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Sample records for antibody-mediated tumour protection

  1. Posttransplantation antibody mediated rejection: new insights into mechanism, treatment and protective strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO You-ying; CHEN Jiang-hua

    2011-01-01

    @@ Acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) is receiving more and more attention, which is mediated by different mechanisms from T cell mediated rejection, thereby requiring other approaches to prevention and treatment. Preexisting alloantibodies and pre-transplant sensitization are important risk factors for development of acute AMR early after renal transplantation.

  2. Investigation of anti-WI-1 adhesin antibody-mediated protection in experimental pulmonary blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, M; Klein, B S

    2000-05-01

    Infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis elicits strong antibody responses to the surface adhesin WI-1. The antibodies are directed chiefly against the adhesive domain, a 25-amino-acid repeat. Tandem-repeat-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were studied for their opsonic activity in vitro and their capacity to adoptively transfer protection in murine experimental blastomycosis. mAbs to WI-1 enhanced binding and entry of B. dermatitidis yeasts into J774. 16 cells but did not enhance killing or growth inhibition of the yeast. Passive transfer of 8 mAbs to WI-1 into 3 different inbred strains of mice also did not improve the course of experimental infection and sometimes worsened it. mu-deficient mice were more resistant to experimental blastomycosis than were intact littermates, and passive transfer of the mAbs into these mice did not protect them against experimental infection. Thus, antibody to WI-1 does not appear to improve the outcome of murine blastomycosis and may enhance the infection. PMID:10823774

  3. Differential effects of decoy receptor- and antibody-mediated tumour necrosis factor blockage on FoxP3 expression in responsive arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L Rebekka; Ryder, Lars P; Bartels, Else M; Woetmann, Anders; Madsen, Hans O; Ødum, Niels; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Ribel-Madsen, Søren; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify if anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs have effect on expression of three splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in blood CD4+ T cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with healthy controls. Forty-five rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF therapy were...

  4. A cationic lipid-formulated plasmid DNA vaccine confers sustained antibody-mediated protection against aerosolized anthrax spores

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanson, G; Whitlow, V.; Parker,S; Tonsky, K.; Rusalov, D.; Ferrari, M.; Lalor, P; Komai, M.; Mere, R.; Bell, M.; Brenneman, K; Mateczun, A.; Evans, T.; Kaslow, D.; Galloway, D

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccines provide an attractive technology platform against bioterrorism agents due to their safety record in humans and ease of construction, testing, and manufacture. We have designed monovalent and bivalent anthrax plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccines encoding genetically detoxified protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) proteins and tested their immunogenicity and ability to protect rabbits from an aerosolized inhalation spore challenge. Immune responses after two or three injections of...

  5. Development of an edema factor-mediated cAMP-induction bioassay for detecting antibody-mediated neutralization of anthrax protective antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuda, Jonathan F; Zhang, Linyi; Richards, Terri; Pham, Quyen; Zukauskas, David; Pierre, Jennifer L; Laird, Michael W; Askins, Janine; Choi, Gil H

    2005-03-01

    Intoxication of mammalian cells by Bacillus anthracis requires the coordinate activity of three distinct bacterial proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). Among these proteins, PA has become the major focus of work on monoclonal antibodies and vaccines designed to treat or prevent anthrax infection since neither EF nor LF is capable of inducing cellular toxicity in its absence. Here, we present the development of a sensitive, precise, and biologically relevant bioassay platform capable of quantifying antibody-mediated PA neutralization. This bioassay is based on the ability of PA to bind and shuttle EF, a bacterial adenylate cyclase, into mammalian cells leading to an increase in cAMP that can be quantified using a sensitive chemiluminescent ELISA. The results of this study indicate that the cAMP-induction assay possesses the necessary performance characteristics for use as both a potency-indicating release assay in a quality control setting and as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker for ensuring the continued bioactivity of therapeutic antibodies against PA during clinical trials. PMID:15847796

  6. Influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and the effects of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ann Foulds

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innate and adaptive immunity play important roles in the development and progression of cancer and it is becoming apparent that tumours can influence the induction of potentially protective responses in a number of ways. The prevalence of immunoregulatory T cell populations in the circulation and tumours of patients with cancer is increased, and the presence of these cells appears to present a major barrier to the induction of tumour immunity. One aspect of tumour-mediated immunoregulation which has received comparatively little attention is that which is directed towards natural killer (NK cells, although evidence that the phenotype and function of NK cell populations are modified in patients with cancer is accumulating.Although the precise mechanisms underlying these localised and systemic immunoregulatory effects remain unclear, tumour-derived factors appear, in part at least, to be involved. The effects could be manifested by an altered function and/or via an influence on the migratory properties of individual cell subsets. A better insight into endogenous immunoregulatory mechanisms and the capacity of tumours to modify the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells might assist the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches and improve the management of patients with cancer.This article reviews current knowledge relating to the influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and considers the potential influence that radiation-induced effects might have on the prevalence, phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells in patients with cancer.

  7. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunctio...

  8. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunction have been reported, and these demonstrate that antibodies can directly injure the allograft. However, the incidence and toll of antibody-mediated rejection are unknown because there is no widely accepted definition and some cases may be unrecognized. Clearly, humoral immunity has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:23002428

  9. Tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody protects against lethal meningococcaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, X; Mathison, J C; Wolfson, E; Koziol, J A; Ulevitch, R J; So, M

    1992-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to be the principal mediator of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced shock. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that TNF-alpha plays a beneficial role in controlling bacterial infections when multiplication of the microorganism is required to kill the host. Using an infant rat model of Neisseria meningitidis infection, we found that blood TNF-alpha concentration reaches a peak three hours after intraperitoneal injection of 3 x 10(6) bacteria. Thereafter, the level of TNF-alpha decreased and was undetectable six to eight hours after infection. A correlation was observed between the magnitude of initial TNF-alpha response and a fatal outcome. Pretreatment of the animals with polyclonal anti-TNF antiserum significantly reduced mortality relative to animals pretreated with control serum. However, pretreatment of animals with anti-TNF antibody did not alter the bacterial invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid. Injection of heat-killed bacteria did not cause death and induced lower TNF-alpha levels than the same number of live bacteria. This excludes the possibility that the role of TNF-alpha is to mediate a shock induced by the endotoxin component of the bacterial inoculum. These results indicate that TNF-alpha has a deleterious effect in this model of bacteraemia. Identification of the critical factors that determine the action of TNF-alpha during lethal bacteraemia will lead to a better understanding of these diseases and the development of appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:1552859

  10. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kapur

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Di

  11. The Proline-Rich Region of Pneumococcal Surface Proteins A and C Contains Surface-Accessible Epitopes Common to All Pneumococci and Elicits Antibody-Mediated Protection against Sepsis▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Calvin C; Coan, Patricia; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha; Benton, Kimberly A.; Briles, David E.; Hollingshead, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and PspC of Streptococcus pneumoniae are surface virulence proteins that interfere with complement deposition and elicit protective immune responses. The C-terminal halves of PspA and PspC have some structural similarity and contain highly cross-reactive proline-rich (PR) regions. In many PR regions of PspA and PspC, there exists an almost invariant nonproline block (NPB) of about 33 amino acids. Neither the PR regions nor their NPB exhibit the alpha-heli...

  12. Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Cai Liao; Elena Glinka; Jing-Bo Zhang; He-Ping Li; Zu-Quan Hu

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta aga...

  13. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, B.H.; Vidarsson, G.; Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Diagnostically, for HDFN laboratory tests are in place in order to predict risk for severe fetal RBC destruction and thereby initiate appropriate treatments. This test is sensitive, but has relativel...

  14. A game of numbers: the stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization of flavivirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The humoral response contributes to the protection against viral pathogens. Although antibodies have the potential to inhibit viral infections via several mechanisms, an ability to neutralize viruses directly may be particularly important. Neutralizing antibody titers are commonly used as predictors of protection from infection, especially in the context of vaccine responses and immunity. Despite the simplicity of the concept, how antibody binding results in virus inactivation is incompletely understood despite decades of research. Flaviviruses have been an attractive system in which to seek a structural and quantitative understanding of how antibody interactions with virions modulate infection because of the contribution of antibodies to both protection and pathogenesis. This review will present a stoichiometric model of antibody-mediated neutralization of flaviviruses and discuss how these concepts can inform the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:25595803

  15. Antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus: myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, José M; Galindo, Inmaculada; Alonso, Covadonga

    2013-04-01

    Almost all viruses can be neutralized by antibodies. However, there is some controversy about antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) with sera from convalescent pigs and about the protective relevance of antibodies in experimentally vaccinated pigs. At present, there is no vaccine available for this highly lethal and economically relevant virus and all classical attempts to generate a vaccine have been unsuccessful. This failure has been attributed, in part, to what many authors describe as the absence of neutralizing antibodies. The findings of some studies clearly contradict the paradigm of the impossibility to neutralize ASFV by means of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. This review discusses scientific evidence of these types of antibodies in convalescent and experimentally immunized animals, the nature of their specificity, the neutralization-mediated mechanisms demonstrated, and the potential relevance of antibodies in protection. PMID:23159730

  16. Treatment Options and Strategies for Antibody Mediated Rejection after Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Matthew H.; Abt, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    Antibody mediated rejection is a significant clinical problem encountered in a subset of renal transplant recipients. This type of rejection has a variable pathogenesis from the presence of donor specific antibodies with no overt disease to immediate hyperacute rejection and many variations between. Antibody mediated rejection is more common in human leukocyte antigen sensitized patients. In general, transplant graft survival after antibody mediated rejection is jeopardized, with less than 50...

  17. Chronic Renal Allograft Dysfunction Antibody-Mediated: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Salvadori,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most important studies on chronic antibody-mediated rejection (cABMR, which is an important cause of late graft dysfunction after renal transplantation. Several antibodies seem to be responsible for chronic rejection; new techniques have allowed us to identify these antibodies in circulation. The pathogenetic role of the antibodies generally includes the complement pathway, but may also be complement-independent. This paper also examines the pathogenesis of chronic endothelial lesions, as well as the histopathological aspects. Antibodies responsible for chronic rejection may preexist before transplantation or may develop after transplantation. The possible therapeutic approaches are poor and principally based on early identification and desensitisation techniques. New B cell targeting drugs are aimed at an improved control of the relevant condition.

  18. Treatment of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Durlik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a relatively rare but severe complication in kidney transplantation associated with increased risk of graft loss. Diagnosis of acute and chronic AMR is based on typical histological hallmarks, deposition of C4d in peritubular capillaries and presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA. Many novel and attractive treatment options have become available in recent years: antibody removal and production inhibition (plasmapheresis, IVIg, B cell depletion (rituximab, plasma cell depletion and apoptosis (bortezomib, and complement activation inhibition (eculizumab. Standard therapy is based on PP and IVIg. Preliminary results with new agents are encouraging but require randomised clinical trials and long-term follow-up.

