibody, has been developed on the basis of human antibody gene library in Green Cross Corp. Small animal imaging is useful for preclinical evaluation of radiolabeled antibody to see biodistribution and targeting ability at serial time points in same animals

  17. Silibinin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced pro-angiogenic response and EMT in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K. [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Rajamani, Paulraj [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Singh, Rana P., E-mail: rana_singh@mail.jnu.ac.in [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2015-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Potential model showing mechanism of silibinin-mediated attenuation of IR-induced angiogenic phenotype and EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin counters radiation induced invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells by down-regulating mitogenic pathways activated by IR, leading to inhibition of molecules including VEGF, iNOS, MMPs and N-cadherin. Silibinin also reverses IR mediated E-cadherin down-regulation, inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin also radiosensitizes endothelial cells, reduces capillary tube formation by targeting various pro-angiogenic molecules. Further, silibinin may inhibit autocrine and paracrine signaling between tumor and endothelial cells by decreasing the levels of VEGF and other signaling molecules activated in response to IR. - Highlights: • Silibinin radiosensitizes endothelial cells. • Silibinin targets ionization radiation (IR)-induced EMT in PCa cells. • Silibinin is in phase II clinical trial in PCa patients, hence clinically relevant. - Abstract: Radiotherapy of is well established and frequently utilized in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, recurrence following therapy and distant metastases are commonly encountered problems. Previous studies underline that, in addition to its therapeutic effects, ionizing radiation (IR) increases the vascularity and invasiveness of surviving radioresistant cancer cells. This invasive phenotype of radioresistant cells is an upshot of IR-induced pro-survival and mitogenic signaling in cancer as well as endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a plant flavonoid, silibinin can radiosensitize endothelial cells by inhibiting expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Combining silibinin with IR not only strongly down-regulated endothelial cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tube formation ability rather it strongly (p < 0.001) reduced migratory and invasive properties of PCa cells which were otherwise marginally affected by IR treatment alone. Most of the pro

  18. Multi-mutational model for cancer based on age-time patterns of radiation effects: 2. Biological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Pierce, P.A.

    1997-09-04

    Biological properties of relevance when modeling cancers induced in the atom bomb survivors include the wide distribution of the induced cancers across all organs, their biological indistinguishability from background cancers, their rates being proportional to background cancer rates, their rates steadily increasing over at least 50 years as the survivors age, and their radiation dose response being linear. We have successfully described this array of properties with a modified Armitage-Doll model using 5 to 6 somatic mutations, no intermediate growth, and the dose-related replacement of any one of these time-driven mutations by a radiation-induced mutation. Such a model is contrasted to prevailing models that use fewer mutations combined with intervening growth. While the rationale and effectiveness of our model is compelling for carcinogenesis in the atom bomb survivors, the lack of a promotional component may limit the generality of the model for other types of human carcinogenesis.

  19. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-Induced Vaginal Stenosis After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Rectal and Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Christina H.; Law, Ethel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya P. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yang, T. Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Riedel, Elyn [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized toxicity in women who receive pelvic radiation therapy (RT), the relationship between RT dose and the volume and extent of toxicity has not been analyzed. We modeled this relationship to identify predictors of VS. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 54 women, aged 29 to 78 years, who underwent pelvic RT for rectal or anal cancer during 2008 to 2011 and were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating vaginal dilator use. Maximum dilator size was measured before RT (baseline) and 1 month and 12 months after RT. Dilator use was initiated at 1 month. The difference (D) in dilator size before and after RT was recorded. Those with D ≤−1 were classified as having VS (n=35); those with D ≥0 were classified as having no VS (n=19 at 1 month). Dose-volume parameters were extracted, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used to build a predictive model. Results: The mean vaginal doses were 50.0 Gy and 36.8 Gy for anal and rectal cancer patients, respectively. One month after RT, a gEUD model using a wide range of a values suggests that sparing of vaginal volume to a low dose may be important. When gEUD (a = −1) was <35 Gy and the mean vaginal dose was <43 Gy, severe VS was reduced (P=.02). A 1-year analysis suggests increasingly negative D values with increasing mean dose. However, patients with compliance <40% were more likely to have toxicity. Conclusions: Vaginal stenosis is influenced by multiple RT dose-volume characteristics. Mean dose and gEUD constraints together may reduce the risk of severe VS. Patients receiving higher mean vaginal doses should have greater compliance with dilator therapy to minimize risk of toxicity. Further validation with independent datasets is needed.

