WorldWideScience

Sample records for antibody-targeted radiation cancer

  1. Accumulation and toxicity of antibody-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles in ovarian cancer cell spheroid model

    OpenAIRE

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles targeting using an ovarian cancer cell spheroid model. Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced clinical stage and develop resistance to standard of care platinum/taxane therapy. Doxorubicin is also approved for ovarian cancer but had limited benefits in refractory patients. In this study, we used drug-resistant spheroid cultures of ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the uptake and cytotoxicity of an antibody-targeted doxo...

  2. Fluorescent-Antibody Targeting of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Visualizes Metastatic Human Colon Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Youp; Murakami, Takashi; Lee, Jin Young; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody targeting of metastatic cancer has been demonstrated by our laboratory to enable tumor visualization and effective fluorescence-guided surgery. The goal of the present study was to determine whether insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies, conjugated with bright fluorophores, could enable visualization of metastatic colon cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models. IGF-1R antibody (clone 24–31) was conjugated with 550 nm, 650 nm or PEGylated 650 nm fluoropho...

  3. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cancer: 'magic bullets' or just the trigger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved for cancer therapy are now in Phase II and III trials, but the critical mechanism(s) determining efficacy and response in patients are still largely undefined. Both the direct antigen-binding (Fab) and constant (Fc) regions of mAbs can contribute to their biological activity. However, Clynes et al (Nat Med 2000, 6:443) recently suggested that the latter (at least in experimental models) might be the dominant component in vivo, triggering host responses to destroy cancer cells. Those workers showed that in mice lacking 'activation' Fc receptors (FcγRI and FcγRIII), anti-tumour effects of certain mAbs were significantly reduced. In contrast, mice deficient in the 'inhibitory' receptor FcγRIIB responded with tumour growth inhibition and enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These observations suggest that mAbs might be engineered for preferential binding to FcγRIII to maximise therapeutic benefit. However, further work is needed to establish a definitive cause-effect relationship in experimental models that are more clinically relevant, to determine whether human FcγR isoforms behave in a similar fashion, and to confirm that therapeutic mAbs and host cells can adequately access solid tumour deposits to mediate effective ADCC in situ. Finally, the 'cost-benefit' ratio of such modified macromolecules will need to be measured against mini-mAb constructs, antisense oligonucleotides, peptidomimetics and emerging drugs capable of inhibiting key tumour cell signalling pathways

  4. A novel IgE antibody targeting the prostate-specific antigen as a potential prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy. The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody AR47.47, specific for human PSA, has been shown to enhance antigen presentation by human dendritic cells and induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation when complexed with PSA. In this study, we explored the properties of a novel mouse/human chimeric anti-PSA IgE containing the variable regions of AR47.47 as a potential therapy for PCa. Our goal was to take advantage of the unique properties of IgE in order to trigger immune activation against PCa. Binding characteristics of the antibody were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro degranulation was determined by the release of β-hexosaminidase from effector cells. In vivo degranulation was monitored in human FcεRIα transgenic mice using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. These mice were also used for a vaccination study to determine the in vivo anti-cancer effects of this antibody. Significant differences in survival were determined using the Log Rank test. In vitro T-cell activation was studied using human dendritic cells and autologous T cells. The anti-PSA IgE, expressed in murine myeloma cells, is properly assembled and secreted, and binds the antigen and FcεRI. In addition, this antibody is capable of triggering effector cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo when artificially cross-linked, but not in the presence of the natural soluble antigen, suggesting that such an interaction will not trigger systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, the anti-PSA IgE combined with PSA also triggers immune activation in vitro and in vivo and significantly prolongs the survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice challenged with PSA-expressing tumors in a prophylactic vaccination setting. The anti-PSA IgE exhibits

  5. The importance of cellular internalization of antibody-targeted carbon nanotubes in the photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) convert absorbed near infrared (NIR) light into heat. The use of CNTs in the NIR-mediated photothermal ablation of tumor cells is attractive because the penetration of NIR light through normal tissues is optimal and the side effects are minimal. Targeted thermal ablation with minimal collateral damage can be achieved by using CNTs attached to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, the role that the cellular internalization of CNTs plays in the subsequent sensitivity of the target cells to NIR-mediated photothermal ablation remains undefined. To address this issue, we used CNTs covalently coupled to an anti-Her2 or a control MAb and tested their ability to bind, internalize, and photothermally ablate Her2+ but not Her2- breast cancer cell lines. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and confocal Raman microscopy, we observed the gradual time-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis of anti-Her2-CNTs whereas a control MAb-CNT conjugate did not bind to the cells. Most importantly, the Her2+ cells that internalized the MAb-CNTs were more sensitive to NIR-mediated photothermal damage than cells that could bind to, but not internalize the MAb-CNTs. These results suggest that both the targeting and internalization of MAb-CNTs might result in the most effective thermal ablation of tumor cells following their exposure to NIR light.

  6. Basic immunology of antibody targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibody targeted radiotherapy brings an important new treatment modality to Radiation oncology clinic. Radiation dose to tumor and normal tissues are determined by a complex interplay of antibody, antigen, tumor, radionuclide, and host-related factors. A basic understanding of these immunologic and physiologic factors is important to optimally utilize this therapy in the clinic. Preclinical and clinical studies need to be continued to broaden our understanding and to develop new strategies to further improve the efficacy of this promising form of targeted therapy

  7. Human antibodies targeting cell surface antigens overexpressed by the hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer cells: ICAM-1 is a tumor antigen that mediates prostate cancer cell invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Fraser; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xin; Chalkley, Robert J.; Burlingame, Alma L; Marks, James D.; Liu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Transition from hormone-sensitive to hormone-refractory metastatic tumor types poses a major challenge for prostate cancer treatment. Tumor antigens that are differentially expressed during this transition are likely to play important roles in imparting prostate cancer cells with the ability to grow in a hormone-deprived environment and to metastasize to distal sites such as the bone and thus, are likely targets for therapeutic intervention. To identify those molecules and particularly cell s...

  8. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  9. A novel neutralizing antibody targeting pregnancy-associated plasma protein-a inhibits ovarian cancer growth and ascites accumulation in patient mouse tumorgrafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marc A; Haluska, Paul; Bale, Laurie K;

    2015-01-01

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients acquire resistance to standard platinum chemotherapy and novel therapies to reduce tumor burden and ascites accumulation are needed. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) plays a key role in promoting insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway activity...

  10. XGFR*, a novel affinity-matured bispecific antibody targeting IGF-1R and EGFR with combined signaling inhibition and enhanced immune activation for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Juergen M; Wartha, Katharina; Moessner, Ekkehard; Hosse, Ralf J; Moser, Samuel; Croasdale, Rebecca; Trochanowska, Halina; Shao, Cuiying; Wang, Peng; Shi, Lei; Weinzierl, Tina; Rieder, Natascha; Bacac, Marina; Ries, Carola H; Kettenberger, Hubert; Schlothauer, Tilman; Friess, Thomas; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) play critical roles in tumor growth, providing a strong rationale for the combined inhibition of IGF-1R and EGFR signaling in cancer therapy. We describe the design, affinity maturation, in vitro and in vivo characterization of the bispecific anti-IGF-1R/EGFR antibody XGFR*. XGFR* is based on the bispecific IgG antibody XGFR, which enabled heterodimerization of an IGF-1R binding scFab heavy chain with an EGFR-binding light and heavy chain by the "knobs-into-holes" technology. XGFR* is optimized for monovalent binding of human EGFR and IGF-1R with increased binding affinity for IGF-1R due to affinity maturation and highly improved protein stability to oxidative and thermal stress. It bears an afucosylated Fc-portion for optimal induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Stable Chinese hamster ovary cell clones with production yields of 2-3 g/L were generated, allowing for large scale production of the bispecific antibody. XGFR* potently inhibits EGFR- and IGF-1R-dependent receptor phosphorylation, reduces tumor cell proliferation in cells with heterogeneous levels of IGF-1R and EGFR receptor expression and induces strong ADCC in vitro. A comparison of pancreatic and colorectal cancer lines demonstrated superior responsiveness to XGFR*-mediated signaling and tumor growth inhibition in pancreatic cancers that frequently show a high degree of IGF-1R/EGFR co-expression. XGFR* showed potent anti-tumoral efficacy in the orthotopic MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic xenograft model, resulting in nearly complete tumor growth inhibition with significant number of tumor remissions. In summary, the bispecific anti-IGF-1R/EGFR antibody XGFR* combines potent signaling and tumor growth inhibition with enhanced ADCC induction and represents a clinical development candidate for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26984378

  11. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of cancer using indocyanine green-labeled monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kohei; Ohashi, Manami; Kanazaki, Kengo; Ding, Ning; Deguchi, Jun; Kanada, Yuko; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2015-08-28

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an attractive imaging modality for sensitive and depth imaging of biomolecules with high resolution in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (panitumumab; Pan) labeled with indocyanine green derivative (ICG-EG4-Sulfo-OSu), Pan-EG4-ICG, as a PA imaging probe to target cancer-associated EGFR. In vitro PA imaging studies demonstrated that Pan-EG4-ICG yielded high EGFR-specific PA signals in EGFR-positive cells. To determine the optimal injection dose and scan timing, we investigated the biodistribution of radiolabeled Pan-EG4-ICG (200-400 μg) in A431 tumor (EGFR++)-bearing mice. The highest tumor accumulation (29.4% injected dose/g) and high tumor-to-blood ratio (2.1) was observed 7 days after injection of Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg). In in vivo PA imaging studies using Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg), the increase in PA signal (114%) was observed in A431 tumors inoculated in the mammary glands 7 days post-injection. Co-injection of excess Pan resulted in a 35% inhibition of this PA signal, indicating the EGFR-specific accumulation. In conclusion, the ICG-labeled monoclonal antibody (i.e., panitumumab) has the potential to enhance target-specific PA signal, leading to the discrimination of aggressiveness and metastatic potential of tumors and the selection of effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26168727

  12. Experimental on Antibody Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cell Treatment%肝癌干细胞抗体靶向治疗的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力超; 赵璇; 孙立新; 遇珑; 杨治华; 冉宇靓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics and function of the anti- hepatocellular carcinoma cancer stem cells (HCC-CSC) monoclonal antibody 15B7 in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate whether the targeting liver stem cells can inhibit recurrence, spontaneous lung metastasis and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Methods Monoclonal antibody 15B7 which could recognize HCC-CSC was identified by two-color immunofluorescence, two-color flow cytometry and subcutaneous tumor formation assay. CD133+ phenotype cells were sorted from BEL7402 cell lines by the flow cytometry and cultured in serum free medium. The function of 15B7 was identified by CCK8 cell proliferation, invasion assay, migration assay and flow cytometry. The inhibition of implanted tumor growth and spontaneous lung metastasis of monoclonal antibody 15B7 were studied by tumor treatment experiments and the survival of mice was also observed. The antigen of 15B7 was identified by western blotting. Results The results of two-color immunofluorescence and two-color flow cytometry showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could recognized cells which also were partly co-stained with ESA or CD133. 15B7+ or ESA+ cells or CD133+ cells sorted by flow cytometry could form mammospheres after serum-free suspension culture. 1 × 104 15B7+ cells were inoculated into the nude mice and developed visible tumors in 2 months. In vitro functional experiments showed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CD133+ cells, and the inhibition rates was 13. 8%, 15. 7% and 30. 9%, respectively. Furthermore, CD133+ cells incubated with monoclonal antibody 15B7 were induced G1 phase arrest.Animal experiment revealed that monoclonal antibody 15B7 significantly inhibited tumor growth by 60. 5%. Conclusion 15B7 not only inhibited tumor growth. The results indicated that targeting cancer stem cell antibody therapy had significant advantages and monoclonal antibody 15B7

  13. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  14. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  15. Radiation and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemiological data from the atomic bomb survivors and from different groups of Rn-exposed underground miners are so far the main sources of our knowledge on radiation-induced lung cancer. In the first part of this paper the results of these two different data sets are outlined and compared. This comparison concerns the following topics: Primary risk coefficients, the differences between both sexes, the influence of smoking and the variation of the excess relative risk with time since exposure. Of main concern for radiation protection is the possible lung cancer risk of the general population from indoor exposure to radon daughters. In the second part the results of two different types of approaches are discussed: The direct approach from miners data and the so-called dosimetric approach from LSS data. The approach from the atomic bomb survivors' data yields considerably higher risk values for this indoor exposure than the approach from miners. This is particularly valid for females. This difference between both approaches increases if the proposed new dosimetric model for inhaled radon daughters is applied. Possible reasons for this inconsistency and the consequences for radiation protection are outlined. (author)

  16. [Radiation-induced cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B

    1998-01-01

    The induction of malignant diseases is one of the most concerning late effects of ionising radiation. A large amount of information has been collected form atomic bomb survivors, patients after therapeutic irradiation, occupational follow-up and accidentally exposed populations. Major uncertainties persist in the (very) low dose range i.e., population and workers radioprotection. A review of the biological mechanisms leading to cancer strongly suggests that the vast majority of radiation-induced malignancies arise as a consequence of recessive mutations of tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations can be unveiled by ageing, this process being possibly furthered by constitutional or acquired genomic instability. The individual risk is likely to be very low, probably because of the usual dose level. However, the magnitude of medical exposure and the reliance of our societies on nuclear industry are so high that irreproachable decision-making processes and standards for practice are inescapable. PMID:9868399

  17. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  18. Oncogenes, radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the oncogenic virus and the analysis of its nucleic acid, together with the development of new biochemical technology have permitted the partial knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the cellular neoplastic transformation. This work, besides describing the discovery of the first oncogenic virus and the experiments to demonstrate the existence of the oncogenes, summarizes its activation mechanisms and its intervention in cellular metabolisms. Ionizing radiation is among the external agents that induce the neoplastic process. Its participation in the genesis of this process and the contribution of oncogenes to the cellular radioresistance are among the topics, which are referred to another topic that makes reference. At the same time as the advancement of theoretical knowledge, lines of investigation for the application of the new concepts in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutical treatment, were developed. An example of this, is the study of the participation of the oncogen c-erbB-2 in human breast cancer and its implications on the anti tumoral therapy. (author)

  19. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries tested nuclear weapons in the open air. The US government has passed several laws to ... radiation as part of nuclear testing programs who later develop certain ...

  20. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. PMID:20883261

  1. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  2. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  3. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned. (K. Serizawa)

  4. Characterization of single chain antibody targets through yeast two hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielemeyer Ole

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their unique ability to bind their targets with high fidelity, antibodies are used widely not only in biomedical research, but also in many clinical applications. Recombinant antibodies, including single chain variable fragments (scFv, are gaining momentum because they allow powerful in vitro selection and manipulation without loss of function. Regardless of the ultimate application or type of antibody used, precise understanding of the interaction between the antibody's binding site and its specific target epitope(s is of great importance. However, such data is frequently difficult to obtain. Results We describe an approach that allows detailed characterization of a given antibody's target(s using the yeast two-hybrid system. Several recombinant scFv were used as bait and screened against highly complex cDNA libraries. Systematic sequencing of all retained clones and statistical analysis allowed efficient ranking of the prey fragments. Multiple alignment of the obtained cDNA fragments provided a selected interacting domain (SID, efficiently narrowing the epitope-containing region. Interactions between antibodies and their respective targets were characterized for several scFv. For AA2 and ROF7, two conformation-specific sensors that exclusively bind the activated forms of the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab1 respectively, only fragments expressing the entire target protein's core region were retained. This strongly suggested interaction with a non-linear epitope. For two other scFv, TA10 and SF9, which recognize the large proteins giantin and non-muscle myosin IIA, respectively, precise antibody-binding regions within the target were defined. Finally, for some antibodies, secondary targets within and across species could be revealed. Conclusions Our method, utilizing the yeast two-hybrid technology and scFv as bait, is a simple yet powerful approach for the detailed characterization of antibody targets. It allows precise

  5. Adaptive Radiation for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    need to spare surrounding critical structures. Evolving radiotherapy technologies, such as four-dimensional (4D image-based motion management, daily on-board imaging and adaptive radiotherapy based on volumetric images over the course of radiotherapy, have enabled us to deliver higher dose to target while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. The image-guided radiotherapy adapted to changes of motion and anatomy has made the radiotherapy more precise and allowed ablative dose delivered to the target using novel treatment approaches such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and proton therapy in lung cancer, techniques used to be considered very sensitive to motion change. Future clinical trials using real time tracking and biological adaptive radiotherapy based on functional images are proposed.

  6. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern is expressed over a recent U.K. newspaper report (The Times, 21 January 1977, 5) on the possible hazards of mammography, as women may over-react to the extent of refusing mammography. The problems of radiation risk estimates, particularly at low dose levels, are very briefly reviewed. Recent improvements in mammography techniques have minimised the radiation hazard. Conflicting reports of the mortality rates following mammography screening programmes are discussed. In England and Wales, breast cancer is the commonest cause of death in women aged 35 to 54, and it would be unfortunate if the possible benefits of screening were denied to this age group before the latest mammographic techniques have been fully evaluated. (U.K.)

  7. [Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, F; Mornex, F; Orthuon, A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the use of radiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer is subject to discussion. In adjuvant setting, the standard treatment is 6 months of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine. Chemoradiation (CRT) may improve the survival of patients with incompletely resected tumors (R1). This should be confirmed by a prospective trial. Neoadjuvant CRT is a promising treatment especially for patients with borderline resectable tumors. For patients with locally advanced tumors, there is no a standard. An induction chemotherapy followed by CRT for non-progressive patients reduces the rate of local relapse. Whereas in the first trials of CRT large fields were used, the treated volumes have been reduced to improve tolerance. Tumor movements induced by breathing should be taken in account. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows a reduction of doses to the organs at risk. Whereas widely used, this technique is not recommended. PMID:27523418

  8. Radiation therapy of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been used extensively in the management of patients with cancer of the esophagus. It has demonstrated an ability to cure a small minority of patients. Cure is likely to be limited to patients who have lesions less than 5 cm in length and have minimal, if any, involvement of lymph nodes. Esophagectomy is likely to cure a similar, small percentage of patients with the same presentation of minimal disease but has a substantial acute postoperative mortality rate and greater morbidity than irradiation. Combining surgery and either preoperative or postoperative irradiation may cure a small percentage of patients beyond the number cured with either modality alone. Radiation has demonstrated benefit as an adjuvant to surgery following the resection of minimal disease. However, radiation alone has never been compared directly with surgery for the highly select, minimal lesions managed by surgery. Radiation provides good palliation of dysphagia in the majority of patients, and roughly one third may have adequate swallowing for the duration of their illness when ''radical'' doses have been employed. Surgical bypass procedures have greater acute morbidity but appear to provide more reliable, prolonged palliation of dysphagia. Several approaches to improving the efficacy of irradiation are currently under investigation. These approahces include fractionation schedules, radiosensitizers, neutron-beam therapy, and helium-ion therapy

  9. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  10. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L; Pukkala, E; Osterlind, A

    1997-01-01

    estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120 cancers at various sites. For all types of ionizing radiation, the annual total will be 4420 cancer cases, or 3.9% of all......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  11. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, adv...

  12. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  13. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  14. Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the doctors who oversee the care of each person undergoing radiation treatment. Other members of the treatment team include radiation therapists, radiation oncology nurses, medical physicists, dosimetrists, social workers ...

  15. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  16. Radiation-induced cancer: a modern view

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, D J; Sachs, R. K.; Wilson, D J

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic medical radiation has been the most rapidly increasing component of population background radiation exposure in Western countries over the past decade. This trend is set to increase as CT scanning is readily available with burgeoning use in everyday clinical practice. Consequently, the issue of cancer induction from the doses received during diagnostic medical exposures is highly relevant. In this review we explain current understanding of potential cancer induction at low doses of...

  17. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L;

    1997-01-01

    countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all...

  18. Radiation-induced cancer in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shoji; Sekizuka, Eiichi [National Saitama Hospital, Wako (Japan); Yamashita, Hisao [Keio Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takami, Akira [Yamawaki Coll., Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-12-01

    Results of two questionnaire surveys on radiation-induced malignant tumors conducted in 1977 and 1984 in Japan are briefly summarized. A total of 234 universities and general hospitals (139 in 1977, and 95 in 1984) responded and provided data from 1945 to 1977 and from 1978 to 1984. The number of patients with benign disease who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 150 in the first survey (1977) and 86 in the second survey (1984). The underlying benign diseases of these patients included tuberculous lymphadenitis, skin disease, hemangioma, and thyroid disease, and the most frequent radiation-induced malignant tumors in these patients were malignant tumors of the pharynx (80), cancer of the larynx (26), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (22), cancer of the esophagus (219), and skin cancer (21). In patients with head and neck diseases the highest correlation between underlying benign disease and radiation-induced malignant tumors was between cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and tumors of the pharynx (67 patients), followed by cancer of the larynx (19), and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (11). There were also correlations between thyroid disease and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (8 patients), hemangioma and skin cancer (7), and skin disease and skin cancer (8). The ratio of the observed values to predicted values (O/E ratio) in these patients was highest for cancer of the pharynxy (118), followed by cancer of the parotid gland (42), skin cancer (31), cancer of the esophagus (22), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (21), and cancer of the larynx (16). The number of patients with malignant tumors who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 140 in 1977 and 108 in 1984, and the underlying malignant tumors in these patients included tumors of the uterus (106), breast (32), and head and neck (80). The most frequent secondary malignant tumors were soft tissue tumors, followed by leukemia

  19. Radiation therapy of cancer of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of cancer of the lung, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of cancer of the lung, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radio-iodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. (authors)

  1. Second primary oesophageal cancer following radiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of 12 women who presented with a second primary oesophageal cancer following radiotherapy for breast cancer was reviewed. It was concluded that nine cases fitted the classical description of a radiation-induced malignancy. Most cases were successfully managed with combined modality therapy in spite of their previous radiotherapy

  2. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  3. Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. Ask your doctor for more information. For women undergoing reconstruction, post- mastectomy radiation may affect your options for reconstruction or the cosmetic outcome. Discuss with your surgeon and radiation oncologist ...

  4. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  5. Ionizing radiation, cancer induction and radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred years of observations of ionizing radiation have led to a number of major discoveries, including [1] ionizing radiation induces gene mutations in animals at a rate linearly proportional to dose, [2] certain cancers are induced by relatively high doses at a rate that is linearly proportional to the dose, [3] exposure of the fetus to very low doses of x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of cancer developing during childhood, and [4] many cancers result from somatic mutations in genes that control the normal growth and differentiation of cells. Cancers induced by ionizing radiation are likely therefore to result from somatic mutations, as first predicted by H. J. Muller in 1927. Large scale man-made releases of radioactive fallout have occurred and pose a cancer hazard. A special case is the risk of thyroid cancer to infants who ingest the radioiodines in such fallout. Ongoing epidemiological studies of persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 may eventually help to quantify risks associated with very low radiation doses and low dose rates. Governments and societies will need to be better prepared to cope with any future releases of radioactive fallout. (author)

  6. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1

  7. Two cases with radiation-induced cancers after radiation therapy for cancer of the maxillary sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experienced 2 patients with malignant non-epithelial tumors that developed following an incubation stage of 10 years or more after radiation therapy for cancer of the maxillary sinus. In Patient 1, the primary cancer was unclear, but it was speculated that this patient had been treated for cancer of the maxillary sinus. In patient 2, cancer of the maxillary sinus had been treated in our hospital. In patient 1, the secondary cancer was a malignant histiocytoma of the parapharyngeal space. In patient 2, the secondary cancer was a spindle cell sarcoma in the maxillary sinus. According to the classification of the probability of radiation-induced cancer after treatment for malignant tumors, the probability was evaluated as A in Patient 2, and B or higher in Patient 1. In the two patients, radiation-induced cancer was strongly suggested. For treatment, extended surgery was indicated, as a rule. In Patient 1, radical neck dissection was performed. In patient 2, tumorectomy was performed several times. Concerning the prognosis, Patient 1 is alive without cancer, but Patient 2 died of intracranial invasion by tumor. The invasion of the tumor and histological type may have influenced the prognosis. The incidence of radiation-induced cancer is considered to be 1% or less. However, radiation therapy-related late disorder must be considered. (author)

  8. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  9. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  10. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  11. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  12. Radiation biology in cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium held in February and March 1979. The publication of the book in early 1980 represents a timely appearance of the 40 scientific presentations and conference summary from a rather large meeting. The papers are organized into six categories ranging from basic biophysics of radiation damage to new methods and combinations in radiation therapy of human malignancies. This organization, going from the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to new therapy applications, is a logical one, and the relatively large emphasis on papers in the first category is a refreshing change for a symposium of this sort. The quality of editing, production, and illustrations is high

  13. Mechanisms of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, descriptive empirical models are used to arrive at cancer risk estimates from low levels of ionizing radiations. The mechanisms by which radiation may produce carcinogenic changes are postulated to include the induction of: mutations, including alterations in the structure of single genes or chromosomes; changes in gene expression, without mutations; and oncogenic viruses, which, in turn, may cause neoplasia. Included is a discussion of radiobiological factors affecting oncogenic transformations. 114 Ref

  14. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  15. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  16. Radiation in dwellings and cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radiation, especially radon exposure, has been in focus in the public domain during the past several years. The growing concern among parents of children with cancer possibly having high radiation levels in their homes led us to study the levels of gamma- and alpha-radiation levels in the homes of a group of children in the county of Ostergoetland. The indoor concentration of alpha-emitting radon daughters was measured by a high-voltage method. The gamma activity was measured with a standard detector scintillation meter. The yearly average for radon-daughter concentration in both cases (57 Bq/m3) and controls (61 Bq/m3) corresponds fairly well with the national average of 53 Bq/m3. The yearly average for gamma radiation (cases 0.37 mGy, controls 0.36 mGy) is much lower than the permissible upper level in dwellings (2.5 mGy/year). The values seem to be of the same order as the subtracted cosmic radiation, which is 0.24-0.26 mGy. No appreciable difference could thus be found between cases and controls either from gamma radiation or radon-daughter exposure. We cannot from our study rule out the possibility of an effect of low-level radiation in susceptible individuals, but it seems clear that children who get cancer do not live in more radioactive homes than other children

  17. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  18. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  19. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  20. Natural background as an indicator of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the estimates for radiation-induced cancer rates is presented including the recent high estimates of 8 x 10-3 cancers/man rem. Also reviewed are the external background radiation and cancer incidence for the USA by state. A regression analysis of these data reveals a negative correlation between radiation dose and cancer rate, but only with a correlation coefficient of 0.39. However, the cancer induction rate of 8 x 10-3/man rem is shown to describe the observed data with a probability of 1 in 14,000. Thus such high estimates of radiation-induced cancer rate are highly improbable. (UK)

  1. Radiation and pathology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title subjects are explained in the order of the low dose exposure, medical exposure, A-bomb exposure, details of Chernobyl Accident, and Fukushima Accident. The low exposure dose is defined to be <100 mSv and its carcinogenic effect has been hardly proved by epidemiology. Thyroid (Th) cancer has been known to be formed by medical exposure like external radiation to head/neck diseases, and internal one by radioiodine for therapy of Basedow disease and post-surgery ablation of Th cancer. Th is suggested to be the most sensitive carcinogenic organ to radiation. Significantly high excess relative risk of Th cancer, 1.15, is shown in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki epidemiology, and the risk is 10 times higher in infants exposed at their age <10 y. In Chernobyl Accident (1986), the risk exposed at age 0-4 y is shown to be the highest, and at <1 y, the risk is 40 times as high as the age 10 y. Th cancer incidence per 100 thousands persons is increasing along with calendar year, and reaches at the peak of 10 in 2001 in 15-19 years old adolescents (exposed at infant stage). The effects are predicted to last for coming 50 years. The exposure is considered to be internal mainly through milks highly contaminated with radioiodine. The Th equivalent dose in infants is estimated to be 0.15-3.1 Gy in average. Pathology for diagnosis and registration of Th cancer is now conducted according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria by Chernobyl Tissue Bank. Specific feature of radiation-induced Th cancer has not been found: The feature in its morphology and gene mutation varies depending on the age at exposure, latent period and dose, but is virtually similar to spontaneous Th cancer, suggesting the common carcinogenic mechanism in both. One of causes of high incidence of Th cancer formation is that Chernobyl is a low iodine region. Prognosis of the Th cancer is reported good as exemplified by 10-y survival of 95.5%, similar to the spontaneous pediatric one. In

  2. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  3. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  4. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  5. Radiation Therapy of Maxillary Sinus Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Maxillary sinus cancers usually are locally advanced and involve the structures around sinus. It is uncommon for this cancer to spread to the regional lymphnodes. For this reason, local control is of paramount important for cure. A policy of combined treatment is generally accepted as the most effective means of enhancing cure rates. This paper reports our experience of a retrospective study of 31 patients treated with radiation therapy alone and combination therapy of surgery and radiation. Materials and Methods: Between July 1974 and January 1992, 47 patients with maxillary sinus cancers underwent either radiation therapy alone or combination therapy of surgery and radiation. Of these, only 31 patients were eligible for analysis. The distribution of clinical stage by the AJCC system was 26%(8/31) for T2 and 74%(23/31) for T3 and T4. Eight patients had palpable lymphadenopathy at diagnosis. Primary site was treated by Cobalt-60 radiation therapy using through a 45 .deg. wedge-pair technique. Elective neck irradiation was not routinely given. Of these 8 patients, the six who had clinically involved nodes were treated with definite radiation therapy. The other two patients had received radical neck dissection. The twenty-two patients were treated with radiation alone and 9 patients were treated with combination radiation therapy. The RT alone patients with RT dose less than 60 Gy were 9 and those above 60 Gy were 13. Results: The overall 5 year survival rate was 23.8%. The 5 year survival rate by T-stage was 60.5% and 7.9% for T2 and T3, 4 respectively. Statistical significance was found by T-stage (p30.1). The 5 year survival rate for RT alone and combination RT was 22.5% and 27.4%, respectively. The primary local control rate was 65%(20/31). Conclusion: This study did not show significant difference in survival between RT alone and combination RT. There is still much controversy with regard to which treatment is optimum. Improved RT technique and

  6. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  7. Radiation-Induced Cancer. Proceedings of a Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between radiation and cancer was recognized soon after the discovery of X-rays and natural radioactivity. In the early years after the discovery of ionizing radiations some of the pioneering workers suffered severely from the damaging effects of radiation exposure. These incidents,- generally due to ignorance of the biological consequences of radiation exposure, were instrumental in starting investigations on the subject. Gradually precise information became available on the nature of radiation-induced damage and on the repair phenomena. This information has been advanced by recent progress in molecular biology, cellular biology, cytogenetics, biochemistry, virology, immunology and related disciplines. Contributions of these disciplines to radiation biology and cancer research has resulted in the use of radiation to solve various problems of human health including cancer. At the same time, with knowledge of the effects of radiations on cells and on various organisms including man, it has become possible to state the level of radiation dose that is not an apparent health hazard (i. e. the maximum permissible dose). This work has been vitally important in programs dealing with the occupational safety of personnel working with radiations. Although the present safety standards and devices are generally recognized as adequate, they must be re-evaluated from time to time in the light of the latest findings in radiobiology and other related disciplines. The Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with the World Health Organization, permitted discussion and evaluation of the present understanding of the nature of late biological effects of radiations including cancer, and development of protective as well as curative measures against cancer. Much attention was given to the comparative analysis of the effects of radiation, particularly at low dose levels, on man and experimental mammals. Emphasis

  8. Radiations, human cancerization and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active oxygen species have been implicated in inflammatory diseases, cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Experiments studying their direct (for instance, by ionizing radiation) or indirect influence (for instance, by the decrease(s) in activity of cellular defence enzymes), in vivo, and/or, in cell cultures (fibroblasts, keratinocytes, hepatocytes,...) have been positive. To the contrary, reactions or products, which decrease level(s) of free radicals/H2O2 (i) directly, (ii) indirectly by an increase of SOD, catalase, and peroxydase activites suppress the above-described phenomena. This is the case for the domain number 2 (that contains copper, MW 53KDa) of the Scorpion's blood pigment (hemocyanin), which possesses SOD-, catalase-, and peroxydase-like properties, resistant to, at least, 4000 Gy, and thus may explain the especially high radioresistance of scorpions. Enzymatic decrease(s) and the domain number 2 of hemocyanin are under current investigation in several laboratories

  9. Inhibitory mechanism of peptides and antibodies targeting murine urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    high affinity and specificity of mupain-1-16 makes it a suitable inhibitor for targeting of murine uPA in order to investigate the importance of uPA in murine disease models. Secondly, two high affinity monoclonal antibodies targeting murine uPA (mU1 and mU3) were studied. These antibodies showed...... be important for future tumour model studies and the development of more efficient inhibitors against uPA....

  10. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  11. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  12. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  13. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  14. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  15. Radiation and breast cancer: the present situation and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a brief review is presented relating to the public health importance of breast cancer, the current state of knowledge regarding non-radiation risk factors for this cancer and the current state of knowledge concerning radiation induced breast cancer. In addition, consideration is given to some areas where there is an identifiable need for future research. (Author)

  16. Involvement of Toll-like receptors in acute radiation syndrome and radiation therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are one of pattern recognition receptors that are indispensable for antibacterial and antiviral immunity. After TLRs sense pathogen-derived components, they activate intracellular signaling pathways, which results in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Although it is well known that radiation therapy is one of effective cancer therapies, radiation affects immune system. Recent evidences show the involvement of TLR in acute radiation syndrome and radiation therapy for cancer. I summarize to date knowledge on the involvement of Toll-like receptors in acute radiation syndromes and radiation therapy for cancer, and discuss the effects of ionizing radiation on TLR of innate immune cells. (author)

  17. Albendazole sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases afflict approximately half of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and represent the direct cause of death in 60 to 70% of those affected. Standard of care remains ineffective in both types of cancer with the challenge of overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) exacerbating the clinical problem. Our purpose is to determine and characterize the potential of albendazole (ABZ) as a cytotoxic and radiosensitizing agent against MM and SCLC cells. Here, ABZ's mechanism of action as a DNA damaging and microtubule disrupting agent is assessed through analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation and cell cyle progression. The cytotoxicity of ABZ alone and in combination with radiation therapy is determined though clonogenic cell survival assays in a panel of MM and SCLC cell lines. We further establish ABZ's ability to act synergistically as a radio-sensitizer through combination index calculations and apoptotic measurements of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. ABZ induces DNA damage as measured by increased H2AX phosphorylation. ABZ inhibits the growth of MM and SCLC at clinically achievable plasma concentrations. At these concentrations, ABZ arrests MM and SCLC cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 12 hours of treatment. Exploiting the notion that cells in the G2/M phase are the most sensitive to radiation therapy, we show that treatment of MM and SCLC cells treated with ABZ renders them more sensitive to radiation in a synergistic fashion. Additionally, MM and SCLC cells co-treated with ABZ and radiation exhibit increased apoptosis at 72 hours. Our study suggests that the orally available antihelminthic ABZ acts as a potent radiosensitizer in MM and SCLC cell lines. Further evaluation of ABZ in combination with radiation as a potential treatment for MM and SCLC brain metastases is warranted

  18. Radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideomi; Yamashita; Wataru; Takahashi; Akihiro; Haga; Keiichi; Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)has a locacontrol rate of 95%at 2 years for non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and should improve the prognosis oinoperable patients,elderly patients,and patients withsignificant comorbidities who have early-stage NSCLCThe safety of SBRT is being confirmed in internationalmulti-institutional PhaseⅡtrials for peripheral lungcancer in both inoperable and operable patients,bureports so far have found that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for early-stage NSCLC and early metastatic lung cancer.Radiation pneumonitis(RP)is oneof the most common toxicities of SBRT.Although mospost-treatment RP is Grade 1 or 2 and either asymptomatic or manageable,a few cases are severe,symptomatic,and there is a risk for mortality.The reportedrates of symptomatic RP after SBRT range from 9%to28%.Being able to predict the risk of RP after SBRT isextremely useful in treatment planning.A dose-effecrelationship has been demonstrated,but suggesteddose-volume factors like mean lung dose,lung V20and/or lung V2.5 differed among the reports.We foundthat patients who present with an interstitial pneumo-nitis shadow on computed tomography scan and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D have a high rate of severe radiation pneumo-nitis after SBRT.At our institution,lung cancer patients with these risk factors have not received SBRT since 2006,and our rate of severe RP after SBRT has de-creased significantly since then.