  19. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  20. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  1. Tumours and tumourous diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke)

  2. Decreased chronic cellular and antibody-mediated injury in the kidney following simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Timucin; Heimbach, Julie K; Rosen, Charles B; Nyberg, Scott L; Park, Walter D; Stegall, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK), the liver can protect the kidney from hyperacute rejection and may also decrease acute cellular rejection rates. Whether the liver protects against chronic injury is unknown. To answer this we studied renal allograft surveillance biopsies in 68 consecutive SLK recipients (14 with donor-specific alloantibodies at transplantation [DSA+], 54 with low or no DSA, [DSA-]). These were compared with biopsies of a matched cohort of kidney transplant alone (KTA) recipients (28 DSA+, 108 DSA-). Overall 5-year patient and graft survival was not different: 93.8% and 91.2% in SLK, and 91.9% and 77.1% in KTA. In DSA+ recipients, KTA had a significantly higher incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (46.4% vs. 7.1%) and chronic transplant glomerulopathy (53.6% vs. 0%). In DSA- recipients at 5 years, KTA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of T cell-mediated rejection (clinical plus subclinical, 30.6% vs. 7.4%). By 5 years, DSA+ KTA had a 44% decline in mean GFR while DSA+SLK had stable GFR. In DSA- KTA, the incidence of a combined endpoint of renal allograft loss or over a 50% decline in GFR was significantly higher (20.4% vs. 7.4%). Simultaneously transplanted liver allograft was the most predictive factor for a significantly lower incidence of cellular (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.27) and antibody-mediated injury (odds ratio 0.11, confidence interval 0.03-0.32), as well as graft functional decline (odds ratio 0.22, confidence interval 0.06-0.59). Thus, SLK is associated with reduced chronic cellular and antibody-mediated alloimmune injury in the kidney allograft. PMID:26924059

  3. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Pathogenesis, Prevention, Treatment, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Blume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a major cause of late kidney transplant failure. It is important to have an understanding of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA typing including well-designed studies to determine anti-MHC-class-I-related chain A (MICA and antibody rejection pathogenesis. This can allow for more specific diagnosis and treatment which may improve long-term graft function. HLA-specific antibody detection prior to transplantation allows one to help determine the risk for AMR while detection of DSA along with a biopsy confirms it. It is now appreciated that biopsy for AMR does not have to include diffuse C4d, but does require a closer look at peritubular capillary microvasculature. Although plasmapheresis (PP is effective in removing alloantibodies (DSAs from the circulation, rebound synthesis of alloantibodies can occur. Splenectomy is used in desensitization protocols for ABO incompatible transplants as well as being found to treat AMR refractory to conventional treatment. Also used are agents targeted for plasma cells, B cells, and the complement cascade which are bortezomib rituximab and eculizumab, respectively.

  4. Recombinant Kunjin virus replicon vaccines induce protective T-cell immunity against human papillomavirus 16 E7-expressing tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of the E7 oncoprotein in transformed cells in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer provides a tumour-specific antigen to which immunotherapeutic strategies may be directed. Self-replicating RNA (replicon) vaccine vectors derived from the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) have recently been reported to induce T-cell immunity. Here, we report that inclusion of a CTL epitope of HPV16 E7 protein into a polyepitope encoded by a KUN vector induced E7-directed T-cell responses and protected mice against challenge with an E7-expressing epithelial tumour. We found replicon RNA packaged into virus-like particles to be more effective than naked replicon RNA or plasmid DNA constructed to allow replicon RNA transcription in vivo. Protective immunity was induced although the E7 CTL epitope was subdominant in the context of other CTL epitopes in the polyepitope. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the KUN replicon vector system for inducing protective immunity directed towards a virally encoded human tumour-specific antigen, and for inducing multi-epitopic CTL responses

  5. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  6. Pathogenesis of non-antibody mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anna L; van Hezel, Maike E; Juffermans, Nicole P; Vlaar, Alexander P J

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major cause of transfusion-related mortality. Causative factors are divided in antibody mediated TRALI and non-antibody mediated TRALI. Antibody mediated TRALI is caused by passive transfusion of cognate antibodies and non-antibody mediated TRALI is caused by transfusion of aged cellular blood products. This review focuses on mechanisms in non-antibody mediated TRALI which includes soluble mediators accumulating during storage of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets (PLTs), as well as changes in morphology and function of aged PLTs and RBCs. These mediators cause TRALI in two-hit animal models and have been implicated in TRALI onset in clinical studies. Pre-clinical studies show a clear relation between TRALI and increased storage time of cellular blood products. Observational clinical studies however report conflicting data. Knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of TRALI is necessary to improve storage conditions of blood products, develop prevention strategies and develop a therapy for TRALI. PMID:25277811

  7. Feasibility of temporary protective embolization of normal liver tissue using degradable starch microspheres during radioembolization of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a new approach to protect nontarget healthy liver tissue using degradable starch microspheres (DSM) as a short-term embolizate during radioembolization of liver tumours with 90Y microspheres. Between December 2011 and July 2012 radioembolization was performed in 54 patients. Five of these patients (three women, two men; mean age 67 years) underwent protective temporary embolization using DSM (EmboCept registered S) of normal liver tissue that could not be excluded from the area treated by radioembolization through catheter repositioning. Clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, preinterventional imaging, and 99mTc-MAA and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, as well as baseline and follow-up imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI, were evaluated in relation to the technical and clinical success of the protective embolization. Temporary embolization of arteries supplying normal liver tissue using DSM was technically successful in all five patients. 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT performed in the first two patients after DSM injection showed no increased pulmonary shunting compared to the MAA test injection without DSM. Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT after radioembolization demonstrated satisfactory irradiation of the tumour and successful protection of normal liver tissue. There were only mild hepatotoxic effects (grade 1) on laboratory follow-up examinations, and no adverse events associated with DSM embolization or radioembolization were recorded. Temporary embolization with DSM before radioembolization is feasible and can effectively protect areas of normal liver tissue from irradiation and avoid permanent embolization if other methods such as catheter repositioning are not possible due to the location of the metastases. (orig.)

  8. Long-term experience of plasmapheresis in antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, C M

    2009-11-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to pose a serious challenge in renal transplantation with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options for this condition include plasmapheresis, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis with low-dose IVIG, and the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody). We previously reported on the short-term outcome of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for AMR in our centre. We now report on the long-term follow up.

  9. Coincidence of cellular and antibody mediated rejection in heart transplant recipients – preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Nożyński, Jerzy; Konecka-Mrówka, Dominika; Babińska, Agnieszka; Flak, Bożena; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) can significantly influence the results of orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). However, AMR and cellular rejection (CR) coexistence is poorly described. Therefore we performed a prospective pilot study to assess AMR/CR concomitance in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) obtained electively in 27 OHT recipients (21 M/6 F, 45.4 ± 14.4 y/o). Biopsy samples were paraffin embedded and processed typically with hematoxylin/eosin staining to assess CR, and, if a suffi...

  10. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Kidney after Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Julio; Samaniego, Milagros D.; Torrealba, José R.; Odorico, Jon S.; Djamali, Arjang; Becker, Yolanda T.; Voss, Barbara; Leverson, Glen E.; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Sollinger, Hans W.; Pirsch, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the kidney after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation are unknown. In 136 simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients who were followed for an average of 3.1 yr, 21 episodes of AMR of the kidney allograft were identified. Eight episodes occurred early (≤90 d) after transplantation, and 13 occurred later. Histologic evidence of concomitant acute cellular rejection was noted in 12 cases; the other nine had evi...

  11. Recombinant HPV16 E7 assembled into particles induces an immune response and specific tumour protection administered without adjuvant in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Colomba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HPV16 E7 protein is both a tumour-specific and a tumour-rejection antigen, the ideal target for developing therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of HPV16-associated cancer and its precursor lesions. E7, which plays a key role in virus-associated carcinogenesis, contains 98 amino acids and has two finger-type structures which bind a Zn++ ion. The ability of an Escherichia coli-produced E7-preparation, assembled into particles, to induce protective immunity against a HPV16-related tumour in the TC-1-C57BL/6 mouse tumour model, was evaluated. Methods E7 was expressed in E. coli, purified via a one-step denaturing protocol and prepared as a soluble suspension state after dialysis in native buffer. The presence in the E7 preparation of particulate forms was analysed by non-reducing SDS-PAGE and negative staining electron microscopy (EM. The Zn++ ion content was analysed by mass-spectrometry. Ten μg of protein per mouse was administered to groups of animals, once, twice or three times without adjuvant. The E7-specific humoral response was monitored in mice sera using an E7-based ELISA while the cell-mediated immune response was analysed in mice splenocytes with lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays. The E7 immunized mice were challenged with TC-1 tumour cells and the tumour growth monitored for two months. Results In western blot analysis E7 appears in multimers and high molecular mass oligomers. The EM micrographs show the protein dispersed as aggregates of different shape and size. The protein appears clustered in micro-, nano-aggregates, and structured particles. Mice immunised with this protein preparation show a significant E7-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response of mixed Th1/Th2 type. The mice are fully protected from the tumour growth after vaccination with three E7-doses of 10 μg without any added adjuvant. Conclusions This report shows that a particulate form of HPV16 E7 is able to induce

  12. Low-Dose Rituximab Therapy for Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Highly Sensitized Heart-Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Ashim; Pyle, Joseph; Hamilton, John; Bhat, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection is the B-cell–mediated production of immunoglobulin G antibody against the transplanted heart. The currently available therapies for antibody-mediated rejection have had marginal success, and chronic manifestations of rejection can result in an increased risk of graft vasculopathy and perhaps require repeat transplantation. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 receptor of B-lymphocytes and approved as therapy for lymphoma, can be used in heart...

  13. C-reactive protein enhances murine antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Shanmugabhavananthan, Shanjeevan; Liu, Jonathan; Li, Yuan; Semple, John W

    2015-12-17

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a syndrome of respiratory distress triggered by blood transfusions and is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. TRALI has primarily been attributed to passive infusion of HLA and/or human neutrophil antigen antibodies present in transfused blood products, and predisposing factors such as inflammation are known to be important for TRALI initiation. Because the acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is highly upregulated during infections and inflammation and can also enhance antibody-mediated responses such as in vitro phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and in vivo thrombocytopenia, we investigated whether CRP affects murine antibody-mediated TRALI induced by the anti-major histocompatibility complex antibody 34-1-2s. We found that BALB/c mice injected with 34-1-2s or CRP alone were resistant to TRALI, however mice injected with 34-1-2s together with CRP had significantly enhanced lung damage and pulmonary edema. Mechanistically, 34-1-2s injection with CRP resulted in a significant synergistic increase in plasma levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, murine MIP-2 is the functional homolog of human interleukin-8, a known risk factor for human TRALI. These results suggest that elevated in vivo CRP levels, like those observed during infections, may significantly predispose recipients to antibody-mediated TRALI reactions and support the notion that modulating CRP levels is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce TRALI severity. PMID:26453659

  14. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital and in centers worldwide. ABO antibodies result from contact with A- and B-like antigens in the intestines via nutrients and bacteria. We demonstrate a patient with fulminant antibody-mediated rejection late after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, whose anti-A antibody titers rose dramatically following Serratia marcescens sepsis. Case presentation A 58-year-old woman underwent an ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation for end-stage renal disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. It concerned a blood group A1 to O donation. Pre-desensitization titers were 64 for anti-blood group A IgM and 32 for anti-blood group A IgG titers. Desensitization treatment consisted of rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulines. She was readmitted to our hospital 11 weeks after transplantation for S. marcescens urosepsis. Her anti-A IgM titer rose to >5000 and she developed a fulminant antibody-mediated rejection. We hypothesized that the (overwhelming) presence in the blood of S. marcescens stimulated anti-A antibody formation, as S. marcescens might share epitopes with blood group A antigen. Unfortunately we could not demonstrate interaction between blood group A and S. marcescens in incubation experiments. Conclusion Two features of this post-transplant course are remarkably different from other reports of acute rejection in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: first, the late occurrence 12 weeks after kidney transplantation and second, the very high anti-A IgM titers (>5000), suggesting recent boosting of anti-A antibody formation by S. marcescens. PMID:24517251

  15. CHALLENGES IN TREATMENT OF RENAL GRAFT ACUTE ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of kidney allograft remain controversial. We report the case of early severe AMR after primary kidney transplantation. The graft removal was considered in the absence of treatment efficacy and in the presence of systemic infl ammatory response syndrome. However, at surgery the graft looked normal and it was not removed. The repeated treatment course (plasmapheresis, antithymocyte globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab was effective. The patient has good and stable graft function in 1 year after transplantation. 