  20. A case of radiation pulmonary injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia following postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Masaru; Yoshida, Norio; Katagiri, Akira; Takeda, Naoya [Kariya General Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    A 57-year-old female underwent conservative surgery for a left sided breast cancer, and received 48 Gy postoperative radiation therapy. One year later, a chest CT scan disclosed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities. She had no subjective symptom. These abnormal opacities disappeared spontaneously without any treatment. We considered this was a radiation lung injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. We emphasize that the symptomless and spontaneous resolution of this type of lung injury should be kept is mind. (author)

  1. New Anti-Nodal Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting the Nodal Pre-Helix Loop Involved in Cripto-1 Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalia Focà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodal is a potent embryonic morphogen belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. Typically, it also binds to the ALK4/ActRIIB receptor complex in the presence of the co-receptor Cripto-1. Nodal expression is physiologically restricted to embryonic tissues and human embryonic stem cells, is absent in normal cells but re-emerges in several human cancers, including melanoma, breast, and colon cancer. Our aim was to obtain mAbs able to recognize Nodal on a major CBR (Cripto-Binding-Region site and to block the Cripto-1-mediated signalling. To achieve this, antibodies were raised against hNodal(44–67 and mAbs generated by the hybridoma technology. We have selected one mAb, named 3D1, which strongly associates with full-length rhNodal (KD 1.4 nM and recognizes the endogenous protein in a panel of human melanoma cell lines by western blot and FACS analyses. 3D1 inhibits the Nodal-Cripto-1 binding and blocks Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Data suggest that inhibition of the Nodal-Cripto-1 axis is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma and 3D1 is a promising and interesting agent for blocking Nodal-Cripto mediated tumor development. These findings increase the interest for Nodal as both a diagnostic and prognostic marker and as a potential new target for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Long-term results and complications of preoperative radiation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, W.P.; Garb, J.L.; Park, W.C.; Stark, A.J.; Chabot, J.R.; Friedmann, P.

    1988-02-01

    A retrospective study of 149 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1972 and 1979 was undertaken to compare survival, disease-free survival, recurrence sites, and long-term complications of 40 patients who received 4000 to 4500 rads of preoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (radiation group) with those of 109 patients treated by resection alone (control group). After a mean follow-up of 84 months and 99 months, respectively, survival of the irradiated patients was significantly better than that of controls (68% versus 52%, p less than 0.05). Disease-free survival of those patients rendered free of disease by treatment was also superior for the irradiated group (84% versus 57%, p less than 0.005). Local recurrence without signs of distant metastases developed only one-third as often in irradiated patients (6% versus 18%). Distant metastases, alone or in combination with local recurrence, were also less common after radiation (12% versus 27%). Second primary tumors developed in 15% and 10% of the respective groups, a difference that was not statistically significant. When we consider the survival benefit of preoperative radiation therapy, long-term complications were relatively mild. Delayed healing of the perineum was noted in two irradiated patients. Persistent diarrhea was severe enough to warrant treatment in only one case, and one patient required a colostomy for intestinal obstruction from pelvic fibrosis.

  3. Thyroid Function after Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Rokicka, Edyta; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Wydmański, Jerzy; Roszkowska, Danuta; Staniul, Bogusław; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in breast cancer patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation. The focus was on possible progressive changes and any relationships between the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, and factors such as chemotherapy, hormonotherapy and immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy females undergoing 3D conformal and IMRT radiation therapy for breast cancers were enrolled in a non-randomized prospective study. The patients was divided into two groups: those after mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) were irradiated to a scar of the chest wall/breast and the ipsilateral supraclavicular and the axillary areas (supraclavicular radiotherapy group - SC-RT group – 32 patients) and the control group receiving adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only (BCT group - 38 patients).The total doses were 50.0 to 70 Gy in 5 to 7 weeks. The median follow-up term was 24 months (range, 1–40 months). Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. The minimum, maximum and mean thyroid gland doses for 20 Gy (V20) were calculated for all patients. Results: Statistically significant results were obtained for the SC-RT group. Two yearsa fter the end of RT the chance of an event was increased in 6% of the population (p=0.009) in the SC-RT group. In the BCT group no significance was noted. No statistically significant differences were found for V20, chemio-, immunotherapy and hormonotherapy or Ki67 values (p=0.12). No significant results were obtained for development of hypothyroidism and clinical factors (age, thyroid volume, treatment modalities). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is associated with a higher incidence of thyroid toxicity in breast cancer patients. Routine thyroid function monitoring should be recommended in such cases.