  19. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  20. Curative radiation therapy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has experienced an extremely rapid development in recent years. Important improvements such as the introduction of multileaf collimators and computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning software have enabled three dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3DCRT). The development of treatment planning systems and technology for brachytherapy has been very rapid as well. Development of accelerators with integrated on-board imaging equipment and technology, for example image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has further improved the precision with reduced margins to adjacent normal tissues. This has, in turn, led to the possibility to administer even higher doses to the prostate than previously. Although radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy have been used for the last decades as curative treatment modalities, still there are no randomized trials published comparing these two options. Outcome data show that the two treatment modalities are highly comparable when used for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

  1. Progress in the development of therapeutic antibodies targeting prion proteins and β-amyloid peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by protein misfolding, and can lead to dementia. However, prion diseases are infectious and transmissible, while AD is not. The similarities and differences between these diseases have led researchers to perform comparative studies. In the last 2 decades, progress has been made in immunotherapy using anti-prion protein and anti-β-amyloid antibodies. In this study, we review new ideas and strategies for therapeutic antibodies targeting prion diseases and AD through conformation dependence.

  2. Radiation response in prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the publication follows. Introduction: Currently, there is no successful treatment for secondary prostate cancer. Resistance of secondary tumours and metastases to radiotherapy and chemotherapy might be explained by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Prostate (P) CSCs are rare cells defined by cell surface markers, CD133+, a2b1integrinhi and CD44+, and are capable of self-renewal, differentiation and invasion in vitro and tumour initiation in vivo. Hypothesis: PCSCs have an alternative DNA damage response following radiation and are resistant to radiation treatment. Methods: Primary prostate (benign and cancer) epithelial stem (SC) transit amplifying (TA, CD133-/a2b1integrinhi/CD44+) and committed basal (CB, CD133-/a2b1integrinlo/CD44+) cells were exposed to 2 Gy of radiation (IR) to induce a DNA damage response. Immunofluorescence was used to quantify nuclear foci, representative of DNA damage response proteins (g-H2AX, 53BP1, phosphorylated ATM/ATR substrates, phospho-Chk2Th68). Immunofluorescence was also used to co-stain for heterochromatin and DNA damage markers. Comet assays (neutral and alkaline) were used to directly assess DNA damage. Results: In benign and cancer cells, the SCs had a lower percentage of cells containing initial foci (30 min post-IR), compared to the TA and CB cells. At 24 h post-IR there was a reduced percentage of cells positive for foci in TA and CB cells suggesting repair. Whilst there were also signs of repair in benign SCs, in the PCSCs there was an increase in percentage of cells positive for foci at 24 h, indicative of a delayed damage response. Comet assays indicated that SCs sustain different kinds of DNA damage to TA and CB cells. Heterochromatin staining indicated that DNA damage foci preferentially formed in euchromatin. Future work: Further studies will include apoptosis and clonogenic assays to measure PCSC survival. In addition, PCSC chromatin status will be examined to elucidate DNA repair kinetics. If we are able

  3. Immunotherapy of melanoma with the immune costimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Yan Li, Yizhen Liu Cancer Research Institute, Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA Abstract: Knowledge of how the immune system recognizes and attempts to control cancer growth and development has improved dramatically. The advent of immunotherapies for cancer has resulted in robust clinical responses and confirmed that the immune system can significantly inhibit tumor progression. Until recently, metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. CD137 (also known as 4-1BB a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily, is an activation-induced T cell costimulator molecule. Growing evidence indicates that anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies possess strong antitumor properties, the result of their powerful capability to activate CD8+ T cells, to produce interferon (IFN-γ, and to induce cytolytic markers. Combination therapy of anti-CD137 with other anticancer agents, such as radiation, has robust tumor-regressing abilities against nonimmunogenic or poorly immunogenic tumors. Of importance, targeting CD137 eliminates established tumors, and the fact that anti-CD137 therapy acts in concert with other anticancer agents and/or radiation therapy to eradicate nonimmunogenic and weakly immunogenic tumors is an additional benefit. Currently, BMS-663513, a humanized anti-CD137 antibody, is in clinical trials in patients with solid tumors, including melanoma, renal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and B-cell malignancies. In this review, we discuss the basis of the therapeutic potential of targeting CD137 in cancer treatment, focusing in particular, on BMS-663513 as an immune costimulatory monoclonal antibody for melanoma immunotherapy. Keywords: anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies, immune costimulator molecule, BMS-663513

  4. Anti-tumour effects of antibodies targeting the extracellular cysteine-rich region of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Douglas, Evelyn L; Mertens-Walker, Inga; Lisle, Jessica E; Maharaj, Mohanan S N; Herington, Adrian C

    2015-04-10

    EphB4 is a membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) commonly over-produced by many epithelial cancers but with low to no expression in most normal adult tissues. EphB4 over-production promotes ligand-independent signaling pathways that increase cancer cell viability and stimulate migration and invasion. Several studies have shown that normal ligand-dependent signaling is tumour suppressive and therefore novel therapeutics which block the tumour promoting ligand-independent signaling and/or stimulate tumour suppressive ligand-dependent signaling will find application in the treatment of cancer. An EphB4-specific polyclonal antibody, targeting a region of 200 amino acids in the extracellular portion of EphB4, showed potent in vitro anti-cancer effects measured by an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in anchorage independent growth. Peptide exclusion was used to identify the epitope targeted by this antibody within the cysteine-rich region of the EphB4 protein, a sequence defined as a potential ligand interacting interface. Addition of antibody to cancer cells resulted in phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of the EphB4 protein, suggesting a mechanism that is ligand mimetic and tumour suppressive. A monoclonal antibody which specifically targets this identified extracellular epitope of EphB4 significantly reduced breast cancer xenograft growth in vivo confirming that EphB4 is a useful target for ligand-mimicking antibody-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:25831049

  5. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  6. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35% Gy−1 for men and 58% Gy−1 for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose–response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40–60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15–20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. (note)

  7. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  8. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin canc

  9. Thyroid cancer post exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed and discussed is the radiation-induced thyroid cancer (TC) from aspects of epidemiology along with the medical and accidental exposure, and of gene level. Medical external exposure to the thyroid occurs by radiation therapy of head and neck diseases and the internal exposure, by radioiodine administration for treatment of Basedow disease and postoperative ablation of TC. Excessive relative risk of TC in A-bomb survivors is 1.15, statistically significant, is 10 times higher in 40 y. TC is generally rare (the incidence, 1 per 100thousands/y), but after the Chernobyl Accident, the incidence is increased to 10-100 times. The incidence of pediatric TC is found to reach the peak at 10 years after the Accident and has decreased to the normal level at present. Instead, TC is now at a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults (15-24 years old) who were exposed at their childhood: risk is found the highest in infants of the age 0-4 y. The exposure was mainly internal by radioiodine through breast milk and food. Histopathological tissue type of TC is rather different from that in Japan, suggesting the low iodine content in the area around Chernobyl. Risk of TC is obscure for the fetal exposure to radioiodine. Chernobyl Tissue Bank has a stock of 3,800 TC specimens. At present, gene mutation specific in radiation-induced TC alone is not found. Although the health risk of exposure to <100 mSv is said to be hardly proven and the internal exposure dose level by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident is said to be much lower than that by Chernobyl Accident, the health management of Fukushima residents should be followed up for long term. (T.T.)

  10. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  11. Scientific approach to radiation-induced cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating cancer risk of low-dose radiation, it is difficult to distinguish the actual effect from that of chance, bias, and confounding as they become relatively large. This is why the relation between radiation doses of less than 100 mSv and cancer risk is considered unknown. Based on data of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the cancer risk at 100 mSv is calculated at 1.05 times. On the other hand, the risk ratio for the relation between passive smoking and lung cancer...

  12. Phytosphingosine can overcome resistance to ionizing radiation in ionizing radiation-resistant cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Taek; Choi, Jung A; Kim, Min Jeong; Bae, Sang Woo; Kang, Chang Mo; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yun Sil; Lee, Su Jae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Man [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although the majority of cancer cells are killed by inonizing radiation, certain types show resistance to it. We previously reported that phytosphingosine also induces apoptotic cell death in caspase dependent pathway in human cancer cells. In the present study, we examined whether phytosphingosine could overcome radiation resistance in the variant Jurkat clones. We first selected radiation-resistant Jurkat clones and examined cross-responsiveness of the clones between radiation and phytosphingosine. Treatment with phytosphingosine significantly did not affect apoptosis in all the clones, indicating that there seemed to be cross-resistance between radiation and phytosphingosine. Nevertheless, combined treatment of phytosphingosine with radiation synergistically enhanced killing of radiation-resistant cells, compared to radiation or phytosphingosine alone. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not completely inhibit the synergistic cell killing induced by combined treatment of ionizing radiation and phytosphingosine. These results demonstrated that apoptosis induced by combined treatment of radiation and phytosphingosine in radiation-resistant cells was associated with caspase independent pathway. We also found that apoptotic cell death induced by combined treatment of ionizing radiation and phytosphingosine correlated to the increases of ROS. The enhancement of ROS generation induced the loss of mitochondria transmembrane potential. In conclusion, ROS generation in combined treatment of phytosphingosine with radiation significantly induced the translocation of AIF to nucleus from mitochondria, suggesting a potential clinical application of combination treatment of radiation and phytosphingosine to radiation-resistant cancer cells.

  13. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  14. Cancer Stem Cells, Cancer Cell Plasticity and Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be ...

  15. Radiation detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of mammography in the symptomatic patient has been adequately documented, but its use as a detection procedure remains a question. Risk-benefit ratios, based primarily upon the study carried out by the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, have suggested that the technique has little value in individuals under age 50. Emphasis has been placed upon the possible carcinogenic effects of radiation as compared with the efficacy of mammography and the questionable influence of early diagnosis upon end results. Although technical advances have substantially reduced the exposure of the patient to radiation, the possibility of significant information loss as the result of these developments has been considered a potential drawback to their routine use. All of these factors have served to diminish both public and professional acceptance of the examination. Although current data do not allow complete resolution of these problems, certain conclusions may be drawn and trends established. The sum of these may indicate that minimal dose mammography is an accurate, low-risk procedure, capable of significantly altering the natural history of breast cancer. Whether or not the examination should be routinely used in women under age 50 remains open to question since the lack of experimental controls prohibits validation of the technique in terms of reduced mortality rates. Documentation of increased survival rates may partially assist in the established of a reliable risk-benefit ratio, but will not satisfy the statistical requirements of eliminating lead-bias, and self-selection. These questions may be resolved by studies now underway

  16. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  17. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy in head and neck malignancy often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores in 27 subjects undergoing 60-72 Gy radiation therapy for newly diagnosed cancer- 13 with mesopharynx and 14 with hypopharynx. Mucositis severity was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0) based on mucositis pain, analgesic administration, and oral feedings of our subjects, with 8 mesopharyngeal and 10 with hypopharyngeal cancer had been pain-free before radiation therapy. The mucositis and pain course was severer in mesopharyngeal than in hypopharyngeal cancer. NSAIDs and opioid use was similar in both cancer types, which also required tube feeding in 7 subjects (38.9%). (author)

  18. The place of ionizing radiation in the cancer genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different fields are considered: the field of high radiation doses (over 1 Sv), the contribution of ionizing radiation in the carcinogenesis is doubtless and the linear dose-effect relationship is unshakable. but this high doses area is rare ( major accident of civil nuclear, radiotherapy, war with use of nuclear weapon) and escapes to usual standards. The field of low dose irradiation (inferior to 100 MSv) we cannot assure the absence of carcinogen risk of ionizing radiation. We can tell that this risk is very low, very inferior to 5% by sievert accepted by the ICRP in conformance with the precautionary principle. In any case, very inferior to the risk in relation with the big causes of cancer that are addiction to smoking, (30% of cancers), food (30% of cancers), chronic diseases (11% of cancers) and hormonal processes (10% of cancers). (N.C.)

  19. Radiation therapy in early Glotic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early vocal cord carcinomas (TiS or T1) in a cosecutive series of 177 patients treaded by primary radiotherapy over a 10-year period 1970-79 were analysed regarding treatment results. In 137 cases the tumours were invasive (T1N0M0) and in 40 cases carcinoma of in situ type (TiS). Patient were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation in fraction of 2 Gy up to a total dose of 64 Gy delivered as split course. Minimum follow-up time was 5 years. Tumour recurred in 21 cases (12%). All but 4 patients were rescued by subsequent surgery, giving 98% total survival. Treatment failures after primary radiotherapy were analysed in detail. Failures could not be attributed to treatment irregularities. No difference in pretreatment tomour size was detected when cured patients were compared with patients who relapsed. Biological factors that cause a relative radioresistance are considered to be the main reson for radiotherapy failures in early glottic cancer

  20. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  1. First International Seminar on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar was held July 20-23, 1998, at St. John's College, Cambridge, England. A total of 155 delegates from 23 countries attended the conference. The principal aims of the meeting were to describe the link between radiation and thyroid cancer, and to explore the many factors influencing the interaction between radiation and the thyroid cell, which together determine the likelihood that a cancer may result

  2. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doreen Oneschuk; Jawaid Younus

    2011-01-01

    Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative in...

  3. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  4. Low-dose radiation: a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is likely that the breast is the organ most sensitive to radiation carcinogenesis in postpubertal women. Studies of different exposed populations have yielded remarkably consistent results, in spite of wide differences in underlying breast cancer rates and conditions of exposure. Excess risk is approximately proportional to dose, and is relatively independent of ionization density and fractionization of dose. This implies that the risk associated with low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation can be estimated with some confidence from higher-dose data. Excess risk is heavily dependent on age at exposure but relatively independent of population differences in normal risk. The temporal patterns after exposure of both radiation-induced and naturally occurring breast cancer are similar, suggesting a strong influence of factors other than radiation on radiation-induced breast cancer. Uncertainties remain about risks from exposures before puberty and after menopause

  5. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  6. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  7. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  8. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; YAMASHITA, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at ...

  9. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  10. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  11. Optimal approach in early breast cancer: Radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Poortmans, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy significantly reduces by at least 70% the relative risk of local and regional recurrences for breast cancer after surgery. A positive influence on overall survival has been clearly demonstrated, especially for patients with a high absolute risk for locoregional recurrences. However, this is partially counterbalanced by late toxicity (dependent upon the radiation dose) especially to cardiac structures. Apart from this toxicity, a clear influence of radiation-therapy-related f...

  12. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, F

    1997-08-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that stratospheric ozone has declined worldwide over the past 20 years. The trend estimates are markedly dependent on the geographical location and are highly seasonal. Winter trends are much more negative than those for summer and autumn. Projections based on current assumptions of chlorine release suggest that this decline will continue into the next century. On the basis of the decrease in ozone over the mid-latitudes, an increase in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) of 4%-9% is expected, depending on the season and geographical location. However, the UVR penetration to the Earth's surface is greatly affected by clouds, aerosols and tropospheric ozone, and current increases, if any, have not been as large as this. Direct evidence for the induction of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to UVR has been derived from animal experiments in mice and rats. Numerous epidemiological data confirm that this relationship also holds for human skin. The increase in NMSC incidence in the past two decades is not likely to be due to the decrease in ozone, given the long latency (two to three decades) associated with UVR effects on skin. A knowledge of the action spectrum for NMSC development suggests that a 1% depletion in stratospheric ozone may be expected to increase NMSC, at equilibrium, by about 2.0% The evidence on the role of UVR exposure in the development of malignant melanoma (MM) is less certain. It has been estimated that a 1% reduction in ozone may cause an increase in MM of 0.6%. PMID:9301039

  13. Natural health products and cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Oneschuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complementary therapies, notably natural health products such as herbs and vitamins, are frequently used by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There is much controversy as to whether these natural health products should be taken during conventional cancer treatments. Supporters of this practice cite beneficial effects of the antioxidant properties, while opponents are concerned about the potential for natural health product-chemotherapy/radiation related negative interactions. This involves understanding the role and effect on metabolizing enzymes. This review will highlight the present evidence for both the beneficial and negative consequences of the use of natural health products during chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  14. RERF research agenda for studies of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade or so the numbers of cancers attributable to radiation among the Japanese A-bomb survivors have become large enough to permit quantitative estimates of risk and to encourage quantitative investigation of the many factors other than dose that appear to govern the appearance of radiation-induced cancer. The size and demographic complexity of the A-bomb survivor population are such that future studies should go far to provide the descriptive information on which our understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in man must ultimately depend. 60 references

  15. What is the probability that radiation caused a particular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courts, lawyers, health physicists, physicians, and others are searching for a credible answer to the question posed in the title of this paper. The cases in which the question arises frequently stem from an individual that has cancer and they, or their next-of-kin, are convinced that a past radiation exposure - usually small - is responsible for causing it. An arithmetic expression of this problem is simple: the probability of causation by the radiation dose in question is equal to the risk of cancer from the radiation dose divided by the risk of cancer from all causes. The application of risk factors to this equation is not so simple. It must involve careful evaluation of the reliability of and variations in risk coefficients for development of cancer due to radiation exposure, other carcinogenic agents, and natural causes for the particular individual. Examination of our knowledge of these various factors indicates that a large range in the answers can result due to the variability and imprecision of the data. Nevertheless, the attempts to calculate and the probability that radiation caused the cancer is extremely useful to provide a gross perspective on the probability of causation. It will likely rule in or out a significant number of cases despite the limitations in our understandings of the etiology of cancer and the risks from various factors. For the remaining cases, a thoughtful and educated judgment based on selected data and circumstances of the case will also be needed before the expert can develop and support his opinion

  16. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  17. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  18. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  19. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  20. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  1. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadec, Chann [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  2. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells

  3. The radiation techniques of tomotherapy & intensity-modulated radiation therapy applied to lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhengfei; Fu, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of lung cancer. Development of radiation techniques is a possible way to improve the effect of RT by reducing toxicities through better sparing the surrounding normal tissues. This article will review the application of two forms of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), fixed-field IMRT and helical tomotherapy (HT) in lung cancer, including dosimetric and clinical studies. The advantages and potential disadvantages of these t...

  4. How far is cancer cured by radiation sensitization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some types of cancer are not cured by radiation alone in view of histology, location, and size. In facing so-called radioresistant cancer, antineoplastic agents, hypoxic cell sensitizers, biological response modifiers, or hyperthermia are used in combination with radiation, with the aim of cancer cure. First of all, this chapter discusses the subject of 'what is tumor cure by radiation therapy'. Current conditions of the aforementioned combined modalities and the future perspectives are presented. The following subjects are covered: (1) tumor control - significance of the number of stem cells; (2) biological evaluation of chemo-radiotherapy with cisplatin; (3) clinical results and experience with combination of radiotherapy and radiosensitizers; (4) radiosensitization with hypoxic cell radiosensitizers - present status (5) hypoxic cell radiosensitizers - present status and problems from the viewpoint of clinical radiotherapy; (6) thermal radiosensitization in vitro and its implications for radiotherapy; (7) clinical assessment of thermoradiotherapy for breast cancer and cancer of the urinary bladder; (8) interactions of radiation and biological response modifiers in the treatment of malignant tumor; (9) improvement in the effects of radiation therapy with biological response modifiers. (N.K.)

  5. Quantitative studies of monoclonal antibody targeting to disialoganglioside G{sub D2} in human brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbit, E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Surgery; Cheung, N.K.V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Yeh, S.D.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Daghighian, F. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics; Zhang, J.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Cordon-Cardo, C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Pentlow, K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics; Canete, A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Finn, R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Larson, S.M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-05-01

    Iodine-131 3F8, a murine IgG{sub 3} monoclonal antibody that targets to G{sub D2}-bearing tumors, was administered intravenously to 12 patients with brain tumors. Six patients received 2 mCi (0.74 Bq) of {sup 131}I-3F8, five patients 10 mCi (3.7 Bq)/1.73 m{sup 2} of {sup 131}I-3F8, and one patient 2.6 mCi (0.96Bq) of {sup 124}I-3F8, with no side-effects. Nine of 11 malignant gliomas and the single metastatic melanoma showed antibody localization, with the best tumor delineation on single-photon emission tomography (SPET) following 10 mCi (3.7 Bq)/1.73 m{sup 2} dose. No nonspecific uptake in the normal craniospinal axis was detected. There was no difference in the pharmacokinetics of low-dose versus the higher-dose anti-body groups; plasma and total-body half-lives were 18 h and 49 h, respectively. Surgical sampling and time-activity curves based on quantitative imaging showed peak uptake in high-grade glioma at 39 h, with a half-life of 62 h. Tumor uptake at time of surgery averaged 3.5x10{sup -3} %ID/g and peak activity by the conjugate view method averaged 9.2x10{sup -3} %ID/g (3.5-17.8). Mean radiation absorption dose was 3.9 rad per mCi injected (range 0.7-9.6) or 10.5 cGy/Bq (range 1.9-26). There was agreement on positive sites when immunoscintigraphy was compared with technetium-99m glucoheptonate/diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid planar imaging, thallium-201 SPET, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Taken together, these data suggest that quantitative estimates of antibody targeting to intracranial tumors can be made using the modified conjugate view method. (orig.)

  6. State of the art of radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has a critical role in the treatment of esophageal cancer. To improve the treatment outcome of radiotherapy, not only strengthening the treatment intensity but also decreasing the long term toxicity is needed. To reduce the long term cardiopulmonary toxicity of chemoradiation, JCOG is now running a clinical trial which combines three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and mild irradiation dose. New techniques of radiation therapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or particle therapy are also promising in both treatment intensity and decreased toxicity. (author)

  7. Contribution to the study of radiation induced bone tissue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work four original observations of more or less long-delayed cancers induced by ionizing radiations are compared with 34 other cases in the literature, after which an attempt is made to establish a general and prognostic synthesis of the results; the indications to emerge are as follows: - Ionizing radiation-induced cancers are very rare, especially when compared with the extensive therapeutic use made of X-rays; - The probability of radio-cancer formation, though no figures are given in the many papers consulted, seems nevertheless to be higher in cases of benign lesion irradiation; - Induced cancers have been observed after treatments with all types of radiation, whether or not the lesion is tumoral or cancerous, whatever the patient's age at the time of irradiations; - As a general rule these neoplasms appear after a variable latency period but usually from the 6th post-radiotherapy year onwards, with a greater frequency range between 6 and 12 years; - These induced cancers are generally epitheliomas or sarcomas, the latter being noticeably more predominant than in the case of spontaneous cancers. Leukoses may also be observed

  8. Radiation treatment for newly diagnosed esophageal cancer with prior radiation to the thoracic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States); Lenards, Nishele [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kusano, Aaron; Patel, Shilpen [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate the use of single-positron emission computed tomography scan in planning radiation treatments for patients with a history of radiation to the thoracic cavity. A patient presented with obstructive esophageal cancer, having previously received chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the mediastinum for non-Hodgkin lymphoma 11 years earlier. Owing to a number of comorbidities, the patient was not a surgical candidate and was referred to the University of Washington Medical Center for radiation therapy. Prior dose to the spinal cord and lung were taken into account before designing the radiation treatment plan.

  9. Radiation induced chromosomal instability in lymphocytes of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been extensively used to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human individuals. Using the CBMN assay, Scott et al (1998, 1999) demonstrated that a fraction of radiosensitive individuals in breast cancer case population was larger than in normal individual population. However, Vral et al were very skeptical about the Scott et al's findings (2002). Under the approval from the ethical committee of NIRS, peripheral blood was obtained from 46 normal healthy females, 131 breast cancer patients, 32 cervical cancer patients and 7 female head and neck cancer patients. Radiosensitivity of T-lymphocytes was assessed by using a CBMN assay. The frequencies of MN per binucleated cell in healthy donors were 0.031(±0.010) and 0.151(±0.066) for cells treated before and after X-ray-irradiation (2Gy), respectively. Spontaneous MN frequencies in cancer patients were significantly higher than healthy donors (p < 0.001). Radiation sensitivities of breast- and head and neck-cancer patients were significantly higher than normal individuals (p < 0.001). Cervical cancer patients were more resistant to irradiation than healthy donors, though the number of cases for statistical analysis was small. (p < 0.001). We are considering that the HPV infection affected the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cases. Because it is widely believed that one key mechanism which leads to spontaneous micronucleus formation involves an imbalance of chromosomal segregation and a chromosomal instability in patients' lymphocytes might be greater than that in normal individuals' lymphocytes. Recently, Kuschel et al (2002) demonstrated that ratios in two SNPs on XRCC3 were significantly different between cancer patients and healthy females. Then, we can suppose that the radiation-related genes with low penetrance may be involved in tumorigenesis of mammary- and head and neck-cells, and also, in patients' radiation susceptibility

  10. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  11. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Medizinische Physik in der Strahlentherapie; Schneider, Uwe [Triemli Hospital and Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Poppe, Bjoern [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Medizinische Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  12. Leukemia and other cancers following radiation treatment of pelvic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follow-up studies of patients treated for cancer of the cervix with radiotherapy have shown such women to be at little or no increased risk of leukemia subsequent to the radiation exposure. However, women exposed to lower doses of radiation in the pelvic area, in the induction of an artificial menopause, appear to show increased risks of both leukemia and cancers of those sites directly in the radiation field. The studies of these two types of radiation exposure are reviewed. The findings may possibly be reconciled with each other on the basis of the distribution of radiation dose to the bone marrow. Irradiation for cancer of the cervix delivers radiation doses to a small portion of the marrow which are probably lethal for most marrow cells. The mean dose to cells distant from the cervix may be too small to produce a detectable increase in leukemia incidence. The lower and more uniformly distributed radiation dose used to induce an artificial menopause will be less lethal for marrow cells and may consequently deliver a higher ''effective'' marrow dose to surviving cells, resulting in an increased leukemia risk

  13. An integrated model for radiation induced cancer (IMRIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate aim for radiation induced cancer modeling must be to arrive at cancer risk estimates in the human, based (partly or entirely) on data obtained in the laboratory. Current risk estimates for the stochastic radiation effect of cancer induction derive entirely from epidemiological data, largely of the Japanese survivors of the A-bombs, with little input of laboratory information. These data relate to high doses and high dose-rates and it is difficult to see how much more information can be extracted from them. Because of rapid progress in many fields, including molecular biology, cellular studies and experiments with laboratory animals, it is argued here that the time is now ripe for an attempt to be made to model the entire sequence of events from the absorption of radiation energy to the manifestation of a malignancy in the human. (author)

  14. Lung cancer in relation to airborne radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1986 aeroradiometric survey of the eastern two-thirds of Washington County, Maryland provided and opportunity to study lung cancers in relation to gamma radiation levels. In the first approach, lung cancer deaths between 1963 and 1975 in four areas of the county categorized as low, moderately low, moderately high, and high showed relative risks of 1.00, 0.93, 1.01, and 1.43, respectively, after adjustment of sex, age, and smoking. A second approach used lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1975 and 1989, controls matched to cases by race, sex, and age, and aerometric radiation readings above the individual residences. In four levels of increasing gamma radiation, odds ratios adjusted for smoking were 1.00, 0.84, 0.90, and 0.92, respectively. No differences were statistically significant

  15. Stem cells in radiation and oral cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small sub population of cancer cells that constitute a pool of self sustaining cells with the exclusive ability to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumour. There are three main characteristics of CSCs. Initially the cell must show potent tumour initiation in that it can regenerate the tumour which it was derived from a limited number of cells. In addition, the cells should demonstrate self renewal in vivo, which is practically observed via regrowth of phenotypically indistinguishable and heterogeneous tumours following serial transplantation of re-isolated CSCs in secondary and tertiary recipients. Finally, the cells must show a differentiation capacity, allowing them to give rise to a heterogeneous progeny, which represents a phenocopy of the original tumour. This article highlights the radiation therapy resulting in radiation resistance in cancer stem cells. (author)

  16. Delayed damage after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I investigated radiation damage, including osteoradionecrosis, arising from tooth extraction in fields that had received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and evaluated the effectiveness of pilocarpine for xerostomia. Between January 1990 and April 1996, I examined 30 patients for bone changes after tooth extraction in fields irradiated at the Department of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University Hospital. Nineteen of the patients had been treated for nasopharyngeal cancer and 11 for oropharyngeal cancer. Between January and April 1996, 4 additional patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (3-mg, 6-mg and 9-mg of KSS-694 orally three times a day) for 12 weeks and evaluated every 4 weeks as a base line. One had been treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two for cancer of the cheek and one for an unknown carcinoma. Eighteen of the patients (11 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 7 with oropharyngeal carcinoma) had extractions. Use of preoperative and postoperative radiographs indicated that damage to the bone following tooth extraction after radiation exposure was related to whether antibiotics were administered the day before the extraction, whether forceps or elevators were used, and whether the tooth was in the field of radiation. Xerostomia improved in all 4 of the patients who received 6-mg or 9-mg of pilocarpine. It improved saliva production and relieved the symptoms of xerostomia after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, although there were minor side effects such as fever. This information can be used to improve the oral environment of patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and to better understand their oral environment. (author)

  17. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    OpenAIRE

    P. JACOB; Rühm, W; Walsh, L.; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiati...

  18. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  19. Radiation and breast cancer: a review of current evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes current knowledge on ionizing radiation-associated breast cancer in the context of established breast cancer risk factors, the radiation dose–response relationship, and modifiers of dose response, taking into account epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Available epidemiological data support a linear dose–response relationship down to doses as low as about 100 mSv. However, the magnitude of risk per unit dose depends strongly on when radiation exposure occurs: exposure before the age of 20 years carries the greatest risk. Other characteristics that may influence the magnitude of dose-specific risk include attained age (that is, age at observation for risk), age at first full-term birth, parity, and possibly a history of benign breast disease, exposure to radiation while pregnant, and genetic factors

  20. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  1. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  2. Radiation Exposure, the ATM Gene, and Contralateral Breast Cancer in the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Robert W.; Stovall, Marilyn; Boice, John D.; Shore, Roy E.; Langholz, Bryan; Thomas, Duncan C.; Lynch, Charles F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Diep, Anh T.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Reiner, Anne S.; Liang, Xiaolin; Gatti, Richard A.; Concannon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation is a known mutagen and an established breast carcinogen. The ATM gene is a key regulator of cellular responses to the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. We investigated whether genetic variants in ATM play a clinically significant role in radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in women. Methods The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Study is an international population-based case–control study nested within a cohort of 52 536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2000. The 708 case subjects were women with contralateral breast cancer, and the 1397 control subjects were women with unilateral breast cancer matched to the case subjects on age, follow-up time, registry reporting region, and race and/or ethnicity. All women were interviewed and underwent full mutation screening of the entire ATM gene. Complete medical treatment history information was collected, and for all women who received radiotherapy, the radiation dose to the contralateral breast was reconstructed using radiotherapy records and radiation measurements. Rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. All P values are two-sided. Results Among women who carried a rare ATM missense variant (ie, one carried by <1% of the study participants) that was predicted to be deleterious, those who were exposed to radiation (mean radiation exposure = 1.2 Gy, SD = 0.7) had a statistically significantly higher risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with unexposed women who carried the wild-type genotype (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.5; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 8.0) or compared with unexposed women who carried the same predicted deleterious missense variant (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 17.3; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.8 to 19.0; Ptrend = .044). Conclusions Women who carry rare

  3. Radiation-induced secondary cancer in patients with uterine carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to identify radiation-induced secondary cancer (RSC), data from 19,384 patients, which were treated for uterine carcinoma at seven institutions in Japan between 1960 and 1978, were statistically analyzed using a computer system. Treatment modalities included surgery alone (n = 6,655), radiation therapy and surgery (n = 4,310), and radiation therapy alone (n = 8,419). According to the criteria of Sakai et al., RSC was identified in 43 (0.3 %) of 12,729 patients receiving irradiation, including rectal cancer (14), leukemia (8), uterine corpus cancer (6), urinary bladder cancer (4), osteosarcoma or uterine sarcoma (3), sigmoid colon cancer or malignant fibrous histiocytoma (2), and ovarian cancer (one). When the risk of RSC for the rectum, the urinary bladder, and leukemia was analyzed using a person-years method, there was no statistically significant difference between the irradiated and non-irradiated patients. Therefore, three institutions were selected for further analysis with 2,686 patients (13,588 person-years), taking the effort and accuracy for follow-up of patients into account. The analysis showed statistically significant increase in RSC for the rectum and leukemia. It can thus be concluded that the accuracy for follow-up of patients is the most important factor in evaluating the incidence of RSC. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Radiation-induced effects and the immune system in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    AlexzanderAsea

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are standard therapeutic modalities for patients with cancers, and could induce various tumor cell death modalities, releasing tumor derived antigens as well as danger signals that could either be captured for triggering antitumor immune response. Historic studies examining tissue and cellular responses to radiation therapy have predominantly focused on damage caused to proliferating malignant cells leading to their death. However, there is increasing eviden...

  5. A new view of radiation-induced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shuryak, I.; Sachs, R K; Brenner, D J

    2010-01-01

    Biologically motivated mathematical models are important for understanding the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Existing models fall into two categories: (1) short-term formalisms, which focus on the processes taking place during and shortly after irradiation (effects of dose, radiation quality, dose rate and fractionation), and (2) long-term formalisms, which track background cancer risks throughout the entire lifetime (effects of age at exposure and time since exposure) but m...