  16. Low-Dose Rituximab Therapy for Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Highly Sensitized Heart-Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashim; Pyle, Joseph; Hamilton, John; Bhat, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection is the B-cell–mediated production of immunoglobulin G antibody against the transplanted heart. The currently available therapies for antibody-mediated rejection have had marginal success, and chronic manifestations of rejection can result in an increased risk of graft vasculopathy and perhaps require repeat transplantation. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 receptor of B-lymphocytes and approved as therapy for lymphoma, can be used in heart-transplant patients for the management of antibody-mediated rejection. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with high allosensitization (pre-transplantation panel reactive antibody level, 72%) who underwent successful orthotopic heart transplantation. Postoperatively, her acute antibody-mediated rejection with concomitant cellular rejection was successfully treated with low-dose rituximab. The patient died 5 months later because of multiple other medical problems. The present case suggests a role for low-dose rituximab as therapy for antibody-mediated rejection in heart-transplant patients. PMID:23304051

  17. Iron as the Key Modulator of Hepcidin Expression in Erythroid Antibody-Mediated Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythroid hypoplasia (EH is a rare complication associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO therapies, due to development of anti-rHuEPO antibodies; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly clarified. Our aim was to manage a rat model of antibody-mediated EH induced by rHuEPO and study the impact on iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Wistar rats treated during 9 weeks with a high rHuEPO dose (200 IU developed EH, as shown by anemia, reduced erythroblasts, reticulocytopenia, and plasmatic anti-rHuEPO antibodies. Serum iron was increased and associated with mRNA overexpression of hepatic hepcidin and other iron regulatory mediators and downregulation of matriptase-2; overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin was observed in duodenum and liver. Decreased EPO expression was observed in kidney and liver, while EPO receptor was overexpressed in liver. Endogenous EPO levels were normal, suggesting that anti-rHuEPO antibodies blunted EPO function. Our results suggest that anti-rHuEPO antibodies inhibit erythropoiesis causing anemia. This leads to a serum iron increase, which seems to stimulate hepcidin expression despite no evidence of inflammation, thus suggesting iron as the key modulator of hepcidin synthesis. These findings might contribute to improving new therapeutic strategies against rHuEPO resistance and/or development of antibody-mediated EH in patients under rHuEPO therapy.

  18. Increasing the sensitivity of reverse phase protein arrays by antibody-mediated signal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brase Jan C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA emerged as a useful experimental platform to analyze biological samples in a high-throughput format. Different signal detection methods have been described to generate a quantitative readout on RPPA including the use of fluorescently labeled antibodies. Increasing the sensitivity of RPPA approaches is important since many signaling proteins or posttranslational modifications are present at a low level. Results A new antibody-mediated signal amplification (AMSA strategy relying on sequential incubation steps with fluorescently-labeled secondary antibodies reactive against each other is introduced here. The signal quantification is performed in the near-infrared range. The RPPA-based analysis of 14 endogenous proteins in seven different cell lines demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.89 between AMSA and standard NIR detection. Probing serial dilutions of human cancer cell lines with different primary antibodies demonstrated that the new amplification approach improved the limit of detection especially for low abundant target proteins. Conclusions Antibody-mediated signal amplification is a convenient and cost-effective approach for the robust and specific quantification of low abundant proteins on RPPAs. Contrasting other amplification approaches it allows target protein detection over a large linear range.

  19. Mechanistic studies of antibody mediated clearance of tau aggregates using an ex vivo brain slice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan eKrishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that immunotherapy clears amyloid beta (A plaques and reduces A levels in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, as well as in AD patients. Tangle pathology is also relevant for the neurodegeneration in AD, and our studies have shown that active immunization with an AD related phospho-tau peptide reduces aggregated tau within the brain and slows the progression of tauopathy-induced behavioural impairments. Thus, clearance of neurofibrillary tangles and/or their precursors may reduce synaptic and neuronal loss associated with AD and other tauopathies. So far the mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated clearance of tau pathology are yet to be elucidated. In this study we have used a mouse brain slice model to examine the uptake and localization of FITC labeled anti-tau antibodies. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the FITC labelled anti-tau antibody co-stained with phosphorylated tau, had a perinuclear appearance and co-localised with markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Additionally, tau and FITC IgG were found together in an enriched lysosome fraction. In summary, antibody-mediated clearance of intracellular tau aggregates appears to occur via the lysosomal pathway.

  20. Antibody-mediated rejection: Importance of lactate dehydrogenase and neutrophilia in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqi Toufeeq Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the importance of elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and neutrophilia (NT in two renal transplant recipients who developed renal impairment in the early post-operative period. One of our recipients developed oliguria and increased serum creatinine with unexplained elevation of LDH and NT. The biopsy was C4d positive with platelet and fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and arterioles and interpreted as acute vasculitis or thrombotic form of antibody-mediated rejection (VAMR with positive donor-specific antibodies (DSA. Despite intensive treatment, this graft was lost. When another patient developed a similar picture, prompt immunoadsorption was started without waiting for a confirmatory biopsy or DSA, and both were later reported as positive. Improvement in renal function was associated with decreasing levels of LDH and NT. Neither of these was elevated in cases of acute cellular rejection (ACR or antibody mediated rejection (AMR with isolated tubular injury (TAMR. It may therefore be reasonable to assume that LDH and NT are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of VAMR.

  1. Protective activity of butyrate on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in isolated human colonocytes and HT29 tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosignoli, P; Fabiani, R; De Bartolomeo, A; Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Pelli, M A; Morozzi, G

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiological studies support the involvement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in colon physiology and the protective role of butyrate on colon carcinogenesis. Among the possible mechanisms by which butyrate may exert its anti-carcinogenicity an antioxidant activity has been recently suggested. We investigated the effects of butyrate and mixtures of SCFA (butyrate, propionate and acetate) on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in isolated human colonocytes and in two human colon tumour cell lines (HT29 and HT29 19A). Human colonocytes were isolated from endoscopically obtained samples and the DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage in normal colonocytes in a dose-dependent manner which was statistically significant at concentrations over 10 microM. At 15 microM H(2)O(2) DNA damage in HT29 and HT29 19A cells was significantly lower than that observed in normal colonocytes (P < 0.01). Pre-incubation of the cells with physiological concentrations of butyrate (6.25 and 12.5 mM) reduced H(2)O(2) (15 microM) induced damage by 33 and 51% in human colonocytes, 45 and 75% in HT29 and 30 and 80% in HT29 19A, respectively. Treatment of cells with a mixture of 25 mM acetate + 10.4 mM propionate + 6.25 mM butyrate did not induce DNA damage, while a mixture of 50 mM acetate + 20.8 mM propionate + 12.5 mM butyrate was weakly genotoxic only towards normal colonocytes. However, both mixtures were able to reduce the H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by about 50% in all cell types. The reported protective effect of butyrate might be important in pathogenetic mechanisms mediated by reactive oxygen species, and aids understanding of the apparent protection toward colorectal cancer exerted by dietary fibres, which enhance the butyrate bioavailability in the colonic mucosa. PMID:11577008

  2. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation treated successfully with antigen-specific immunoadsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Marcussen, Niels; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Bistrup, Claus

    2010-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody-mediated reje...... that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation complicated by acute antibody-mediated rejection, caused by ABO antibodies, may successfully be treated with this regime.......ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody......-mediated rejection (Banff grade II with IgG deposits) caused by ABO antibodies (anti-B). Anti-rejection treatment with anti-B-specific immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone efficiently cleared deposited IgG from the kidney allograft and re-established normal kidney function. We suggest...

  3. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after AB0-incomptible kidney transplantation treated successfully with antigen-specific immunoadsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Marcussen, Niels; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille Bundgaard; Bistrup, Claus

    2009-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody-mediated reje...... that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation complicated by acute antibody-mediated rejection, caused by ABO antibodies, may successfully be treated with this regime.......ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody......-mediated rejection (Banff grade II with IgG deposits) caused by ABO antibodies (anti-B). Anti-rejection treatment with anti-B-specific immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone efficiently cleared deposited IgG from the kidney allograft and re-established normal kidney function. We suggest...

  4. INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN ADMINISTRATION FOR DESENSITIZATION BEFORE RENAL TRANSPLANTATION AND MANAGING ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been placed recently in transplantation in highly HLA-sensitized patients. In attempts to remove these antibodies and enable successful renal transplantation, several approaches have been developed. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG was found to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders (e. g. Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Recently, a beneficial effect of IVIG on the reduc- tion of anti-HLA antibodies was described. The anti-inflammatory effect of IVIG provides hopeful opportunities in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR management. There are several protocols of IVIG administration for pre-transplant desensitization and AMR treatment: high-dose IVIG, low-dose IVIG + plasmapheresis, IVIG + plasmapheresis + rituximab. These advancements have enabled transplantation in patients previously considered untransplantable and in concert with new diagnostic techniques has resulted in new approaches to management of AMR. 

  5. Utility of Double Filtration Plasmapheresis in Acute Antibody Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın SOLAK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal procedure, which is often employed to rapidly lower circulating titers of autoantibodies, immune complexes or toxins. There are two types of plasmapheresis namely, regular plasmapheresis (RPP by centrifugation and membrane filtration, and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP which is a special form of membrane filtration in which two membranes called as plasma separator and plasma fractionator are employed to filter macromolecules more selectively. DFPP have several advantages over RP. Despite widespread utilization of DFPP in the setting of ABO blood group incompatible kidney transplantation, there is no report regarding DFPP in patients with antibody mediated acute renal allograft rejection who are good candidates for beneficial effects of DFPP. Here we report three renal transplant recipients in whom DFPP was applied as a component of anti-rejection treatment regimen.

  6. Antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from discovery to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anna L; Van Stein, Danielle; Vlaar, Alexander P J

    2015-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress caused by blood transfusion, is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. The majority of TRALI cases have been related to passive infusion of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies in donor blood. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo animal models have provided insight in TRALI pathogenesis. The various classes of antibodies implicated in TRALI appear to have different pathophysiological mechanisms for the induction of TRALI involving endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes and, as very recently has been discovered, lymphocytes. The HLA and HNA-antibodies are found mainly in blood from multiparous women as they have become sensitized during pregnancy. The incidence of TRALI has decreased rapidly following the introduction of a male-only strategy for plasma donation. This review focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the pathophysiology of antibody-mediated TRALI. PMID:25921271

  7. Mechanism of antibody-mediated viral clearance in immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection of cotton rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, G A; Hemming, V G; Horswood, R L; Baron, P A; Murphy, B R; Chanock, R M

    1990-01-01

    Antibody-mediated clearance of respiratory syncytial virus from cotton rat pulmonary tissues occurs in the absence of complement and in the absence of the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin G molecule, suggesting that complement-independent, cell-independent neutralization is the major mechanism of clearance.