  4. Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer: comparison of three radiation dose and fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The standard radiation dose for patients with locally rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is 45–50 Gy in 25–28 fractions. We aimed to assess whether a difference exists within this dose fractionation range. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare three dose fractionation schedules. Patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions (group A), 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (group B), or 45 Gy in 25 fractions (group C) to the whole pelvis, as well as concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Radical resection was scheduled for 8 weeks after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 175 patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy at our institution. Among those patients, 154 were eligible for analysis (55, 50, and 49 patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively). After the median follow-up period of 29 months (range, 5 to 48 months), no differences were found between the 3 groups regarding pathologic complete remission rate, tumor regression grade, treatment-related toxicity, 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The circumferential resection margin width was a prognostic factor for 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, whereas ypN category was associated with distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. High tumor regression grading score was correlated with 2-year distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival in univariate analysis. Three different radiation dose fractionation schedules, within the dose range recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, had no impact on pathologic tumor regression and early clinical outcome for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  5. Bladder cancer in men and women treated by radiation therapy and/or radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Kim, Y S; Lee, M Z

    1981-07-01

    Four-hundred fifty-one patients with bladder cancer, 348 men and 103 women, were treated by radiation therapy and/or radical cystectomy during the last two decades at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Radical cystectomy alone was the treatment in 98 men and 39 women. Radical radiation therapy to an average tumor dose of 6,000 rad in six weeks was given to 79 men and 30 women +/- one year before salvage cystectomy was done for recurrent or persistent tumors. Planned preoperative irradiation was delivered to the true pelvis either 4,000 rad in four weeks in 95 men and 24 women or 2,000 rad in one week in 76 men and 10 women +/- six weeks and two days, respectively, before radical cystectomy. Over-all survival and recurrence results in both sexes were similar, 40 per cent of men and 36 per cent of women were alive at five years without recurrence, 45 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women died in five or more years with local and/or distant recurrences, and 21 per cent of men and 15 per cent of women died before five years from causes other than cancer recurrence. Higher five-year survival for high clinical stage B2 to D1 tumors was noted similarly in the irradiated men (30 per cent) and women (37 per cent) than in the cystectomy alone patients (19 per cent in men and 4 per cent in women). Similar survival rates (52 to 57 per cent) were observed in men and women with low clinical stage O to B1 tumors treated with or without irradiation.

  6. Yes-associated protein (YAP modulates oncogenic features and radiation sensitivity in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tsujiura

    Full Text Available Yes-associated protein (YAP is a transcriptional co-activator and regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. We investigated the clinical and biological significance of YAP in endometrial cancer (EMCA.YAP expression in 150 primary tumor tissues from patients with EMCA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and its association with clinicopathological data was assessed. The biological functions of YAP were determined in EMCA cell lines through knockdown/overexpression of YAP. The role of YAP in modulating radiation sensitivity was also investigated in EMCA cells.Increased nuclear YAP expression was significantly associated with higher grade, stage, lympho-vascular space invasion, postoperative recurrence/metastasis and overall survival in estrogen mediated EMCA, called type 1 cancer (p = 0.019,  = 0.028,  = 0.0008,  = 0.046 and  = 0.015, respectively. In multivariate analysis, nuclear YAP expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in type 1 EMCA. YAP knockdown by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.05, anchorage-dependent growth (p = 0.015 and migration/invasion (p<0.05, and a significant increase in the number of cells in G0/G1 phase (p = 0.002. Conversely, YAP overexpression promoted cell proliferation. Clonogenic assay demonstrated enhanced radiosensitivity by approximately 36% in YAP inhibited cells.Since YAP functions as a transcriptional co-activator, its differential localization in the nucleus of cancer cells and subsequent impact on cell proliferation could have important consequences with respect to its role as an oncogene in EMCA. Nuclear YAP expression could be useful as a prognostic indicator or therapeutic target and predict radiation sensitivity in patients with EMCA.

  7. CD20 monoclonal antibody targeted nanoscale drug delivery system for doxorubicin chemotherapy: an in vitro study of cell lysis of CD20-positive Raji cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiran; Sun, Lan; Pu, Yunzhu; Yao, Hongjuan; Li, Jingcao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yingge; Zhang, Weijing

    A monoclonal antibody targeted nanoscale drug delivery system (NDDS) for chemotherapy was evaluated in CD20-positive Raji cells in vitro. Nanoparticles were formed by the assembly of an amphiphilic polymer consisting of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxypolyethyleneglycol-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000). Active carbon nanoparticles (ACNP) were conjugated to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX), and the nanoliposome carrier, DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 conjugated to the human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocytes. This monoclonal antibody targeted nanoparticle delivery system for chemotherapy formed the active NDDS complex, ACNP-DOX-DSPE-PEG2000-anti-CD20. This active NDDS was spherical in morphology and had good dispersion in the culture medium. When compared with the effects on CD20-negative YTS cells derived from natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, the active NDDS, ACNP-DOX-DSPE-PEG2000-anti-CD20, demonstrated DOX delivery to CD20-positive Raji cells derived from Burkitt's lymphoma (B cell lymphoma), resulting in increased cell killing in vitro. The intracellular targeting efficiency of the ACNP-DOX-DSPE-PEG2000-anti-CD20 complex was assessed by confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry. The findings of this in vitro study have shown that the DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposome is an effective nanocarrier of both a monoclonal antibody and a chemotherapy agent and can be used to target chemotherapy to specific cells, in this case to CD20-positive B-cells. Future developments in this form of targeted therapy will depend on the development of monoclonal antibodies that are specific for malignant cells, including antibodies that can distinguish between lymphoma cells and normal lymphocyte subsets.