  6. Evidence based radiation oncology: Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is, similar to surgery, a local treatment. In the case of breast cancer, it is generally given after conservative or after more extensive, tumour and patient adapted, surgery. The target volumes can be the breast and/or the thoracic wall and/or the regional lymph node areas. The integration and the extent of radiotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of the breast cancer patient, including the amount of surgery and the sequencing with the systemic treatments, has to be well discussed with all medical specialists involved in treating breast cancer on a multidisciplinary basis. Guidelines for the appropriate prescription and execution of radiotherapy are of utmost importance. However, individualisation based on the individual patients' and tumours' characteristics should always be envisaged. Materials and methods: Based on a review of the literature the level of evidence that is available for the indications for radiotherapy is summarised, as well as the main clinical questions that are unanswered today. An overview of the recent and ongoing clinical trails in breast cancer will highlight some of the current ongoing debates. Conclusions: In the case of breast cancer, radiotherapy, given after as well conservative as extensive risk-adapted surgery, significantly reduces the risk of local and regional recurrences. Especially for patients with an intermediate to high absolute risk for local recurrences, a positive influence on overall survival has been shown, notably when appropriate radiotherapy techniques are used. Most important is that the best results that we can offer to our breast cancer patients for all clinical endpoints (local and regional control; quality of life; cosmetic results; survival) can be obtained by a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach, involving all those involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  7. Radiation-induced lung injury outside the irradiated area after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) are known as lung injuries after radiation therapy for breast cancer. In this study, we reported nine cases of OP and a case of EP after radiation therapy. All 10 women (62±10 years of age) were nonsmokers. Nine patients received endocrine therapy after radiation therapy. The mean intervals from completion of radiation therapy to occurrence of any symptoms were 119 days. All the patients have symptoms, but none are severe. Seven patients were treated with corticosteroids, and three were without treatment. All patients improved, but a relapse occurred in three (two treated with corticosteroid, one without treatment). Because of our findings and the previous studies, tobacco smoke may have played a suppressive role in the occurrence of lung injury in nonirradiated areas after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients, and endocrine therapy may have played a promotive role. (author)

  8. Photothermal killing of Staphylococcus aureus using antibody-targeted gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millenbaugh NJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nancy J Millenbaugh,1 Jonathan B Baskin,1 Mauris N DeSilva,1 W Rowe Elliott,1 Randolph D Glickman2 1Maxillofacial Injury and Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Unit San Antonio, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USAPurpose: The continued emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial infections and the decline in discovery of new antibiotics are major challenges for health care throughout the world. This situation has heightened the need for novel antimicrobial therapies as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. The combination of metallic nanoparticles and laser exposure has been proposed as a strategy to induce physical damage to bacteria, regardless of antibiotic sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to test the antibacterial effect of antibody-targeted gold nanoparticles combined with pulsed laser irradiation.Methods: Gold nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies specific to Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan were incubated with suspensions of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA. Bacterial suspensions were then exposed to 8 ns pulsed laser irradiation at a wavelength of 532 nm and fluences ranging from 1 to 5 J/cm2. Viability of the bacteria following laser exposure was determined using colony forming unit assays. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm the binding of nanoparticles to bacteria and the presence of cellular damage.Results: The laser-activated nanoparticle treatment reduced the surviving population to 31% of control in the MSSA population, while the survival in the MRSA population was reduced to 58% of control. Significant decreases in bacterial viability occurred when the laser fluence exceeded 1 J/cm2, and this effect was linear from 0 to 5 J/cm2 (r2=0.97. Significantly less bactericidal effect was observed for nonfunctionalized nanoparticles or

  9. Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation; Cancer de la thyroide apres exposition aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlumberger, M. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Chevillard, S.; Ory, K. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Dupuy, C. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); UMR 8200 CNRS, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Le Guen, B. [Division production nucleaire, direction production ingenierie, EDF, Tete-Pleyel, 1, place Pleyel, 93282 Saint-Denis cedex (France); De Vathaire, F. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); Universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France); equipe d' epidemiologie des radiations, centre d' etudes en sante des populations, UMR 1018 Inserm, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radio-iodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. (authors)

  10. A case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who have undergone pelvic irradiation are reported to be at an increased risk of subsequently developing malignancies of the pelvic organs. We report a case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation therapy for uterine cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old woman who had undergone a hysterectomy with radiation therapy for uterine cancer in 1960. Thereafter, she had undergone a total cystectomy for bladder cancer in 1989; an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer with radiation proctitis in February 1991; and a right hemicolectomy for cecum cancer in 1995. Then, in 2005, she was found to have early cancer of the sigmoid colon at the stoma, so that the colon was dissected from the periphery of the stoma, the sigmoid colon was removed, and an artificial anus was reconstructed again. The histopathological diagnosis was early well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. She had undergone three operations for multiple cancers of the large intestine in the pelvis at different times during 16 years since 1989 when the bladder cancer was detected and surgically treated. And she has been alive and well. Long-term follow-up would be mandatory for such patients undergone pelvic irradiation who might be able to survive for a long time with appropriate therapies like this patient. (author)

  11. Sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for stage C prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty of 34 stage C cases have been treated by sequential estrogen and radiation in our hospital between 1980 and 1989 and half of them had actually been done staging operation. An average age was 69.3. Tumor differentiations were distributed well in 5 cases, moderately in 5 and poorly in 9. The other unknown differentiation case was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Previously administered estrogens were diethylstilbestrol diphosphate in 15 cases and others in 5. Total doses of 70 Gy in 35 fractions were sequentially delivered to the prostate, involving if necessary the seminal vesicles over a seven-week period by bilateral 120deg pendel using linear accelerator. Radiation field was sized from 6 x 6 to 8 x 8 cm. Estrogens have been continuously administered following radiation in 11 cases. Therapeutic effects upon the prostate were evaluated by digital rectal palpation. Improvement rate and atrophy rate of the primary lesion were 94.4% and 50% respectively. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases and 3 of them recurred within 3 years after initiation of the treatment. Recurred sites were in primary lesion in 2 cases and in bone in two. Five year non-recurrence rate was 81% by Kaplan Meier's method. One of 3 who discontinued hormone administration during or immediately after radiotherapy had local recurrence after 65 months and the other 2 cases died of gastric cancer and unknown cause. Causes of 6 dead cases were one prostate cancer, one gastric cancer, one heart failure, one pneumonia and 2 unknown. The cancer death rate was 25% (1/4 cases). Five year cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier's method was 59.0%. Our results support the view that the sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for the pathological stage C patients of the prostate cancer may be as preferable as radiation alone for the treatment of stage B prostate cancer. (J.P.N.)

  12. Combining chemotherapy with radiation in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most important global health problems. Over the last years introduction of mammography screening and increased efficacy of adjuvant therapies resulted in the reduction of mortality in this malignancy. A proportion of patients with breast cancer has indications for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, however optimal schedules of combining these two modalities remain controversial. In clinical practice typically chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used sequentially, but this strategy is not supported by the results of large clinical trials. There is theoretical rationale for the concomitant use of both modalities, but increased cardiotoxicity and skin reactions of anthracycline-based regimens do not allow for this strategy. Further investigations are essential to determine the safety of taxane-based schedules combined with radiotherapy, particularly with regard to pneumotoxicity. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with the use of selected schemes may be considered in patients with locally advanced cancer, but this strategy still should be verified in large randomized studies. (author)

  13. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association Contract covers a range of research domains that are important to the Radiation Protection Research Action, especially in the areas 'Evaluation of Radiation Risks' and 'Understanding Radiation Mechanisms and Epidemiology'. Three research projects concentrate on radiation dosimetry research and two projects on the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. The following list gives an overview on the topics and responsible scientific project leaders of the Association Contract: Study of radiation fields and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Dose reconstruction. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Experimental data for the induction of cancer by radiation of different qualities. (orig.)

  14. Postoperative radiation for advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To discuss both general and specific indications for radiation following surgery for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck are often not suitable candidates for treatment with definitive radiation, and are treated with surgery. Frequently these patients fail by recurring in either the primary sites or in the necks. Adjuvant radiation is therefore often a critical component in the management of these patients. While radiation can be done either prior to or after surgery, most centers prefer the postoperative setting. This refresher course will review general concepts of postoperative irradiation for the patient with head and neck cancer and apply these concepts to specific situations. The course will begin with a broad review of the indications for postoperative irradiation as not all patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the head and neck require additional treatment. We will also review the concept of using postoperative radiation to allow for more conservative surgery with preservation of function. The second portion of the course will focus on general techniques of postoperative irradiation. We will review concepts of patient setup and treatment portal design and describe how specific techniques are practiced at MDACC. Controversial topics, including field matching, total dose and fractionation, and the timing of postoperative radiation will be discussed. The final section of the course will review the results of postoperative irradiation as applied to the head and neck in general as well as to specific subsites. In addition to results for the common scenarios of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, we will review results of postoperative irradiation for skin cancers of the head and neck, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands

  15. Alcohol Intake and Cigarette Smoking and Risk of a Contralateral Breast Cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Julia A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Largent, Joan; Capanu, Marinela; Begg, Colin B; Mellemkjær, Lene; Lynch, Charles F.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Reiner, Anne S.; Liang, Xiaolin; Haile, Robert W.; Boice, John D.; Bernstein, Jonine L.

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study (1985–2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). C...

  16. Effectiveness of pranayama on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Chakrabarty; M S Vidyasagar; Donald Fernandes; Ganapathi Joisa; Prabha Varghese; Sreemathi Mayya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Incidence of breast cancer is very high among women around the world. Breast cancer patients experience cancer-related fatigue at some points during the treatment for breast cancer. Since cancer-related fatigue is of multifactorial origin, there are no evidence-based treatment strategies for fatigue. This study tested the effectiveness of certain pranayama techniques in reducing cancer-related fatigue among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Aims: The objective of t...

  17. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.).

  18. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.)

  19. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, Ptrend=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (Ptrend=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (Ptrend=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

  20. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  1. Role of radiation therapy in lung cancer management - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J-G; Shao, H-J; Jiang, F-E; Huang, Y-D

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Furthermore, more than 50% of lung cancer patients are found affected by distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. On the other hand, 20% of these patients are without regional spread and are good candidates for surgical operation. The remaining 30% represent an intermediate group whose tumors have metastasized up to regional lymph nodes. These remain 30% are the most appropriate candidates for radiation therapy. These patients are also called as "locally advanced lung cancer" or stage III lung cancer patients. In these patients strategy of combination therapy viz. radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is also tried by various groups in the recent past for this better management. However, long-term survival is still poor with a 5-year survival in 5-25% of patients. During the last decades, there has been a development in radiation strategies. The present review article focuses on different approaches to optimize radiotherapy for these patients. PMID:27466995

  2. Depleted uranium and radiation - induced lung cancer and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports of leukaemias and other cancers among servicemen who took part in the 1991 Gulf war or in the more recent operations in the Balkans are of continuing interest, as is the possibility, however slight, that depleted uranium (DU) is one of the causative factors. This commentary includes the results of a UK epidemiological study on the mortality of Gulf war veterans and , although not containing information on DU exposure, gives data on overall levels of mortality and therefore carries more weight than anecdotal reports. Also included are brief summaries on radiation-induced lung cancer in uranium workers as well as radiation-induced leukaemia in Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients ankylosing spondylitis treated using x-rays. This commentary concludes with a critique of Iraqi cancer statistics as well as giving information on environmental contamination in Kosovo and the use of DU ammunition. (author)

  3. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X [Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xiao Tiqiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: pingliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisaxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-21

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  4. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi; Gu, Xiang; Xiao, Tiqiao; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2010-04-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  5. Effect of troglitazone on radiation sensitivity in cervix cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Zheng Zhe; Liu, Xian Guang; Song, Hye Jin; Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Troglitazone (TRO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma} ) agonist. TRO has antiproliferative activity on many kinds of cancer cells via G1 arrest. TRO also increases Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} -superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase. Cell cycle, and SOD and catalase may affect on radiation sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TRO on radiation sensitivity in cancer cells in vitro. Three human cervix cancer cell lines (HeLa, Me180, and SiHa) were used. The protein expressions of SOD and catalase, and catalase activities were measured at 2-10 {mu}M of TRO for 24 hours. Cell cycle was evaluated with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Cell survival by radiation was measured with clonogenic assay. By 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, the mRNA, protein expression and activity of catalase were increased in all three cell lines. G0- G1 phase cells were increased in HeLa and Me180 by 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, but those were not increased in SiHa. By pretreatment with 5 {mu}M TRO radiation sensitivity was increased in HeLa and Me180, but it was decreased in SiHa. In Me180, with 2 {mu}M TRO which increased catalase but not increased G0-G1 cells, radiosensitization was not observed. ROS produced by radiation was decreased with TRO. TRO increases radiation sensitivity through G0-G1 arrest or decreases radiation sensitivity through catalasemediated ROS scavenging according to TRO dose or cell types. The change of radiation sensitivity by combined with TRO is not dependent on the PPAR {gamma} expression level.

  6. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  7. Skin cancer in patients with chronic radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Hanke, C.W.; Zollinger, T.W.; Montebello, J.F.; Hornback, N.B.; Norins, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    The cases of 76 patients with chronic radiation dermatitis resulting from low-dose ionizing radiation for benign disease were reviewed retrospectively for risk factors leading to the development of neoplasia. The patients were studied with respect to original hair color, eye color, sun reactive skin type, benign disease treated, area treated, age at treatment, and age at development of first skin cancer. Analysis of data showed 37% of patients had sun-reactive skin type I, 27% had type II, and 36% had type III. Types IV through VI were not represented. There appeared to be an overrepresentation of types I and II. Increased melanin pigmentation may therefore be either directly or indirectly protective against the development of skin cancers in patients who have received low-dose superficial ionizing radiation for benign disease. The sun-reactive skin type of patients with chronic radiation dermatitis may be used as a predictor of skin cancer risk when the total dose of ionizing radiation is not known.

  8. Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of radiation: biological basis of radiation-environment interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined due to ambiguity at low doses caused by limitations in statistical power and information available on interplay with environment. To deal with these problems, a novel non-parametric statistics was developed based on artificial neural networks theorem and applied to cancer and non-cancer risk in A-bomb survivors. The analysis revealed several unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal radiation dose alone. They include (1) threshold that varies with organ, gender and age, including cardiovascular diseases, (2) prevalence of infectious diseases, and (3) suppression of pathogenesis of HTLV1. The threshold is unique as it is manifested as negative excess relative risk, a reduction of spontaneous rate at low doses. The response is consistent with currently emerging laboratory data on DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice and its sustainability as epigenetic memory in accordance with histone code theory. In response to DSB, of radiation or DNA replication arrest origin, distinct and competitively operating repair pathways are instigated. Activation by low doses of restitution-directed canonical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) suppresses both error-prone alternative end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The latter two present major pathways to mutagenesis at stalled replication folk associated with endogenous and exogenous genotoxin such as tobacco smoke metabolites and AID-associated somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Ig gene. Suppression of these error-prone pathways by low doses of low LET radiation is consistent with the reduction of cancer occurrence by environmental genotoxin, immunodiversity and stable integration of retrovirus DNA, providing a significant modulator of dose linearity at low doses. Whole picture may bring about a new landscape of cancer and non-cancer molecular epidemiology which

  9. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario

  10. Colon cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Rikiya; Kitagawa, Shinji; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Ikehara, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Iwanaga, Shinichi [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Nakamura, Yuichi [Nakamura Gastroenterology, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A 70-year-old female presented with abdominal pain in February 1994. She had undergone barium enema examination at a local hospital, and a stricture was pointed out in the rectosigmoid colon. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation. Double-contrast small-bowel examination revealed strictures involving long segments of the distal ileum. Repeated barium enemas showed tumor in the sigmoid colon. Because she had a past history of radiation therapy for uterine cancer 27 years previously, radiation-associated colon cancer was suspected. She underwent Miles' operation and partial resection of the ileum. Intraoperative colonoscopy showed a polypoid lesion of type 1 in the sigmoid colon. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen showed mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with radiation enterocolitis. (author)

  11. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  12. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Radiologicaland Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  13. Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy may be indicated for larger invasive tumors of the head and neck that may be difficult to surgically excise or for which surgery would be significantly disfiguring. Previous studies of oral squamous cell carcinomas indicate that it should be possible to control approximately 80% of all but the most advanced local or locoregional tumors. Aggressive radiation therapy to total doses of 56 Gy or greater may be required. That can be done by using smaller doses per fraction and gradually reducing the size of the field so that the highest dose is given only to the tumor with a relatively tight margin. Malignant melanomas can be controlled locally apparently with a few large fractions. Metastatic disease limits survival; therefore, some type of systemic therapy seems to be needed to improve survival of those patients. Canine oral fibrosarcomas require a very high dose for a reasonable probability of control. It seems that a dose of 56 Gy given in 3.3 Gy fractions might provide local control of 50% of the tumors. It is likely that a combination of surgery and radiation would significantly improve the probability for control. Oral squamous cell carcinomas of cats must also be treated very aggressively to improve local control. Tumors of the nasal cavity are usually very large and invasive at the time of diagnosis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be effective in some instances. It is possible that with better definition of the tumor through computerized tomography imaging and improved treatment planning, control of these difficult to manage nasal tumors can be improved

  14. Animal viruses, radiation, repair mechanisms, and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of radiation on animal viruses are reviewed in terms of repair mechanisms and their possible relationship to virus transformation and carcinogenesis. Repair mechanisms are reviewed under the headings; multiplicity reactivation, photoreactivation, host-cell reactivation (dark repair), and uv reactivation. Other topics discussed are: transformation of cells in vitro by irradiated viruses, oncogenicity of virus-transformed cells in vivo, and possible role of repair mechanisms in virus transformation and oncogenesis

  15. Cancer cure with organ preservation using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the American Cancer Society has anticipated that 965 000 new cases of invasive cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. About 40% of those patients can be treated for cure with organ preservation using radiation therapy. The basic biologic background for such an approach to the problem has become well established. The clinical data to substantiate the validity of the concept date from 1902 until the present. Organ preservation has become a major and important concept in the management of the patient with invasive cancer. New and innovative techniques for treatment are enabling the organ to be preserved, the cancer to be cured, and appropriate cosmesis and function to be preserved. Many tumor sites are appropriate for this treatment technique, including breast, eye, larynx, prostate, soft tissue sarcomas, etc. (orig.)

  16. Sorafenib and Radiation: A Promising Combination in Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the combination of radiation and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in human colorectal cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: HT29 and SW48 colorectal cancer cells were studied in vitro using MTT assays to establish the optimal timing of radiation and sorafenib. This optimal timing was then investigated in clonogenic survival assays. Xenografts were established, and the effect of a 3-week schedule of daily radiation and sorafenib was studied by growth delay. Results: Sorafenib predominantly had minimal effects on cell growth or radiation response in MTT growth assays, though growth inhibition was significantly enhanced in HT29 cells when sorafenib was administered after radiation. The highest dose of sorafenib altered the α component of the cell survival curve in clonogenic assays. The combination of radiation and sorafenib was synergistic in SW48 xenografts, with a mean time to threshold tumor size of 11.4 ± 1.0 days, 37.0 ± 9.5 days, 15.5 ± 3.2 days, and 98.0 ± 11.7 days in the control, radiation, sorafenib, and combined treatment group, respectively. The effect on HT29 tumors was additive, with mean time to threshold volume of 12.6 ± 1.1 days, 61.0 ± 4.3 days, 42.6 ± 11.7 days, and 100.2 ± 12.4 days. Conclusions: Sorafenib had little effect on radiation response in vitro but was highly effective when combined with radiation in vivo, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation and interference with angiogenesis may be the basis for the interaction.

  17. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and < ng / ml: 7 (8.75%). Hormone therapy: 34 p (42.5%). Results: Acute rectal toxicity: grade 0: 46 p (57.5%), grade 1: 23 p (28.75%), grade 2: 9 p (11.25%), grade 3: 1 p (1.25%). Acute genitourinary toxicity: Grade 0: 26 p (32.5%) Grade 1: 36 p (45%), Grade 2: 17 p (21.25%), Grade 3: 1 p (1.25%). Chronic toxicity (RTOG) (considering patients evaluated more than 6 months after the end of treatment): 19 patients showed no rectitis and 1 patient had mild symptoms. Urethritis: 19 patients had no symptoms, 1 patient grade 1. The PSA pretreatment average: 9.5 ng / ml (80 p). One month after treatment: 4.6 ng / ml. With an average follow-up of 8 m (r 2-22), there were no biochemical recurrence. One patient had bone metastases one year after the end of the treatment. No deaths for prostate cancer were noticed. Conclusions: IMRT is a safe and effective therapy with more precision than the 3D-CRT, which allows increase the dose without increasing the risk of complications. (authors)

  18. The role of medical physics in prostate cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Seuntjens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics, both as a scientific discipline and clinical service, hugely contributed and still contributes to the advances in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The traditional translational role in developing and safely implementing new technology and methods for better optimizing, delivering and monitoring the treatment is rapidly expanding to include new fields such as quantitative morphological and functional imaging and the possibility of individually predicting outcome and toxicity. The pivotal position of medical physicists in treatment personalization probably represents the main challenge of current and next years and needs a gradual change of vision and training, without losing the traditional and fundamental role of physicists to guarantee a high quality of the treatment. The current focus issue is intended to cover traditional and new fields of investigation in prostate cancer radiation therapy with the aim to provide up-to-date reference material to medical physicists daily working to cure prostate cancer patients. The papers presented in this focus issue touch upon present and upcoming challenges that need to be met in order to further advance prostate cancer radiation therapy. We suggest that there is a smart future for medical physicists willing to perform research and innovate, while they continue to provide high-quality clinical service. However, physicists are increasingly expected to actively integrate their implicitly translational, flexible and high-level skills within multi-disciplinary teams including many clinical figures (first of all radiation oncologists) as well as scientists from other disciplines. PMID:27095755

  19. Ionizing radiation and cancer risk: evidence from epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data on the carcinogenic effects of radiation in humans. Much of what is known has come from studies of the atomic bomb survivors, and to a lesser extent from patients receiving radiotherapy. These studies demonstrate that exposure to moderate to high doses of radiation increases the risk of cancer in most organs. For all solid cancers combined, cancers of the thyroid, breast and lung, and leukemia, risk estimates are fairly precise, and associations have been found at relatively low doses (bomb survivors, a linear-quadratic dose response seems to fit the data better than a pure linear model. Radiation does not act entirely in isolation. It can interact with other carcinogens, e.g. tobacco or chemotherapeutic agents, and with host factors such as age at exposure, gender or reproductive history. Interactions with medical interventions or with certain heritable mutations have also been suggested. While the studies of high-dose exposures are essential for understanding the overall biological consequences of radiation exposure, the public is more concerned about the long-term health effects from protracted exposures at low doses. Unfortunately, the inherent limitations of epidemiology make it extremely difficult to directly quantify health risks from these exposures. While most epidemiological data are compatible with linear extrapolations from exposures at high doses or high dose rates, they cannot entirely exclude other possibilities. As the field of epidemiology advances, understanding more about the health effects of prolonged and low-dose exposures will be the next challenge. PMID:9806607

  20. Two cases of colorectal cancer complicating radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 74-year-old woman presented with bowel movement disorder. She had received radiation therapy with 60 Gy for uterine cervical cancer approximately 20 years before. Barium enema and colonofiberscopy revealed radiation enterocolitis. Thereafter, the patient was admitted to the hospital due to stricture of the sigmoid colon and an increased CEA and was diagnosed as having Borrmann II type colorectal well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histological examination revealed stage I with no associated lymph node metastases. She is alive 3 years and 10 month after surgery. The other patient was a 65 year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer. Twenty-one years after combined hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation of 45 Gy, the patient presented with melena. Detailed examination revealed colorectal adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, barium enema revealed radiation enterocolitis. At surgery, intrapelvic area was found to be frozen due to irradiation. She has no evidence of metastasis 2 years after surgery. As can be shown in the two patients, patients developing radiation enterocolitis should be followed up periodically for the early detection of coexistent colorectal cancer. (N.K.)

  1. Two cases of colorectal cancer complicating radiation enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Kaneatsu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Toshiomi; Tokumine, Akio; Okushima, Norihiko; Tamashiro, Tetsuo (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    A 74-year-old woman presented with bowel movement disorder. She had received radiation therapy with 60 Gy for uterine cervical cancer approximately 20 years before. Barium enema and colonofiberscopy revealed radiation enterocolitis. Thereafter, the patient was admitted to the hospital due to stricture of the sigmoid colon and an increased CEA and was diagnosed as having Borrmann II type colorectal well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histological examination revealed stage I with no associated lymph node metastases. She is alive 3 years and 10 month after surgery. The other patient was a 65 year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer. Twenty-one years after combined hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation of 45 Gy, the patient presented with melena. Detailed examination revealed colorectal adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, barium enema revealed radiation enterocolitis. At surgery, intrapelvic area was found to be frozen due to irradiation. She has no evidence of metastasis 2 years after surgery. As can be shown in the two patients, patients developing radiation enterocolitis should be followed up periodically for the early detection of coexistent colorectal cancer. (N.K.).

  2. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunapala Shetty

    Full Text Available The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT, a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES, an antiandrogen (flutamide, or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1 congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis.

  3. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  4. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  5. Ionizing radiation-induced cancers. Experimental and clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work attempts to give an idea of radiocarcinogenesis, both experimental and clinical. Experimentally the possibility of radio-induced cancer formation has considerable doctrinal importance since it proves without question the carcinogenetic effect of radiations, and also yields basis information on the essential constants implicated in its occurrence: need for a latency time varying with the animal species and technique used, but quite long in relation to the specific lifetime of each species; importance of a massive irradiation, more conducive to cancerisation as long as it produces no necroses liable to stop the formation of any subsequent neoplasia; finally, rarity of is occurrence. Clinically although the cause and effect relationship between treatment and cancer is sometimes difficult to establish categorically, the fact is that hundreds of particularly disturbing observations remain and from their number often emerges under well-defined circumstances, an undeniable clinical certainty. Most importantly these observation fix the criteria necessary for the possibility of a radioinduced cancer to arise, i.e: the notion of a prior irradiation; the appearance of a cancer in the irradiation area; serious tissue damage in relation with an excessive radiation dose; a long latency period between irradition and appearance of the cancer

  6. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Oesophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for oesophageal cancer is based on data from 42 randomized trials and 2 meta-analyses. A total of 44 scientific articles are included, involving 5,772 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: There is fairly strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy does not improve the survival in patients with potentially resectable oesophageal cancer. There is moderate evidence that preoperative chemo-radiotherapy has no beneficial impact on the survival of patients with potentially resectable oesophageal cancer. There is no scientific evidence that postoperative radiotherapy improves survival in patients with resectable oesophageal cancer. The documentation is, however, poor, consisting of only three randomized trials. There is fairly strong evidence that concomitant (but not sequential) chemo-radiotherapy gives significantly better survival rate than radiotherapy alone in inoperable oesophageal cancer. The results of the reported clinical trials are, however, conflicting, and no solid conclusion can be drawn. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy has been compared with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in two randomized studies with conflicting results and no firm conclusion can be drawn

  7. Radiation Induced Rib Fractures on Bone Scan after Breast Cancer Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    This study is to evaluate rib fractures on bone scan in breast cancer patients treated with breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy and to evaluate its relation with radiation therapy and operation modality. Two hundred seventy cases that underwent serial bone scan after breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy were enrolled. Bone scan and chest CT findings of rib fracture were analyzed. The rib uptake was seen in 74 of 270 cases (27.4%) on bone scan and 50 cases (18.5%) were confirmed to have rib fracture by chest CT. The rate of modified radical mastectomy in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (66.0% vs. 27.0%, p=0.000). The rate of additional radiation therapy to axillar or supraclavicular regions in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (62.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.000). Rib fracture was seen most frequently at 1-2 years after radiation therapy (51.9%) and single rib fracture was seen most frequently (55.2%). Of total 106 rib fractures, focal rib uptake was seen in 94 ribs (88.7%) and diffuse rib uptake was seen in 12 ribs (11.3%). On one year follow-up bone scan, complete resolution of rib uptake was seen in 15 ribs (14.2%). On chest CT, the rate of fracture line in ribs with intense uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with mild or moderate uptake (p=0.000). The rate of presence of fracture line in ribs with focal uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with diffuse uptake (p=0.001). Rib fracture in breast cancer patients after radiation therapy was related to radiation portal and operation modality. It should be interpreted carefully as a differential diagnosis of bone metastasis.

  8. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  9. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  10. High dose rate interstitial radiation for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 1992 through March 1995, 38 patients with T1-2N0 tongue cancer were treated with high dose rate (HDR) or low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy alone. Three year local control rates of HDR and LDR groups were 94% and 90%, respectively. Treatment results and complication of HDR brachytherapy were almost the same as those of LDR brachytherapy. At the same period, 11 patients with T1-2N0-2 tongue cancer were treated with external radiation and HDR brachytherapy. Three year local control rate was 90%. HDR brachytherapy have some advantages compared with LDR brachytherapy. (author)

  11. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  13. Adaptive Radiation: application in lung cancer; Radioterapia adaptativa: aplicacion en cancer de pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Mazon, J.; Raba Diez, J. I.; Vazquez Rodriguez, J. a.; Pacheco Baldor, M. T.; Mendiguren Santiago, M. A.; Menendez Garcia, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The previous updates are a form of adaptive radiation that can be used to account for changes in the size, shape and location of both the tumor and healthy tissue. Are especially useful in the case of lung cancer which typically is associated with significant anatomical changes due to the response to treatment.In the present study, the variation in tumor volume and dosimetric effects from a new CT and replanning during the course of treatment in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Radiation-induced breast cancer: the question of early breast cancer screening in Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal, Talal; Rudy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Chest irradiation is associated with numerous early and late complications that arise from ionizing radiation-induced damage to cellular structures within the field of therapy. In patients exposed to chest irradiation at an early age as part of the treatment of childhood cancer, specifically Hodgkin's lymphoma, the increased risk of breast cancer in the long run should be considered. A case of a 35-year-old woman who exposed to chest irradiation as part of the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma ...

  15. A case of radiation induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchikawa, Kohzo; Sato, Akira; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A case of carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa is presented. The case was suspected to have been induced by irradiation therapy for a carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. An external radiotherapy, 6-MeV Linac, had been done for the carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa in a 55-year-old female, with single lateral direction from the left to the right in 1977. In 1985, a papillary lesion on the right buccal mucosa was detected, and histological examination revealed a papilloma without atypism. In 1991, as an ulcer on the right upper buccal fold as well as three papillary lesions in the central portion of the right buccal mucosa were found, the patient was referred to our clinic. Microscopical findings were consistent with the early invasive carcinomas. A surgical excision of these whole lesions and skin graft were completed. The criteria of this case for the suspicion of radiation-induced carcinoma were as follows. There was a long latent period of 14 years. The previous dose of irradiation, 60 Gy, was sufficient. The right buccal mucosa was involved in the radiation field. A severe scar on the left cheek resulted from the previous irradiation. Anatomically, there is no evidence of the secondary carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa with the primary carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. No evidence for recurrence of the tumors on both sides of buccal mucosa has been detected so far. Further observations will be necessary to detect other tumors in the irradiated field later on. (author).

  16. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort...

  17. External radiation therapy for roentgenographically occult lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January 1982 to May 1991, the authors have treated 13 cases of a roentgenographically occult lung cancer by using a 4∼10 MV photon beam. All 13 patients were males whose ages ranged from 53 to 84 years (mean: 71.4 years) and each was a heavy cigarrette smoker. In each instance, a sputum cytologic study uncovered abnormal findings and bronchoscopy revealed a localized cancer. For radiotherapy, radiation doses ranged from 50∼70 Gy (mean: 64.0 Gy), and the radiation field ranged from 25.75 to 90 cm2 (mean: 43.2 cm2). During the follow-up period of 11 to 68 months (mean: 34.2 months), 2 patients died of the carcinoma, 1 still has the carcinoma, and 3 died of other causes. The 5-year survival rate was 62%. (author)

  18. DNA repair, human cancer and assessment of radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancers, like genetic defects, are thought to be caused primarily by changes in DNA. Part of the evidence in support of this hypothesis derives from the study of certain rare hereditary disorders in man associated with high risk of cancer. Cells derived from patients suffering from at least one of these disorders, ataxia telangiectasia, appear to be defective in their ability to repair the damage caused by radiation and/or certain other environmental agents. Studies of the consequences of DNA repair suggest that currently accepted estimates of the carcinogenic hazards of low level radiation are substantially correct. There would appear to be some margin of safety involved in these risk estimates for the majority of the population, but any major reduction in the currently accepted risk estimates appears inadvisable in view of the existence of potentially radiosensitive subgroups forming a minority in the general population. (author)

  19. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  20. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  1. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  2. Urethral strictures after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Alan; Furrer, Marc; Thalmann, George; Spahn, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer is a delicate problem as the decreased availability of tissue healing and the close relation to the sphincter complicates any surgical approach. We here review the pathophysiology, dosimetry, and the disease specific aspects of urethral strictures after radiotherapy. Moreover we discuss different treatment option such as direct vision internal urethrotomy as well as techniques for open reconstruction with and without tissue transfer.

  3. Sphingosine enhances apoptosis of radiation-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, V E; Cuvillier, O; Edsall, L C; Kimura, K; Milstien, S; Gelmann, E P; Spiegel, S

    2000-08-15

    Ceramide has been implicated as an important component of radiation-induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells. We examined the role of the sphingolipid metabolites--ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate--in susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to gamma-irradiation. Exposure of radiation-sensitive TSU-Pr1 cells to 8-Gy irradiation led to a sustained increase in ceramide, beginning after 12 h of treatment and increasing to 2.5- to 3-fold within 48 h. Moreover, irradiation of TSU-Pr1 cells also produced a marked and rapid 50% decrease in the activity of sphingosine kinase, the enzyme that phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate. In contrast, the radiation-insensitive cell line, LNCaP, had sustained sphingosine kinase activity and did not produce elevated ceramide levels on 8-Gy irradiation. Although LNCaP cells are highly resistant to gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis, they are sensitive to the death-inducing effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha, which also increases ceramide levels in these cells (K. Kimura et al., Cancer Res., 59: 1606-1614, 1999). Moreover, we found that although irradiation alone did not increase sphingosine levels in LNCaP cells, tumor necrosis factor alpha plus irradiation induced significantly higher sphingosine levels and markedly reduced intracellular levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate. The elevation of sphingosine levels either by exogenous sphingosine or by treatment with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine induced apoptosis and also sensitized LNCaP cells to gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the relative levels of sphingolipid metabolites may play a role in determining the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells, and that the enhancement of ceramide and sphingosine generation could be of therapeutic value. PMID:10969794

  4. Ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the ozone layer is reduced, the fluence rate of carcinogenic UV-light from the sun will increase at the surface of the earth. Calculations based on the assuption that the carcionogenic process starts by absorption of UV-light in DNA in cells in the basal layer of the skin, indicate that a 1% reduction in the ozone level leads to a 4-5% increase in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, i.e. the amplification factor is 4-5. However, light at wavelenghts above 310 nm, which is poorly absorbed by DNA as well as by ozone, seems to be carcinogenic. The amplification factor in South Norway is estimated to be about 2 or slightly less. The amplification factor decreases with increasing distance from the equator. The estimation is based on the action spectrum for mutation of cells in the basal layer of the skin, a spectrum similar to the action spectrum for carcinogenesis in mice, and to that for erythema in humans. The fluence rate of carcionogenic UV-light is probably more dependent on other climatic and environmental factors than on the ozone level. Thus, it was recently reported that the integrated yearly UVB dose measured several places in USA showed a decreasing tendency with time in the period 1974-1985

  5. Radiation dosimetry for epidemiology lung cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung doses have been calculated for 999 workers whose primary exposure was to airborne uranium during the period 1943 to 1947. Internal dose calculations were needed because the major exposure potential was to airborne uranium and because no external monitoring data exists. The lung dose estimates process was divided into two phases: estimation of the uranium intake and calculation of the internal dose. The intake information required included the number of hours worked and the concentration, chemical and physical forms of uranium. These factors were determined through researching historical documents including plant process descriptions, personnel records, operations records, monitoring records, etc. Additional information was also gained through interviews of former plant workers. Job titles and department codes were used to relate uranium exposure conditions to a given individual. Lung doses were estimated using internal dose models developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This system takes into account both particle size and solubility class. Results show that some workers may have received doses as high as 74 rads or 740 rems if a quality factor of 10 is used. The results of this study have been used in a lung cancer case control study to be reported at this conference

  6. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainties for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Peterson, L. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.; Dicello, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks.