  8. Better understanding of transplant glomerulopathy secondary to chronic antibody-mediated rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remport, Adam; Ivanyi, Bela; Mathe, Zoltan; Tinckam, Kathryn; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z

    2015-11-01

    Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is generally accepted to result from repeated episodes of endothelial activation, injury and repair, leading to pathological abnormalities of double contouring or multi-layering of the glomerular basement membrane. TG is a major sequel of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (cABMR), from pre-existing or de novo anti-HLA antibodies. Hepatitis C infection, thrombotic microangiopathy or other factors may also contribute to TG development. TG prevalence is 5-20% in most series, reaching 55%, in some high-risk cohorts, and is associated with worse allograft outcomes. Despite its prevalence and clinical significance, few well-studied treatment options have been proposed. Similar to desensitization protocols, plasmapheresis with or without immunoabsorption, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, bortezomib and eculizumab have been proposed in the treatment of TG due to cABMR individually or in various combinations. Robust clinical trials are urgently needed to address this major cause of allograft loss. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, and the preventive and treatment options for TG secondary to cABMR. PMID:25473123

  9. De novo donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies mediated rejection in liver-transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, Arnaud; Congy-Jolivet, Nicolas; Danjoux, Marie; Muscari, Fabrice; Lavayssière, Laurence; Esposito, Laure; Cardeau-Desangles, Isabelle; Guitard, Joëlle; Dörr, Gaëlle; Milongo, David; Suc, Bertrand; Duffas, Jean Pierre; Alric, Laurent; Bureau, Christophe; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim

    2015-12-01

    The incidence and consequences of de novo donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) after liver transplantation (LT) are not well known. We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and complications associated with de novo DSAs in this setting. A total of 152 de novo liver-transplant patients, without preformed anti-HLA DSAs, were tested for anti-HLA antibodies, with single-antigen bead technology, before, at transplantation, at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after transplantation, and thereafter annually and at each time they presented with increased liver-enzyme levels until the last follow-up, that is, 34 (1.5-77) months. Twenty-one patients (14%) developed de novo DSAs. Of these, five patients had C1q-binding DSAs (24%). Younger age, low exposure to calcineurin inhibitors, and noncompliance were predictive factors for de novo DSA formation. Nine of the 21 patients (43%) with de novo DSAs experienced an acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Positive C4d staining was more frequently observed in liver biopsies of patients with AMR (9/9 vs. 1/12, P < 0.0001). Eight patients received a B-cell targeting therapy, and one patient received polyclonal antibodies. Only one patient required retransplantation. Patient- and graft-survival rates did not differ between patients with and without DSAs. In conclusion, liver-transplant patients with liver abnormalities should be screened for DSAs and AMR. PMID:26303035

  10. Antibody-mediated neutralization of myelin-associated EphrinB3 accelerates CNS remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Yasir A; Zhao, Chao; Mahad, Don; Möbius, Wiebke; Altmann, Friedrich; Foss, Franziska; Sentürk, Aycan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Lubec, Gert; Lilley, Kathryn; Franklin, Robin J M; Nave, Klaus-A; Kotter, Mark R N

    2016-02-01

    Remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions often remains incomplete despite the presence of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Amongst other factors, successful remyelination depends on the phagocytic clearance of myelin debris. However, the proteins in myelin debris that act as potent and selective inhibitors on OPC differentiation and inhibit CNS remyelination remain unknown. Here, we identify the transmembrane signalling protein EphrinB3 as important mediator of this inhibition, using a protein analytical approach in combination with a primary rodent OPC assay. In the presence of EphrinB3, OPCs fail to differentiate. In a rat model of remyelination, infusion of EphrinB3 inhibits remyelination. In contrast, masking EphrinB3 epitopes using antibodies promotes remyelination. Finally, we identify EphrinB3 in MS lesions and demonstrate that MS lesion extracts inhibit OPC differentiation while antibody-mediated masking of EphrinB3 epitopes promotes it. Our findings suggest that EphrinB3 could be a target for therapies aiming at promoting remyelination in demyelinating disease. PMID:26687980

  11. Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Plus Plasmapheresis on Antibody-mediated Rejection or Thrombotic Microangiopathy in Iranian Kidney Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Shojaie, Lida; Hosni, Amin; Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after kidney transplantation are difficult to differentiate most of the times and both play important roles in kidney allograft loss. Common treatment strategies of these two conditions include plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the efficacy of routine treatment of AMR/TMA in Iranian kidney transplant recipients, which comprises of plas...

  12. Molecular microscope strategy to improve risk stratification in early antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupy, Alexandre; Lefaucheur, Carmen; Vernerey, Dewi; Chang, Jessica; Hidalgo, Luis G; Beuscart, Thibaut; Verine, Jerome; Aubert, Olivier; Dubleumortier, Sébastien; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Jouven, Xavier; Glotz, Denis; Legendre, Christophe; Halloran, Philip F

    2014-10-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the leading cause of kidney allograft loss. We investigated whether the addition of gene expression measurements to conventional methods could serve as a molecular microscope to identify kidneys with ABMR that are at high risk for failure. We studied 939 consecutive kidney recipients at Necker Hospital (2004-2010; principal cohort) and 321 kidney recipients at Saint Louis Hospital (2006-2010; validation cohort) and assessed patients with ABMR in the first 1 year post-transplant. In addition to conventional features, we assessed microarray-based gene expression in transplant biopsy specimens using relevant molecular measurements: the ABMR Molecular Score and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcript set. The main outcomes were kidney transplant loss and progression to chronic transplant injury. We identified 74 patients with ABMR in the principal cohort and 54 patients with ABMR in the validation cohort. Conventional features independently associated with failure were donor age and humoral histologic score (g+ptc+v+cg+C4d). Adjusting for conventional features, ABMR Molecular Score (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 3.58; P=0.001) and endothelial donor-specific antibody-selective transcripts (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 9.16; Pimproved the stratification of patients at risk for graft failure (continuous net reclassification improvement, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.46; Pimprovement, 0.16; Pimproves stratification of patients at high risk for graft loss. PMID:24700874

  13. Complement Inhibition for Prevention and Treatment of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Renal Allograft Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S C; Choi, J; Kahwaji, J; Vo, A

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic interventions aimed at the human complement system are recognized as potentially important strategies for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases because there is often evidence of complement-mediated injury according to pathologic assessments. In addition, there are a large number of potential targets, both soluble and cell bound, that might offer potential for new drug development, but progress in this area has met with significant challenges. Currently, 2 drugs are approved aimed at inhibition of complement activation. The first option is eculizumab (anti-C5), which is approved for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eculizumab has also been studied in human transplantation for the treatment and prevention of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Initial data from uncontrolled studies suggested a significant benefit of eculizumab for the prevention of ABMR in highly HLA-sensitized patients, but a subsequent randomized, placebo-controlled trial failed to meet its primary endpoint. Anecdotal data, primarily from case studies, showed benefits in treating complement-mediated ABMR. A second approved complement-inhibiting therapy is C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), which is approved for use in patients with hereditary angioedema, a condition caused by mutations in the gene that codes for C1-INH. A recent placebo-controlled trial of C1-INH for prevention of ABMR in HLA-sensitized patients found that the drug was safe, with evidence for inhibition of systemic complement activation and complement-activating donor-specific antibodies. Other drugs are now under development. PMID:27234741

  14. Protective effect of pantothenic acid and related compounds against permeabilization of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by digitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyshenkov, V S; Rakowska, M; Wojtczak, L

    1996-01-01

    Preincubation of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells with millimolar concentrations of pantothenic acid, pantothenol or pantethine, but not with homopantothenic acid, at 22 degrees C or 32 degrees C, but not at 0 degrees C, makes the plasma membrane more resistant to the damaging effect of submillimolar concentrations of digitonin. It is proposed that this increased resistance is due to the increased rate of cholesterol biosynthesis. In fact, incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol is by 45% increased in the cells preincubated with pantothenic acid; this probably reflects elevation of the content of CoA in such cells [Slyshenkov, V.S., Rakowska, M., Moiseenok, A.G. & Wojtczak, L. (1995) Free Radical Biol. Med. 19, 767-772]. PMID:8862188

  15. Coincidence of cellular and antibody mediated rejection in heart transplant recipients – preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nożyński, Jerzy; Konecka-Mrówka, Dominika; Babińska, Agnieszka; Flak, Bożena; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) can significantly influence the results of orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). However, AMR and cellular rejection (CR) coexistence is poorly described. Therefore we performed a prospective pilot study to assess AMR/CR concomitance in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) obtained electively in 27 OHT recipients (21 M/6 F, 45.4 ± 14.4 y/o). Biopsy samples were paraffin embedded and processed typically with hematoxylin/eosin staining to assess CR, and, if a sufficient amount of material remained, treated with immunohistochemical methods to localize particles C3d and C4d as markers of antibody dependent complement activation. With this approach 80 EMBs, including 41 (51%) harvested within the first month after OHT, were qualified for the study. Among them 14 (18%) were C3d+, 37 (46%) were C4d+, and 12 (15%) were both C3d and C4d positive. At least one C3d+, C4d+, and C3d/C4d+ EMB was found in 10 (37%), 17 (63%), and 8 (30%) patients, respectively. Among 37 CR0 EMBs C3d was observed in 4 (11%), C4d in 17 (46%), and both C3d/C4d in 3 (8%) cases. Among 28 CR1 EMBs C3d was observed in 3 (11%), C4d in 11 (39%), and C3d/C4d in 3 (11%) cases. Among 15 CR2 EMBs C3d was observed in 7 (47%), C4d in 9 (60%), and C3d/C4d in 6 (40%) cases. Differences in C3d and C3d/C4d occurrence between grouped CR0-1 EMBs and CR2 EMBs (7/65 – 11% vs. 7/15 – 47%; 6/65 – 9% vs. 6/15 – 40%) were significant (p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0091, respectively, χ2 test). In conclusion, apparently frequent CR and AMR coexistence demonstrated in this preliminary study warrants further investigation in this field. PMID:26336395

  16. Antibody-Mediated Inhibition of TNFR1 Attenuates Disease in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Sarah K.; Olaf Maier; Roman Fischer; Richard Fairless; Sonja Hochmeister; Aleksandar Stojic; Lara Pick; Doreen Haar; Sylvia Musiol; Maria K Storch; Klaus Pfizenmaier; Ricarda Diem

    2014-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is known to regulate inflammation in a number of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although targeting of TNF in models of MS has been successful, the pathological role of TNF in MS remains unclear due to clinical trials where the non-selective inhibition of TNF resulted in exacerbated disease. Subsequent experiments have indicated that this may have resulted from the divergent effects of the two TNF receptor...

  17. The Diagnostic Value of Transcription Factors T-bet/GATA3 Ratio in Predicting Antibody-Mediated Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Li; Qiquan Sun; Mingchao Zhang; Jinsong Chen; Zhihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous data showed that the predominance of intraglomerular T-bet or GATA3 is correlated with different mechanisms of rejection, suggesting that the ratio of T-bet/GATA3 might be used to distinguish antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR). Methods. We compared the intraglomerular T-bet/GATA3 ratio in ABMR and TCMR. The intragraft expression of T-bet and GATA3 was studied via immunohistochemistry. The correlation of the diagnosis of AMR with the ra...