  8. Combination Effect of Regulatory T-Cell Depletion and Ionizing Radiation in Mouse Models of Lung and Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Cheol-Hun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae-Ho [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Yeok; Lee, Hong-Rae; Jo, Wol-Soon; Yang, Kwangmo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, You-Soo, E-mail: biotek01@hanmail.net [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of low-dose cyclophosphamide (LD-CTX) and anti-CD25 antibody to prevent activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We used LD-CTX and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody as a means to inhibit Tregs and improve the therapeutic effect of radiation in a mouse model of lung and colon cancer. Mice were irradiated on the tumor mass of the right leg and treated with LD-CTX and anti-CD25 antibody once per week for 3 weeks. Results: Combined treatment of LD-CTX or anti-CD25 antibody with radiation significantly decreased Tregs in the spleen and tumor compared with control and irradiation only in both lung and colon cancer. Combinatorial treatments resulted in a significant increase in the effector T cells, longer survival rate, and suppressed irradiated and distal nonirradiated tumor growth. Specifically, the combinatorial treatment of LD-CTX with radiation resulted in outstanding regression of local and distant tumors in colon cancer, and almost all mice in this group survived until the end of the study. Conclusions: Our results suggest that Treg depletion strategies may enhance radiation-mediated antitumor immunity and further improve outcomes after radiation therapy.

  9. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  10. Pigment epithelium-derived factor enhances tumor response to radiation through vasculature normalization in allografted lung cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Dong, Y; Peng, F; Yu, Z; Zuo, Y; Dai, Z; Chen, Y; Wang, J; Hu, X; Zhou, Q; Ma, H; Bao, Y; Gao, G; Chen, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of the combination of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and radiation on lung cancer. The Lewis lung cancer (LLC) allografts in nude mice were treated with radiation, PEDF and PEDF combined with radiation. The morphologic changes of tumor vasculature and the hypoxic fraction of tumor tissues were evaluated. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed when radiation was applied between the 3rd and 7th day (the vasculature normalization window) after the initiation of PEDF treatment. During the vasculature normalization window, the tumor blood vessels in PEDF-treated mice were less tortuous and more uniform than those in the LLC allograft tumor treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Meanwhile, the thickness of the basement membrane was remarkably reduced and pericyte coverage was significantly increased with the PEDF treatment. We also found that tumor hypoxic fraction decreased during the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment, suggesting improved intratumoral oxygenation. Taken together, our results show that PEDF improved the effects of radiation therapy on LLC allografts by inducing a vascular normalization window from the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment. Our findings provide a basis for treating lung cancer with the combination of PEDF and radiation.

  11. Radio frequency radiation-induced hyperthermia using Si nanoparticle-based sensitizers for mild cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarov, Konstantin P; Osminkina, Liubov A; Zinovyev, Sergey V; Maximova, Ksenia A; Kargina, Julia V; Gongalsky, Maxim B; Ryabchikov, Yury; Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Sviridov, Andrey P; Sentis, Marc; Ivanov, Andrey V; Nikiforov, Vladimir N; Kabashin, Andrei V; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-11-13

    Offering mild, non-invasive and deep cancer therapy modality, radio frequency (RF) radiation-induced hyperthermia lacks for efficient biodegradable RF sensitizers to selectively target cancer cells and thus avoid side effects. Here, we assess crystalline silicon (Si) based nanomaterials as sensitizers for the RF-induced therapy. Using nanoparticles produced by mechanical grinding of porous silicon and ultraclean laser-ablative synthesis, we report efficient RF-induced heating of aqueous suspensions of the nanoparticles to temperatures above 45-50 °C under relatively low nanoparticle concentrations (heating rate was linearly dependent on nanoparticle concentration, while laser-ablated nanoparticles demonstrated a remarkably higher heating rate than porous silicon-based ones for the whole range of the used concentrations from 0.01 to 0.4 mg/mL. The observed effect is explained by the Joule heating due to the generation of electrical currents at the nanoparticle/water interface. Profiting from the nanoparticle-based hyperthermia, we demonstrate an efficient treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo. Combined with the possibility of involvement of parallel imaging and treatment channels based on unique optical properties of Si-based nanomaterials, the proposed method promises a new landmark in the development of new modalities for mild cancer therapy.

  12. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  13. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR) increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Justin C; Rawal, Malvika; Wagner, Brett A; Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J; Buettner, Garry R

    2013-01-01

    Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR). Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice), higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  14. Radio frequency radiation-induced hyperthermia using Si nanoparticle-based sensitizers for mild cancer therapy