  7. Epistemological problems in assessing cancer risks at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, biology has not been subjected to any epistemological analysis as has been the case with mathematics and physics. Our knowledge of the effects in biological systems of various stimuli proves to be dualistic in a complementary (although not mutually exclusive) way, which bears resemblance to the knowledge of phenomena in quantum physics. The dualistic limbs of biological knowledge are the action of stimuli and the response of the exposed, biological system. With regard to radiogenic cancer, this corresponds to the action of the ionizations and the response of the exposed mammal to that action, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present analysis: Predictions as to radiogenic cancer seem often if not always to have neglected the response variability (variations in radiosensitivity) in individuals or among individuals in populations, i.e. the predictions have been based exclusively on radiation doses and exposure conditions. The exposed individual or population, however, must be considered an open statistical system, i.e. a system in which predictions as to the effect of an agent are only conditionally possible. The knowledge is inverse to the size of the dose or concentration of the active agent. On epistemological grounds, we can not gain knowledge about the carcinogenic capacity of very low (non-dominant) radiation doses. Based on the same principle, we can not predict cancer risks at very low (non-dominant) radiation doses merely on the basis of models, or otherwise interpolated or extrapolated high-dose effects, observed under special exposure conditions

  8. DUAL THEORY OF ACTION IONIZING RADIATION AND SPONTANEOUS CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Gubin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for radiogenic increasing of mortality was proposed, taking into account spontaneous background damages of the genetic material, that always occur in cells due to the influence of non-radiation internal and environmental factors. The model is based on the representation of indistinguishability between radiogenic andspontaneous cancers and on the postulates of the Kellerer-Rossi dual action theory. It was proposed that duringformation of premalignant damages dual interactions occur both between primary radiation damages, and betweenradiation and spontaneous primary damages (hybrid interactions. The role of the latter is particularly important at low levels exposure that corresponds to a linear dependence of cancer incidence on dose. Their significance is indicated by the following factor: at the adopted value of the nominal (radiation risk factor (0,05 Sv-1 and cancer mortality share among the population (0,15–0,2, the contribution of non-radiative carcinogenic factors for the total life is equivalent to radiation dose of 3–4 Sv or radiation at a constant dose rate of 40–50 mSv / year.The model assumes formation in DNA of both spaced apart (single damages with high probability of recovery, and nearby (double damages, which are more likely to interact, entering into the permanent state. Permanent damages being formed in certain portions of DNA can be inherited to daughter cells as premalignant defects. The relative role of spontaneous primary damages is greater the more single damages are formed as compared to double ones within the area of potential interaction.It was shown within this model that the presence of background cancer mortality for initial and finite population in the used by ICRP expression for interpopulation risk transfer has logical and biophysical justifications. Accounting of spontaneous primary damages and hybrid interactions enhances the capabilities for development of radiation risk models.

  9. Laser-radiation therapy failures in stage II laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed laser-radiation combined therapy for stage I and II laryngeal cancers in order to preserve the larynx. In the present study, we retrospectively investigate the factors affecting the preservation of the larynx in stage II laryngeal cancer. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with stage II laryngeal cancer treated between 1988 and 1996 and observed for more than 2 years. Cases with involvement of the ventricle or false cord and those with impaired vocal cord movement showed a tendency towards the loss of their larynx. Moreover, these failures required a longer period to irradiate 1 gray on average than cases which led to a successful preservation of the larynx. (author)

  10. Radiation and lung cancer: problems and topics of future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the purpose of this critical review to outline the main uncertainties of present risk estimates for radiation-induced lung cancer and the resulting topics of future research in this field. The main emphasis was the actual problems of dose and risk estimates for indoor exposure to radon daughters. The discussion indicates that the conclusions of the ICRP and the BEIR IV studies, which proceed from data of radon-exposed miners, are based on models and assumptions that are too simple. Comparison with the lung cancer data from the atomic bomb survivors indicates that these uncertainties concern mainly the transfer of the data from male miners to the female population and the influence of smoking. This underlines the importance of large direct case-control studies on lung cancer from indoor radon. A detailed list of topics for future research in this field is presented in the summary of this session. (author)

  11. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads /sup 137/Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10/sup -4/ per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads 137Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10-4 per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10-6 transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  14. Nonionising radiation and risk of human cancer: comparison of ultraviolet and radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) comes largely from sunlight, although a small proportion of people receive high dose UVR from artificial sources. The causal link between solar UVR and the keratinocyte cancers, basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, is well-established based on a large body of observational and experimental evidence. UVR damages molecules such as DNA directly and this is the principal mechanism of carcinogenesis, though other mechanisms such as immunosuppression and interaction with viruses may also be involved. People are also exposed to another form of nonionising radiation, radiofrequency radiation (RFR), through occupation, the community environment from base stations, and through use of cellular telephones and related communications devices. However, unlike UVR, the relationship between RFR and cancer is far from clear. The main tumours that have been investigated to date are brain tumours and leukaemia but assessing the RFR exposure pathway to such cancers poses many methodological challenges for epidemiologists. Refinements to measurement of exposure are the major urgent need, and the lack of evidence regarding carcinogenic effects of RFR in experimental settings complicates the assessment. Further insights into the links between RFR and chronic disease such as cancer are likely in the next few years however when results of several large-scale epidemiological studies now in train around the world become available

  15. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  16. Radiation induced enterocolitis in uterine cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To approach the cause of radiation induced enterocolitis and its relationship with retropostion of the uterus in uterine cervical cancer after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-two patients with radiation induced enterocolitis, from 212 patients with uterine cervical cancer who had received radio-therapy during 2002-2005, were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence between patients with anteposition and patients with retroposition of uterus was compared. The distance between uterine central axis and the rectum of 15 patients with anteposition and 15 patients with retroposition of the uterus was measured, as well as the uterus retroversional flexion angle of the retropositioned uterus. Results: The incidence of radiation enterocolitis in patients with retroposition of uterus was obviously higher than that in patients with anteposition (χ2=21.10, P<0.01). The distance between point C and the rectum in patients with retroposition of uterus was shorter(t=7.33, P<0.05). The retroversional flexion angle of retropostitioned uterus were between 9-22 degree with a median angle of 17 degree. Conclusion: The incidence of radiation induced enterocolitis is higher in patients with retropostition of uterus after radiotherapy, because the distance between the uterine central axis and the rectum is shorter. The y axis and z axis often form an acute angle in the rectal direction during after-loading therapy, which would had led to an excessive dose to the rectum. (authors)

  17. Radiation therapy of the nasopharyngeal cancer and its prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    39 patients with the regional nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) underwent radiation therapy from 1975 through 1984 in the Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital. A retrospective study was carried out to find out prognostic factors of the NPC patients. Radiation therapy was performed under megavoltage condition. 31 patients were given more than 50 Gy. 41% of the whole had T4 extension and 69% had lymph node metastasis. The pathological slides were reviewed and classified by the proposal of Shanmugaratnam. Advanced N-stage and the absence of the lymphocytic infiltration tended to affect the survival unfavorably, whereas the prognostic significance of histology, especially of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma remained unclear. T4 lesion often recurred even with high dose radiation therapy. To improve the local control rate in NPC, wide field irradiation from the base of skull to the lower neck seemed necessary as well as the dosage greater than 66 Gy. (orig.)

  18. Hyperfractionation radiation therapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Ye, Ji Won [College of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    The effects of hyperfractionation radiation therapy, such as the failure pattern and survival, on the treatment results in advanced stage head and neck cancer were studied. Between September 1990 and October 1998, 24 patients with advanced stage (III, IV) head and neck cancers, were treated using hyperfractionation radiation therapy in the Department at Radiation Oncology at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The male to female ratio was 7 ; 1, and the age range from 38 to 71 years with the median of 56 years. With regard to the TNM stage, 11 patients were stage III and 13 were stage IV. The sites of primary cancer were the nasopharynx in six, the hypopharynx in 6, the larynx in five, the oropharynx in three, the maxillary sinus in three, and the oral cavity in one patient. The radiotherapy was delivered by 6 MV X-ray, with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy at two fractions a day, with at least 6 hours inter-fractional interval. The mean total radiation doses was 72 Gy, (ranging from 64.4 to 76.8 Gy). Fallow-up periods ranged between 3 and 136 months, with the median of 52 months. The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years in all patients were 66.7% and 52.4%. The disease-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years (3YDFS, 5YDFS) in all patients Were 66.7% and 47.6%. The 3YDFS and 5YDFS in stage III patients were 81.8% and 63.6%, and those in stage IV patients were 53.8% and 32.3%. Ten patients were alive with no local nor distant failures at the time of analyses. Six patients (25%) died due to distant metastasis and 12.5% died due to local failure. Distant metastasis was the major cause of failure, but 2 patients died due to unknown failures and 3 of other diseases. The distant metastasis sites were the lung (3 patients), the bone (1 patient), and the liver (2 patients). One patient died of second esophageal cancer. There were no severe late complications, with the exception of 1 osteoradionecrosis of the mandible 58 months after treatment. Although this study was

  19. Hyperfractionation radiation therapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hyperfractionation radiation therapy, such as the failure pattern and survival, on the treatment results in advanced stage head and neck cancer were studied. Between September 1990 and October 1998, 24 patients with advanced stage (III, IV) head and neck cancers, were treated using hyperfractionation radiation therapy in the Department at Radiation Oncology at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The male to female ratio was 7 ; 1, and the age range from 38 to 71 years with the median of 56 years. With regard to the TNM stage, 11 patients were stage III and 13 were stage IV. The sites of primary cancer were the nasopharynx in six, the hypopharynx in 6, the larynx in five, the oropharynx in three, the maxillary sinus in three, and the oral cavity in one patient. The radiotherapy was delivered by 6 MV X-ray, with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy at two fractions a day, with at least 6 hours inter-fractional interval. The mean total radiation doses was 72 Gy, (ranging from 64.4 to 76.8 Gy). Fallow-up periods ranged between 3 and 136 months, with the median of 52 months. The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years in all patients were 66.7% and 52.4%. The disease-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years (3YDFS, 5YDFS) in all patients Were 66.7% and 47.6%. The 3YDFS and 5YDFS in stage III patients were 81.8% and 63.6%, and those in stage IV patients were 53.8% and 32.3%. Ten patients were alive with no local nor distant failures at the time of analyses. Six patients (25%) died due to distant metastasis and 12.5% died due to local failure. Distant metastasis was the major cause of failure, but 2 patients died due to unknown failures and 3 of other diseases. The distant metastasis sites were the lung (3 patients), the bone (1 patient), and the liver (2 patients). One patient died of second esophageal cancer. There were no severe late complications, with the exception of 1 osteoradionecrosis of the mandible 58 months after treatment. Although this study was

  20. Second primary tumor and radiation induced neoplasma in the uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Narimatsu, Naoto; Kanemoto, Toshitaka (National Hospital of Sapporo (Japan))

    1984-09-01

    This report is concerned with multiple primary cancers developing in invasive uterine cancer. Second primary tumors were recorded 27 women with a total of 30 non-uterine cancer (exception of radiation-induced cancer). 17 patients of radiation-induced neoplasm were observed (Rectal cancer 4, soft part sarcoma 4, cancer of urinary bladder 3, bone tumor 3, uterin cancer 2 and cancer of Vulva 1). One case is 4 legions (corpus, sigma, thymoma and stomach), 2 cases are 3 lesions (uterine cervix, stomach and maxillay siuis: uterine cervix, thyroidal gland and radiation-induced soft part sarcoma). Only 5 of these 17 patients were known irradiated dose (50 Gy--55 Gy), however others unknown. The mean latent periods of 17 cases of radiation induced neoplasms are 19.4 years. 16 patients of late second cancers of the cervix appearing from 11 to 36 years (average 19.5 years) after initial radiotherapy were recorded.

  1. Meetings 'Nuclear, radiations and health' 2013 - news on cancers and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a synthesis of a meeting on cancers and ionizing radiations. The contributions discussed advances on the understanding of radio-induced carcinogenesis. Interveners notably discussed deterministic and stochastic effects, current works on gene sequencing, and the occurrence of cancers after radiotherapy. Another contribution dealt with aggregates of leukaemia around nuclear stations and discussed epidemiological data. The second part of the meeting addressed radio-induced carcinogenesis and the effect of low doses. The issue of harmfulness of these low doses was discussed, notably in terms of occurrence of DNA lesions. The author then briefly reports the content of a round table which gathered all the contributors

  2. Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Jannet C; van Luijk, Peter; Widder, Joachim; Langendijk, Johannes A; Muijs, Christina T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also

  3. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Diehn, Felix E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  4. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted

  5. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of p53 overexpression in radiation-induced colon cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied immunohistochemically from paraffin sections of 7 cases (9 lesions) of radiation-induced colon cancer and 42 cases of spontaneous colon cancer. Age distribution of radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancer were 68.1 years (range, 56 to 77 years) and 67.4 years (range, 31 to 85 years), respectively. Among the radiation-induced colon cancers, there were 3 lesions of mucinous carcinoma (33%), a much higher than found for spontaneous mucinous cancer. Immunohistochemically, p53 protein expression was detected in 7/9 (78%) of radiation-induced cancers and in 23/42 (55%) of spontaneous colon cancers. χ2 analysis found no significant differences between radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancers in age distribution or p53-positive staining for frequency, histopathology, or Dukes'' classification. In radiation colitis around the cancers including aberrant crypts, spotted p53 staining and abnormal and scattered PCNA-positive staining were observed. In histologically normal cells, p53 staining was almost absent and PCNA-positive staining was regularly observed in the lower half of the crypt. In radiation colitis including aberrant glands, cellular proliferation increased and spotted p53 expression was observed. This study suggests that radiation colitis and aberrant glands might possess malignant potential and deeply associate with carcinogenesis of radiation-induced colon cancer. (author)

  7. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il; Cho, Kyung Ja; Kim, Byung Gi; Lee, Kee Ho; Nam, Myung Jin

    1999-04-01

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy.

  8. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy

  9. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonggoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, the beneficial effects of radiation can extend beyond direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Delivery of localized radiation to tumors often leads to systemic responses at distant sites, a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect which has been attributed to the induction and enhancement of the endogenous anti-tumor innate and adaptive immune response. The mechanisms surrounding the abscopal effect are diverse and include trafficking of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment, enhanced tumor recognition and killing via up-regulation of tumor antigens and antigen presenting machinery and, induction of positive immunomodulatory pathways. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms of radiation-induced enhancement of the anti-tumor response through its effect on the host immune system and explore potential combinational immune-based strategies such as adoptive cellular therapy using ex vivo expanded NK and T cells as a means of delivering a potent effector population in the context of radiation-enhanced anti-tumor immune environment.

  10. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab as immune-modulating monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-1 receptor to treat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghfuri, Elnaz; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is an important issue in oncology due to its high incidence, high mortality, and resistance to systemic therapy; however, targeted immunotherapy has noticeably improved the survival rates of melanoma patients. Promising targeted immunotherapies for malignant melanoma include the blockade of immune checkpoints with antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and the programmed cell death protein 1 pathway. The US FDA-approved antibody ipilimumab targets cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; however, it was limited by toxicity and a low response. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab (formerly lambrolizumab), the two FDA-approved anti-programmed death-1 monoclonal antibodies, show highly durable response rates and long-term safety, validating the importance of the programmed cell death protein 1 pathway blockade for treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:26313415

  11. Risk of breast cancer following low-dose radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk of breast cancer following radiation exposure was studied, based on surveys of tuberculosis patients who had multiple fluoroscopic examinations of the chest, mastitis patients given radiotherapy, and atomic bomb survivors. Analysis suggests that the risk is greatest for persons exposed as adolescents, although exposure at all ages carries some risk. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity in all studies. Direct evidence of radiation risk at doses under 0.5 Gy (50 rad) is apparent among A-bomb survivors. Fractionation does not appear to diminish risk, nor does time since exposure (even after 45 years of observation). The interval between exposure and the clinical appearance of radiogenic breast cancer may be mediated by hormonal or other age-related factors but is unrelated to dose. Age-specific absolute risk estimtes for all studies are remarkably similar. The best estimate of risk among American women exposed after age 20 is 6.6 excess cancers/104 WY-Gy

  12. Breast cancers radiation-resistance: key role of the cancer stem cells marker CD24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the characterization of radiation-resistant breast cancer cells, responsible for relapse after radiotherapy. The 'Cancer Stem Cells' (CSC) theory describes a radiation-resistant cellular sub-population, with enhanced capacity to induce tumors and proliferate. In this work, we show that only the CSC marker CD24-/low defines a radiation resistant cell population, able to transmit the 'memory' of irradiation, expressed as long term genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. We show that CD24 is not only a marker, but is an actor of radiation-response. So, CD24 expression controls cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ROS level before and after irradiation. As a result, CD24-/low cells display enhanced radiation-resistance and genomic stability. For the first time, our results attribute a role to CD24-/low CSCs in the transmission of genomic instability. Moreover, by providing informations on tumor intrinsic radiation-sensitivity, CD24- marker could help to design new radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  13. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, D. G.; Dinse, G E

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes ...

  14. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology...... asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/15...... Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5...

  15. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for breast cancer is based on data from 29 randomized trials, 6 meta-analyses and 5 retrospective studies. In total, 40 scientific articles are included, involving 41,204 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 285,982 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: There is strong evidence for a substantial reduction in locoregional recurrence rate following postmastectomy radiation therapy to the chest wall and the regional nodal areas. There is strong evidence that postmastectomy radiation therapy increases the disease-free survival rate. There are conflicting data regarding the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy upon overall survival. There is strong evidence that breast cancer specific survival is improved by postmastectomy radiotherapy. There is strong evidence for a decrease in non-breast cancer specific survival after postmastectomy radiotherapy. There is some evidence that overall survival is increased by optimal postmastectomy radiation therapy. There is strong evidence that postmastectomy radiotherapy in addition to surgery and systemic therapy in mainly node-positive patients decreases local recurrence rate and improves survival. There is moderate evidence that the decrease in non-breast cancer specific survival is attributed to cardiovascular disease in irradiated patients. There are conflicting data whether breast conservation surgery plus radiotherapy is comparable to modified radical mastectomy alone in terms of local recurrence rate. There is strong evidence that breast conservation surgery plus radiotherapy is comparable to modified radical mastectomy alone in terms of disease-free survival

  16. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zaorsky,Nicholas; Avkshtol,Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly; Hallman,Mark; Price, Robert; Sobczak, Mark; Horwitz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz,* Nicholas G Zaorsky* Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 ...

  17. Evidence Supporting Radiation Hormesis in Atomic Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality Data

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for ...

  18. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  19. Surgical radiation and drug therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There main components of the program of radical therapy of breast cancer are distinguished: surgical, radiation and drug. The surgical operation continues to be one of the main therapeutic methods, though there is a trend towards limitation of the amount of surgical interventions. Investigations are carried out in the performance of rational operations of the cancer of the 1 and 2 stages supplemented with pre- and postoperative irradiation. Techniques of large dose fractionation are doveloped. It is shown that in case of 2b and 3a,b stages it is oppropriate to assign a combined or complex therapy: operation, irradiation and chemotherapy. The advantages of polychemotherapy via monochemotherapy are noted. The effect of immunotherapy on the efficiency of the therapy of brest cancer is studied. A conclusion is made that a certain progress has been reached recently in the treatment of breast cancer and that only an individual approach should be used when choosing therapy tactics taking into account all vital factors

  20. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantravadi, R.V.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T1 and 23 had T2 tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T1 and 74% of T2 lesions. Actuarial five-year survival rates were 87% for T1 and 74% for T2. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or supraglottic larynx.

  1. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantravadi, R.V.P.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T/sub 1/ and 23 had T/sub 2/ tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T/sub 1/ amd 74% for T/sub 2/. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or gupraglottic larynx.

  2. Radiation bronchitis in lung cancer patient treated with stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of chronic radiation bronchitis that developed in a patient with lung cancer treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. A 73-year-old woman with a medically inoperable T1N0M0 adenocarcinoma of the lung was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy. By using eight non-coplanar ports, 50 Gy/5 fractions was delivered in two weeks. At four weeks, a partial response was obtained with no acute adverse reaction. She developed severe cough at six months. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed thick circumferentially coated bronchial mucosa in close proximity to the tumor site. At 12 months, follow-up study confirmed marked stenotic change in the B6 segmental bronchus without tumor progression. (author)

  3. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays (≤ 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study

  4. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S. [Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays ({<=} 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study.

  5. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  6. Thyroid cancer: relationship to radiation exposure and to pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to radiation results in an increased occurrence of nodularity to the thyroid and, more important, the development of cancer in a significant proportion of patients. Near-total thyroidectomy is recommended in those patients with a history of irradiation who are found on physical examination of the thyroid to have one or more nodules. Although pregnancy appears to have no effect on the course of thyroid carcinoma and the tumor has no effect on pregnancy, because of the numerous stimuli to thyroid growth during pregnancy, we feel that pregnancy is best avoided by women with known residual disease

  7. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of Swedish oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. In primary breast cancer, it is estimated that about 300 of the annually 3,425 irradiated patients can potentially be candidates for proton beam therapy to reduce late toxicity, mainly from the heart and lungs

  8. Radiation therapy in prostate cancer: evaluation of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goals: The present work documents the increasing demand of curative intent radiation therapy (CIRT) for localized prostate cancer and assesses acute reactions caused by ionizing radiation to intrapelvic organs. Patients and methods: From January 1995 to December 2001, 166 patients with prostatic cancer received radiation therapy, 70% of them (n=116) with curative intent. Treatment was completed as planned in 108 patients: 55 with pelvic irradiation and prostatic boost (PRT), 42 with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 10 with a permanent 125 I implant (IPI) and 1 with combined radiotherapy. Patients were classified as at high- or low-risk according to tumor volume, Gleason score, regional lymph node status and pretreatment specific prostatic antigen level. High-risk patients were assigned to PRT and low-risk patients to local treatment only (either 3DCRT or IPI). Mean doses were 46 Gy for pelvis and 73 Gy for prostate with PRT; 75 Gy with 3DCRT and 127 Gy with IPI and combined radiation therapy. Acute rectal toxicity (ART) and acute urinary toxicity (AUT) were assessed according to the RTOG scale. Statistical analysis was performed with Fischer's exact test. Results: The proportion of patients receiving CIRT increased from 46% (n=28) in 1995-1998 to 84% (n=88) in 1999-2001; p < 0.0001. No patient developed ART or AUT beyond degree 2. ART was lower with 3DCRT (71% degree 0 or 1) than with PRT (45% degree 0 or 1); p= 0.0134. No significant difference was found in AUT. Conclusions: In recent years the demand for CIRT has almost doubled, with a concomitant decrease in palliative radiotherapy. In high-risk patients, pelvic irradiation increased mild and moderate ART, without compromising their life quality. None of the techniques employed was associated with severe acute toxicity. (author)

  9. [Radiation-induced cancers: state of the art in 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosset, J M

    1997-01-01

    Scientists now have available a large amount of data dealing with radiation-induced neoplasms. These data went back to anecdotal observations which were made in the very first years of utilization of X-rays and radioactive elements. In fact, it is essentially the strict follow-up of the Japanese populations irradiated by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing which allowed a more precise evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ionizing radiations. Further refinements came from therapeutical irradiations: it is now possible to study large cohorts of patients given well-known doses in well-defined volumes and followed for more than 20 years. Last but not least, a significant increase in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer has been detected in children contaminated by iodine radioisotopes after the Tchernobyl accident. Recently, some data suggested the emergence of "clusters" of leukemias close to some nuclear facilities, but this question remains highly polemical, both in France and in the UK. Other questions are still waiting for a precise answer; of course, the extrapolation of our available data to very low doses delivered at very low dose rates, but also the carcinogenic risk at high doses. For these "high" doses (about 30 to 70 Gy), a competition between mutagenesis and cell killing was expected, so that these dose levels were expected to be less carcinogenic than lower (a few sieverts) doses. Actually, recent data suggest that the carcinogenic risk goes on increasing up to relatively important doses. In addition, carcinogenic factors, such as tabacco, anticancer chemotherapy and individual susceptibility, are found more and more to be closely intricated with ionizing radiation in the genesis of a given cancer. Even if a number of questions are still pending, the already available data allow specialists, both in medicine and radioprotection, to edict strict rules which can be reasonably expected to have significantly reduced the risk of radiation

  10. Radiation-induced cancers: a 1997 state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists now have available a large amount of data dealing whit radiation-induced neoplasms. These data went back to anecdotal observations which were made in the very first years of utilization of X-rays and radioactive elements. In fact, it is essentially the strict follow-up of the Japanese populations irradiated by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing which allowed a more precise evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ionizing radiations. Further refinements came from therapeutical irradiations: it is now possible to study large cohorts of patient given well-known doses in well defined volumes and followed for more than 20 years. Last but not least, a significant increase in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer has been detected in children contaminated by iodine radioisotopes after the Tchernobyl accident. Recently, some data suggested the emergence of 'clusters' of leukemias close to some nuclear facilities, but this question remains highly polemical, both in France and in the UK. Other questions are still waiting for a precise answer; of course, the extrapolation of our available data to very low does delivered at very low dose rates, but also the carcinogenic risk at high doses. For these 'high' doses (about 30 to 70 Gy), a competition between mutagenesis and cell killing was expected, so that these dose levels were expected to be less carcinogenic than lower (a few sieverts) doses. Actually, recent data suggest that the carcinogenic risk goes on increasing up to relatively important doses. In addition, carcinogenic factors, such as tobacco, anticancer chemotherapy and individual susceptibility, are found more and more to be closely intricated with ionizing radiation in the genesis of a given cancer. Even if a number of questions are still pending, the already available data allow specialists, both medicine and radioprotection, to edict strict rules which can be reasonable expected to have significantly reduced the risk of radiation-induced neoplasms

  11. Mechanism of enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity by sorafenib in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong Bae; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Jeong, Inhye; Lee, KyungHwa; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2012-01-01

    Sorafenib, an orally available multikinase inhibitor, combined with radiation has shown potential as an anticancer treatment in an in vitro and in vivo colon cancer model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity by sorafenib in colorectal cancer. The effects of sorafenib on radiation-induced cytotoxicity of DLD-1 and HT-29 were evaluated via clonogenic assay. The impact of sorafenib on radiation-induced cell cycle kinetics and on apoptosis...

  12. Managing complications of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients: Part I. Management of xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    W. C. Ngeow; Chai, W. L.; Rahman, R.A.; Ramli, R

    2006-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therap...

  13. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Sung; Yun, Hyong Geun; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-06-15

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed.

  14. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed

  15. Influential Factors and Synergies for Radiation-Gene Therapy on Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Lin; Junxing Huang; Yujuan Shi; Yanhong Xiao; Ting Guo

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-gene therapy, a dual anticancer strategy of radiation therapy and gene therapy through connecting radiation-inducible regulatory sequence to therapeutic gene, leading to the gene being induced to express by radiation while radiotherapy is performed and finally resulting in a double synergistic antitumor effect of radiation and gene, has become one of hotspots in the field of cancer treatment in recent years. But under routine dose of radiation, especially in the hypoxia environment ...

  16. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  17. Ultraviolet radiation: effects on risks of prostate cancer and other internal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Samuel J. [Human Genomics Research Group, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine and Department of Urology, Keele University School of Medicine, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Hartshill Campus, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7PA Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Fryer, Anthony A. [Human Genomics Research Group, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine and Department of Urology, Keele University School of Medicine, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Hartshill Campus, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7PA Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Strange, Richard C. [Human Genomics Research Group, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine and Department of Urology, Keele University School of Medicine, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Hartshill Campus, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7PA Staffordshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paa00@keele.ac.uk

    2005-04-01

    Governmental and research agencies worldwide have strongly advocated sun avoidance strategies in an attempt to counter marked increases in skin cancer incidence. Concurrently, there are reports describing widespread Vitamin D{sub 3} deficiency. Because 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, through interaction with the Vitamin D receptor, exerts pleiotrophic effects, such deficiency might be expected to have clinical consequences. Indeed, various reports indicate that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exerts a protective effect on development of some common diseases including internal cancers and multiple sclerosis. We describe studies indicating that modest exposure reduces risk of prostate cancer. The effect of UVR is mediated by skin type; at lower levels of exposure a relative inability to effect skin pigmentation is protective presumably because it allows more efficient Vitamin D{sub 3} synthesis. Polymorphic variants in genes associated with pigmentation including melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor and tyrosinase are also associated with prostate cancer risk. Overall, though preliminary and requiring cautious interpretation, these data indicate that moderate UVR exposure together with characteristics linked with less effective tanning confer reduced prostate cancer risk. Clearly, it is important to define safe levels of UVR that do not result in increased risk of skin cancers such as malignant melanoma.

  18. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for ovarian cancer is based on data from six randomized trials. Moreover, data from one prospective study and three retrospective studies were used. In total, 10 scientific articles are included, involving 1,282 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15,042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in the following points: There is no scientific documentation supporting adjuvant radiotherapy for early-stage, low-risk patients. No studies have been reported where adjuvant radiotherapy has been compared with no adjuvant therapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy, either whole abdominal irradiation or intraperitoneal P32, has been compared with adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. There is no scientific evidence to show that there is a difference in efficacy. There is some evidence to suggest that adjuvant radiotherapy after radical surgery leads to an increase in disease-free survival rate for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. There is little documentation on long-term side effects (second malignancy) after adjuvant radiotherapy and no conclusions can be drawn

  19. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  1. COMPARISON OF HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIATION THERAPY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL RADIATION THERAPY IN POST MASTECTOMY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death in females and accounts for 1.8 million new cases and approximately 0.5 million deaths annually. Patients who present with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC require multidisciplinary team approach that incorporates diagnostic imaging, surgery, chemotherapy and histopathological assessment, including molecular-based studies, radiation, and, if indicated, biologic and hormonal therapies. Hypofractionated radiation therapy following mastectomy has been used in many institutions for several decades and have demonstrated equivalent local control, cosmetic and normal tissues between 50 Gy in 25 fractions and various hypofractionated radiotherapy prescriptions employing 13-16 fractions. Evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy may also be safe and effective for regional nodal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare the local control and side effects of hypofractionated radiation therapy with conventional radiation therapy in post mastectomy carcinoma breast with stage II and III and to compare the tolerability and compliance of both schedules. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 60 histopathologically proven patients of carcinoma of breast, treated surgically with modified radical mastectomy. Group I patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 39 Gy/13 fractions/3.1 weeks, a daily dose 3 Gy for 13 fractions in 4 days a week schedule and Group II patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks, to receive a daily dose 2 Gy for 25 fractions in a 5 days a week schedule. RESULTS The median age at presentation in Group I and II was 48 and 50 years respectively. Locoregional control after completion of radiotherapy in Group I vs. Group II was 26/30 (86.7% vs. 27/30 (90% respectively. Acute reactions and their grades in Group

  2. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost

  3. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Stewart, James [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, Valerie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xie, Jason [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moseley, Joanne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Löf, Johan [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael, E-mail: mike.milosevic@rmp.uhn.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  4. The implications of breast cancer molecular phenotype for radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShirinSioshansi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence in the hormone receptor positive luminal subtypes compared to hormone receptor negative subtypes (triple negative and HER2-enriched. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of local recurrence. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of local recurrence for patients with triple negative tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and local recurrence following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased local recurrence in triple negative breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  5. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  6. Answer to preoperative chemie radiation in locally advanced rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study the pre-operative combined therapy effect in the treatment of the rectum cancer cases of the Servicio de Cirugia General 2 of the Hospital Mexico. The study covers since January of 2003 until December of 2005. It has like specific objectives to analyze the effect in the tumour stages, the sphincters preservation and the recurrence. In the conclusions, it notes that the pre-operative chemie-radiation in the rectum cancer is indicated in II and III stages, in which it has showed most advantages for the patient. It describes that the time between the end of pre-operative combined treatment and the surgery must has at least six weeks to guarantee the effect in the tumour and to reduce the treatment toxicity. It concludes besides, that the complication rate after the pre-operative combined therapy and the total meso rectum excision is approximately of 33%; however, the pelvic septic complications can reduce with an ostomy of protection. It focus that the technique of sphincters preservation has showed to be effective and secure if it does a previous selection to the patients in appropriate form. To get an suitable stages must count with trans rectum endoscopic ultrasound and a tomography of suitable quality. It concludes, also, in intervened tumours after of neo-adjuvancy they don't need free distal margins of illness higher to 2 cm. The total meso rectum excision is the updated surgical recommendation in the rectum cancer

  7. Current aspects of radiation-induced cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agenda of the closed meeting of the commission shows the following main topics: 1) Recent dosimetry /Ro 87/ and new data on cancer mortality in the Atomic Bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as a function of age at the time of exposure /Pr 87; Si 87; IC 87.1/. 2) Models and assumptions given in the epidemiological tables of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) /NIH 85/ for assessment of probability of cancer induction due to exposure to ionizing radiation (probability of causation), and possibilities of interpreting these data so as to match them with conditions in the F.R.G. 3) Results of epidemiological studies with occupationally exposed persons working in nuclear installations or medical establishments, and with population groups living in the environs of nuclear installations. 4) Recent knowledge about radon-induced lung cancer, and recommendations of and measures taken by other countries for reducing radon concentrations in buildings. The summarizing appraisals and recommendations agreed upon by the SSK members upon discussion of the items are given in this publication. (orig./MG) With 31 figs., 41 tabs

  8. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  9. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an established standard in radical treatment of localized prostate cancer: During conventional radiotherapy total doses of 70 Gy are applied as the safe upper limit due to an acceptable risk of normal tissue complications within the treated volume. Several clinical studies revealed that doses higher than prescribed in conventional radiotherapy may be desirable to improve local control in prostate cancer: Technical developments in radiotherapy, together with the implementation of conformal techniques, have allowed dose escalation within tumor volume while sparing surrounding normal tissues. With the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) it is expected to escalate the dose to the target yet further; while maintaining the risk of normal tissue complications or to reduce the dose within critical structures without comprising the dose to the target. The paper presents the spectrum of bibliography regarding the use of IMRT in computer treatment planning of prostate cases. The results of clinical trials and studies concerning IMRT in the management of prostate cancer are presented. (author)

  10. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Current management of patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best management for small mucosal esophageal cancer is generally endoscopic mucosal resection. However, for submucosal cancer and extensive mucosal caner, either radical surgery or radiation seems to be an equally efficacious option. Radiation therapy concurrent with chemotherapy is more effective than radiation therapy alone for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. The key drugs are cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, for patients with poor performance status or for aged patients, radiation therapy alone is still a choice of treatment. Surgery has generally been indicated for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. However, outcomes of concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be comparable with those of surgery. Therefore, a prospective randomized study should be performed to determine the best management for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The usefulness of intra-cavitary irradiation for esophageal cancer has not been clarified. A prospective randomized trial with a large number of patients is necessary to determine the effectiveness of intra-cavitary irradiation. The best management for patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery has not been determined. Intensive therapy should be considered if the site of recurrence is limited and the time interval from surgery to recurrence is long. Chemotherapy is essential in the management of patients with small cell esophageal cancer. However, the best local therapy has not been determined. (author)

  11. Radiation therapy for metastatic lesions from breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes radiation therapy in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 70% of breast cancer patients, and the goals of radiation therapy for bone metastasis are: palliation of pain, prevention and treatment of neuropathic symptoms, and prevention of pathologic fractures. The prognosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer is known to be better than that of bone metastasis from other solid tumors. Local-field radiation, hemibody (or wide-field) radiation, and systemic radionuclide treatment are the major methods of radiation therapy for pain palliation. Although many studies have shown that breast cancer is more responsive to radiation therapy for pain palliation than other solid tumors, some studies found no significant difference. Local-field radiation therapy, which includes multi-fraction irradiation and single-fraction irradiation, is currently the most generally used method of radiotherapy for pain palliation. Pain palliation has been reported to be achieved in approximately 80% to 90% of patients treated with local-field external beam irradiation. Three types of multi-fraction irradiation therapy are administered depending on the prognosis: high-dose fraction irradiation (36-50 Gy/12-25 Fr/2.4-5 wk), short-course irradiation (20-30 Gy/10-15 Fr/2-3 wk), and ultra-short-course irradiation (15-25 Gy/2-5 Fr/1 wk). The most common irradiation schedule is 30 Gy/10 Fr/2 wk. Although many reports indicate no significant difference in pain palliation according to the dose, the percentage of patients who show a complete cure is significantly higher in those treated with doses of 30 Gy or more, and thus the total irradiation dose should be at least 30 Gy. High-dose fraction irradiation is indicated for patients with an expected survival time of 6 months or more while short-course or single-fraction irradiation is indicated for those with an expected survival time of 3 months or more. Single

  12. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.A.J. van de Schoot

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  13. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups. (auth.)