  18. Increased infectivity in human cells and resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization by truncation of the SIV gp41 cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Takeo; Kaori, Takaki; Enomoto, Ikumi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2013-01-01

    The role of antibodies in protecting the host from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is of considerable interest, particularly because the RV144 trial results suggest that antibodies contribute to protection. Although infection of non-human primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is commonly used as an animal model of HIV-1 infection, the viral epitopes that elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibodies to SIV have not been identified. We isolated a monoclonal antibody (MAb) B404 that potently and broadly neutralizes various SIV strains. B404 targets a conformational epitope comprising the V3 and V4 loops of Env that intensely exposed when Env binds CD4. B404-resistant variants were obtained by passaging viruses in the presence of increasing concentration of B404 in PM1/CCR5 cells. Genetic analysis revealed that the Q733stop mutation, which truncates the cytoplasmic tail of gp41, was the first major substitution in Env during passage. The maximal inhibition by B404 and other MAbs were significantly decreased against a recombinant virus with a gp41 truncation compared with the parental SIVmac316. This indicates that the gp41 truncation was associated with resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. The infectivities of the recombinant virus with the gp41 truncation were 7,900-, 1,000-, and 140-fold higher than those of SIVmac316 in PM1, PM1/CCR5, and TZM-bl cells, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the gp41 truncation enhanced the incorporation of Env into virions. The effect of the gp41 truncation on infectivity was not obvious in the HSC-F macaque cell line, although the resistance of viruses harboring the gp41 truncation to neutralization was maintained. These results suggest that viruses with a truncated gp41 cytoplasmic tail were selected by increased infectivity in human cells and by acquiring resistance to neutralizing antibody. PMID:23717307

  19. Increased infectivity in human cells and resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization by truncation of the SIV gp41 cytoplasmic tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eKuwata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of antibodies in protecting the host from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is of considerable interest, particularly because the RV144 trial results suggest that antibodies contribute to protection. Although infection of nonhuman primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV is commonly used as an animal model of HIV-1 infection, the viral epitopes that elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibodies to SIV have not been identified. We isolated a monoclonal antibody (MAb B404 that potently and broadly neutralizes various SIV strains. B404 targets a conformational epitope comprising the V3 and V4 loops of Env that intensely exposed when Env binds CD4. B404-resistant variants were obtained by passaging viruses in the presence of increasing concentration of B404 in PM1/CCR5 cells. Genetic analysis revealed that the Q733stop mutation, which truncates the cytoplasmic tail of gp41, was the first major substitution in Env during passage. The maximal inhibition by B404 and other MAbs were significantly decreased against a recombinant virus with a gp41 truncation compared with the parental SIVmac316. This indicates that the gp41 truncation was associated with resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. The infectivities of the recombinant virus with the gp41 truncation were 7900-fold, 1000-fold, and 140-fold higher than those of SIVmac316 in PM1, PM1/CCR5, and TZM-bl cells, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the gp41 truncation enhanced the incorporation of Env into virions. The effect of the gp41 truncation on infectivity was not obvious in the HSC-F macaque cell line, although the resistance of viruses harboring the gp41 truncation to neutralization was maintained. These results suggest that viruses with a truncated gp41 cytoplasmic tail were selected by increased infectivity in human cells and by acquiring resistance to neutralizing antibody.

  20. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Black Seed Oil And Freshly Crushed Seeds In Rats During Tumour Induction And Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/ kg body weight) or oil (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- Dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine). The antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. Female Swiss albino rats were administrated orally twice weekly with Nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. Animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/ dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment. The animals were scarified after one week of radiation. Homocysteine,'glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment. Rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels. Pretreatment with Nigella sativa alone or combined with γ- irradiation potentially reversed the investigated parameters. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor and efficiently produced synergistic effect with γ-irradiation. Therefore, Nigella sativa may be a good candidate to prevent tumor induction and so, it is advicable to use freshly crushed seeds during irradiation treatment in cancer patients as they gave more effective protection than the oil extract.

  1. The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Working Formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the pathologic diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Gerald J; Burke, Margaret M; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2013-01-01

    During the last 25 years, antibody-mediated rejection of the cardiac allograft has evolved from a relatively obscure concept to a recognized clinical complication in the management of heart transplant patients. Herein we report the consensus findings from a series of meetings held between 2010...

  2. Eculizumab Salvage Therapy for Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Desensitization-Resistant Intestinal Re-Transplant Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Tryphonopoulos, P; Tekin, A; Nishida, S; Selvaggi, G; Amador, A; Jebrock, J; Weppler, D; Levi, D; Vianna, R; Ruiz, P; Tzakis, A

    2015-07-01

    The presence of elevated calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) and anti-HLA donor specific antibodies (DSA) are high risk factors for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR) in intestinal transplantation that may lead to graft loss. Eculizumab has been used for the treatment of AAMR in kidney transplantation of sensitized patients that do not respond to other treatment. Here, we report a case where eculizumab was used to treat AAMR in a desensitization-resistant intestinal re-transplant patient. A male patient lost his intestinal graft to AAMR 8.14 years after his primary transplant. He received a second intestinal graft that had to be explanted a month later due to refractory AAMR. The patient remained highly sensitized despite multiple treatments. He received a multivisceral graft and presented with severe AAMR on day 3 posttransplantation. The AAMR was successfully treated with eculizumab. The patient presently maintains an elevated cPRA level above 90% but his DSAs have decreased from 18 000 MFI (mean fluorescent intensity) to below the positive cut-off value of 3000 MFI and remains rejection free with a 2-year follow-up since his multivisceral transplant. Eculizumab offers an alternative to treat AAMR in intestinal transplantation in desensitization-resistant patients. PMID:25649227

  3. Outcome of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupy, A; Suberbielle-Boissel, C; Hill, G S; Lefaucheur, C; Anglicheau, D; Zuber, J; Martinez, F; Thervet, E; Méjean, A; Charron, D; Duong van Huyen, J P; Bruneval, P; Legendre, C; Nochy, D

    2009-11-01

    This study describes clinical relevance of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (SAMR) in a cohort of 54 DSA-positive kidney transplant recipients receiving a deceased donor. In 3 months screening biopsies, 31.1% of patients met the criteria of SAMR. A total of 48.9% had an incomplete form of SAMR (g+/ptc+/C4d-negative) whereas 20% had no humoral lesions. Patients with SAMR at 3 months had at 1 year: a higher C4d score, ptc score, and arteriosclerosis score, higher rate of IFTA (100% vs. 33.3%, p SAMR. Patients with SAMR at 3 months exhibited at 1 year a higher class II MFImax-DSA and a lower mGFR compared to patients without SAMR (39.2 +/- 13.9 vs. 61.9 +/- 19.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) respectively, p SAMR at 3 months developed more ptc and IFTA lesions, and lower GFR at 1 year in comparison to biopsies without humoral lesions. SAMR is a frequent entity in KTR with preexisting DSAs and promotes subsequent GFR impairment and development of chronic AMR. C4d-negative SAMR patients displayed an intermediate course between the no-SAMR group and the C4d+ SAMR group. Screening biopsies may be useful to recognize patients more likely to develop SAMR. PMID:19775320

  4. Tumours and tumourous diseases; Tumoren, tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, W. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke) [German] Der vorliegende Band der Reihe Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie behandelt das Thema Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen. Der Band teilt sich in zwei Kapitel: 1. Knochentumoren und tumorartige Laesionen und 2. Weichteiltumoren und tumorartige Laesionen. Dargestellt werden Pathologie, Diagnostik, konservative und perioperative Therapie, chirurgische Therapie, Komplikationen nach Resektion, Indikatoren zur Amputation, Nachsorgeempfehlung, Strahlentherapie, Radionuklidtherapie, alternative Therapieverfahren, Therapiekonzepte bei Metastasen, Tissue Engineering und plastisch-chirurgische Massnahmen. (uke)

  5. Antibody-mediated neutralization of Ebola virus can occur by two distinct mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality and there is no vaccine or treatment. Antibodies in survivors occur early, are sustained, and can delay infection when transferred into nonhuman primates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from survivors exhibit potent neutralizing activity in vitro and are protective in rodents. To better understand targets and mechanisms of neutralization, we investigated a panel of mAbs shown previously to react with the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While one non-neutralizing mAb recognized a GP epitope in the nonessential mucin-like domain, the rest were specific for GP1, were neutralizing, and could be further distinguished by reactivity with secreted GP. We show that survivor antibodies, human KZ52 and monkey JP3K11, were specific for conformation-dependent epitopes comprising residues in GP1 and GP2 and that neutralization occurred by two distinct mechanisms; KZ52 inhibited cathepsin cleavage of GP whereas JP3K11 recognized the cleaved, fusion-active form of GP.

  6. Induction of protective immunity against MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours with peptide and dendritic cell-based vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Štěpánek, Ivan; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Přibylová, Hana; Indrová, Marie; Bubeník, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2010), s. 545-551. ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520605; GA AV ČR IAA500520807 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MHC class I-deficient tumours * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides * human papilloma virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2010

  7. NK1.1+ cells are important for the development of protective immunity against MHC I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), s. 281-288. ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520807 Grant ostatní: EU-FP6-NOE(XE) Project 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MHC class I-deficient tumours * CD8+, CD4+, NK1.1+cell subpopulations * interferon gamma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2011

  8. Ablation of lung tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Gillams, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been used for the ablation of lung tumours. However, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation are the most widely used technologies. RFA has been successfully applied to tumour measuring from

  9. Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Philip F; Chang, Jessica; Famulski, Konrad; Hidalgo, Luis G; Salazar, Israel D R; Merino Lopez, Maribel; Matas, Arthur; Picton, Michael; de Freitas, Declan; Bromberg, Jonathan; Serón, Daniel; Sellarés, Joana; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population. PMID:25377077

  10. C1 Inhibitor in Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection Nonresponsive to Conventional Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti, D; Gosset, C; Loupy, A; Deville, L; Verine, J; Zeevi, A; Glotz, D; Lefaucheur, C

    2016-05-01

    Complement inhibitors have not been thoroughly evaluated in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We performed a prospective, single-arm pilot study to investigate the potential effects and safety of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) Berinert added to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of acute ABMR that is nonresponsive to conventional therapy. Kidney recipients with nonresponsive active ABMR and acute allograft dysfunction were enrolled between April 2013 and July 2014 and received C1-INH and IVIG for 6 months (six patients). The primary end point was the change in eGFR at 6 months after inclusion (M+6). Secondary end points included the changes in histology and DSA characteristics and adverse events as evaluated at M+6. All patients showed an improvement in eGFR between inclusion and M+6: from 38.7 ± 17.9 to 45.2 ± 21.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.0277). There was no change in histological features, except a decrease in the C4d deposition rate from 5/6 to 1/6 (p = 0.0455). There was a change in DSA C1q status from 6/6 to 1/6 positive (p = 0.0253). One deep venous thrombosis was observed. In a secondary analysis, C1-INH patients were compared with a similar historical control group (21 patients). C1-INH added to IVIG is safe and may improve allograft function in kidney recipients with nonresponsive acute ABMR. PMID:26693703

  11. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  12. Bortezomib in late antibody-mediated kidney transplant rejection (BORTEJECT Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite major advances in transplant medicine, improvements in long-term kidney allograft survival have not been commensurate with those observed shortly after transplantation. The formation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and ongoing antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) processes may critically contribute to late graft loss. However, appropriate treatment for late AMR has not yet been defined. There is accumulating evidence that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may substantially affect the function and integrity of alloantibody-secreting plasma cells. The impact of this agent on the course of late AMR has not so far been systematically investigated. Methods/design The BORTEJECT Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to clarify the impact of intravenous bortezomib on the course of late AMR. In this single-center study (nephrological outpatient service, Medical University Vienna) we plan an initial cross-sectional DSA screening of 1,000 kidney transplant recipients (functioning graft at ≥180 days; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >20 ml/minute/1.73 m2). DSA-positive recipients will be subjected to kidney allograft biopsy to detect morphological features consistent with AMR. Forty-four patients with biopsy-proven AMR will then be included in a double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial (1:1 randomization stratified for eGFR and the presence of T-cell-mediated rejection). Patients in the active group will receive two cycles of bortezomib (4 × 1.3 mg/m2 over 2 weeks; 3-month interval between cycles). The primary end point will be the course of eGFR over 24 months (intention-to-treat analysis). The sample size was calculated according to the assumption of a 5 ml/minute/1.73 m2 difference in eGFR slope (per year) between the two groups (alpha: 0.05; power: 0.8). Secondary endpoints will be DSA levels, protein excretion, measured glomerular filtration rate, transplant and patient survival, and the development of

  13. Tumours and tumour mimics in the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions in the olecranon are rare and may be identified during the investigation of a clinically suspected abnormality or as an incidental finding. This review describes the spectrum of tumours and tumour-like lesions that can involve the olecranon and illustrates the radiographic, CT, and MRI appearances that may facilitate diagnosis. A variety of pathological processes affecting the olecranon are presented and discussed including the epidemiology and imaging features

  14. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Presence of MICA-DSA and Successful Renal Re-Transplant with Negative-MICA Virtual Crossmatch

    OpenAIRE

    MING, YINGZI; Hu, Juan; Luo, Qizhi; Ding, Xiang; Luo, Weiguang; Zhuang, Quan; Zou, Yizhou

    2015-01-01

    The presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs) against the MICA antigen results in high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of a transplanted kidney, especially in patients receiving a re-transplant. We describe the incidence of acute C4d+ AMR in a patient who had received a first kidney transplant with a zero HLA antigen mismatch. Retrospective analysis of post-transplant T and B cell crossmatches were negative, but a high level of MICA alloantibody was detected in sera collecte...

  15. A refractory case of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection due to anti-HLA-DQ antibody in a kidney transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Toshinari; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Izumi; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Tanno, Yudo; Yamada, Hiroki; Miki, Jun; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We herein report a refractory case of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) due to anti-HLA-DQ antibody in a kidney transplant patient. A 45-year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.8 mg/dL 3 years following primary kidney transplantation. Histological examination revealed moderate to severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the peritubular capillaries. Thorough laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies (DSAbs) to DR9 and DQ9. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed acute antibody-mediated rejection. The patient underwent 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange. We also administered rituximab (200 mg/body). Six months after the treatment, a second allograft biopsy revealed the progression of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and persistence of mild peritubular capillaritis. Further analysis showed that the anti-DR9 antibodies had disappeared, but that the mean fluorescence intensity value of the anti-DQ9 antibodies had increased. Therefore, we repeated the plasma exchange and IVIG. Allograft function was stable throughout the course of treatment, and the S-Cr level remained at 1.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of treating AMR due to the presence of anti-DQ DSAbs and the necessity for subsequent therapies in refractory cases. PMID:26031594

  16. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Heart in the Setting of Autoimmune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Lindley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is caused by the production of donor-specific antibodies (DSA which lead to allograft injury in part via complement activation. The inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies (IDP are inflammatory disorders of the nervous system, involving both cellular and humoral immune mechanisms directed against myelin. Case Report. A 58-year-old man five years after heart transplant presented with progressive dyspnea, imbalance, dysphagia, and weakness. Nerve conduction studies and electromyogram were consistent with IDP. Plasmapheresis and high-dose steroids resulted in improvement in neurologic symptoms. Within two weeks, he was readmitted with anasarca and acute renal failure, requiring intravenous furosemide and inotropic support. Echocardiogram and right heart catheterization revealed reduced cardiac function and elevated filling pressures. DSA was positive against HLA DR53, and endomyocardial biopsy revealed grade 1R chronic inflammation, with strong capillary endothelial immunostaining for C4d. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG were initiated. His anasarca and renal failure subsequently resolved, echocardiogram showed improved function off inotropes, and anti-DR53 MFI was reduced by 57%. Conclusions. This is an example of a single immune-mediated process causing concurrent IDP and AMR. The improvement in cardiac function and neurologic symptoms with plasmapheresis, IVIG, and high-dose steroids argues for a unifying antibody-mediated mechanism.

  17. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  18. Post-Transplant Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Chronic Active Antibody-Mediated Rejection and Hepatitis C Infection after Deceased Donor Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Tomohito; Sato, Waichi; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Koide, Sigehisa; Sasaki, Hitomi; Kusaka, Mamoru; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Takeda, Asami; Yuzawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Midori

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone deceased donor kidney transplantation twice, at 35 and 43 years of age, presented with renal impairment. She was infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The histology of the graft kidney revealed post-transplant membranous nephropathy (MN) with podocytic infolding and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). IgG subclass staining showed fine granular deposits of IgG1 and IgG3, but not IgG4, in the glomerular capillary walls. Panel reactive antibody scores for human leukocyte antigen class I and class II were 92.67% and 66.68%, respectively. Thus, this case of post-transplanted MN was considered to be associated with AMR and HCV infection. PMID:26875963

  19. Cardiac tumours in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  20. Antibody-Mediated Fcγ Receptor-Based Mechanisms of HIV Inhibition: Recent Findings and New Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Moog; Vincent Holl; Maryse Peressin

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most devastating pandemics worldwide. Today, the major route of infection by HIV is sexual transmission. One of the most promising strategies for vaccination against HIV sexual infection is the development of a mucosal vaccine, which should be able to induce strong local and systemic protective immunity. It is believed that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for inducing a sterilizing protection against HIV. Recently, passive administrati...

  1. Pituitary tumour clonality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Farrell, W E

    2004-01-01

    Allelotype analysis and X chromosome inactivation analysis in women enables the assessment of tissue clonality, and has demonstrated that the majority of sporadic human pituitary adenomas are monoclonal. This implies that these tumours arise from de novo somatic genetic change(s) in a single pituitary cell. However, clonality within any given tumour may be multiple or single, multiple tumours arising on the background of hyperplasia may be of identical or different clonality, multiple 'sporadic' tumours in a tissue may be of differing clonal origin, and finally morphology cannot predict genetic makeup. These general principles may also apply to the pituitary so it is simplistic to assume that monoclonality is inevitable and that pituitary tumours cannot be multiclonal in origin. Indeed, these observations would be entirely compatible with the initiating stimulus resulting in hyperplasia of specific cell subtypes in the pituitary giving rise to a number of different clones each with variable potential to develop into a discrete tumour depending on their rate of cell division/rate of apotosis. Stimuli might include pituitary-specific oncogenes, intrapituitary growth factors, or extrapituitary trophic factors (e.g. hypothalamic releasing hormones). PMID:15281347

  2. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonise a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT) that spreads among dogs and Devil Facial Tumour Disease (D...

  3. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG)

  4. Resolution of acute malarial infections by T cell-dependent non-antibody-mediated mechanisms of immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavacini, L A; Parke, L A; Weidanz, W P

    1990-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be co...

  5. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  6. SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF PERIPHERAL VENO-ARTERIAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION FOR CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION WITH SEVERE HEMODYNAMIC COMPROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is one of the severe complications of early and late period after heart transplantation (HT. Only few case reports and studies presented of mechanical circulatory support (MCS application for refractory acute rejection causing hemodynamic compromise. Aim. We report the case of a woman with cardiogenic shock caused by severe AMR that was successfully treatment by peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO. Material and methods. In december 2014, a 60-year-old woman with dilated cardiomyopathy was operated for HT. The patient had a good initial cardiac allograft function and no and was discharged from ICU on the 4th day after HT. 1st endomyocardial biopsy (EMB (the 7th day after HT showed absence of acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection. On the 11th day after HT patient aggravated and presented clinical signs of life-threatening acute cardiac allograft dysfunction: arterial blood pressure 78/49/38 mm Hg, HR 111 in min, CVP 20 mm Hg, PAP 47/34/25 mm Hg, PCWP 25 mm Hg, CI 1.5 l/min/m2, adrenalin 110 ng/kg/min, dopamine 15 mcg/kg/min. ECG showed impairment of systolic left (LVEF 25% and right (RVEF 15% ventricle function, left and right ventricle diffuse hypokinesis, thickness of IVS, LV and RV wall 1.7, 1.4 and 0.8 cm, tricuspid and mitral valve regurgitation 2–3 degrees. EMB presented AMR. In conscience peripheral VA ECMO was installed. We used peripheral transcutaneous cannulation technique via femoral vessels – arterial cannula 15 F, venous cannula – 23 F, vascular catheter 14 G for anterograde leg’s perfusion. ACT 130–150 sec. AMR therapy included: methylprednisolon pulse-therapy (10 mg/kg for 5 day, IgG, plasmapheresis (No 7, rituximab. Results. Under MCS by VA ECMO we noted quick improvement of hemodynamic, metabolic homeostasis and organ functions. On the 6th day of VA ECMO (blood flow 1.8 l/min: arterial blood pressure 133/81/54 mm Hg, CVP 5 mm

  7. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  8. Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fibre dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ashish; Sivaprakasam, Sathish; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Boettger, Thomas; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian colon harbours trillions of bacteria under physiological conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we show that Slc5a8 (solute carrier gene family 5a, member 8), a Na(+)-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T-cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naive T-cells into immunosuppressive forkhead box P3(+) (FoxP3(+)) Tregs (regulatory T-cells) and suppress conversion of naive T-cells into pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T-cells in response to butyrate. We also provide in vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8 in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fibre intake but not when dietary fibre intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fibre and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate and that this transporter is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon linked to dietary fibre content. PMID:25984582

  9. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7. ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, M V W; van Erk, M J; Doornbos, R P; Krul, C A M; Woutersen, R A

    2004-10-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2% curcumin (CUR), 4% rutin (RUT) or 0.04% benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) for 8 months. ACF were counted after 7, 15 and 26 weeks. Tumours were scored after 26 weeks and 8 months. We found that the WB and CUR diets inhibited the development of colorectal tumours. In contrast, the RUT and BIT diets rather enhanced (although not statistically significantly) colorectal carcinogenesis. In addition, the various compounds caused different effects on the development of ACF. In most cases the number or size of ACF was not predictive for the ultimate tumour yield. The expression of some tumour-related genes was significantly different in tumours from the control group as compared to tumours from the treated groups. It was concluded that WB and CUR, as opposed to RUT and BIT, protects against colorectal cancer and that ACF are unsuitable as biomarker for colorectal cancer. Effects of the different dietary compounds on metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) expression correlated well with the effects of the dietary compounds on the ultimate tumour yield. PMID:15304309

  11. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingtao Hu; Chunfeng Wang; Liping Ye; Wentao Yang; Haibin Huang; Fei Meng; Shaohua Shi; Zhuang Ding

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN- (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation.

  12. Early Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection of a Negative Flow Crossmatch 3rd Kidney Transplant with Exclusive Disparity at HLA-DP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M.; Baum, Caitlin E.; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A.; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA. PMID:24755353

  13. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Presence of MICA-DSA and Successful Renal Re-Transplant with Negative-MICA Virtual Crossmatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yingzi; Hu, Juan; Luo, Qizhi; Ding, Xiang; Luo, Weiguang; Zhuang, Quan; Zou, Yizhou

    2015-01-01

    The presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs) against the MICA antigen results in high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of a transplanted kidney, especially in patients receiving a re-transplant. We describe the incidence of acute C4d+ AMR in a patient who had received a first kidney transplant with a zero HLA antigen mismatch. Retrospective analysis of post-transplant T and B cell crossmatches were negative, but a high level of MICA alloantibody was detected in sera collected both before and after transplant. The DSA against the first allograft mismatched MICA*018 was in the recipient. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests with five samples of freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated the alloantibody nature of patient’s MICA-DSA. Prior to the second transplant, a MICA virtual crossmatch and T and B cell crossmatches were used to identify a suitable donor. The patient received a second kidney transplant, and allograft was functioning well at one-year follow-up. Our study indicates that MICA virtual crossmatch is important in selection of a kidney donor if the recipient has been sensitized with MICA antigens. PMID:26024219

  14. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Presence of MICA-DSA and Successful Renal Re-Transplant with Negative-MICA Virtual Crossmatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Ming

    Full Text Available The presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs against the MICA antigen results in high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of a transplanted kidney, especially in patients receiving a re-transplant. We describe the incidence of acute C4d+ AMR in a patient who had received a first kidney transplant with a zero HLA antigen mismatch. Retrospective analysis of post-transplant T and B cell crossmatches were negative, but a high level of MICA alloantibody was detected in sera collected both before and after transplant. The DSA against the first allograft mismatched MICA*018 was in the recipient. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests with five samples of freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated the alloantibody nature of patient's MICA-DSA. Prior to the second transplant, a MICA virtual crossmatch and T and B cell crossmatches were used to identify a suitable donor. The patient received a second kidney transplant, and allograft was functioning well at one-year follow-up. Our study indicates that MICA virtual crossmatch is important in selection of a kidney donor if the recipient has been sensitized with MICA antigens.