  14. Approach of combined cancer gene therapy and radiation: response of promoters to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality. We are interested in developing a radiation-inducible gene therapy system to sensitize the tumor vasculature to the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. An expression system based on irradiation-inducible promoters will drive the expression of anti-tumor genes in the tumor vasculature. Solid tumors are dependent on angio genesis, a process in which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial cells are un transformed and genetically stable, thus avoiding the problem of resistance to the treatments. Vascular endothelial cells may therefore represent a suitable target for this therapeutic gene therapy strategy.The identification of IR-inducible promoters native to endothelial cells was performed by gene expression profiling using cDNA micro array technology. We describe the genes modified by clinically relevant doses of IR. The extension to high doses aimed at studying the effects of total radiation delivery to the tumor. The radio-inductiveness of the genes selected for promoter study was confirmed by RT-PCR. Analysis of the activity of promoters in response to IR was also assessed in a reporter plasmid. We found that authentic promoters cloned onto a plasmid are not suitable for cancer gene therapy due to their low induction after IR. In contrast, synthetic promoters containing repeated sequence-specific binding sites for IR-activated transcription factors such as NF-κB are potential candidates for gene therapy. The activity of five tandemly repeated TGGGGACTTTCCGC elements for NF-κB binding in a luciferase reporter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the response to fractionated low doses was improved in comparison to the total single dose. Thus, we put present evidence that a synthetic promoter for NF-κB specific binding may have application in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancer. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy and Koebner effect in cancer patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy (XRT) may initiate skin side effects that occur more often in patients with skin disorders. One of such diseases is psoriasis - a common disorder in the western communities. In the past Grenz rays and superficial XRT were used to treat psoriatic patients and were reported to initiate the Koebner effect, which is an exacerbation of the underlying disease following a skin trauma. Recently, several case reports revealed a similar response in cancer patients receiving megavoltage XRT. Hence, one may assume that irradiation should be re-considered or re-modified in order to spare the involved skin. To report our experience in radiotherapy of cancer patients with psoriasis. Six patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (3), breast cancer (2) and soft tissue sarcoma (1) suffering from psoriasis were referred for radiotherapy as a part of their anti-cancer treatment. In all patients the irradiation fields included the psoriatic lesions. The irradiation was delivered using linear accelerators operated through 6-8 MV photon and 8 MeV electron beams. The total XRT dose varied from 50 to 70 Gy and the daily fraction was 1.8-2.0 Gy. A close monitoring during and after completion of irradiation was carried out and standard skin care was advised. No change in the irradiated psoriatic lesions as well as in the surrounding area was observed in all patients during the irradiation. Subsequent follow up (up to 24 months) revealed no new skin lesions and no worsening of existing plaques. Megavoltage XRT in a conventional daily fraction has no effect on psoriatic skin lesions

  16. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  17. Two cases of colorectal cancer developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experienced two cases of advanced colorectal cancer developed after radiation therapy. One case was a 66-year old female who had received irradiation for her uterine cancer 35 years before. She was treated for a radiation colitis and a radiation dermatitis 6 years ago. Sigmoid colon cancer was pointed out by barium enema and colonoscopy, and Hartmann's operation was performed. The other case was a 68-year old man who had received irradiation for left malignant orchionous 30 years before. He had the radiation dermatitis in both inguinal region, and had received skin graft for the left inguinal dermatitis. He complained of anal bleeding, and rectal cancer was found out by the colonoscopy. Low anterior resection was performed. Their pathological findings showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. In a review of the Japanese literature, colorectal cancers developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy have been reported in only 8 cases including these two cases. (author)

  18. Patterns of care study and evidence based medicine for radiation therapy. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, there is little evidence of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Therefore, we have to refer to the evidence of radiation therapy from Western countries, but we should pay attention to the differences of cultural, racial, or social background between Japan and Western countries. The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was conducted in Japan and extramural audits were performed for 50 randomly selected institutions. Detailed information of 311 prostate cancer patients without distant metastases and other cancers, who were treated with radiation therapy in 1996-1998, was collected. In this article, the results of PCS for primary prostate cancer were shown, with a review of literature for the appropriate choice of radiation therapy. This study was supported by the Grantin-Aid for Cancer Research from Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (10-17). (author)

  19. Postoperative radiation for cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of 83 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy at our facility from March 1980 to November 1993 for early stage cervix cancer with positive surgical margins, positive pelvic or periaortic lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, deep invasion, or for disease discovered incidentally at simple hysterectomy. Twenty-eight patients received low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary radiation with or without external beam pelvic irradiation and 55 patients received external beam pelvic irradiation with high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary implants. Of these 83 patients, 66 were evaluable--20 LDR and 46 HDR patients. All patients received 45-50 Gy external beam irradiation and 20 Gy LDR equivalent intracavitary irradiation prescribed to 0.5 cm below the mucosa. Ninety percent of the LDR group and 92% of the HDR group completed treatment within < 56 days. Treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the GOG toxicity scale. Mean and median follow-up times were 101 months and 111 months (3-172 months) for the LDR group and 42 and 40 months (3-98 months) for the HDR group. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 89% for the LDR group and 72% for the HDR group. Local control was observed in 90% (18 out of 20) of the LDR patients and 89% (41 out of 46) of the HDR patients for an overall local control rate of 89.5%. Two of 20 LDR patients (10%) experienced recurrence (two pelvic with distant metastasis). Nine of 46 HDR patients (22%) had recurrence of disease (three pelvic, four distant metastasis, and two pelvic with distant metastasis). In the HDR group, 6 out of 16 (38%) with positive lymph nodes died of disease whereas, 27 out of 30 (90%) of the patients with negative lymph nodes remain free of disease. Three of 20 (15%) LDR patients and 4 out of 46 (9%) HDR patients experienced

  20. Potency preservation following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erectile dysfunction after prostate radiation therapy remains an ongoing challenge and critical quality of life issue. Given the higher dose of radiation per fraction using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) there is concern that post-SBRT impotency would be higher than conventional radiation therapy approaches. This study sought to evaluate potency preservation and sexual function following SBRT for prostate cancer. Between February 2008 and March 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT monotherapy at Georgetown University Hospital. Potency was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for intercourse with or without sexual aids while sexual activity was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for masturbation and foreplay. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded from this study. Ninety-seven hormone-naïve men were identified as being potent at the initiation of therapy and were included in this review. All patients were treated to 35–36.25 Gy in 5 fractions delivered with the CyberKnife Radiosurgical System (Accuray). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and total testosterone levels were obtained pre-treatment, every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the subsequent year. Sexual function was assessed with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26 and Utilization of Sexual Medication/Device questionnaires at baseline and all follow-up visits. Ninety-seven men (43 low-, 50 intermediate- and 4 high-risk) at a median age of 68 years (range, 48–82 years) received SBRT. The median pre-treatment PSA was 5.9 ng/ml and the minimum follow-up was 24 months. The median pre-treatment total serum testosterone level was 11.4 nmol/L (range, 4.4-27.9 nmol/L). The median baseline SHIM was 22 and 36% of patients utilized sexual aids prior to treatment. Although potency rates declined following

  1. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  2. Diving through Membranes: Molecular Cunning to Enforce the Endosomal Escape of Antibody-Targeted Anti-Tumor Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Flavell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Membranes are vital barriers by which cells control the flux of molecules and energy between their exterior and interior and also between their various intracellular compartments. While numerous transport systems exist for ions and small molecules, the cytosolic uptake of larger biological molecules and in particular antibody-targeted drugs, is a big challenge. Inducing leakage of the plasma membrane is unfavorable since the target cell specificity mediated by the antibody would likely be lost in this case. After binding and internalization, the antibody drug conjugates reach the endosomes. Thus, enforcing the endosomal escape of anti-tumor toxins without affecting the integrity of other cellular membranes is of paramount importance. Different strategies have been developed in the last decades to overcome endosomal accumulation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of targeted protein-based drugs. In this review we summarize the various efforts made to establish efficient techniques to disrupt the endosomal membrane barrier including the use of molecular ferries such as cell penetrating peptides or viral membrane fusion proteins, endosomal leakage inducing molecules such as saponins or monensin and physicochemical methods as represented by photochemical internalization.

  3. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic-bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2010-01-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958–1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were utilized to investigate the joint effects of radiati...

  4. ROLES OF RADIATION DOSE AND CHEMOTHERAPY IN THE ETIOLOGY OF STOMACH CANCER AS A SECOND MALIGNANCY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Besseling, Gijs; de Bruin, Marie L.; Hauptmann, Michael; van 't Veer, Mars B.; de Wit, Ronald; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated

  5. Population-based utilization of radiation therapy by a Canadian breast cancer cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mittmann, N; Seung, S.J.; Liu, N.; Porter, J.; Saskin, R.; Hoch, J.S.; Evans, W.K.; Leighl, N.B.; Trudeau, M.; Earle, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined trends in radiation therapy (rt) utilization by a population-based breast cancer cohort in Ontario. The provincial cancer registry provided a breast cancer cohort based on diagnosis dates from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010. Staging information was also available. The cohort was then linked, by encrypted health card number, to linkable administrative datasets, including rt utilization.

  6. Roles of radiation dose and chemotherapy in the etiology of stomach cancer as a second malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Aleman, Berthe M P; Besseling, Gijs;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treat...

  7. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN RADIATION THERAPY FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER: INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY AND HYPOXIA TARGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nancy Y.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2008-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has revolutionized radiation treatment for head and neck cancers (HNC). When compared to the traditional techniques, IMRT has the unique ability to minimize the dose delivered to normal tissues without compromising tumor coverage. As a result, side effects from high dose radiation have decreased and patient quality of life has improved. In addition to toxicity reduction, excellent clinical outcomes have been reported for IMRT. The first part of thi...

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan S; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  9. Mathematical optimization of the combination of radiation and differentiation therapies of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThomasHillen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSC are considered to be a major driver of cancer progression and successful therapies must control CSCs. However, CSC are often less sensitive to treatment and they might survive radiation and/or chemotherapies. In this paper we combine radiation treatment with differentiation therapy. During differentiation therapy, a differentiation promoting agent is supplied (e.g. TGF-beta such that CSCs differentiate and become more radiosensitive. Then radiation can be used to control them. We consider three types of cancer: head and neck cancer, brain cancers (primary tumors and metastatic brain cancers, and breast cancer; and we use mathematical modelling to show that combination therapy of the above type can have a large beneficial effect for the patient; increasing treatment success and reducing side effects.

  10. The place of ionizing radiation in the cancer genesis; La place des rayonnements ionisants dans la genese des cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J. [Societe Francaise d' Energie Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    Two different fields are considered: the field of high radiation doses (over 1 Sv), the contribution of ionizing radiation in the carcinogenesis is doubtless and the linear dose-effect relationship is unshakable. but this high doses area is rare ( major accident of civil nuclear, radiotherapy, war with use of nuclear weapon) and escapes to usual standards. The field of low dose irradiation (inferior to 100 MSv) we cannot assure the absence of carcinogen risk of ionizing radiation. We can tell that this risk is very low, very inferior to 5% by sievert accepted by the ICRP in conformance with the precautionary principle. In any case, very inferior to the risk in relation with the big causes of cancer that are addiction to smoking, (30% of cancers), food (30% of cancers), chronic diseases (11% of cancers) and hormonal processes (10% of cancers). (N.C.)

  11. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  12. Radiation and lung cancer: epidemiological and genetic findings from studies among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors have been providing important knowledge on late effects of ionizing radiation exposure at low/moderate doses. In particular, the long-term follow-up in the Life Span Study (LSS) of survivors has played major roles to characterize the radiation-induced risks of various cancer and non-cancer outcomes. Lung cancer, the most common cancer worldwide and the second most in the LSS, is among those cancers strongly associated with radiation exposure. While numerous studies have linked radon and other types of radiation to lung cancer, questions remain about how smoking interacts with radiation for this predominant cause of death. It has not been clear how such joint effects differ by histological subtype of lung cancer. In addition, molecular mechanisms of the late effects of radiation exposure on lung cancer development are not clear, and thus there is considerable interest in the radiation-associated lung carcinogenesis, which is believed to involve multiple stages with potentially many genetic and epigenetic alterations. In attempts to find answers to these questions, some studies have been conducted with data of atomic-bomb survivors, a couple of which will be introduced in the following. (author)

  13. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, A.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduce radiation-induced toxicities. First, the clinically implemented adaptive strategy was described and the dosimetric consequences of this adaptive strategy compared to conventional non-adaptive rad...

  14. Cancer patients with cardiac pacemakers needing radiation treatment: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Jai Prakash Agarwal; Kailash Chander Pandey

    2013-01-01

    With improving average life expectancy of individuals in most countries, there has been increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Radiation oncologists therefore are likely to encounter an increasing number of cancer patients with in situ cardiac pacemaker devices needing radiation treatments. Pacemaker technology has advanced rapidly in recent years. As a result, the potential interactions of these devices with radiation therapy have changed since American Association...

  15. Conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of 402 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy between 1979 and 1992 w as done. Disease free and actuarial survival rates, local, regional and distant recurrence rates and treatment related acute and chronic complications were evaluated according to stage. The technique and dose of radiotherapy were assessed in relation to stage of the disease, status of margin of lumpectomy and cosmetic results. Treatment related morbidity was minimal and overall cosmetic results were excellent. In stage 0 (in situ), I and II survival at 12 years has been 100%, 90% and 80% respectively. It is concluded that breast conservation treatment is an appropriate method of primary therapy, along with radiation therapy, for women with Stage I and II breast cancer

  16. Radiation therapy for brain metastasis from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis for patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer following radiation therapy was evaluated. Seventy-eight patients received brain irradiation in the Osaka Prefectural Habikino Hospital between April 1985 and March 1989. Almost all patients had conventional radiotherapy of the whole brain, with a single dose of 2 or 3 Gy. Patients characteristics associated with favorable prognosis were as follows: Performance status of 0∼1, age≤49, female, histology of adenocarcinoma. Patients who received radiotherapy of 56 Gy10 or more, had longer survival time. The findings in the brain CT were evaluated, but the number, size, site of metastases, and mass effect to ventricular system were not related to the prognosis. The overall median survival was 3.5 months and the 1-year survival rate was 9.0%. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the prognosis in brain metastases. (author)

  17. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become increasingly clear in the last ten years that, in the UK, the scientific measurement and appraisal of human health risks, including pollution, are in the hands of the Government and establishment controlled organisations. In the area of drug-related illness, drug side-effects and medicine safety, profits are routinely put before health. The Chernobyl catastrophe, the greatest single pollution event ever, saw the Government responding with warnings which were too little and too late. Water and milk had been drunk, contaminated animals had been sold and eaten. Recently we have come within a hair's breadth of an ozone hole over Europe at a time when a General Election was in progress. Nothing was said: what information that was available came from the United Nations, from NASA, anywhere but from the UK Government. A recently leaked CEGB document shows levels of radioisotopic pollution in the Trawsfynydd lake to be different (and much higher) than those admitted to by Nuclear Electric pic and published by the Welsh Office. Details of the enormous release of radiation to the environment following the Windscale reactor fire in 1957 have only recently become available. At the time people could have been warned but were not. It is no longer possible to believe what we are told. Or what we are not told. Subtle and serious hazards to human health may exist and be unknown to us. To those who read this and perhaps follow up some of the references, it may seem a difficult task to choose between the few heretical voices and the massive nuclear industry megaphone. I have often been asked a variation of the following question: 'If scientists cannot agree amongst themselves on the effects of radiation, how are mere laymen expected to choose in this complicated and difficult area?' And so radiobiology has become like a religion. You believe or you do not. Radiation causes cancer at low dose or it does not. This is not a necessary state of affairs. Enough data is now

  18. Defining AML and MDS second cancer risk dynamics after diagnoses of first cancers treated or not with radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivoyevitch, T; Sachs, R K; Gale, R P; Molenaar, R J; Brenner, D J; Hill, B T; Kalaycio, M E; Carraway, H E; Mukherjee, S; Sekeres, M A; Maciejewski, J P

    2016-02-01

    Risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and/or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are known to increase after cancer treatments. Their rise-and-fall dynamics and their associations with radiation have, however, not been fully characterized. To improve risk definition we developed SEERaBomb R software for Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results second cancer analyses. Resulting high-resolution relative risk (RR) time courses were compared, where possible, to results of A-bomb survivor analyses. We found: (1) persons with prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy have increased RR of AML and MDS that peak in 1.5-2.5 years; (2) persons with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), lung and breast first cancers have the highest RR for AML and MDS over the next 1-12 years. These increased RR are radiation specific for lung and breast cancer but not for NHL; (3) AML latencies were brief compared to those of A-bomb survivors; and (4) there was a marked excess risk of acute promyelocytic leukemia in persons receiving radiation therapy. Knowing the type of first cancer, if it was treated with radiation, the interval from first cancer diagnosis to developing AML or MDS, and the type of AML, can improve estimates of whether AML or MDS cases developing in this setting are due to background versus other processes. PMID:26460209

  19. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heui Kwan [Prebyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  20. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  1. Case report of radiation-induced rectal cancer at the site of a rectal ulcer 33 years after radiation treatment for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient was a 79-year-old woman who presented with abnormal bowel movements as the chief complaint. Her medical history included radiation therapy (details including dose unclear) for uterine cancer at 46 years of age. At 64 years of age, she had undergone regular endoscopic examination of the lower digestive tract because of abnormal bowel movements. In the first biopsy of the rectal ulcer region, rectal cancer was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenoma, and an abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed. The pathological findings indicated mucinous carcinoma (mp, ly1, v0). We report the case of radiation-induced rectal cancer. In the course of observations after radiation therapy, it is necessary to take secondary cancer into consideration and record the observations accordingly. (author)

  2. Hyperthermia with radiation in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxic cells are deterrent to cure with radiotherapy. Hyperthermia (HT) which has the potential to be cytocidal can be complementary to radiation therapy. HT can be complementary to radiation as the targets of cellular lethality are different and hypoxic cells are more sensitive. The present study involves radiation of locally advanced Head and neck cancer with weekly HT as an adjuvant

  3. Radiation treatment in recurrent squamous cell cancer of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment and outcome of recurrent vulvar cancer. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective review of 26 women referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology between 1982 and 1995, patient records were analyzed with respect to the findings at original surgery, the time to locoregional recurrence, the location of the recurrence, and the subsequent management and outcome. Results: Sixteen recurrences were managed with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, and the remainder with radiation treatment, combined with chemotherapy in some cases. The overall survival for the entire cohort at 5 years was 22%. The 5-year survival for those with recurrence confined to the vulva (n = 13) was 46%, compared with 0% for those women with a recurrence located or extending beyond the vulva (p = 0.002). The local control rate was 34.6%. Conclusion: Our results confirm the poor overall prognosis for this condition. In particular, they highlight the importance of the location of the recurrence as a prognostic indicator. Based on this review, we conclude that radiotherapy fields should encompass the region at risk if the intent is curative. Finally, low-dose palliation for groin node recurrence is ineffectual

  4. Risk factors for development of radiation pneumonitis following radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors contributing to development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with lung cancer who undergo radiation therapy to the thorax. Methods and Materials: Development and severity of RP were retrospectively analyzed for 89 patients with lung cancer who underwent radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy at the National Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital between 1991 and 1995. The severity of RP was determined using a modified grading scale based on that of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer. Results: Fifty-two (58%) patients developed RP: 34 patients with Grade 1, 5 with Grade 2, 8 with Grade 3, and 5 with Grade 5 RP. Severe RP tended to develop earlier than less severe RP, but not to a significant extent (p = 0.151). On logistic regression analysis including both patient condition and treatment factors, development of Grade 1 or more severe RP was most frequently observed for Stage I-II disease (p = 0.011). The use of chemotherapy, large daily radiation dose, and once-daily fractionation (vs. twice-daily fractionation) were possibly related to the development of RP (p = 0.057, p = 0.069, and p = 0.092, respectively). For the group of 48 patients who underwent chemo radiation therapy, the use of large daily radiation dose was a significant risk factor for RP (p = 0.014). In addition, the use of once-daily fractionation was a marginally significant risk factor (p = 0.052). Among chemotherapy drugs administered, cisplatin was a favorable factor (p = 0.011), while adriamycin was a risk factor (p = 0.061). Conclusions: In radiation therapy for lung cancer, administration of a large daily dose should be avoided in order to prevent RP, particularly when radiation therapy is combined with chemotherapy

  5. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  6. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy

  7. Radiation induced skin cancer the chest wall 30 years later from breast cancer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Togawa, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Matsuo, Youichi

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the skin cancer on the frontal chest wall induced by postoperative irradiation 30 years later from mastectomy. The patients was a 62-year-old woman, who received mastectomy of the right breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, comedo type) at 31 years old, and received the postoperative radiotherapy of total 11,628 rad over 38 times. On the first medical examination in author`s hospital, the patient had an ulcer of about 10 cm diameter and was diagnosed the radiation induced skin cancer (well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) in the biopsy. Because of the general condition of the patient was extremely bad and the skin cancer had highly developed, the excision was thought to be impossible. The radiotherapy (16 Gy) and combined local chemotherapy by OK 432 and Bleomycin were performed. In spite of the short term treatment, these therapies were effective on the reduction of the tumor size and the hemostasis, and brought the patient the improvement of QOL. The general condition of the patient improved to be stable and she recovered enough to go out from the hospital for 6 months. After 10 months, she showed anorexia and dyspnea and died after about 1 year from the admission. The present case is extremely rare, and it is required the radical therapy like the excision of chest wall at early stage. (K.H.)

  8. Antibody-targeted drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastný, Marek; Rossmann, P.; Ulbrich, Karel; Strohalm, Jiří; Říhová, Blanka

    London: School of Pharmacy , University of London, 1995, s. 50. [International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics: From Laboratory to Clinical Practice /1./. London (GB), 10.01.1996-12.01.1996] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 720407; GA ČR GA307/93/0057

  9. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer predisposition genes in radiation hypersensitive cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dose intensity of radiotherapy (RT) used in cancer treatment is limited in rare individuals who display severe normal tissue reactions after standard RT treatments. Novel predictive assays are required to identify these individuals prior to treatment. The mechanisms responsible for such reactions are unknown, but may involve dysfunction of genes involved in the sensing and response of cells to DNA damage. The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are implicated in DNA damage repair and the control of genome stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical radiation hypersensitivity is related to mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Such information is of potential use in the clinical management of BRCA mutation carriers and their families. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two cancer patients who developed severe normal tissue reactions after RT were screened for mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2, using various methods including protein truncation testing, direct DNA sequencing, and a PCR-based BRCA1 exon 13 duplication test. Results: No mutations were detected in the 22 patients tested, despite screening for the majority of commonly described types of mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Conclusion: These early results suggest that genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 probably account for most cases of clinical radiation hypersensitivity, and that screening for mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is unlikely to be useful in predicting response to radiotherapy. However, it has not been excluded that some BRCA1 or BRCA2 heterozygotes might experience unexpected RT toxicity; further BRCA mutation screening on radiation sensitive individuals is warranted

  10. Paternal exposure to radiation and offspring cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parental exposure to radiation could induce various kinds of tumors in the next generation. In ICR mice, a large and significant increase of adult type tumor was observed in the F1 offspring after X-ray exposure at spermatozoa and spermatid stages, and less clear increase was observed after spermatogonial exposure. Mature oocytes were resistant up to 1 Gy, but very sensitive to tumor induction at higher doses. While there was no difference in the tumor incidence between acute and fractionated (0.36 Gy at 2 hr intervals) irradiation at post-gonial stages, a large reduction of tumor incidence was observed after spermatogonial and mature oocyte exposure, suggesting some repairs of X-ray damages in these germ cells. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was not induced in CCR and LT mice after spermatogonial exposure, while a larger increase of adult type cancers was observed in F1 offspring. However, 1.9-3.2 fold and 4.5-7.4 fold increases of leukemia incidence were observed in ICR and LT mice, when spermatozoa stage was treated with the X-ray doses of 0.36-5.04 Gy and 3.6-5.04 Gy, respectively, indicating the large difference in the sensitivity of developing germ cells to leukemia induction by radiation in the F1 offspring. In contrast to ICR and LT mice, N5 strain developed about 10 or 18 times higher incidence of leukemia in the offspring after spermatogonial or spermatozoa exposure to 5.04 Gy of X-rays, respectively, showing a marked difference in the sensitivity to the leukemia induction by radiation between mouse strains. These differential sensitivities between germ cell stages and also between mouse strains reconcile the difference between two population studies in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Sellafield. However, there were large differences in the doubling doses for leukemia induction between the mouse experiments and Sellafield study in human. (author)

  11. Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Safran, Howard, E-mail: hsafran@lifespan.org [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

  12. Thermal Enhancement with Optically Activated Gold Nanoshells Sensitizes Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Rachel L; ZHANG, MEI; Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Contreras, Alejandro; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Woodward, Wendy A.; Krishnan, Sunil; Chang, Jenny C.; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis and disease recurrence are hypothesized to result from residual cancer stem cells, also referred to as tumor-initiating cells, which evade initial treatment. Using both syngeneic mouse and human xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer, we have demonstrated that a subpopulation enriched in cancer stem cells was more resistant to treatment with 6 gray of ionizing radiation than the bulk of the tumor cells, and accordingly their relative proportion increased 48...

  13. The radiation sensitizing effect of PSK in the treatment for the cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSK is the protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from Coriolus versicolor (strain CM-101) belonging to Basidiomycetes. It has been widely used as antitumor agent by oral route in Japan for cancer of digestive organs, lung cancer, breast cancer and so on. In this paper, clinical data for the radiation sensitizing effect of PSK in the treatment for the cervical cancer patients is reported. The action mechanism of PSK is still unclear. (Auth.)

  14. Incidence of multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: association with radiation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Soda, Midori; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Matsuo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC), we analyzed the association between the incidence of second primary cancers in survivors of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, and exposure distance. The incidence rate (IR) of a second primary cancer was calculated and stratified by the distance from the hypocenter and age at the time of bombing for the years 1968 through 1999. The IR of the first primary cancer was also calculated and compared wi...

  15. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  16. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose

  17. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy; Dysfonctions sexuelles apres irradiation pour cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droupy, S. [Service d' urologie-andrologie, CHU Caremeau, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2010-10-15

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  18. Radiation effects on cancer risks in the life span study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine late health effects of radiation in atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been conducting studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) population, which consists of 93 000 atomic bomb survivors and 27.000 controls. A recent report on the incidence of solid cancers estimates that at the age of 70 y, after exposure at the age of 30 y, solid-cancer rates increase by about 35 % per Gy for men and 58 % per Gy for women. The age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. Furthermore, it seems that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life. In addition, radiation has similar effects upon first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. A recent report on leukemia mortality suggested that the effect of radiation on leukemia mortality persisted for more than five decades. In addition, a significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome is found in Nagasaki LSS members 40-60 y after radiation exposure. In view of the nature of the continuing increase in solid cancers, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on cancer risks, as most survivors still alive today were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation under the age of 20 y and are now entering their cancer-prone years. (authors)

  19. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  20. SU-C-16A-06: Optimum Radiation Source for Radiation Therapy of Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib [Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A S. [Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, different applicators are designed for treatment of the skin cancer such as scalp and legs, using Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Sources (IR-HDRS), Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (MEBXS), and External Electron Beam Radiation Therapy (EEBRT). Although, all of these methodologies may deliver the desired radiation dose to the skin, the dose to the underlying bone may become the limiting factor for selection of the optimum treatment technique. In this project the radiation dose delivered to the underlying bone has been evaluated as a function of the radiation source and thickness of the underlying bone. Methods: MC simulations were performed using MCNP5 code. In these simulations, the mono-energetic and non-divergent photon beams of 30 keV, 50 keV, and 70 keV for MEBXS, 380 keV photons for IR-HDRS, and 6 MeV mono-energetic electron beam for EEBRT were modeled. A 0.5 cm thick soft tissue (0.3 cm skin and 0.2 cm adipose) with underlying 0.5 cm cortical bone followed by 14 cm soft tissue are utilized for simulations. Results: Dose values to bone tissue as a function of beam energy and beam type, for a delivery of 5000 cGy dose to skin, were compared. These results indicate that for delivery of 5000 cGy dose to the skin surface with 30 keV, 50 keV, 70 keV of MEBXS, IR-HDRS, and EEBRT techniques, bone will receive 31750 cGy, 27450 cGy, 18550 cGy, 4875 cGy, and 10450 cGy, respectively. Conclusion: The results of these investigations indicate that, for delivery of the same skin dose, average doses received by the underlying bone are 5.2 and 2.2 times larger with a 50 keV MEBXS and EEBRT techniques than IR-HDRS, respectively.

  1. SU-C-16A-06: Optimum Radiation Source for Radiation Therapy of Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recently, different applicators are designed for treatment of the skin cancer such as scalp and legs, using Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Sources (IR-HDRS), Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (MEBXS), and External Electron Beam Radiation Therapy (EEBRT). Although, all of these methodologies may deliver the desired radiation dose to the skin, the dose to the underlying bone may become the limiting factor for selection of the optimum treatment technique. In this project the radiation dose delivered to the underlying bone has been evaluated as a function of the radiation source and thickness of the underlying bone. Methods: MC simulations were performed using MCNP5 code. In these simulations, the mono-energetic and non-divergent photon beams of 30 keV, 50 keV, and 70 keV for MEBXS, 380 keV photons for IR-HDRS, and 6 MeV mono-energetic electron beam for EEBRT were modeled. A 0.5 cm thick soft tissue (0.3 cm skin and 0.2 cm adipose) with underlying 0.5 cm cortical bone followed by 14 cm soft tissue are utilized for simulations. Results: Dose values to bone tissue as a function of beam energy and beam type, for a delivery of 5000 cGy dose to skin, were compared. These results indicate that for delivery of 5000 cGy dose to the skin surface with 30 keV, 50 keV, 70 keV of MEBXS, IR-HDRS, and EEBRT techniques, bone will receive 31750 cGy, 27450 cGy, 18550 cGy, 4875 cGy, and 10450 cGy, respectively. Conclusion: The results of these investigations indicate that, for delivery of the same skin dose, average doses received by the underlying bone are 5.2 and 2.2 times larger with a 50 keV MEBXS and EEBRT techniques than IR-HDRS, respectively

  2. Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals. Expectation for phytochemicals as preventive agents against radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence from the studies using animal models that phytochemicals in plants have preventive effect on cancer induction, which is mediated by polyphenol anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. Some phytochemicals such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have been moved onto clinical trials. These phytochemicals are also expected to reduce the deleterious effect of radiation, and to be a powerful tool for the prevention of radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarized the general concept of cancer chemoprevention and usefulness of phytochemicals as cancer preventive agents, and pointed out their possibilities for prevention of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  3. Comparison of gamma radiation - induced effects in two human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects of gamma radiation on two hormone refractory human prostate cancer cell lines, DU 145 and PC-3, were followed. It was shown that gamma radiation induced significant inhibition of cell proliferation and viability in dose dependent manner. Antiproliferative effects of radiation were similar in both cell lines, and more pronounced than cytotoxic effects. In addition to that, PC-3 cell line was more resistant to radiation -induced cytotoxicity. (author)

  4. Spontaneous pneumothorax as a complication of radiation therapy for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax occured as a complication in out of 419 cases of primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy during the last ten years. Two cases were seen during the course of radiation therapy with improvement of atelectasis and the 4 other cases were observed after completion of radiation therapy with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. One of the 4 cases was treated with combined chemotherapy. Continuous suction was necessary in only 2 cases. Prognosis was unchanged by this complication. (author)

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax as a complication of radiation therapy for primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, M.; Nakajima, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Okazaki, A.; Maehara, Y. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-12-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax occured as a complication in 6 out of 419 cases of primary lung cancer treated with radiation therapy during the last ten years. Two cases were seen during the course of radiation therapy with improvement of atelectasis and the 4 other cases were observed after completion of radiation therapy with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. One of the 4 cases was treated with combined chemotherapy. Continuous suction was necessary in only 2 cases. Prognosis was unchanged by this complication.