  15. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer of helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors to rat neocortical neurons that contain either NMDA receptor 2B or 2A subunits

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Haiyan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the numerous types of neurons in the brain, and particularly the forebrain, neuron type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two most promising approaches for achieving neuron type-specific expression are targeted gene transfer to a specific type of neuron and using a neuron type-specific promoter. We previously developed antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors by modifying glycoprotein ...

  16. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  17. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  18. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours

  19. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  20. Neonatal soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, R D

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different soft tissue tumours occurring in the first month of life are described and classified into five Clinical Groups. A. Excellent prognosis with no treatment or simple surgical excision. B. Good prognosis. Treatment depends upon anatomical site. C. Good prognosis. Treatment usually surgical but chemotherapy may be indicated in certain situations. D. Intermediate prognosis. Treatment as for older child, usually surgery or chemotherapy. E. Poor prognosis. Treatment palliative ...

  1. Soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A J; Thomas, J M

    1997-01-01

    Any soft tissue swelling beneath the deep fascia should be considered a sarcoma until proven otherwise. As the most important factor in the primary treatment of these cancers is the adequacy of the primary surgical resection, it is vital to diagnose these malignant tumours pre-operatively. The modern treatment of soft tissue sarcomas may involve all modalities, but the most important aspect of treatment of a primary localised sarcoma is wide excisional surgery preserving limb function. Radiot...

  2. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  3. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. A RARE PANCREATIC TUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Panda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulinomas are extremely rare. Patients present with hypoglycaemic symptoms which are due to neuroglycopenia and catecholamine release. Many patients are wrongly treated for neurological symptoms for some time before proper diagnosis is made. We present a case of insulinoma and include a review of literature. Case Report: A 35 year old male presented with 4 years history of symptoms suggesting, tremor, convulsion, palpitation and swelling often relieved by eating sugar lumps . He had considerable weight gains and was under antiepileptic medication for frequent seizure. Investigation reveled low blood sugar with high insulin level. CT identified a nodular tumour of pancreas. Further tests ruled out MEN 1 but confirmed insulinoma. He was operated with successful enucleation of tumour. Results: Postoperative his blood sugar normalised and was completely symptom free. Conclusions: Though insulinoma is a rare tumour, the classical presentation with symptoms of hypoglycemia, low blood glucose (40-50 mg/dL and relief of symptoms after administration of glucose (Whipple triad makes it easy to suspect. Biochemical tests with 72 hour fasting test, blood glucose and insulin ratios etc are highly confirmatory. It is associated with MEN 1 in 5% cases . Preoperative localization and introperative localization is essential for successful outcome.

  5. Immunotherapy with irradiated tumour cells and BCG in experimental osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of immunotherapy with irradiated tumour cells and BCG were studied in a non-metastasizing variety of the Dunn osteosarcoma transplantable in mice. Experimental animals which had been preimmunized with three injections of 0.7 to 1.4 x 106 irradiated tumour cells each 1 to 3 weeks before administration of 1 x 106 living tumour cells, showed a tumour incidence of 23 per cent. This was significantly (P<0.005) lower than the 92 per cent tumour incidence in the control animals. Non-specific immunotherapy with BCG given subcutaneously at a dose of 1.0 mg of dry-weight bacterial mass three times at 3-weeks intervals was found to have no protective effect against the osteosarcoma. The tumour incidence was 90 per cent for BCG-treated and 94 per cent for control animals. The osteosarcomas were studied light and electron microscopically and also with regard to the histochemical alkaline phosphatase activity. No structural difference was found between the tumours of the various groups. The demonstrated immunotherapeutic response is in contrast o the low degree of immunogenicity of the osteosarcoma, which we will report elsewhere. (author)

  6. INCREASED ERYTHROCYTE C4D IS ASSOCIATED WITH KNOWN ALLOANTIBODY AND AUTOANTIBODY MARKERS OF ANTIBODY MEDIATED REJECTION IN HUMAN LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocheikine, Angali; Nath, Dilip S.; Basha, Haseeb Ilias; Saini, Deepti; Phelan, Donna; Aloush, Aviva; Trulock, Elbert P.; Hachem, Ramsey R.; Patterson, G.Alexander; Ahearn, Joseph M.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2009-01-01

    Background Immune responses to mismatched donor HLA antigens play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection. The study objective was to evaluate whether erythrocyte bound C4d (E-C4d) is associated with known alloimmune and autoimmune markers of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) following human lung transplantation (LTx). Methods 22 LTx recipients and 15 normal subjects were analyzed for E-C4d using flow cytometry. Development of antibodies (Abs) to donor mismatched HLA (DSA) and Abs to HLA were determined using solid phase method by Luminex. Development of Abs to self-antigens, K-alpha-1-tubulin (KA1T) and collagen V (Col-V) were measured by ELISA. C3d deposition in lung biopsies was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results Percent E-C4d (%E-C4d) levels in LTx patients were higher compared to normal subjects (19.9% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.02). DSA+ patients had higher E-C4d levels compared to DSA- patients (34.1% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.02). In 5 patients with preformed anti-HLA, E-C4d levels were not significantly different compared to 13 patients with no detectable anti-HLA (p=0.1). Higher E-C4d levels were noted in patients who developed Abs to KA1T (p = 0.02) and Col-V (p = 0.03). Recipients with C3d tissue deposition had higher E-C4d levels compared to patients with C3d negative biopsy results (p = 0.01). Conclusions Increased % E-C4d levels are found in patients with positive DSA, high Abs titers to KA1T and Col-V, and have C3d positive lung biopsy findings. Therefore, % E-C4d can serve as a potential marker for AMR following LTx. PMID:20022265

  7. Expression of miR-142-5p in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Renal Transplant Patients with Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danger, Richard; Paul, Chloé; Giral, Magali; Lavault, Amélie; Foucher, Yohann; Degauque, Nicolas; Pallier, Annaïck; Durand, Maxim; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Delahousse, Michel; Renaudin, Karine; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Brouard, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    In renal transplantation, the unresponsiveness of patients undergoing chronic antibody mediated rejection (CAMR) to classical treatment stress on the need for accurate biomarkers to improve its diagnosis. We aim to determine whether microRNA expression patterns may be associated with a diagnosis of CAMR. We performed expression profiling of miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of kidney transplant recipients with CAMR or stable graft function. Among 257 expressed miRNAs, 10 miRNAs associated with CAMR were selected. Among them, miR-142-5p was increased in PBMC and biopsies of patients with CAMR as well as in a rodent model of CAMR. The lack of modulation of miR-142-5p in PBMC of patients with renal failure, suggests that its over-expression in CAMR was associated with immunological disorders rather than renal dysfunction. A ROC curve analysis performed on independent samples showed that miR-142-5p is a potential biomarker of CAMR allowing a very good discrimination of the patients with CAMR (AUC = 0.74; p = 0.0056). Moreover, its expression was decreased in PHA-activated blood cells and was not modulated in PBMC from patients with acute rejection, excluding a non-specific T cell activation expression. The absence of modulation of this miRNA in immunosuppressed patients suggests that its expression was not influenced by treatment. Finally, the analysis of miR-142-5p predicted targets under-expressed in CAMR PBMC in a published microarray dataset revealed an enrichment of immune-related genes. Altogether, these data suggest that miR-142-5p could be used as a biomarker in CAMR and these finding may improve our understanding of chronic rejection mechanisms. PMID:23577151

  8. The Effect of Combination Therapy with Rituximab and Intravenous Immunoglobulin on the Progression of Chronic Antibody Mediated Rejection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jintak; Khvan, Marina; Park, Cheol Whee; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo

    2014-01-01

    The treatment for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) remains controversial. We investigated the efficacy of rituximab (RTX) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for CAMR. Eighteen patients with CAMR were treated with RTX (375 mg/m2) and IVIg (0.4 g/kg) for 4 days. The efficacy of RTX/IVIg combination therapy (RIT) was assessed by decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate per month (ΔeGFR) before and after RIT. Patients were divided into responder and nonresponder groups based on decrease and no decrease in ΔeGFR, respectively, and their clinical and histological characteristics were compared. Response rate to RIT was 66.7% (12/18), and overall ΔeGFR decreased significantly to 0.4 ± 1.7 mL·min−1·1.73 m−2 per month 6 months after RIT compared to that observed 6 months before RIT (1.8 ± 1.0, P < 0.05). Clinical and histological features between the 12 responders and the 6 nonresponders were not significantly different, but nonresponders had a significantly higher proteinuria levels at the time of RIT (2.5 ± 2.5 versus 7.0 ± 3.5 protein/creatinine (g/g), P < 0.001). The effect of the RIT on ΔeGFR had dissipated in all patients by 1 year post-RIT. Thus, RIT delayed CAMR progression, and baseline proteinuria level was a prognostic factor for response to RIT. PMID:24741626

  9. Rapid Reduction in Donor-Specific Anti-Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibodies and Reversal of Antibody-Mediated Rejection With Bortezomib in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William Robert; Frazier, Elizabeth A.; Mahle, William T.; Harville, Terry O.; Pye, Sherry E.; Knecht, Kenneth R.; Howard, Emily L.; Smith, R. Neal; Saylors, Robert L.; Garcia, Xiomara; Jaquiss, Robert D.B.; Woodle, E. Steve

    2013-01-01

    Background High titer donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and positive crossmatch in cardiac transplant recipients is associated with increased mortality from antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Although treatment to reduce antihuman leukocyte antigen antibodies using plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab has been reported to be beneficial, in practice these are often ineffective. Moreover, these interventions do not affect the mature antibody producing plasma cell. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor active against plasma cells, has been shown to reduce DSA in renal transplant patients with AMR. We report here the first use of bortezomib for cardiac transplant recipients in four pediatric heart recipients with biopsy-proven AMR, hemodynamic compromise, positive crossmatch, and high titer class I DSA. Methods Patients received four intravenous dose of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2) over 2 weeks with plasmapheresis and rituximab. DSA specificity and strength (mean fluorescence intensity) was determined with Luminex. All had received previous treatment with plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab that was ineffective. Results AMR resolved in all patients treated with bortezomib with improvement in systolic function, conversion of biopsy to C4d negative in three patients and IgG negative in one patient, and a prompt, precipitous reduction in DSAs. In three patients who received plasmapheresis before bortezomib, plasmapheresis failed to reduce DSA. In one case, DSA increased after bortezomib but decreased after retreatment. Conclusions Bortezomib reduces DSA and may be an important adjunct to treatment of AMR in cardiac transplant recipients. Bortezomib may also be useful in desensitization protocols and in prevention of AMR in sensitized patients with positive crossmatch and elevated DSA. PMID:22179403

  10. HLA-C antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage suggests that antibody mediated rejection is one of the mechanisms leading to recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, T; van Beelen, E; Kaaja, R J; van Lith, J M M; Claas, F H J; Bloemenkamp, K W M

    2016-08-01

    HLA-C is the only polymorphic classical HLA I antigen expressed on trophoblast cells. It is known that higher incidence of C4d deposition on trophoblast cells is present in women with recurrent miscarriage. C4d is a footprint of antibody-mediated classical complement activation. Therefore, this study hypothesize that antibodies against HLA-C may play a role in the occurrence of unexplained consecutive recurrent miscarriage. Present case control study compared the incidence of HLA-C specific antibodies in 95 women with at least three consecutive miscarriages and 105 women with uneventful pregnancy. In the first trimester of the next pregnancy, presence and specificity of HLA antibodies were determined and their complement fixing ability. The incidence of HLA antibodies was compared with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for possible confounders. Although in general a higher incidence of HLA antibodies was found in women with recurrent miscarriage 31.6% vs. in control subjects 9.5% (adjusted OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.0-9.5), the contribution of antibodies against HLA-C was significantly higher in women with recurrent miscarriage (9.5%) compared to women with uneventful pregnancy (1%) (adjusted OR 11.0, 95% CI 1.3-89.0). In contrast to the control group, HLA-C antibodies in the recurrent miscarriage group were more often able to bind complement. The higher incidence of antibodies specific for HLA-C in women with recurrent miscarriage suggests that HLA-C antibodies may be involved in the aetiology of unexplained consecutive recurrent miscarriage. PMID:27172837

  11. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  12. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  13. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  14. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. MRI EVALUATION OF SUPRATENTORIAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumours represents 1.7% of all cancers and contributes 1.8% of all cancer deaths. Of all the brain tumours 80% are supratentorial.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an important modality, having higher sensitivity for detecting intracranial pathology. Multiplanar imaging is possible with MRI which helps in detection, localization and characterization of the lesion. The MRI examination has helped in early diagnosis, accurate localization of the tumour with prompt initiation of appropriate medical or surgical therapy. Recent advances like Magnetic Resonance (MR spectroscopy, MR fluoroscopy with stereotactic guided biopsy have revolutionized the role of MRI in study of intracranial tumours.