  6. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 105 persons x a-1) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 105 persons x a-1) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  7. Mitigating the risk of radiation-induced cancers: limitations and paradigms in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States radiation medical countermeasures (MCM) programme for radiological and nuclear incidents has been focusing on developing mitigators for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE), and biodosimetry technologies to provide radiation dose assessments for guiding treatment. Because a nuclear accident or terrorist incident could potentially expose a large number of people to low to moderate doses of ionising radiation, and thus increase their excess lifetime cancer risk, there is an interest in developing mitigators for this purpose. This article discusses the current status, issues, and challenges regarding development of mitigators against radiation-induced cancers. The challenges of developing mitigators for ARS include: the long latency between exposure and cancer manifestation, limitations of animal models, potential side effects of the mitigator itself, potential need for long-term use, the complexity of human trials to demonstrate effectiveness, and statistical power constraints for measuring health risks (and reduction of health risks after mitigation) following relatively low radiation doses (<0.75 Gy). Nevertheless, progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms resulting in radiation injury, along with parallel progress in dose assessment technologies, make this an opportune, if not critical, time to invest in research strategies that result in the development of agents to lower the risk of radiation-induced cancers for populations that survive a significant radiation exposure incident. (review)

  8. Radiation therapy and arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gallbladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard therapy is not yet established for the unresectable advanced gallbladder cancer (AGC). Here described is the outcome of authors' therapeutic protocol for AGC during the time Jan., 1989-Dec., 2008. Subjects are 73 patients (M 32/F 41, average age 65 y) with AGC of Stage IV. One shot arterial infusion (AI) of EEP regimen (etoposide (VP16)/4'epiadriamycin (EPIR)/cisplatin (CDDP)) is conducted via hepatic artery proper or common at the first angiography and one week later, external radiation therapy (RT), with about 30-50 Gy/6 fractions (actually, 12-61.6 Gy). AI is weekly done with FP regimen (CDDP/5-fluorouracil (FU)) through the reservoir indwelled in the gastroduodenal artery for 6 months where a metal stent for the stegnosis of bile duct is used if necessary after RT, and in recent days, additionally with biweekly CDDP/gemcitabin (GEM) regimen depending on patient's state after FP. As a result, RT is conducted to 62 cases (RT alone 8 cases), AI, 64 (alone, 10), and RT+AI, 54. Response is found to be 49% (CR 7 cases and PR, 28). Survivals 1- and 3-year are 39 and 6%, respectively, and average survival time, 408 days. Survival rate in (RT+AI) is significantly superior to that in AI alone and in RT alone. Prognosis in patients with jaundice, hepatic or duodenal invasion is significantly inferior to those without the symptom, and in non-responded cases, to responded cases. Complications like hepatic abscess are seen in 4 cases at 6 months after treatment. Four actual case-reports are presented in details with their images. Combination of RT+AI is suggested to be of utility for AGC, of which multi-center trial is awaited with addition of newer anti-cancers developed recently. (K.T.)

  9. Electro pulse mediated enhancement of radiation response of murine cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiotherapy is an important modality of cancer treatment but most often clinicians face some limitations. The major problems in cancer treatment are the radioresistance and chemoresistance of cancer cells which poses challenge to researchers and clinicians. To overcome these problems, a search for achieving the improved treatment of cancer is highly warranted. Electroporation is a biophysical technique that involves transient increase in cell membrane permeability by application of high voltage pulses of short duration. In recent years, cell membrane has been considered as a common target for ionizing radiation and electroporation. In our laboratory, we have investigated the combined treatment of gamma radiation and electric pulses to cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments have been conducted in vitro using Ehlrich Ascites carcinoma cells with 60Co gamma irradiation and electric pulses. Results have shown significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of cells on combined treatment with radiation and electroporation. In vivo studies have been carried out using murine fibrosarcoma as a model system. Mice were segregated into following treatment groups: Control, radiation, electroporation, and radiation plus electroporation. Studies on tumor growth kinetics indicated a significant tumor growth delay when the transplanted tumor was treated with the a radiation followed by electroporation. It is suggested that optimization of parameters of electroporation and radiation may prove a powerful treatment modality for cancer in clinic

  10. Optimization of Radiation Therapy Techniques for Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Rectum Spacers: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-escalated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer improves disease control but is also associated with worse rectal toxicity. A spacer placed between the prostate and rectum can be used to displace the anterior rectal wall outside of the high-dose radiation regions and potentially minimize radiation-induced rectal toxicity. This systematic review focuses on the published data regarding the different types of commercially available prostate-rectum spacers. Dosimetric results and preliminary clinical data using prostate-rectum spacers in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by curative radiation therapy are compared and discussed

  11. Second primary cancers after radiation for prostate cancer: a review of data from planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of planning studies was undertaken to evaluate estimated risks of radiation induced second primary cancers (RISPC) associated with different prostate radiotherapy techniques for localised prostate cancer. A total of 83 publications were identified which employed a variety of methods to estimate RISPC risk. Of these, the 16 planning studies which specifically addressed absolute or relative second cancer risk using dose–response models were selected for inclusion within this review. There are uncertainties and limitations related to all the different methods for estimating RISPC risk. Whether or not dose models include the effects of the primary radiation beam, as well as out-of-field regions, influences estimated risks. Regarding the impact of IMRT compared to 3D-CRT, at equivalent energies, several studies suggest an increase in risk related to increased leakage contributing to out-of-field RISPC risk, although in absolute terms this increase in risk may be very small. IMRT also results in increased low dose normal tissue irradiation, but the extent to which this has been estimated to contribute to RISPC risk is variable, and may also be very small. IMRT is often delivered using 6MV photons while conventional radiotherapy often requires higher energies to achieve adequate tissue penetration, and so comparisons between IMRT and older techniques should not be restricted to equivalent energies. Proton and brachytherapy planning studies suggest very low RISPC risks associated with these techniques. Until there is sufficient clinical evidence regarding RISPC risks associated with modern irradiation techniques, the data produced from planning studies is relevant when considering which patients to irradiate, and which technique to employ

  12. Potential of biological images for radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent technical advances in 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (3DCRT and IMRT) based, on patient-specific CT and MRI images, have the potential of delivering exquisitely conformal dose distributions to the target volume while avoiding critical structures. Emerging clinical results in terms of reducing treatment-related morbidity and increasing local control appear promising. Recent developments in imaging have suggested that biological images may further positively impact cancer diagnosis, characterization and therapy. While in the past radiological images are largely anatomical, the new types of images can provide metabolic, biochemical, physiological, functional and molecular (genotypic and phenotypic) information. For radiation therapy, images that give information about factors (e.g. tumor hypoxia, Tpot) that influence radiosensitivity and treatment outcome can be regarded as radiobiological images. The ability of IMRT to 'paint' (in 2D) or 'sculpt' (in 3D) the dose, and produce exquisitely conformal dose distributions begs the '64 million dollar question' as to how to paint or sculpt, and whether biological imaging may provide the pertinent information. Can this new approach provide 'radiobiological phenotypes' non-invasively, and incrementally improve upon the predictive assays of radiobiological characteristics such as proliferative activity (Tpot - the potential doubling time), radiosensitivity (SF2 - the surviving fraction at a dose of 2 Gy), energy status (relative to sublethal damage repair), pH (a possible surrogate of hypoxia), tumor hypoxia, etc. as prognosticator(s) of radiation treatment outcome. Important for IMRT, the spatial (geometrical) distribution of the radiobiological phenotypes provide the basis for dose distribution design to conform to both the physical (geometrical) and the biological attributes. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

  14. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.)

  15. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  16. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation.

  17. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  18. Human cancer natural history, radiation induced immunodepression and post-operative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several types of cancers, post-operative radiation therapy is able to reduce the incidence of local recurrences, but has only a relatively small beneficial effect on total survival. Conversely to what has been claimed, this discrepancy is not due to a detrimental effect of radiotherapy. The data do not substantiate the hypothesis that irradiation through an impact on the immune system enhances growth of neoplastic foci outside of the irradiated volume. Several sets of data show that uncontrolled primary tumors or lymph node metastases can be important foci for distant spread. However, the analysis of the data shows that post-operative radiotherapy can prevent metastatic spread only in a small subset of patients, those without distant metastases at the initial treatment and in whom local recurrences can be a nidus for distant dissemination before being detected and treated. The results of the clinical trials carried out on patients with breast cancers show that this situation is frequently observed in patients with tumors located in the inner quadrants of the breast. The involvement of the internal mammary chain is relatively frequent in these patients

  19. Effects of ongoing smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in breast cancer and oesophagus cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in patients treated for breast and oesophagus cancer. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study on 405 females diagnosed with primary unilateral breast cancer stages 1 and 2 and 201 oesophagus carcinoma patients. The possibilities in Sweden to obtain detailed information from different medical records were used to collect data on smoking habits, radiation treatment and spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Radiation-induced pneumonitis was defined as a combination of roentgenographic infiltrate in the lung field involving an irradiated area on the chest X-ray and clinical symptoms such as non-productive cough and dyspnoea. Results: Six breast cancer patients had spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Five of them were non-smokers (P=0.182) and the other was a former smoker. Eight of the oesophagus cancer patients had spontaneously reported radiation-induced clinical pneumonitis and they were all non-smokers (P=0.022), except one, who was a pipe smoker. None of the patients who were cigarette smokers were recorded as developing clinical pneumonitis after irradiation. Conclusion: These data could support the previous clinical observations and experimental studies that smoking depresses the frequency of radiation-induced pneumonitis. The present study as well as earlier observations could justify further studies concerning the possibility of an interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapeutic failures and reduced adverse effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Radiation therapy in complex treatment for stage III breast cancer with reconstructive plastic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-operative radiation therapy in patients with stage III breast cancer on the third month after reconstructive plastic surgery allows to eliminate scar deformities of the organ and does not aggravate the treatment results when compared with mastectomized patients.

  1. A case of jawbone necrosis resulting from radiation treatment of multiple bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumors is sometimes associated with side effects that can appear early in the course of treatment. Radiation necrosis of the jawbone sometimes occurs after exposure to a radiation dose of 60 Gy or more for treatment of malignant tumors of the head and neck, and this can have a marked influence on subsequent dental care. The effect is often more marked in the lower than in the upper jaw, and becomes typically evident at the time of tooth extraction. As well as cancers of the head and neck, patients with breast cancer can also be affected by radiation necrosis of the jawbone. It is well known that the rate of bone metastases from breast cancer is much high especially appearing the mandibular in the head and neck lesions. Here we report an overview of jawbone necrosis in the light of our experience of one such case following radiation treatment of multiple bone metastases from breast cancer. (author)

  2. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  3. High dose and low dose radiation exposure in the induction of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's modern practice of Radiation Oncology it is becoming increasingly common to follow many patients with breast cancer. There is a proven association between prior radiation and the development of breast cancer, although in many instances the available sources of data are confusing. Characteristic features of radiation induced breast cancer are the importance of age at first exposure to radiation and the long latency period. The risk of breast cancer is highest in women exposed in the first decade of life and lessens progressively with increased age at exposure. The latency period is typically 10 years or more; a time in which other age dependent factors may influence the expression of the malignant phenotype. Genetic factors may also (in theory) increase a particular patient's susceptibility. (author)

  4. Dysuria Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsley-Marie eJanowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysuria following prostate radiation therapy is a common toxicity that adversely affects patients’ quality of life and may be difficult to manage. Methods: 204 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT from 2007 to 2010 for localized prostate carcinoma with a minimum follow up of three years were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. All patients were treated to 35-36.25Gy in 5 fractions delivered with robotic SBRT with real time fiducial tracking. Dysuria and other lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed via Question 4b (Pain or burning on urination of the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26 and the American Urological Association (AUA Symptom Score at baseline and at routine follow up. Results: 204 patients (82 low-, 105 intermediate-, and 17 high risk according to the D’Amico classification at a median age of 69 years (range 48-91 received SBRT for their localized prostate cancer with a median follow up of 47 months. Bother associated with dysuria significantly increased from a baseline of 12% to a maximum of 43% at one month (p<0.0001. There were two distinct peaks of moderate to severe dysuria bother at 1 month and at 6-12 months, with 9% of patients experiencing a late transient dysuria flare. While a low level of dysuria was seen through the first two years of follow-up, it returned to below baseline by two years (p=0.91. The median baseline AUA score of 7.5 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p<0.0001 and returned to 7 at 3 months (p= 0.54. Patients with dysuria had a statistically higher AUA score at baseline and at all follow-ups up to 30 months. Dysuria significantly correlated with dose and AUA score on multivariate analysis. Frequency and strain significantly correlated with dysuria on stepwise multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The rate and severity of dysuria following SBRT is comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities.

  5. Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also a relevant issue for this group, we conducted a review of the current literature. Methods: A literature search was performed in Medline for papers concerning cardiac toxicity in esophageal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The overall crude incidence of symptomatic cardiac toxicity was as high as 10.8%. Toxicities corresponded with several dose–volume parameters of the heart. The most frequently reported complications were pericardial effusion, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Conclusion: Cardiac toxicity is a relevant issue in the treatment of esophageal cancer. However, valid Normal Tissue Complication Probability models for esophageal cancer are not available at present

  6. Cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation treatment in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between four cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation therapy in cancer patients. The role of accurate self-report of usage of each of the defenses was examined as well. A distinction between direct-action and emotion-focused coping was utilized to conceptualize the possible relationships between compliance and the defenses. Based on the proposals of Heilbrun and Renert (1986) regarding the relative evasiveness of the defenses and available evidence from the compliance literature, it was predicted that noncompliant patients would show more repression, projection, and denial and less rationalization than compliant patients. In addition, based upon the findings of Heilbrun and Pepe (1985) that related self-deception to effectiveness of the defenses in dealing with stress, predictions were also made regarding differences in accuracy of reported defense usage by compliant and noncompliant patients. Noncompliant repressors and projectors and compliant rationalizers were predicted to be less aware of their respective use of these defenses than their compliant counterparts; noncompliant deniers were predicted to be more aware of the use of this defense than compliant deniers

  7. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-two patients with NPC treated at our hospital between April 1994 and December 2002 were the subjects of this study. They received hyperfractionated RT with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy, with a median tumor dose of 72 Gy (range 64.8-80.4). During this study period, our institutional strategy for locoregionally advanced NPC included neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy combined with hyperfractionated RT, and 17 patients received some forms of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 59 months, the estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 72.7 and 85.2%, respectively. Acute hematological toxicities were acceptable and manageable. However, >50% of patients required nutritional support, and experienced severe pharyngitis, skin reaction and body weight loss. With regard to late sequelae, one patient developed grade 3 osteomyelitis, and one patient each developed grade 4 passage disturbance and laryngeal edema. No patients experienced any grades of optic nerve injury or temporal lobe necrosis. Hyperfractionated RT using 1.2 Gy per fraction, for a total dose of 72 Gy, produces a comparable treatment outcome. Although deleterious neurological sequelae were not observed in this study, caution should be exercised regarding other late sequelae, such as osteomyelitis and passage disturbance. (author)

  8. CURENT ADVANCES AND STRETEGIES FOR REDUCING THE SIDE EFFECTS OF RADIATION THERAPIES USED FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CANCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtar Singh; Manvi Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Cancer originates from the abnormal expression or activation of positive regulators and functional suppression of negative regulators. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 84 million people will die of cancer between 2005 and 2015 without intervention. Research suggests that one-third of cancer deaths can be avoided through prevention. Major cancer treatment modalities are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment method and ...

  9. Breast cancer induced by radiation. Relation to mammography and treatment of acne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of cases of 16 women in whom cancer of the breast developed after radiation therapy for acne or hirsutism, suggesting another group at higher risk than is generally expected for cancer of the breast. It is prudent to regard the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the breast as proportional to dose without a threshold. Mammography in young women should be ordered only selectively, not for screening

  10. Polaprezinc reduces the severity of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hitomi; Niwa, Yasue; Nakayama, Masahiro; SHIKATA, TOSHIYUKI; Odawara, Soichi; Takada, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Takeshi; KAMIKONYA, NORIHIKO; Hirota, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), an antiulcer drug, has been reported to have antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of administering PZ for radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. PZ was prepared as an oral rinse. The PZ oral rinse was used four times per day during the course of radiotherapy. Sequential changes in radiation mucositis wer...

  11. Methods for estimating the probability of cancer from occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this TECDOC are to present the factors which are generally accepted as being responsible for cancer induction, to examine the role of radiation as a carcinogen, to demonstrate how the probability of cancer causation by radiation may be calculated and to inform the reader of the uncertainties that are associated with the use of various risk factors and models in such calculations. 139 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the R...

  13. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the R...

  14. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Lower radiation weighting factor for radon indicated in mechanistic modelling of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-mutation carcinogenesis (TMC) model was fitted to the age-dependent lung cancer incidence in a cohort of Dutch Hodgkin patients treated with radiotherapy. Employing the results of previous TMC analyses of lung cancer due to smoking (by British doctors) and due to exposure to radon (for Colorado miners) a model fit was obtained with an estimate for the low LET radiation effect at the cellular level. This allows risk calculations for lung cancer from low LET radiation. The excess absolute risks are in tune with the values reported in the literature, the excess relative risks differ among the exposed groups. Comparing the cellular radiation coefficients for radon and for low LET radiation leads to an estimated radiation weighting factor for radon of 3 (0.1-6). (author)

  16. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  17. A multi-target approach to pancreatic cancer treatment using radiation and concurrent dual targeting chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer has a survival rate of less than 5% five years after diagnosis. Treatment for pancreatic cancer consists of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Despite this multimodality approach local regional reoccurrence of pancreatic cancer is common. In many cases pancreatic cancer recurrence is due to the therapeutic resistance of pancreatic cancer cells. While the genetics of pancreatic cancer are highly complex, about 90% of all pancreatic cancers exhibit a constitutively active KRAS oncogene. Common characteristics of this mutation are constitutive activation of the pro-survival transcription factor NF-kB and increased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. NF-kB controls cell survival, angiogenesis, and invasion while PDH kinase causes the shift commonly seen in cancer metabolism to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg metabolism). We hypothesized that by blocking the pro-survival signals from NF-kB with the inhibitor Dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT) and by shifting the metabolism from Warburg metabolism back to oxidative metabolism by using Dichloroacetate (DCA that we can increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in treating pancreatic carcinomas clinically). This study examined the effectiveness of Dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT) and Dichloroacetate (DCA) to induce cytotoxicity and increase radiation-induced cell killing in human pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2, BxPc-3, and AsPc-1. We found that dual treatment of the three pancreatic cancer cell lines: altered Warburg metabolism; decreased cell viability; altered cell cycle distribution; increased population doubling times; and increased radiation-induced cell killing after single and fractionated doses through inhibition of split dose and DNA double strand break repair. In summary, we have established that dual treatment with DMAPT and DCA is not only cytotoxic but also significantly enhances radiation-induced cell killing of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (author)

  18. A study of the DNA content of cancer cell nuclei at the time of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is very effective in the treatment of cervical cancer, but there are some patients who are less responsive to radiation, and responsivensss to radiation is still a clinically important problem to be solved in the future. In this study I have measured changes of the DNA content of cancer cell nuclei induced by radiation therapy in 26 patients with cervical cancer (squamous epithelial cancer) and have made histological investigation of the cancer at the same time in order to examine morphological judgment of the therapeutic effect of radiation not only from quantitative viewpoint of morphological changes but also from qualitative viewpoint of changes in cell nuclei. From the result of the present study it is seen that among the histological methods for judgment of the effect of radiation therapy, Oboshi and Shimozato's classification is a method hitherto in use, nearly agree with the result of the investigation of the DNA content hitherto in use and the classification of histological response nearly agrees with the judgment by DNA content of responsive grade, that is, evaluation by the former could be proved by the latter. However, we hold an opinion different from theirs as to the response grade GIII. When a patient is graded GIII, gualitative examination of the DNA content of nuclei is considered to be inevitable in order to confirm the non-viability of the cancer cells. (author)

  19. Critical review of the Hanford worker studies: cancer risk and low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current estimates of cancer risks attributable to low-level radiation exposure are extrapolated from effects observed at higher doses. The inherent uncertainties in this approach make direct study of low-dose effects in human populations of great significance. Employees of the Hanford works in Richland, Washington constitute a large group of workers exposed to low-level radiation. The cancer mortality patterns in relation to radiation dose have been discussed by numerous investigators beginning with Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale in 1977 and continuing to the present. These studies and their published critiques are summarized, with an effort to account for discrepant results by careful review of the analytic methods. Detailed consideration is given to exposure definition, classification of health outcomes, latency, the statistical methods employed, and selection biases. From this, it is concluded that (a) total cancers are unrelated to radiation exposure among these workers; (b) multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer show a positive association with radiation dose based upon a few highly exposed cases; and (c) the relationship of radiosensitive cancers in the aggregate to radiation exposure is unresolved. Further study of the temporal course of exposure and latency in a classical cohort analysis of radiosensitive cancers might be informative, with special attention to the possibility of selection for jobs within the cohort

  20. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of past case reports on radiation-induced cancer of the uterus was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of literature published since 1912 revealed 548 cases of radiation-induced cancer of the uterus. All of these cases of radiation-induced cancer had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant disease. The primary gynecological conditions which were the object of radiation therapy were functional bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, myoma, endometritis, and polyps. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1000-1450 rad in the case of external X-ray irradiation, and 100 mg.hr for intrauterine radium therapy, which corresponds to 100-1000 rad. It was noted that were more cases of corpus cancer than cervical cancer. Histopathological findings of radiation-induced uterine cancer were carcinoma, sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumors. The latent period was distributed in the range of 1 to 40 years, with the average of 10.1 years. (auth.)

  1. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of past case reports concerning radiation-induced breast cancer was carried out in order to find the lowest irradiation dose. The search of literature published since 1951 revealed 10 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer. Only 5 cases had precise descriptions of the irradiation dose. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1470 rads in the case of external X-ray irradiation for tuberous angioma. All of cases of radiation-induced breast cancer had received radiation for the treatment of nonmalignant tumors, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, mastitis, and tuberous angioma. There also were three statistical studies. The first concerned atomic bomb survivors, the second, pulmoanry tuberculous patients subjected to frequent fluoroscopies, and the third, patients of acute post partum mastitis. These statistical studies had revealed a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the irradiated group, but there was little information about the lowest irradiation dose. It was noticed that radiation-induced breast cancer was more numerous in the upper inner quadrant of the breast. Most histopathological findings of radiation-induced breast cancer involved duct cell carcinoma. The latent period was about 15 years. (Evans, J.)

  2. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary

  3. Recent evidence of radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent A-bomb follow-up data support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (∼ 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to induction of cancer varies considerably by tissue irradiated; (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukaemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at this time; (f) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumours show a radiation-related effect: (h) children under the age of 10 at time of bombing (ATB) are presenting showing the highest relative risk for cancer compared with all other ages ATB at equal attained age. If this persists, then age-specific lifetime cancer risk coefficients are necessary, and for those irradiated as young children may be quite high. (author)

  4. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  5. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  6. Cytogenetic lesions at radiation induced occupational lung cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examination of the group of uranium miners with occupational lung cancer and miners without cancer showed an increased level of radiation induced disorders of the chromosomal apparatus of the cells when compared with the cytogenetic indices of the controls. Reduction in the level of cytogenetic disorders was not observed when the work at the mine was discontinued.

  7. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23772925

  8. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  9. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  10. Special susceptibility of the child to certain radiation-induced cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The carcinogenic effects of exposure to ionizing radiation vary markedly with age, as revealed by studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and of Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout from U.S. nuclear weapons tests in the South Pacific in 1954. An increase in cancers of adulthood after intrauterine exposure, as reported in 1988, has not been sustained. After childhood exposure, increases in leukemia, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer are well established. The carcinogenic effects of radiati...

  11. Nurses’ Knowledge and Education about Oral Care of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Radhika R; Ravikiran Ongole

    2015-01-01

    Context: Oral health awareness and oral care are crucial aspects of oncology nursing practice. However very few studies concentrate on the oral care of cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and nursing practice in the Indian subcontinent. Most of the published studies have been conducted in the Western and European countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the nurses′ knowledge and education about oral care in cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Sett...

  12. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (

  13. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  14. Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  15. Surgeons' Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Role of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Population-based studies suggest underuse of radiation therapy, especially after mastectomy. Because radiation oncology is a referral-based specialty, knowledge and attitudes of upstream providers, specifically surgeons, may influence patients' decisions regarding radiation, including whether it is even considered. Therefore, we sought to evaluate surgeons' knowledge of pertinent risk information, their patterns of referral, and the correlates of surgeon knowledge and referral in specific breast cancer scenarios. Methods and Materials: We surveyed a national sample of 750 surgeons, with a 67% response rate. We analyzed responses from those who had seen at least 1 breast cancer patient in the past year (n=403), using logistic regression models to identify correlates of knowledge and appropriate referral. Results: Overall, 87% of respondents were general surgeons, and 64% saw >10 breast cancer patients in the previous year. In a scenario involving a 45-year-old undergoing lumpectomy, only 45% correctly estimated the risk of locoregional recurrence without radiation therapy, but 97% would refer to radiation oncology. In a patient with 2 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 30% would neither refer to radiation oncology nor provide accurate information to make radiation decisions. In a patient with 4 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 9% would not refer to radiation oncology. Fewer than half knew that the Oxford meta-analysis revealed a survival benefit from radiation therapy after lumpectomy (45%) or mastectomy (32%). Only 16% passed a 7-item knowledge test; female and more-experienced surgeons were more likely to pass. Factors significantly associated with appropriate referral to radiation oncology included breast cancer volume, tumor board participation, and knowledge. Conclusions: Many surgeons have inadequate knowledge regarding the role of radiation in breast cancer management, especially after mastectomy. Targeted educational interventions may

  16. Surgeons' Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Role of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hawley, Sarah T.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Janz, Nancy K. [Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sabel, Michael S. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Katz, Steven J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies suggest underuse of radiation therapy, especially after mastectomy. Because radiation oncology is a referral-based specialty, knowledge and attitudes of upstream providers, specifically surgeons, may influence patients' decisions regarding radiation, including whether it is even considered. Therefore, we sought to evaluate surgeons' knowledge of pertinent risk information, their patterns of referral, and the correlates of surgeon knowledge and referral in specific breast cancer scenarios. Methods and Materials: We surveyed a national sample of 750 surgeons, with a 67% response rate. We analyzed responses from those who had seen at least 1 breast cancer patient in the past year (n=403), using logistic regression models to identify correlates of knowledge and appropriate referral. Results: Overall, 87% of respondents were general surgeons, and 64% saw >10 breast cancer patients in the previous year. In a scenario involving a 45-year-old undergoing lumpectomy, only 45% correctly estimated the risk of locoregional recurrence without radiation therapy, but 97% would refer to radiation oncology. In a patient with 2 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 30% would neither refer to radiation oncology nor provide accurate information to make radiation decisions. In a patient with 4 of 20 nodes involved after mastectomy, 9% would not refer to radiation oncology. Fewer than half knew that the Oxford meta-analysis revealed a survival benefit from radiation therapy after lumpectomy (45%) or mastectomy (32%). Only 16% passed a 7-item knowledge test; female and more-experienced surgeons were more likely to pass. Factors significantly associated with appropriate referral to radiation oncology included breast cancer volume, tumor board participation, and knowledge. Conclusions: Many surgeons have inadequate knowledge regarding the role of radiation in breast cancer management, especially after mastectomy. Targeted educational

  17. Combination radiation therapy for bone metastases in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Distant metastases of thyroid carcinoma (TC) occur due to dissemination of cancer cells through the lymph and blood vessels. They develop in 10-15% of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and are the main cause of death in cancer patients. Appearance of distant metastases depends on a number of factors, i.e. the age of the patients (chiefly in children and those over 45); small size tumors; invasive growth of the tumor outside the thyroid capsule; involvement of the sentinel lymph nodes; poor differentiation of the tumor; incomplete surgical removal of the tumor. Distant metastases mainly localize in the lungs and/or bones. In thyroid cancer patients with suspected bone metastases the latter are revealed radiologically on the primary examination (approximately in 95.9% of cases). In 25% of them, they are seen at body scan with I-131 on residual activities. Probability of visualization of iodine-positive bone metastases is higher at ablation of residual thyroid tissue. When the metastases are revealed by x-ray study, they cannot be treated using I-131, which emphasizes the necessity of other methods of treatment: surgery and distant radiation therapy. But due to multiple character of bone metastases surgery for these metastases is impossible. Within the period of 1999-2004 we studied 310 patients with differentiated TC aged 22-72 (of them 254 women and 56 men). Bone metastases were revealed in 15 (4.8%) patients, of them 13 women and 2 men aged 46-68. As to the stage of the tumor with bone metastases, the patients were grouped as follows: T1 N0 M0 -1 (6.7%), T2-3 N0 M0 -1 (6.7%), TxNxMo-4 (26.7%), T1-4 N0 -1M1-9 (60%) patients. Of the 15 patients with bone metastases, papillary cancer was verified in 5 (33.3%) patients, follicular in 5 (33.3%) papillary cancer follicular variant in 1 (6.7%), medullary in 4 (26.3%). Together with bone metastases, 5 (33.3%) had metastases to the lung parenchyma, diffuse and solitary; 12 (80%) had metastases to

  18. Efficiency of tumor radiosensitization small doses of ionizing radiation in radiation therapy for oral mucosa cancer II-III stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of tumor radiosensitization by low doses of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy patients in the II-III stages of oral mucosa cancer. There was established, that this radiomodification method improving both the immediate and long-term results of radiotherapy is not dependent of the stage process

  19. Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation therapy of the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the radio-therapy is maximize the radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to the critical organ. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix treatment are external irradiation or an interstitial brachytherapy make use of isotope. Brachytherapy is a method of radiotherapy in advantage to achieve better local control with minimum radiation toxicity in comparison with external irradiation because radiation dose is distributed according to the inverse square low of gamma-ray emitted from the implanted sources. Authors make use of the patients data which 192Ir gives medical treatment intracavity. Intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer, critical organ take 20% below than exposure dose of A point in the ICRU report. None the less of the advice, Radiation proctitis and radiation cystitis are frequent and problematic early complications in patients treated with radiation for the uterine cervix cancer. In brachytherapy of uterine cervical cancer using a high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to deliver a accurate dose in each fractionated treatment by minimizing the difference between the pre-treatment planned and post-treatment calculated doses. Use of packing to reduce late complications intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer. Bladder and rectum changes exposure dose rate by radiotherapy make use of packing.

  20. Combined effect of ionizing radiation and other risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on combined effect of ionizing radiation (the number of roentgenoscopies and integral absorbed dose) and other risk factors (age, observation period etc) on the incidence of breast cancer (BC). It is shown that the relative BC risk, related with radiation, is affected by woman age during exposure

  1. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M;

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow-up. A sign...

  2. Capecitabine with radiation is an effective adjuvant therapy in gastric cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Chee Kian; Choo, Su Pin; Poon, Donald Yew Hee; Toh, Han Chong; Ong, Simon Yew Kuang; Tan, Sze Huey; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Foo, Kian Fong

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcome of patients who received concurrent capecitabine (Xeloda) and radiation (XRT) compared to the established concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with radiation (5FU-RT) and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment in gastric cancers.

  3. Risk of Hypogonadism From Scatter Radiation During Pelvic Radiation in Male Patients With Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent studies have reported fluctuations in sex hormones during pelvic irradiation. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of radiation on hormonal profiles for two treatment modalities: conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) given neoadjuvantly for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Routine serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were collected from 119 consecutive male patients receiving either EBRT, using 45.0-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy or HDRBT using 26 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: Thirty patients with initially abnormal profiles were excluded. Profiles included in this study were collected from 51 patients treated with EBRT and 38 patients treated with HDRBT, all of whom had normal hormonal profiles before treatment. Mean follow-up times were 17 months for the entire patient cohort-14 and 20 months, respectively-for the EBRT and HDRBT arms. Dosimetry results revealed a mean cumulative testicular dose of 1.24 Gy received in EBRT patients compared with 0.27 Gy in the HDRBT group. After treatment, FSH and LH were elevated in all patients but were more pronounced in the EBRT group. The testosterone-to-LH ratio was significantly lower (p = 0.0036) in EBRT patients for tumors in the lower third of the rectum. The 2-year hypogonadism rate observed was 2.6% for HDRBT compared with 17.6% for EBRT (p = 0.09) for tumors in the lower two thirds of the rectum. Conclusion: HDRBT allows better hormonal sparing than EBRT during neoadjuvant treatment of patients with rectal cancer.

  4. Capecitabine with radiation is an effective adjuvant therapy in gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee; Kian; Tham; Su; Pin; Choo; Donald; Yew; Hee; Poon; Han; Chong; Toh; Simon; Yew; Kuang; Ong; Sze; Huey; Tan; Michael; Lian; Chek; Wang; Kian; Fong; Foo

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the outcome of patients who received concurrent capecitabine(Xeloda) and radiation(XRT) compared to the established concurrent 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) with radiation(5FU-RT) and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone as adjuvant treatment in gastric cancers.METHODS:All patients with gastric cancers who received adjuvant treatment at the National Cancer Centre Singapore between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed.Treatment outcomes of patients who received XRT were compared with those who had 5FU-RT o...

  5. Dose–Volume Metrics Associated With Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify dose–volume factors associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 74 patients who underwent SBRT for primary lung cancer. The prescribed dose for SBRT was uniformly 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.3. Symptomatic RP was defined as grade 2 or worse. Optimal cut-offs dividing the patient population into two subgroups based on the incidence of symptomatic RP were sought using the following dose–volume metrics: PTV volume (ml), mean lung dose (Gy), and V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (%) of both lungs excluding the PTV. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 31.4 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 15 patients (20.3%), including 1 patient with grade 3. Optimal cut-offs for pulmonary dose–volume metrics were V25 and V20. These two factors were highly correlated with each other, and V25 was more significant. Symptomatic RP was observed in 14.8% of the patients with V25 <4.2%, and the rate was 46.2% in the remainder (p = 0.019). PTV volume was another significant factor. The symptomatic RP rate was significantly lower in the group with PTV <37.7 ml compared with the larger PTV group (11.1% vs. 34.5%, p = 0.020). The patients were divided into three subgroups (patients with PTV <37.7 ml; patients with, PTV ≥37.7 ml and V25 <4.2%; and patients with PTV ≥37.7 ml and V25 ≥4.2%); the incidence of RP grade 2 or worse was 11.1%, 23.5%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Lung V25 and PTV volume were significant factors associated with RP after SBRT.

  6. Dose-Volume Metrics Associated With Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Ueki, Nami; Miyagi, Ken; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Division of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To identify dose-volume factors associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 74 patients who underwent SBRT for primary lung cancer. The prescribed dose for SBRT was uniformly 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.3. Symptomatic RP was defined as grade 2 or worse. Optimal cut-offs dividing the patient population into two subgroups based on the incidence of symptomatic RP were sought using the following dose-volume metrics: PTV volume (ml), mean lung dose (Gy), and V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (%) of both lungs excluding the PTV. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 31.4 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 15 patients (20.3%), including 1 patient with grade 3. Optimal cut-offs for pulmonary dose-volume metrics were V25 and V20. These two factors were highly correlated with each other, and V25 was more significant. Symptomatic RP was observed in 14.8% of the patients with V25 <4.2%, and the rate was 46.2% in the remainder (p = 0.019). PTV volume was another significant factor. The symptomatic RP rate was significantly lower in the group with PTV <37.7 ml compared with the larger PTV group (11.1% vs. 34.5%, p = 0.020). The patients were divided into three subgroups (patients with PTV <37.7 ml; patients with, PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 <4.2%; and patients with PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 {>=}4.2%); the incidence of RP grade 2 or worse was 11.1%, 23.5%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Lung V25 and PTV volume were significant factors associated with RP after SBRT.

  7. Coordination of Breast Cancer Care Between Radiation Oncologists and Surgeons: A Survey Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Abrahamse, Paul [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hamilton, Ann S. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Graff, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Katz, Steven J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether radiation oncologists and surgeons differ in their attitudes regarding the local management of breast cancer, and to examine coordination of care between these specialists. Methods and Materials: We surveyed attending surgeons and radiation oncologists who treated a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles. We identified 419 surgeons, of whom 318 (76%) responded, and 160 radiation oncologists, of whom 117 (73%) responded. We assessed demographic, professional, and practice characteristics; challenges to coordinated care; and attitudes toward management in three scenarios. Results: 92.1% of surgeons and 94.8% of radiation oncologists indicated access to a multidisciplinary tumor board. Nevertheless, the most commonly identified challenge to radiation oncologists, cited by 27.9%, was failure of other providers to include them in the treatment decision process early enough. Nearly half the surgeons (49.7%) stated that few or almost none of the breast cancer patients they saw in the past 12 months had consulted with a radiation oncologist before undergoing definitive surgery. Surgeons and radiation oncologists differed in their recommendations in management scenarios. Radiation oncologists were more likely to favor radiation than were surgeons for a patient with 3/20 lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy (p = 0.03); surgeons were more likely to favor more widely clear margins after breast conservation than were radiation oncologists (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the widespread availability of tumor boards, a substantial minority of radiation oncologists indicated other providers failed to include them in the breast cancer treatment decision-making process early enough. Earlier inclusion of radiation oncologists may influence patient decisions, and interventions to facilitate this should be considered.

  8. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  9. Coordination of Breast Cancer Care Between Radiation Oncologists and Surgeons: A Survey Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether radiation oncologists and surgeons differ in their attitudes regarding the local management of breast cancer, and to examine coordination of care between these specialists. Methods and Materials: We surveyed attending surgeons and radiation oncologists who treated a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles. We identified 419 surgeons, of whom 318 (76%) responded, and 160 radiation oncologists, of whom 117 (73%) responded. We assessed demographic, professional, and practice characteristics; challenges to coordinated care; and attitudes toward management in three scenarios. Results: 92.1% of surgeons and 94.8% of radiation oncologists indicated access to a multidisciplinary tumor board. Nevertheless, the most commonly identified challenge to radiation oncologists, cited by 27.9%, was failure of other providers to include them in the treatment decision process early enough. Nearly half the surgeons (49.7%) stated that few or almost none of the breast cancer patients they saw in the past 12 months had consulted with a radiation oncologist before undergoing definitive surgery. Surgeons and radiation oncologists differed in their recommendations in management scenarios. Radiation oncologists were more likely to favor radiation than were surgeons for a patient with 3/20 lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy (p = 0.03); surgeons were more likely to favor more widely clear margins after breast conservation than were radiation oncologists (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the widespread availability of tumor boards, a substantial minority of radiation oncologists indicated other providers failed to include them in the breast cancer treatment decision-making process early enough. Earlier inclusion of radiation oncologists may influence patient decisions, and interventions to facilitate this should be considered.

  10. Imaging challenges: a US perspective on controlling exposure to ionizing radiation in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues pertaining to control of radiation dose exposures in pediatric imaging are on the forefront of patient care worldwide. Certain factors contribute to appropriate - or inappropriate - use of ionizing radiation in pediatric medical imaging. Such issues include naivete regarding cancer risk and the role of medical imaging in its development, misinformation about exposure to ionizing radiation, resource availability, staffing, scheduling ''snags,'' costs, limited evidence-based imaging practice information and shrinking funding. These issues will be introduced in this paper. (orig.)

  11. Effect of low sensitizing radiation doses on immune state during mammary gland cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of clinical application of preoperational radiotherapy of mammary gland cancer at low sensitizing radiation doses (0.1 Gr) before using the main single dose (1.9 Gr) for modification of tumor radiosensitivity and increase of efficiency of radiotherapy are presented. Small radiation doses are stated to promote decrease of the number of skin radiation reactions, conservation of blood and T-immunosystem parameters within the limits of physiologic oscillations

  12. Radiation Recall Phenomenon Secondary to Bevacizumab in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Jorge Ramos; Jonathan Knisely

    2008-01-01

    Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction in an area that has been previously irradiated that is incited by a pharmacologic agent [1]. Reactions associated with gemcitabine include dermatitis, optic neuritis, brainstem radionecrosis, colitis, and lymphangitis [2, 3, 4]. In the treatment of pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine has been implicated in radiation recall manifested as myositis in two case reports [5, 6]. Gemcitabine linked radiation recall has also resulted in gastritis and duod...

  13. Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yu Su; Pei-Dang Liu; Hao Wu; Ning Gu

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy performs an important function in cancer treatment. However, resistance of tumor cells to radiation therapy still remains a serious concern, so the study of radiosensitizers has emerged as a persistent hotspot in radiation oncology. Along with the rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years, the potential value of nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers has been discovered. hTis review summarizes the latest experimental ifndings bothin vitro andin vivo and attempts to highlight the underlying mechanisms of response in nanoparticle radiosensitization.

  14. Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Pei-Dang; Wu, Hao; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy performs an important function in cancer treatment. However, resistance of tumor cells to radiation therapy still remains a serious concern, so the study of radiosensitizers has emerged as a persistent hotspot in radiation oncology. Along with the rapid advancement of nanotechnology in recent years, the potential value of nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers has been discovered. This review summarizes the latest experimental findings both in vitro and in vivo and attempts...

  15. Relative risks of radiation-associated cancer: comparison of second cancer in therapeutically irradiated populations with the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell- sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation- associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data. (orig.)

  16. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, smoking habits, sex, age group, geographic area and/or time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners implies that the majority of all lung cancers among non-smokers are due to radon; since lung cancers in miners are mostly small-cell undifferentiated (SCU), a rather rare type in general, linearity over predicts the frequency of SCU lung cancers among non smokers by a factor of 10, and among non-smoking females age 25-44 by a factor of 24. Similarly, linearity predicts that the majority of all lung cancers early in this century were due to radon even after due consideration is given to cases missed by poor diagnostic efficiency (this matter is considered in some detail). For the 30-40 age range, linearity over predicts the total lung cancer rate at that time by a factor of 3-6; for SCU lung cancer, the over-prediction is by at least a factor of 10. Other causes of lung cancer are considered which further enhance the degree to which the linearity assumption over-estimates the effects of low level radiation. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation. It is concluded that the upper limit for this is not higher than estimates from the linearity hypothesis. (author)

  17. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  18. Cancer and environment. Tobacco, pesticides, radiations, diet: a document for the World Meeting on Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed evaluation concerning the cancer etiology is presented. Several aspects on chemical agents role are described, as the relationship between tobacco and disease development, active and passive smoking, environmental pollution, occupational diseases, soil use and pesticides. The radiation exposure is studied, including solar radiation and risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma, ionizing radiations, radiological accidents, procedures of radioactive control in Brazil. Mutagens, carcinogens and tumor promoters in daily food are discussed as well as factors for reducing the risk of cancer development. (M.A.C.)

  19. Second primary cancers after radiation for prostate cancer: A systematic review of the clinical data and impact of treatment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a radiation induced second primary cancer (SPC) is one the most serious long term consequences of successful cancer treatment. This review aims to evaluate SPC in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with radiotherapy, and assess whether radiation technique influences SPC. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies examining SPC in irradiated PCa patients. This identified 19 registry publications, 21 institutional series and 7 other studies. There is marked heterogeneity in published studies. An increased risk of radiation-induced SPC has been identified in several studies, particularly those with longer durations of follow-up. The risk of radiation-induced SPC appears small, in the range of 1 in 220 to 1 in 290 over all durations of follow-up, and may increase to 1 in 70 for patients followed up for more than 10 years, based on studies which include patients treated with older radiation techniques (i.e. non-conformal, large field). To date there are insufficient clinical data to draw firm conclusions about the impact of more modern techniques such as IMRT and brachytherapy on SPC risk, although limited evidence is encouraging. In conclusion, despite heterogeneity between studies, an increased risk of SPC following radiation for PCa has been identified in several studies, and this risk appears to increase over time. This must be borne in mind when considering which patients to irradiate and which techniques to employ

  20. Mortality from diseases other than cancer following low doses of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Ashmore, P;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation at very high (radio-therapeutic) dose levels can cause diseases other than cancer, particularly heart diseases. There is increasing evidence that doses of the order of a few sievert (Sv) may also increase the risk of non-cancer diseases. It is not known, however......, whether such effects also occur following the lower doses and dose rates of public health concern. METHODS: We used data from an international (15-country) nuclear workers cohort study to evaluate whether mortality from diseases other than cancer is related to low doses of external ionizing radiation....... Analyses included 275 312 workers with adequate information on socioeconomic status, over 4 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative radiation dose of 20.7 mSv; 11 255 workers had died of non-cancer diseases. RESULTS: The excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv was 0.24 [95% CI (confidence...

  1. Role of radiation therapy in the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiation therapy as part of the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer appeared to be important with respect to functional and cosmetic morbidity. As for oral cancer, the value of brachytherapy was excellent in cases of localized disease. As far as the latter technique was applicable, patients with tongue cancer at T1, T2 and T3 could be treated by radiation as the initial choice unless palpable neck node metastasis was present. In contrast, cure of the lesion would not be expected from external irradiation alone even when combined with chemotherapy. Accordingly, in such advanced cases, salvage surgery should be applied with or without radiation and/or chemotherapy. As for maxillary cancer, the introduction of ''trimodal therapy'' has improved the local control rate only to a slight degree. After the application of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, local control and five-year survival rates have been improved markedly. (author)

  2. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced breast cancer: Influence of age at exposure, latency period, age, and genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced breast cancer: Influence of age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and genetic predisposition. The amount of undesirable effects of screening with mammography was estimated from mortality studies after radiation exposure. Newer incidence studies demonstrate, however, an underestimation of the health detriment by mortality studies, in particular with increasing age at exposure, which amounts about five- to sixfold after an exposure in an age of 45-50y. The multidimensional analysis of the discrete values of incidence after radiation exposure respecting age at exposure, time since exposure and attained age instead of calculating a steady function simply depending from age at exposure results in an increasing relative and absolute risk of cancer incidence (and mortality) with growing age after an exposure at an age above 40y. Some genes seems to be correlated with an predisposition of breast cancer. In women carrying BRCA-1 the radiosensitivity for induction of breast cancer may exceed the risk in the normal population by about two orders of magnitude. The resulting doubling dose amounts in the order of the natural and medical radiation exposure. At least in part the genetic predisposition is associated with an early onset of the cancer after an additional radiation exposure. This kind of health detriment was not considered in the former discussion of radiation hazards. (orig.)

  4. Enhancement of radiation response in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by phytosphingosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent discoveries have revealed that sphingolipids (ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine 1-phosphate, etc.) are highly bioactive compounds and are involved in diverse cell processes, including cell-cell interaction, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the physiological roles of phytosphingosine are largely unknown. In the present study, we have investigated effect of phytosphingosine on anti-tumor activities of radiation in human cervical, breast, lung cancer cells and T cell lymphoma. Cells were treated with various concentrations of phytosphingosine and/or various doses of radiation. Phytosongosine sensitized cells in vitro and in vivo for treatment with ionizing radiation. Phytosphingosine in combination with ionizing radiation synergistically decreased clonogenic survival in a dose dependent manner. Similar to the result of clonogenic survival, in human cancer cells, combined treatment with phytosphingosine and ionizing radiation drastically induced apoptotic cell death. At dose levels of phytosphingosine with only minimal apoptotic effect, pretreatment of phytosphingosine synergistically enhanced ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with phytosphingosine and ionizing radiation resulted in an increased caspase family activation. In vivo, treatment of phytosphingosine (3 x 20 mg/kg) in combination with ionizing radiation exerted substantial tumor growth regression for human lung and cervical tumor xenograft. These results indicate that phytosphingosine can synergistically enhance radiosensitivity of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential clinical application of combination treatment with phytosphingosine and ionizing radiation

  5. Sphingosine analog fingolimod (FTY720) increases radiation sensitivity of human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvaso, Giulia; Barone, Agnese; Amodio, Nicola; Raimondi, Lavinia; Agosti, Valter; Altomare, Emanuela; Scotti, Valerio; Lombardi, Angela; Bianco, Roberto; Bianco, Cataldo; Caraglia, Michele; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro

    2014-06-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies for breast cancer patients, although its efficacy may be reduced by intrinsic radiation resistance of cancer cells. Recent investigations demonstrate a link between cancer cell radio-resistance and activation of sphingosine kinase (SphK1), which plays a key role in the balance of lipid signaling molecules. Sphingosine kinase (SphK1) activity can alter the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/ceramide ratio leading to an imbalance in the sphingolipid rheostat. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a novel sphingosine analog and a potent immunosuppressive drug that acts as a SphK1 antagonist, inhibits the growth, and induces apoptosis in different human cancer cell lines. We sought to investigate the in vitro radiosensitizing effects of FTY720 on the MDA-MB-361 breast cancer cell line and to assess the effects elicited by radiation and FTY720 combined treatments. We found that FTY720 significantly increased anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects induced by a single dose of ionizing radiation while causing autophagosome accumulation. At the molecular level, FTY720 significantly potentiated radiation effects on perturbation of signaling pathways involved in regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, such as PI3K/AKT and MAPK. In conclusion, our data highlight a potent radiosensitizing effect of FTY720 on breast cancer cells and provide the basis of novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer treatment. PMID:24657936

  6. Biphasic dose-effect relationships in experimental studies of radiation cancer in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biphasic dose-effect relationships in radiation cancer are characterized by a decrease in cancer rate at low doses, a minimum and an increase at higher doses (inversion or radiation hormesis). A simple and argumentative methodology of proving such relationships is a model-free analysis which is based exclusively on the observed changes in cancer rate in dependence on dose without using special fitting functions. It is tested by means of well-known statistical tests whether the changes in cancer rate observed both in the low dose range and at higher doses are statistically significant. The model-free analysis of experimental results obtained in radiation cancer studies on RFM/Un-mice of both sexes and on female BC3F1-mice in the dose range 0.. 3 Gy by two independent research groups at Oak Ridge (ORNL) and at Casaccio near Rome leads for gamma radiation and X-rays to a statistically significant decrease of the cancer rate at low doses and therefore to biphasic relationships for tumors of the reticular tissue, for several solid tumors as well as for cancer as a whole. (orig.)

  7. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: "neoplasias/neoplasms" AND "radioterapia/radiotherapy" AND "radiação/radiation". After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: "Late endocrine effects" and "Late non-endocrine effects". Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  8. A-bomb radiation and evidence of late effects other than cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A M; Kneale, G W

    1990-06-01

    Cancer risk coefficients for ionizing radiation are currently based on the assumption that, after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were no late effects of early selection (survival of the fittest) or acute marrow damage. These negative findings were the result of applying a linear model of relative risk to the deaths of 5-y survivors. By applying a linear-quadratic model to these deaths (i.e., a model with more than one degree of freedom), we have obtained evidence of longstanding competition between selection effects of the early deaths and other radiation effects, and also evidence that late effects of radiation include marrow damage as well as cancer. Consequently, the present method of risk estimation--by linear extrapolation of high dose effects--should no longer be used for estimating the cancer effects of occupational exposures or background radiation. PMID:2345104

  9. Pooled Bayesian meta-analysis of two Polish studies on radiation-induced cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The robust Bayesian regression method was applied to perform meta-analysis of two independent studies on influence of low ionising radiation doses on the occurrence of fatal cancers. The re-analysed data come from occupational exposure analysis of nuclear workers in Swierk (Poland) and from ecological study of cancer risk from natural background radiation in Poland. Such two different types of data were analysed, and three popular models were tested: constant, linear and quadratic dose-response dependencies. The Bayesian model selection algorithm was used for all models. The Bayesian statistics clearly indicates that the popular linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is not valid for presented cancer risks in the range of low doses of ionising radiation. The subject of LNT hypothesis use in radiation risk prediction and assessment is also discussed. (authors)

  10. Multimodality Treatment for Patients with Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: the Role of Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Satoru; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yamashita, Yasufumi; Watanabe, Yui; Toyomasu, Yutaka; Kawamura, Tomoko; Takada, Akinori; Ii, Noriko; Sakuma, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the secondary most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world. Although numerous prospective randomized trial have been conducted to guide the management of patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, few clinical trials targeting node-positive prostate cancer have been reported. Therefore, there are still controversies in the optimal management of node-positive prostate cancer. Recently, efficacy of multimodality treatment, including radiation therapy (RT), for such patients has been reported in several articles. The results indicate potential benefit of RT both in adjuvant therapy after prostatectomy and in definitive therapy for node-positive prostate cancer. The aim in this article was to summarize the current evidence for RT and evaluate the role in multimodality treatment for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. PMID:27221830

  11. Radiation exposure and attributable cancer risk in former miners of the WISMUT uranium mining company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 about 5000 cases of lung cancer and nearly 1000 cases of extrapulmonary cancers among earlier workers in the WISMUT uranium facilities in East Germany have been submitted to the responsible German associations for the acknowledgement of occupational diseases and the compensation of workers. In the paper the general methods and models for the retrospective estimation of the radiation exposure of these workers and for the evaluation of the attributable cancer risk are shortly outlined. With respect to lung cancer among underground uranium miners the inhalation of the short-lived radon progenies is by far the most important exposure component. For the attributable risk of extrapulmonary cancers, however, in addition the inhalation of natural uranium included in ore dust particles has to be taken into account. The analysis indicates that under certain exposure conditions also leukemia, bone and liver cancer, as well as cancers in the oral cavity and larynx may be of some importance. (orig.)

  12. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. PMID:27106553

  13. Effects of dose, dose-rate and fraction on radiation-induced breast and lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from a large Canadian epidemiologic cohort study of low-LET radiation and cancer will be described. This is a study of 64,172 tuberculosis patients first treated in Canada between 1930 and 1952, of whom many received substantial doses to breast and lung tissue from repeated chest fluoroscopies. The mortality of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 has been determined by computerized record linkage to the National Mortality Data Base. There is a strong positive association between radiation and breast cancer risk among the females in the cohort, but in contrast very little evidence of any increased risk in lung cancer. The results of this and other studies suggest that the effect of dose-rate and/or fractionation on cancer risk may will differ depending upon the particular cancer being considered. (author)

  14. Very large amounts of radiation are needed to change cancer frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A marked radio-phobia or excessive fear of radiation exposure is shared by the general public. A major factor in this fear is that the perception that each and every radiation-induced ionization increases the risk for cancer, thus even the smallest radiation exposure needs to be avoided. It is important to realize that this is not the case. It requires very large amounts of radiation delivered to large populations to produce an increase in cancer frequency. This has been demonstrated in many in experimental systems, animal studies and in human populations. If either the population size or the dose is reduced it is not possible to detect an increase in cancer frequency. This paper deals with real radiation-induced increases in cancer frequency that are statistically significant, rather than in extrapolated or calculated small increases in radiation-induced risks using linear models. Further, it demonstrates that there are barriers below which increases in cancer cannot be detected. Finally, the manuscript helps explain that there are transitions in the mechanisms of biological action as a function of radiation dose with very different mechanisms being triggered at high and at low doses. These transitions suggest the need for paradigm shifts. Concepts such as hit theory, independence in individual cellular responses and single mutations being responsible for cancer need to be re-evaluated. New paradigms such as bystander effects, showing that the size of the responding target is much larger than the hit target, adaptive response demonstrating that cell/cell communication modifies individual cellular responses and genomic instability that is not dependent on radiation induced mutations in individual cells

  15. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  16. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  17. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  18. Mechanism of enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity by sorafenib in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorafenib, an orally available multikinase inhibitor, combined with radiation has shown potential as an anticancer treatment in an in vitro and in vivo colon cancer model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity by sorafenib in colorectal cancer. The effects of sorafenib on radiation-induced cytotoxicity of DLD-1 and HT-29 were evaluated via clonogenic assay. The impact of sorafenib on radiation-induced cell cycle kinetics and on apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry. Cyclin B1 was examined by western blot. As a measure of DNA damage after treatment, γ-H2AX foci and nuclear fragmentation were determined as a function of time after irradiation plus sorafenib combination. Tumor growth delay was used to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on in vivo radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure of each cell line to sorafenib combined with irradiation resulted in an increased radiation-induced cytotoxicity with dose enhancement factors at a surviving fraction of 0.37 ranging from 1.13 to 1.76. Sorafenib strengthened radiation-induced accumulation of tumor cells in the G2-M phase with attenuated expression of cyclin B1, but had no effect on radiation-induced apoptosis. Exposure to sorafenib and radiation resulted in a greater number of remaining γ-H2AX foci and fragmented nuclei than radiation alone. In vivo tumor xenograft study confirmed that administration of sorafenib results in significant tumor growth inhibition when combined with radiation. These results indicate that sorafenib enhances radiation-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer and suggest that the mechanism is associated with delaying repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and down-regulation of cyclin B1. (author)

  19. Estimation of baseline lifetime risk of developed cancer related to radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)

  20. Increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Second malignancies have been reported among patients who were treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone or in combination. Studies have implied an increased risk of breast cancer in women who received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This review was performed to determine if there is an association between splenectomy and subsequent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty-six female patients with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease were seen in the Division of Radiation Oncology between 1962 and 1985. All patients received mantle or mediastinal irradiation as part of their therapy. The risk of breast cancer was assessed and multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the following variables: patient age, stage, dose and extent of radiation field, time after completing radiation therapy, splenectomy, and chemotheraphy. Results: Breast cancer was observed in 11 of 74 splenectomized patients and in none of 62 patients not splenectomized. The mean follow-up was 13 years in splenectomized patients and 16 years, 7 months in nonsplenectomized patients. Nine patients developed invasive breast cancer and two developed ductal carcinoma in situ. Splenectomy was the only variable independently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.005) in multiple linear regression analysis; age, latency, and splenectomy considered together were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show an increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients who had treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A multiinstitutional survey may better define the influence of splenectomy relative to developing breast cancer in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. The risk of breast cancer should be considered when recommending staging laparotomy, and we recommend close follow-up examination including routine mammograms for female patients successfully treated for

  1. Low-level radiation improvement of health and therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awareness of current nuclear molecular biology is essential for world health and conservation of resources. A brief overview of current radiobiology and statistically significant supportive studies of human epidemiology and low-dose immunotherapy of cancer are presented. The genes in every cell continuously undergo an immense amount of metabolic damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is prevented, repaired and removed by a complex antimutagenic system. The UNSCEAR 1994 Report and recent studies provide extensive documentation of low-dose simulation of many cellular functions, including antioxidant prevention, enzymatic repair and apoptotic and immunologic removal of DNA damage. Our model of the homeostatic system that controls the enormous burden of relentless metabolic DNA damage, consistent with current published data, provides quantitative comparison of metabolic mutations and background radiation mutations. The quantitative damage produced by background radiation ROS is comparatively negligible and is controlled by the same antimutagenic system; a homeostatic system that is stimulated by a ten, or even a hundredfold increase in background radiation. This enhanced prevention of gene mutations by spatial and temporal differences of ionizing radiation ROS is associated with decreased mortality and decreased cancer mortality observed in populations exposed to low-dose radiation. The accumulation of mutations with aging gradually impairs DNA damage-control. This in turn increases the rate of accumulation that is associated with increased risk of cancer with the 3rd to the 5th power of age. Death from cancer at an early age is usually the result of severe genetic impairment of DNA damage-control. Similarly, high-dose, high dose rate radiation also increases the risk of cancer by exceeding the homeostatic capacity of the antimutagenic system. All epidemiologic surveys of populations with high background radiation in the United States, Brazil, China, India, and

  2. Four-Week Course of Radiation for Breast Cancer Using Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Standard radiation for early breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6 to 7 weeks. This is an inconvenience to many women, and for some a barrier for breast conservation. We present the acute toxicity of a 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 75 patients completed radiation on a Phase II trial approved by the hospital institutional review board. Eligibility criteria were broad to include any patient normally eligible for standard radiation: age ≥18 years, invasive or in situ cancer, American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage 0 to II, breast-conserving surgery, and any systemic therapy not given concurrently. The median age was 52 years (range, 31-81 years). Of the patients, 15% had ductal carcinoma in situ, 67% T1, and 19% T2; 71% were N0, 17% N1, and 12% NX. Chemotherapy was given before radiation in 44%. Using photon intensity-modulated radiation therapy and incorporated electron beam boost, the whole breast received 45 Gy and the lumpectomy bed 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Results: The maximum acute skin toxicity by the end of treatment was Grade 0 in 9 patients (12%), Grade 1 in 49 (65%) and Grade 2 in 17 (23%). There was no Grade 3 or higher skin toxicity. After radiation, all Grade 2 toxicity had resolved by 6 weeks. Hematologic toxicity was Grade 0 in most patients except for Grade 1 neutropenia in 2 patients, and Grade 1 anemia in 11 patients. There were no significant differences in baseline vs. 6-week posttreatment patient-reported or physician-reported cosmetic scores. Conclusions: This 4-week course of postoperative radiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy is feasible and is associated with acceptable acute skin toxicity and quality of life. Long-term follow-up data are needed. This radiation schedule may represent an alternative both to longer 6-week to 7-week standard whole-breast radiation and more radically shortened 1-week, partial-breast treatment schedules

  3. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  4. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011) was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care

  5. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  6. Radiation Recall Phenomenon Secondary to Bevacizumab in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction in an area that has been previously irradiated that is incited by a pharmacologic agent [1]. Reactions associated with gemcitabine include dermatitis, optic neuritis, brainstem radionecrosis, colitis, and lymphangitis [2, 3, 4]. In the treatment of pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine has been implicated in radiation recall manifested as myositis in two case reports [5, 6]. Gemcitabine linked radiation recall has also resulted in gastritis and duodenitis in a patient who presented with an upper GI bleed [7]. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thus inhibiting angiogenesis. There are no case reports of bevacizumab related radiation recall. In this report, we present a case of radiation recall of a patient with locally advanced pancreatic cancer on gemcitabine and bevacizumab combination therapy.

  7. Primary breast cancer: The experience of the joint center for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation therapy began to be administered in the treatment of breast cancer shortly after the discovery of X rays in 1895, the efficacious use of external beam radiation for early breast cancer required supervoltage radiation in order to get effective doses to the tumor, as well as the skin sparing, required for satisfactory cosmetic results. The use of interstitial radiation began shortly after the discovery of radium by the Curies. The first systematic report of such an approach was presented by Goeffrey Keynes, who reported equivalent results with radium implants as compared to those with mastectomy. These two techniques, supervoltage and interstitial radiation, have been used in the modern era of radiotherapy and reported by a number of centers, some of which are presented in this symposium

  8. CT appearance of radiation injury of the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT appearance of radiation injury to the lung and clinical symptoms after SRT (stereotactic radiation therapy) for small lung cancers. In this analysis, 35 patients with 39 primary or metastatic lung cancers were enrolled. The follow-up at the time of evaluation ranged from 6 to 44 months (median 18 months). SRT was performed by 3D conformal method which focuses a single high dose to the tumor. We evaluated the CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis (within 6 months) and radiation fibrosis (after 6 months) after SRT. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by CTCAE ver.3.0. CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis was classified as follows; 1) diffuse consolidation in 12 lesions (30.7%), 2) patchy consolidation and ground-grass opacities (GGO) in 6 lesions (15.4%), 3) diffuse GGO in 5 patients (12.8%), 4) patchy GGO in 1 lesion (2.6%), 5) no evidence of increasing density in 15 lesions (38.5%). CT appearance of radiation fibrosis was classified as follows; 1) modified conventional pattern (consolidation, volume loss and bronchiectasis similar to, but less extensive than conventional radiation fibrosis) in 18 lesions (46.2%), 2) mass-like pattern (focal consolidation limited around the tumor) in 10 lesions (25.6%), 3) scar-like pattern (linear opacity in the region of the tumor associated with volume loss) in 11 lesions (28.2%). Eleven of 15 lesions which had no evidence of increasing density of acute radiation pneumonitis progressed to scar-like pattern of radiation fibrosis. Most of these patients had pulmonary emphysema. Patients who were diagnosed more than Grade 2 pneumonitis were significantly more in diffuse consolidation pattern than in other pattern (p=0.00085). Patients who were diagnosed more than Grade 2 pneumonitis were significantly less in no evidence of increase density pattern than in other pattern (p=0.0026). CT appearance after SRT was classified into five patterns of acute radiation pneumonitis and

  9. Result of radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancers using partial attenuation filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Choi, Tae Jin [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    This study was to evaluate the survival and pattern of failure after radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancer using partial attenuation filer and wedged beams and to help radiotherapy planning of sino-nasal cancer. Between February 1992 and March 2003, 17 patients with sino-nasal cancers underwent radiation therapy using partial attenuation filter at Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung university. There were 9 male and 8 female patients. Patients' age ranged from 40 to 75 years (median 59 years). There were 10 patients of maxillary sinus cancer, 7 patients of nasal cancer. The histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 11, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 4 and olfactory neuroblastoma in 2. The distribution of clinical stage by the AJCC system was 3 for stage II, 7 for III and 6 for IV. The five patients were treated with radiation alone and 12 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 44 to 76 Gy (median 60 Gy). The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 173 months with median of 78 months. The overall 2 year survival rate and disease free survival rate was 76.4%. The 5 year and 10 year survival rate were 76.4% and 45.6% and the 5 year and 10 year disease free survival rate was 70.6%. The 5 year disease free survival rate by treatment modality was 91.6% for postoperative radiation group and 20% for radiation alone group, statistical significance was found by treatment modality ({rho} = 0.006). There were no differences in survival by pathology and stage. There were local failure in 5 patients (29%) but no distant failure and no severe complication required surgical intervention. Radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancer using partial attenuation filter was safe and effective. Combined modality with conservative surgery and radiation therapy was more advisable to achieve loco-regional control in sino-nasal cancer. Also we considered high precision radiation therapy with

  10. Statistical analyses of cancer mortality data of high background radiation areas of Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the methodology and results of the recent statistical analysis of cancer mortality data between 1970-1986 of high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong, China. This analysis emphases on the establishment of reasonable mathematical models, parameter estimation techniques and combined analysis of data collected in different survey periods. Dose-response analyses were carried out in more detail to detect radiation effects. Statistical estimation of the upper confidence bounds of hazardous effect of radiation is given in terms of the upper confidence limit of excess relative risk of all cancers and of leukemia. The analysis further confirms that there is no correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancers or from leukemia. Estimates of radiation induced cancer risk were made based on three mathematical models. Each model was designed for a specific subset of data which were collected differently in method or contain different information. The upper confidence limit of the excess relative risk was also estimated using the likelihood method. It is noted that the estimate of the upper bound of cancer risk is consistent with or similar to the result of occupational exposure and the risk extrapolated from the Japanese A-bomb study. Therefore, these results strengthen the conclusion that the estimates obtained through extrapolation from high dose data do not seriously underestimate the risk of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks

  11. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  12. Health benefits of solar UV-B radiation: cancer risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    2002-01-01

    Based on geographical distributions of various cancers in the U.S. and elsewhere, ecologic studies comparing these distributions to indices of solar radiation during the past 20 years have led to the understanding that solar UVB radiation is a risk reduction factor for breast, colon, ovarian, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Photo-initiated production of vitamin D is the mechanism that enables solar UVB to play this role. The work presented here explores the use of the USDA UVB Radiation Monitoring Program ground station values to confirm and extend the prior results, and compares these results to those obtained using UVB data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Inverse correlations between solar UVB radiation have been found for a total of 14 cancers using mortality data from the U.S. with these data sets, and are supported by additional studies using cancer mortality and dietary supply data from Europe. While vitamin D has been shown to be a risk reduction factor for several of these cancers, it is hoped that additional studies will be conducted to confirm or disprove the protective role of UVB and/or vitamin D for the remaining cancers.

  13. Studies of radiation effect on cancer metastasis. History and present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local control of cancers by radiotherapy has been greatly improved by its recent progress like heavy ion therapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy, but its outcome is not fully satisfactory because of metastasis, the concept proposed about 200 years ago, as one of death courses. From this aspect, here are described the mechanism of metastasis, radiation effect on it and its relation to hypoxic circumstance in cancers. The author explains the sequence of metastasis as those steps of cancer cell proliferation at the primary site, cellular release from there, intravasation to distribute in the blood, adhesion to vascular endotherial cells of an organ, cellular extravasation into that organ and growth there (metastasis), organ specificity and Seed/Soil theory, and cancer cells with accelerated metastatic activity in animal models. For radiation effect on metastasis, whether low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to the primary site affects the incidence of distant metastasis seems to be mostly dependent on the total dose. Authors observation is that lung metastasis is insignificant between mice gamma-ray irradiated at their tumor transplanted site (femur) at 0 and 10-20 Gy but significant in animals with higher dose. As for factors affecting metastasis, radiation effect is contradictory for cellular activities of migration and invasion, and for angiogenesis, seemingly depends on the dose and radio-sensitivity in cancer and endothelium cells. There are many reports that high LET radiation like carbon ion suppresses metastasis in animals even at the dose where low LET radiation often promotes it. It is suggestive that carbon ion suppresses macromolecules concerned to migration and invasion. Hypoxia occurring in cancer tissue is known to be related with patient's poor prognosis due to therapy resistance, local relapse and distant metastasis. Now that there are various radiotherapies greatly improving the local control of cancers, further studies on metastasis are

  14. Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range

  15. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5–7 years) and acute and late toxicity (cancer-specific mortality) cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm), and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway. PMID:27574585

  16. Foetal radiation dose in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of breast cancer during pregnancy is complicated by the high risks of abortion and foetal malformation from the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A case of breast cancer during pregnancy, treated with radiotherapy, and the estimated foetal dose is reported. 8 refs., 1 fig

  17. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  18. Technical factors associated with radiation pneumonitis after local ± regional radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of, and clinical factors associated with, symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after tangential breast/chest wall irradiation with or without regional lymph node treatment. Methods and Materials: The records of 613 patients irradiated with tangential photon fields for breast cancer with >6 months follow-up were reviewed. Clinically significant RP was defined as the presence of new pulmonary symptoms requiring steroids. Data on clinical factors previously reported to be associated with RP were collected, e.g., tamoxifen or chemotherapy exposure and age. The central lung distance (CLD) and the average of the superior and inferior mid lung distance (ALD) in the lateral tangential field were measured on simulator films as a surrogate for irradiated lung volume. Many patients were treated with partly wide tangential fields that included a heart block shielding a part of the lower lung. Results: RP developed in 15/613 (2.4%) patients. In the univariate analysis, there was an increased incidence of RP among patients treated with local-regional radiotherapy (RT) (4.1%) vs. those receiving local RT only (0.9%) (p=0.02), and among patients receiving chemotherapy (3.9%) vs. those not treated with chemotherapy (1.4%) (p=0.06). According to multivariate analysis, only the use of nodal RT remained independently associated with RP (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant association between ranked CLD or ALD measurements and RP among patients treated with nodal irradiation with tangential beams. However, there was a statistically nonsignificant trend for increasing rates of RP with grouped ALD values: below 2 cm (4% RP rate), between 2 and 3 cm (6%), and above 3 cm (14%). Conclusions: RP was an uncommon complication, both with local and local-regional RT. The addition of regional lymph node irradiation slightly increased the incidence of RP among patients treated with the partly wide tangential field technique. Concern for RP should

  19. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer; Radiochimiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire pour cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  20. Studies on the hazard of leukaemia and cancer in persons occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality rates of British radiologists in dependence of the duration of their radiation work are compared with the general mortality rate in England and Wales, the mortality rates of men of the social class 1 and the mortality rates of practicing physicians. It turns out that the mortality by malignant diseases (leukemia and cancer) of persons exposed to radiation at work in nuclear plants is not considerably higher than it is for comparable groups of persons not exposed to radiation. Tumour entities of the GI tract have not been found either in the British radiologists exposed to radiation. (DG)

  1. A case of leukoencephalopathy caused by radiation and chemotherapy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sonoo, Hiroshi; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Ohkubo, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Hiratsuka, Junichi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A case of treatment-related leukoencephalopathy is presented. A patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and distant lymph nodes was treated with whole brain radiation and docetaxcel. Eleven months after radiation, magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-two months after radiation, the patient had gait disturbance, parkinsonism, dementia and urinary incontinence. From this experience, stereotactic radiosurgery such as cyber knife and gamma knife therapy, representing a new modality for delivering intense focal radiation, should be come preferred techniques for treating patients with brain metastases, to avoid the potential cognitive side effects of fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. (author)

  2. A case of leukoencephalopathy caused by radiation and chemotherapy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of treatment-related leukoencephalopathy is presented. A patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and distant lymph nodes was treated with whole brain radiation and docetaxcel. Eleven months after radiation, magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-two months after radiation, the patient had gait disturbance, parkinsonism, dementia and urinary incontinence. From this experience, stereotactic radiosurgery such as cyber knife and gamma knife therapy, representing a new modality for delivering intense focal radiation, should be come preferred techniques for treating patients with brain metastases, to avoid the potential cognitive side effects of fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  4. Resistance of colorectal cancer cells to radiation and 5-FU is associated with MELK expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → MELK expression significantly increased when the cells are exposed to radiation or 5-FU. → Suppression of MELK caused cell cycle changes and decrease in proliferation. → Radiation or 5-FU treatment after MELK suppression by siRNA induced growth inhibition. -- Abstract: It was reported that the local recurrence would be caused by cancer stem cells acquiring chemo- and radio-resistance. Recently, one of the potential therapeutic targets for colorectal and other cancers has been identified, which is maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). MELK is known as an embryonic and neural stem cell marker, and associated with the cell survival, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, SNU-503, which is a rectal cancer cell line, was treated with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and elevation of the MELK expression level was observed. Furthermore, the cell line was pre-treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MELK mRNA before treatment of radiation or 5-FU and its effects on cell cycle and proliferation were observed. We demonstrated that knockdown of MELK reduced the proliferation of cells with radiation or 5-FU treatment. In addition, MELK suppression caused changes in cell cycle. In conclusion, MELK could be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cancer cells against radiation and 5-FU.

  5. Objective evaluation of the quality of voice following radiation therapy for T1 glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radiation therapy is commonly considered the treatment of choice for T1 glottic cancer. While it is generally believed that the quality of voice following irradiation is quite satisfactory, few studies have reported the results of objective assessment of voice after radiation therapy. Purpose: To objectively evaluate the quality of voice following radiation therapy for T1 glottic cancer. Materials and methods: The voices of 12 patients treated for T1 glottic cancer with radiation therapy were evaluated by acoustic analysis and speech aerodynamic studies. Eleven patients received between 6300 and 6665 cGy at a daily fraction size of 180-225 cGy. One patient received 7000 cGy at a daily fraction size of 200 cGy. Evaluation of the quality of voice was done 3 months to 7 years following completion of radiation therapy. Results: The number of patients who scored abnormal values for the measurements of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and harmonic to noise ratio was 2, 10, 4 and 3, respectively. The number of patients who scored abnormal values for transglottic airflow rate, subglottal pressure and glottal resistance was 12, 8 and 9, respectively. None of the studied patients scored normal values in all given tests. Conclusion: Although radiation therapy cures a high proportion of patients with T1 glottic cancer, the quality of voice does not return to normal following treatment

  6. A case of recurrent organizing pneumonia after radiation therapy for postoperative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with breast cancer who developed recurrent organizing pneumonia outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for postoperative breast cancer. The patient had received tangential radiation therapy and aromatase inhibitors for postoperative breast cancer. Chest computed tomography confirmed an irregular nodule and ground-glass opacities in the left lower lobe outside the radiation field 10 months after radiation therapy. The nodule demonstrated high uptake on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography; therefore, lung cancer could not be ruled out. We performed partial resection of the lung, and a diagnosis of organized pneumonia was made on histopathological examination of the resected specimen. Three days after surgery, a chest radiograph revealed an abnormal shadow in the right lower field. The possibility of organizing pneumonia was considered when pulmonary infiltrate did not respond to conventional antibiotic therapy and the patient recovered completely after treatment with steroids. Furthermore, chest CT performed 4 months after surgery revealed consolidation in the right lower lobe. Again, the patient recovered completely with steroid treatment, indicating the possibility of recurrent organizing pneumonia. The number of such reported cases has increased in recent years; however, the etiology remains unclear. In the case presented, aromatase inhibitor therapy combined with radiation therapy may have been the cause of the organizing pneumonia. (author)

  7. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: emerging cancer treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Hong; Ritter, M. A.; Tomé, W. A.; Harari, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is rapidly advancing in the field of radiation oncology. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy allows for improved dose conformality, thereby affording the potential to decrease the spectrum of normal tissue toxicities associated with IMRT. Preliminary results with IMRT are quite promising; however, the clinical data is relatively immature and overall patient numbers remain small. High-quality IMRT requires intensive physics support and ...

  8. Low-power laser irradiation did not stimulate breast cancer cells following ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Cabral, F. V.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Cancer has become a public health problem worldwide. Radiotherapy may be a treatment to a number of types of cancer, frequently using gamma-radiation with sources such as 137Cs and 60Co, with varying doses, dose rates, and exposure times to obtain a better as a stimulant for cell proliferation and tissue healing process. However, its effects on cancer cells are not yet well elucidated. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of the LPL on breast cancer cultures after ionizing radiation. The breast cancer-MDA-MB-231 cells were gamma irradiated by a 60Co source, with dose of 2.5 Gy. After 24h, cells were submitted to LPL irradiation using a red laser emitting at λ= 660 nm, with output power of 40 mW and exposure time of 30 s and 60 s. The plates were uniformly irradiated, with energy of 1.2 J and 2.4 J, respectively. Cell viability was analyzed using the exclusion method with trypan blue. Our results show that breast cancer cells submitted to LPL after ionizing radiation remained 95 % viable. No statistically significant differences were observed between laser and control untreated cells, (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that LPL did not influenced cancer cells viability.

  9. CD34-positive cell yield in peripheral blood of cancer patients during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating the feasibility of inducing CD34-positive cells in peripheral blood by radiation therapy, we examined the changes in CD34-positive cells in 21 cancer patients (16 with lung cancer and five with esophageal cancer) during thoracic radiotherapy using flow cytometry and CD34 monoclonal antibody. Although assays of granulocyte-colony-forming units (G-CFU) and granulocyte-monocyte-colony-forming units (GM-CFU) were also performed for 16 of the patients during radiation therapy, in most of these cases there was approximately one G-CFU or GM-CFU for every 100 CD34-positive cells. Seven of the 21 cancer patients showed percentages of CD34-positive cells of more than 3% (more than mean+2 S.D.; standard deviation) of mononuclear cells in peripheral blood in at least one of the examinations. However, six of these seven patients were in stage IV with distant metastases (four with lung cancer and two with esophageal cancer), and another lung cancer patient was in stage III. Therefore, CD-34 positive cells were shown to appear in peripheral blood especially in the patients with advanced stages of malignancy, and further examinations are needed to induce CD34-positive cells by radiation therapy for possible application of ultrahigh dose chemotherapy supported by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (author)

  10. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  11. Second primary malignant neoplasm following radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective analysis reports the results of radiotherapy in 8272 patients with cancer who were treated at Tokyo Women's Medical College between 1966 and 1984. One thousand one hundred and four cases were irradiated for head and neck tumor during this period. Twenty-nine of the total number of patients (0.35 %) were found to have second primary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy according to the criteria of radiation-induced or related cancers. Twenty of these were head and neck tumors with an incidence of 1.81 % among all head and neck cancer patients. If recurrence of highly suspected cases was excluded, the incidence of radiation-induced or -related cancer was 0.18 % among all malignancies and 0.63 % among all head and neck tumors. Cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasm have been increasing in number and second cancer following radiotherapy has gradually become a big problem. However, the mechanisms of cancer etiology on which radiation and many other factors have an influence are not clear at this time, as there are many risks to human life. It is important not to underestimate the value of radiotherapy in cancer treatment today. (author)

  12. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  13. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered

  14. Radiation dose and cancer risk among pediatric patients undergoing interventional neuroradiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During interventional neuroradiology procedures, patients can be exposed to moderate to high levels of radiation. Special considerations are required to protect children, who are generally more sensitive to the short- and long-term detrimental effects of radiation exposure. Estimates of dose to the skin of children from certain interventional procedures have been published elsewhere, but we are not aware of data on dose to the brain or on the long-term risk of cancer from brain radiation. Our goals were to estimate radiation doses to the brain in 50 pediatric patients who had undergone cerebral embolization and to assess their lifetime risks of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Entrance-peak skin dose and various assumptions on conditions of exposure were used as input for dosimetric calculations to estimate the spatial pattern of dose within the brain and the average dose to the whole brain for each child. The average dose and the age of the child at time of exposure were used to estimate the lifetime risk of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Among the 50 patients, average radiation doses to the brain were estimated to vary from 100 mGy to 1,300 mGy if exposed to non-collimated fields and from 20 mGy to 160 mGy for collimated, moving fields. The lifetime risk of developing brain cancer was estimated to be increased by 2% to 80% as a result of the exposure. Given the very small lifetime background risk of brain tumor, the excess number of cases will be small even though the relative increase might be as high as 80%. ALARA principles of collimation and dose optimization are the most effective means to minimize the risk of future radiation-related cancer. (orig.)

  15. What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a subsidiary of the Food and Drug Administration, has declared that X-ray radiation at low doses is a human carcinogen. The purpose of our study was to determine if informed consent should be obtained for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiation-based imaging. Institutional review board approval was obtained for the prospective survey of 456 physicians affiliated with three tertiary hospitals by means of a written questionnaire. Physicians were asked to state their subspecialty, number of years in practice, frequency of referral for CT scanning, level of awareness about the risk of radiation-induced cancer associated with CT, knowledge of whether such information is provided to patients undergoing CT, and opinions about the need for obtaining informed consent as well as who should provide information about the radiation-induced cancer risk to patients. Physicians were also asked to specify their preference among different formats of informed consent for communicating the potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. Most physicians stated that informed consent should be obtained from patients undergoing radiation-based imaging (71.3%, 325/456) and the radiology department should provide information about the risk of radiation-induced cancer to these patients (54.6%, 249/456). The informed consent format that most physicians agreed with included modifications to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services report on cancer risk from low-dose radiation (20.2%, 92/456) or included information on the risk of cancer from background radiation compared to that from low-dose radiation (39.5%, 180/456). Most physicians do not know if patients are informed about cancer risk from radiation-based imaging in their institutions. However, they believe that informed consent for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer

  16. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamrezaei, Ali, E-mail: Gholamrezaei@med.mui.ac.ir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursina Hakim Research Institution, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemati, Simin [Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted

  19. Evaluation of QOL in cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients is an important theme. However, we do not have an established method to assess QOL in cancer patients during radiotherapy in Japan. We evaluated both the changes of QOL and the factors affecting QOL in radiotherapy patients. Three hundred fifty-five cancer patients, who filled in a questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of radiotherapy between 1998 and 2001, were studied. We used The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs (QOL-ACD)'' devised by Kurihara et al, the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The QOL Questionnaire had five categories: physical activity, physical condition, mental state, social interaction, and face scale. The total score, sum of the score of five categories, were established synthetically (maximum score is 110). The mean of total QOL scores were 75.8, 77.6, and 78.2 at the beginning, middle, and end of radiotherapy respectively. Patients with symptoms related to cancer had apparent improvement of QOL score. Patients receiving chemotherapy had a decreased QOL score at the end of radiotherapy. The score of physical condition was reduced improvement. It was suggested that radiotherapy could be performed without losing QOL of cancer patients, including older patients. However, patients receiving chemotherapy and those with head and neck cancer may lose their QOL, therefore, we should treat such patients carefully. (author)

  20. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  1. A legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki : risk estimates for radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago ended the war in the Pacific and set the world agog at the prospect of new and frightening weapons for the future. Many residents of these cities, exposed to lesser than lethal amounts of radiation, survived to constitute the most remarkable radioepidemiological study of late radiation effects any of us could have imagined. These survivors and those relatively few among them who died of cancers attributable to radiation, provide us with our primary source of risk estimates for radiation induced cancer. As cancer is the principal low dose radiation effect these estimates are today at the core of our radiation protection system for workers and the public. In 1977 it was the risk estimates mainly from the LSS (Lifespan Study of the A-bomb survivors) estimated at about 1%/Sv that enabled ICRP to confirm the existing worker limit of 50mSv/y. In 1987, NCRP introduced a new and more restrictive occupational guideline because risk estimates from the LSS were known to be 'going up'. Continued surveillance of radioepidemiological studies and especially the LSS is a vital part of the scientific background of radiation protection. (author)

  2. Hypothyroidism following surgery and radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy in combination with surgery has an important role in the therapy of the head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study for patients with head and neck cancer treated with surgery and radiation to evaluate the effect of therapies on the thyroid gland, and to identify the factors that might influence the development of hypothyroidism. From September 1986 through December 1994, 71 patients with head and cancer treated with surgery and radiation were included in this prospective study. Patients' age ranged from 32 to 73 years with a median age of 58 years. There were 12 women and 59 men. Total laryngectomy with neck dissection was carried out in 45 patients and neck dissection alone in 26 patients. All patients were serially monitored for thyroid function before and after radiation therapy. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 40.6Gy to 60Gy with a median dose of 50Gy. The follow-up duration was 3 to 80 months. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 56.3% (40/71); 7 out of 71 patients (9.9%) developed clinical hypothyroidism and 33 patients (46.4%) developed subclinical hypothyroidism. No thyroid nodules, thyroid cancers, or hyperthyroidism was detected. The risk factor that significantly influenced the incidence of hypothyroidism was a combination of surgery (total laryngectomy with neck dissection) and radiation therapy (P=0.0000). Four of 26 patients (15.4%) with neck dissection alone developed hypothyroidism while 36 of 45 patients (80%) with laryngectomy and neck dissection developed hypothyroidism. The hypothyroidism following surgery and radiation therapy was a relatively common complication. The factor that significantly influenced the incidence of hypothyroidism was combination of surgery and radiation therapy. Evaluation of thyroid function before and after radiation therapy with periodic thyroid function tests is recommended for an early detection of hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone replacement therapy is

  3. Effects of radiation therapy on T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular immunity was assessed in 85 patients with head and neck cancer with monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens that identify total T cells, helper cells, and suppressor cells. The control group consisted of 22 healthy volunteers. Nine patients who had surgical procedures for benign diseases were also studied. Compared with the controls, the patients with cancer who received radiation therapy had a significant decrease in total lymphocytes, T cells, helper cells, suppressor cells, and decreased helper/suppressor cell ratio. Significant decreases in lymphocyte subpopulations were not detected in patients tested before treatment or in patients treated with surgery alone. The immune deficits observed were prolonged in duration, with some present in the patients studied up to 11 years after radiation therapy. This long-lasting immune depression may have relevance to tumor recurrences and second primaries in patients with head and neck cancer treated by radiation therapy and to attempts at increasing cure rates with adjuvant agents that improve immune reactivity

  4. High-dose preoperative radiation for cancer of the rectum: Impact of radiation dose on patterns of failure and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of dose-time schedules are currently used for preoperative radiation therapy of rectal cancer. An analysis of patients treated with high-dose preoperative radiation therapy was undertaken to determine the influence of radiation dose on the patterns of failure, survival, and complications. Two hundred seventy-five patients with localized rectal cancer were treated with high-dose preoperative radiation therapy. One hundred fifty-six patients received 45 Gy (low-dose group). Since 1985, 119 patients with clinically unfavorable cancers were given a higher dose, 55 Gy using a shrinking field technique (high-dose group). All patients underwent curative resection. Median follow-up was 66 months in the low-dose group and 28 months in the high-dose group. Patterns of failure, survival, and complications were analyzed as a function of radiation dose. Fourteen percent of the total group developed a local recurrence; 20% in the low-dose group as compared with 6% in the high-dose group. The actuarial local recurrence rate at 5 years was 20% for the low-dose group and 8% for the high-dose group, and approached statistical significance with p = .057. For tethered/fixed tumors the actuarial local recurrence rates at 5 years were 28% and 9%, respectively, with p = .05. Similarly, for low-lying tumors (less than 6 cm from the anorectal junction) the rates were 24% and 9%, respectively, with p = .04. The actuarial rate of distant metastasis was 28% in the low-dose group and 20% in the high-dose group and was not significantly different. Overall actuarial 5-year survival for the total group of patients was 66%. No significant difference in survival was observed between the two groups, despite the higher proportion of unfavorable cancers in the high-dose group. The incidence of complications was 2%, equally distributed between the two groups. High-dose preoperative radiation therapy for rectal cancer results in excellent local control rates. 27 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  5. The proportion of thyroid cancers in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors associated with natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalised absolute and relative risk models (with adjustment to the excess absolute risk for time since exposure and age at exposure, and with adjustment to the excess relative risk for age at exposure) are fitted to the Japanese atomic bomb survivor thyroid cancer incidence data followed up over the period 1958-87, taking account of natural background radiation. Thyroid cancers associated with natural background radiation and atomic bomb radiation are overwhelmingly accounted for by exposure at young ages. Over 50% of the excess cases associated with either the atomic bomb radiation or natural background radiation are linked to exposures under the age of 20, irrespective of the assumed risk model or natural background dose rate. The excess risk is overwhelmingly concentrated among females, again irrespective of the assumed model or natural background dose rate. Depending on the assumed natural background dose rate (in the range 0.5-2.0 mSv/year) between 17.3 and 32.0% of the thyroid cancer in this cohort may be associated with natural background radiation if an absolute risk model applies; between 4.2 and 17.1% of the thyroid cancers may be associated with natural background radiation if the relative risk model applies. The proportion of the thyroid tumours attributed to the atomic bomb radiation is between 21.1 and 22.0% for the absolute risk model, and is between 18.7 and 19.1% for the relative risk model, in both cases irrespective of the assumed background radiation dose. In particular, these proportions are not very different from the proportions calculated when fitting models that do not take account of natural background radiation, namely 22.0% for the absolute risk model and 18.6% for the relative risk model. The proportion of thyroid cancers accounted for by natural background radiation progressively increases with attained age, from 0.3% of cancers among those under the age of 15 to 30.5% for those over the age of 60, assuming that the absolute risk

  6. Psychology and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study is to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, psychology, self-esteem and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy and to provide useful information for therapeutic approach to cancer patients on radiation therapy. The subjects were 36 patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and 20 normal people. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics of cancer patients on radiation therapy were investigated, and symptom checklist-90-revised, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for self esteem, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument for quality of life were administered to subjects. And Spearman's correlation analysis was used among these. The tendency of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility in cancer group were significantly higher than normal group. Self esteem and quality of life in cancer group were significantly lower than normal group. No significant difference was found in comparison of psychology, self esteem and quality of life according to sociodemographic variables. Among clinical characteristics, in the presence of metastasis in cancer patients, the scores of anxiety, phobia and paranoid ideation were higher. In patients with pain, the score of somatization was higher. And in case of weight loss, the score of somatization was higher. The higher score of depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. And higher score of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Understanding and management of psychological symptoms, such as somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility, and pain control are necessary to improve quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

  7. Psychology and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Chung, Woong Ki [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The object of this study is to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, psychology, self-esteem and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy and to provide useful information for therapeutic approach to cancer patients on radiation therapy. The subjects were 36 patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and 20 normal people. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics of cancer patients on radiation therapy were investigated, and symptom checklist-90-revised, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for self esteem, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument for quality of life were administered to subjects. And Spearman's correlation analysis was used among these. The tendency of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility in cancer group were significantly higher than normal group. Self esteem and quality of life in cancer group were significantly lower than normal group. No significant difference was found in comparison of psychology, self esteem and quality of life according to sociodemographic variables. Among clinical characteristics, in the presence of metastasis in cancer patients, the scores of anxiety, phobia and paranoid ideation were higher. In patients with pain, the score of somatization was higher. And in case of weight loss, the score of somatization was higher. The higher score of depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. And higher score of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Understanding and management of psychological symptoms, such as somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility, and pain control are necessary to improve quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy.

  8. The role of IL-6 in the radiation response of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormone-resistant (HR) prostate cancers are highly aggressive and respond poorly to treatment. IL-6/STAT3 signaling has been identified to link with the transition of HR and aggressive tumor behavior. The role of IL-6 in the radiation response of prostate cancer was investigated in the present study. The murine prostate cancer cell line (TRAMP-C1) and the hormone-resistant cell sub-line, TRAMP-HR, were used to assess the radiation response using in vitro clonogenic assays and tumor growth delay in vivo. Biological changes following irradiation were investigated by means of experimental manipulation of IL-6 signaling. Correlations among IL-6 levels, tumor regrowth, angiogenesis and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment were examined in an animal model. HR prostate cancer cells had a higher expression of IL-6 and more activated STAT3, compared to TRAMP-C1 cells. HR prostate cancer cells had a greater capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species, suffered less apoptosis, and subsequently were more likely to survive after irradiation. Moreover, IL-6 expression was positively linked to irradiation and radiation resistance. IL-6 inhibition enhanced the radiation sensitivity of prostate cancer, which was associated with increased p53, RT-induced ROS and oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, when mice were irradiated with a sub-lethal dose, inhibition of IL-6 protein expression attenuated angiogenesis, MDSC recruitment, and decreased tumor regrowth. These data demonstrate that IL-6 is important in the biological sequelae following irradiation. Therefore, treatment with concurrent IL-6 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for increasing the radiation response of prostate cancer

  9. Cancer and non-cancer brain and eye effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picano Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to a fundamental law of radiobiology (“Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau”, 1906, the brain is a paradigm of a highly differentiated organ with low mitotic activity, and is thus radio-resistant. This assumption has been challenged by recent evidence discussed in the present review. Results Ionizing radiation is an established environmental cause of brain cancer. Although direct evidence is lacking in contemporary fluoroscopy due to obvious sample size limitation, limited follow-up time and lack of focused research, anecdotal reports of clusters have appeared in the literature, raising the suspicion that brain cancer may be a professional disease of interventional cardiologists. In addition, although terminally differentiated neurons have reduced or mild proliferative capacity, and are therefore not regarded as critical radiation targets, adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, and is important for mood, learning/memory and normal olfactory function, whose impairment is a recognized early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases. The head doses involved in radiotherapy are high, usually above 2 Sv, whereas the low-dose range of professional exposure typically involves lifetime cumulative whole-body exposure in the low-dose range of Conclusions At this point, a systematic assessment of brain (cancer and non-cancer effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure in interventional cardiologists and staff is needed.

  10. Radiation therapy for early glottic cancer (T1N0M0): II. Prospective randomized study concerning radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T.; Chatani, M.; Inoue, T. (Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    A prospective randomized study to determine the effect of radiation field on the local control of early glottic cancer was performed. From May 1982 through December 1985, a total of 87 patients with early glottic cancer (T1N0M0) were treated at our department with an individualized wedge filter technique using a shell to improve the dose distribution and immobilization during radiotherapy with 4 MV X ray. Patients were randomly allocated to either treatment group A (radiation field size: 5 x 5 cm2) or B (6 x 6 cm2) using bilateral parallel opposed portals. Total radiation dose administered was 60 Gy in 30 fractions over a 6-week period. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 93% in group A and 96% in group B (no significant difference). Comparison with historical control showed that both arms achieved better results. These results were mainly due to the improved local control of whole-length lesions of single vocal cords. Acute mucosal reaction (p less than 0.05) and persistent arytenoid edema lasting more than 6 months (p less than 0.02) were more frequently observed in group B than in group A. It is concluded that the critical factor in getting optimal results in the treatment of early glottic cancer is careful attention to the technique of treatment.

  11. Combination of aloe-emodin with radiation enhances radiation effects and improves differentiation in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghua; Yuan, Yong; Chang, Pengyu; Li, Dawei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qu, Yaqin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) on the radiosensitivity and differentiation of HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Cell proliferation was assessed in the HeLa cervical cancer cell line by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Radiosensitivity was determined by a colony‑forming assay. Flow cytometry was used for analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The expression of γ-H2AX and cyclin B was assessed by western blotting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by an ALP activity kit. It was demonstrated that AE inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, induced G2/M and S phase cell cycle arrest and enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combination of AE and radiation induced apoptosis, upregulated cyclin B and γ-H2AX expression and further improved ALP activity compared with treatment with AE or radiation alone. AE enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa human cervical cancer cells in vitro, inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and, in combination with radiation, induced the apoptosis and improved the differentiation of HeLa cells. PMID:24920336

  12. Treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Image Guided Radiation Therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose is to evaluate treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: descriptive cross sectional study on 45 head and neck cancer patients treated by IMRT-IGRT with curative intent at Department of Radiation Oncology, 108 Central Military Hospital from 12/2013 to 3/2015. Results: 100% IMRT plan underwent quality assurance with gamma index ≥ 95%. Mean conformity index of IMRT plans was 1.21 ± 0.13. Patient setup errors in supero-inferior (SI), antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) were ≤ 3 mm. Overall treatment complete response, partial response and stable disease rates were 75.6% and 15.6 % and 8.8%, respectively. There were 42.2 % patients with no xerostomia; 57.8% grade 1 and no grade 2 - 4 xerostomia. Conclusions: Head and neck cancers treatment with IMRT-IGRT showed good tumor response with safety, high accuracy and acceptable side effects. (author)

  13. The influence of radiation and non-radiation factors for lung cancer risk in workers of atomic plant Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All possible risk factors must be taken into account for the evaluation of radiation risk of human cancer because of the polyetiology of most types of tumors. Evaluation of such a 'confounding' factor as the smoking, that is a strong carcino agent, is very important for the hygienic reglementation of irradiation based on lung cancer risk. These circumstances are omitted usually in the epidemiologic investigations of occupational cohorts to be compared, because an exact estimation smoking factor is very difficult in a large cohort. On the other hand industry hygienists are of the opinion that the persons, working under bad conditions, s more than those in the general population. Only prospective (cohort) investigations are known for 239Pu incorporation and cancer, where the age are taken into account besides the level of irradiation effect. The use of the 'case-control' method broadens the investigation possibility and can give new results. (author)

  14. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Exosomes Derived from Squamous Head and Neck Cancer Promote Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Mutschelknaus; Carsten Peters; Klaudia Winkler; Ramesh Yentrapalli; Theresa Heider; Michael John Atkinson; Simone Moertl

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles that are believed to function as intercellular communicators. Here, we report that exosomes are able to modify the radiation response of the head and neck cancer cell lines BHY and FaDu. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned medium of irradiated as well as non-irradiated head and neck cancer cells by serial centrifugation. Quantification using NanoSight technology indicated an increased exosome release from irradiated compared to non-i...

  16. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. CB-07DISTINCT RADIATION RESPONSE OF SLOW-DIVIDING CANCER STEM CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Deleyrolle, Loic; Nabilsi, Nancy; Griffith, Benjamin; Pasternack, Nick; Dajac, Kyle; Patel, Jaimin; Rohaus, Mark; Harding, Angus; Kladde, Michael; Steindler, Dennis; Reynolds, Brent; Siebzehnrubl, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most frequent primary malignancy of the central nervous system, is almost universally fatal despite aggressive therapies, such as surgical resection, adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy, which remain largely palliative. With increasing evidence showing that glioblastoma cancer stem cells play an important role in tumor escape from conventional therapies and disease recurrence, the targeting of cancer stem cells with different therapeutic strategies provides new avenues of re...

  18. The risk of lymphedema after postoperative radiation therapy in endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Devarati; Catalano, Paul J.; Cimbak, Nicole; Damato, Antonio L; Muto, Michael G.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lower extremity lymphedema adversely affects quality of life by causing discomfort, impaired mobility and increased risk of infection. The goal of this study is to investigate factors that influence the likelihood of lymphedema in patients with endometrial cancer who undergo adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective chart review identified all stage I–III endometrial cancer patients who had a hysterectomy with or without complete staging lymphadenect...

  19. The risk of lymphedema after postoperative radiation therapy in endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Devarati; Catalano, Paul J.; Cimbak, Nicole; Damato, Antonio L; Muto, Michael G.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lower extremity lymphedema adversely affects quality of life by causing discomfort, impaired mobility and increased risk of infection. The goal of this study is to investigate factors that influence the likelihood of lymphedema in patients with endometrial cancer who undergo adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective chart review identified all stage I–III endometrial cancer patients who had a hysterectomy with or without complete staging lymphadenectom...

  20. Accelerated induction of skin cancers by ultraviolet radiation in hairless mice treated with immunosuppressive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased incidence of cancer is well recognized in organ transplant recipients treated with immunosuppressive agents. Skin cancers are the most common lesions encountered. To investigate a possible relationship between the immunosuppressive agents and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), several groups of hairless mice were treated with ultraviolet light, azathioprine, or prednisone, or the three in various combination. The two latter drugs are the immunosuppressive agents most frequently used in organ transplant recipients

  1. Accelerated induction of skin cancers by ultraviolet radiation in hairless mice treated with immunosuppressive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, F.C.; Loeffler, R.T.; Koranda, D.M.; Penn, I.

    1975-01-01

    An increased incidence of cancer is well recognized in organ transplant recipients treated with immunosuppressive agents. Skin cancers are the most common lesions encountered. To investigate a possible relationship between the immunosuppressive agents and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), several groups of hairless mice were treated with ultraviolet light, azathioprine, or prednisone, or the three in various combination. The two latter drugs are the immunosuppressive agents most frequently used in organ transplant recipients.

  2. Ionizing Particle Radiation as a Modulator of Endogenous Bone Marrow Cell Reprogramming: Implications for Hematological Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, Sujatha; Sharath P. Sasi; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Hirschi, Karen K.; Porada, Christopher D.; Matthew A. Coleman; Kenneth X Walsh; Yan, Xinhua; Goukassian, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation (IR), as in the case of astronauts exploring space or radiotherapy cancer patients, increases their risk of developing secondary cancers and other health-related problems. Bone marrow (BM), the site in the body where hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation to mature blood cells occurs, is extremely sensitive to low-dose IR, including irradiation by high-charge and high-energy particles. Low-dose IR induces DNA damage and per...

  3. Ionizing Particle Radiation as a Modulator of Endogenous Bone Marrow Cell Reprogramming: Implications for Hematological Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha eMuralidharan; Sharath ePankajavihar Sasi; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Hirschi, Karen K.; Porada, Christopher D.; Matthew A. Coleman; Kenneth X Walsh; Xinhua eYan; Goukassian, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation (IR), as in the case of astronauts exploring space or radiotherapy cancer patients, increases their risk of developing secondary cancers and other health-related problems. Bone marrow (BM), the site in the body where hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation to mature blood cells occurs, is extremely sensitive to low dose IR, including irradiation by high-charge and high-energy particles (HZE). Low dose IR induces DNA damage a...

  4. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  5. Research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation somatic effects II: non-cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic effects of radiation can be considered in two categories: low and high level effects. In the low level exposure region (defined here arbitrarily as a single dose of the order of 10 rads or less, or higher doses at very low dose rates), the only somatic effects other than cancer known definitely at present to have health significance are those on fertiltiy and on the developing individual from conception to near birth. Knowledge of these effects is inadequate at present, and the bulk of this report will be devoted to discussing the types of additional investigations required. With respect to non-cancer somatic effects of radiation at intermediate to high doses and dose rates, enough is known to describe in general the course of early (over the first days to perhaps six weeks) effects, following different doses of external radiation. In particular, the non-cancer late effects of intermediate to high doses of internal and external radiation need better definition. The distinction between non-cancer and cancer-related somatic effects is blurred, at least at high dose levels

  6. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Soto, Gissela; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto, E-mail: arojasmtz@gmail.com, E-mail: augusto.rojasm@uanl.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. (author)

  7. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. (author)

  8. Down-regulation of ATM Protein Sensitizes Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Radiation-induced Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Gueven, Nuri; Lavin, Martin; Leibel, Steven; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    Treatment with the protein kinase C activator 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate (TPA) enables radiation-resistant LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis, mediated via activation of the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid ceramide (Garzotto, M., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Liao, W. C., White-Jones, M., Huryk, R., Heston, D. W. W., Cardon-Cardo, C., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5194-5201). Here, we show t...

  9. Effect of cepharanthin to prevent radiation induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively examined the effect of Cepharanthin to prevent radiation xerostomia in 37 cases of head and neck cancer. In the Cepharanthin group, the degree of xerostomia was milder than in the non-Cepharanthin group in spite of higher normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and mean dose (MD) of parotid glands. In the non-Cepharanthin group, the degree of xerostomia was significantly correlated with NTCP and MD of parotid glands. MD of parotid glands and use of Cepharanthin were significantly related to more severe xerostomia by multivariate analysis with logistic r