  16. Benign tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To present clinicopathological analysis of benign tumours of the vulva. Patients and Methods: Thirty cases of benign tumours of vulva were studied during 2 years research period. Detailed history along with complete local and general physical examination followed by all necessary pre-operative investigations were carried out. Excision surgery was the treatment of choice in majority of cases while marsupialization was done for Bartholin's cyst. Histopathology of tumours specimen was also collected. Results: A total of 30 cases were studied. Twenty-two were cystic and 8 were solid tumours. Aggressive angiomyxoma was 10% of solid tumours and Bartholin's cyst was 46.6% of cystic tumours. Most of the patients were multipara and between 21-30 years of age. The main site of tumour was labium majus. Excision surgery for all cases and marsupialization for Bartholin's cyst was treatment of choice. Conclusion: Aggressive angiomyxoma is the commonest solid benign vulval tumour. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vulval mass in women of reproductive age. (author)

  17. Persistent strong anti-HLA antibody at high titer is complement binding and associated with increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, Adriana; Lunz, John; Feingold, Brian; Shullo, Michael; Bermudez, Christian; Teuteberg, Jeffery; Webber, Steven

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sensitized heart transplant candidates are evaluated for donor-specific anti-HLA IgG antibody (DSA) by Luminex single-antigen bead (SAB) testing (SAB-IgG) to determine donor suitability and help predict a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC-XM) by virtual crossmatching (VXM). However, SAB testing used for VXM does not correlate perfectly with CDC-XM results and individual transplant programs have center-specific permissible thresholds to predict crossmatch positivity. A novel Luminex SAB-based assay detecting C1q-binding HLA antibodies (SAB-C1q) contributes functional information to SAB testing, but the relationship between SAB strength and complement-binding ability is unclear. METHODS In this retrospective study, we identified 15 pediatric and adult heart allograft candidates with calculated panel-reactive antibody (cPRA) >50% by SAB-IgG and compared conventional SAB-IgG results with SAB-C1q testing. RESULTS Pre- and post-transplant DSA by SAB-C1q correlated with DSA by SAB-IgG and also with CDC-XM results and early post-transplant endomyocardial biopsy findings. Individual HLA antibodies by SAB-IgG in undiluted sera correlated poorly with SAB-C1q; however, when sera were diluted 1:16, SAB-IgG results were well correlated with SAB-C1q. In some sera, HLA antibodies with low mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) by SAB-IgG exhibited high SAB-C1q MFIs for the same HLA antigens. Diluting or heat-treating these sera increased SAB-IgG MFI, consistent with SAB-C1q results. In 13 recipients, SAB-C1q–positive DSA was associated with positive CDC-XM and with early clinical post-transplant antibody-mediated rejection (cAMR). CONCLUSIONS Risk assessment for positive CDC-XM and early cAMR in sensitized heart allograft recipients are correlated with SAB-C1q reactivity. PMID:23142561

  18. Clinical Significance of HLA-DQ Antibodies in the Development of Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection and Allograft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Min, Ji Won; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In-Sung; Park, Ki-Hyun; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    With the development of the single antigen beads assay, the role of donor specific alloantibody (DSA) against human leukocyte antigens in kidney transplantation (KT) has been highlighted. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of DQ-DSA detected at renal allograft biopsy. We evaluated 263 KT recipients who underwent allograft biopsy and DSA detection at the same time. Among them, 155 patients who were nonsensitized before transplantation were selected to investigate the role of de-novo DQ-DSA. Both the total and nonsensitized subgroup was categorized into 4 groups each according to DSA results as: DQ only, DQ + non-DQ, non-DQ, and no DSA. In the total patient group, post-KT DSA was positive in 79 (30.0%) patients and DQ-DSA was most prevalent (64.6%). In the nonsensitized subgroup, de-novo DSAs were detected in 45 (29.0%) patients and DQ-DSA was also most prevalent (73.3%). The DQ only group showed a significantly longer post-KT duration compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The overall incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was 17.9%. B-DSA, DR-DSA, and DQ-DSA were associated with AMR (P < 0.05), but in the analysis for chronic AMR, only DQ-DSA showed significance in both the total and the nonsensitized subgroup (P < 0.05). On comparison of Banff scores among groups, those representing humoral immunity were significantly dominant in all DSA positive groups compared to the no DSA group (P < 0.05), and higher scores of markers representing chronic tissue injury were more frequently detected in the groups with DQ-DSA. The worst postbiopsy survival was seen in the DQ + non-DQ group of the total patient group, and patients with de-novo DQ-DSA showed poorer graft survival in the nonsensitized subgroup compared to the no DSA group (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, de-novo DQ-DSA was the only significant risk factor associated with late allograft failure (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to demonstrate

  19. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  20. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  1. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  2. Determination of sarcosine as possible tumour marker of prostate tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Cernei; Michal Masarik; Jaromir Gumulec; Ondrej Zitka; Petr Babula; Rene Kizek

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid sarcosine, known also as N-methylglycine, may beestablished as new very important marker in prostate malignant tumours and may be determined by very simple test. Cancer of prostate is one of the most incident types of malignant tumours in men. More than one thousand men in Czech Republic die due to this disease. As well as in the case of other malignant tumours, for initiation of treatment well timed diagnosis of disease is necessary. For determination of sarcosine we employed the ...

  3. Molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By allowing an earlier diagnosis and a more exhaustive assessment of extension of the disease, the tomography by emission of positrons (PET) transforms the care of numerous cancers. At present, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-F.D.G.) imaging appears as the only one available but new molecular markers are being developed. In the next future they would modify the approach of cancers. In this context, the molecular imaging of the hypoxia and especially the 18Fluoromisonidazole PET ([18F]-MISO PET) can give supplementary information allowing the mapping of hypoxic regions within the tumour. Because of the links, which exist between tumour hypoxia and treatment resistance of very numerous cancers, this information can have an interest, for determination of prognosis as well as for the delineation, volumes to be irradiated. Head and neck tumours are doubtless those for which the literature gives the most elements on the therapeutic impact of tumour hypoxia. Targeted therapies, based on hypoxia, already exist and the contribution of the molecular imaging could be decisive in the evaluation of the impact of such treatment. Molecular imaging of brain tumours remains to be developed. The potential contributions of the [18F]-MISO PET for the care of these patients need to be confirmed. In this context, we propose a review of hypoxia molecular imaging taking as examples head and neck tumours and glioblastomas (GB), two tumours for which hypoxia is one of the key factors to overcome in order to increase therapeutics results

  4. Imaging methods for ovarian tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper compares the results of MRT with sonography in 64 patients with tumours of the adnexa in 35 patients examined by CT. There was no difference between these three imaging methods as regards lateralisation of the lesion. MRT provided better differentiation because of the excellent demonstration of the uterus and of tumours of the adnexa. Detailed tissue characterisation, particularly as regards cystic lesions, provides improved diagnostic information. MRT has problems, however, because of its low spatial resolution and the difficulty in differentiation from bowel loops. At present sonography and CT is better at establishing a differential diagnosis. CT remains the method of choice for tumour staging. (orig.)

  5. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  6. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  7. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  8. Sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati B. Gargade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing stromal tumor is rare benign ovarian sex cord stromal tumour which occurs predominantly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. She underwent panhysterectomy as USG revealed a solid and cystic 15 cm right ovarian tumour with increased vascularity with raised CA125. Hysterectomy specimen revealed a benign sclerosing stromal tumour of right ovary. We present this rare case to emphasis the awareness of benign sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary in young female to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2037-2040

  9. Pulmonary Scintigraphy for Tumour Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning of the lungs with albumin aggregates is one of the most useful methods for studying variations in pulmonary circulation and diagnosing embolisms and infarcts. However, its utilization for the diagnosis of tumours is barely in the trial stage. Using scintillation scanning, the authors have centered their attention on the study of patients with primary pulmonary tumours and secondary tumours at-other sites, and have observed that the tracer distribution pattern differs fundamentally according to the type of tumour. With metastatic tumours, the repercussion of the lesions in scintillation scanning is slight and is entirely dependent on the volume of the zone of condensation. The tumorous nodules behave entirely like inactive zones within a mass of active functional parenchyma and their effect on the scanning image depends solely on the size of the tumorous region and the amount of healthy parenchyma intervening between it and the detector. With primary pulmonary tumours and more especially those located in the hilar region, relatively small lesions give rise to defects in uptake in extensive areas of the lung, and these may affect various segments, a lobe or even the entire lung. This decrease in uptake cannot be entirely explained by the image of the tumour or by the associated zones of atelectasia, but must be due to serious alteration in the haemodynamics of the lung affected. Various kinds of phenomena associated with tumorous development may cause vascular changes affecting even the periphery of the lung: changes in breathing conditions accompanied by a reduction of oxygen tension, leading to change in haemodynamic conditions; pulmonary hypertension through compression of the veins in the lungs which are less resistant than the arteries; and direct nervous stimulation due to irritation of the bronchial plexi as a result of the growth of the tumour and, associated reactive. phenomena. (author)

  10. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, ...

  11. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  12. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  13. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.)

  14. Radiotherapy of testicular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the general pathological, diagnostical and therapeutical measures against seminomas and teratomas are dealt with. In the second part, the results obtained by the radiotherapeutical division of the University Clinics of Freiburg 1964-1977 in the treatment of seminomas and teratomas are described. The average age of the 59 seminoma patients was 36 years, the average age of the 28 teratoma patients was 26. The 5-years-total survival rate of the seminoma patients was 80.8%, for teratoma patients it was 30.5%. In the individual phases, of all seminoma patients in stage I, 93.1% were still alive after 5 years, in stage II 95.9%, in stage III 12.5%. The 5-years survival rate of the teratoma patients in stage I was around 100%, in stage II around 36.8% and in stage III around 20.5%. In the discussion, the problems of the histological and pathological classification for testicular tumours are talked about and the treatment methods used at the Freiburg university clinics are described. The results obtained in the Freiburg university clinics are compared with those of other authors.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the alimentary tract. They normally involve the stomach, the small bowel, or the colon. Localisation within the oesophagus, rectum, mesentery, omentum, or retroperitoneum is less common, GISTs are immunohistochemically identified by the expression of the c-kit protein, which is not detected in other mesenchymal tumours. The role of imaging includes the detection (subjects with occult gastro-intestinal bleeding, incidental recognition, etc.), characterisation, analysis of relations between mass and gastrointestinal wall, staging, prognostic assessment (recognition of signs of malignancy and unfavourable prognosis), and follow-up during specific treatment. Owing to the frequent exophytic growth of these lesions, differentiation of these tumours from non digestive lesions of different nature is a common diagnostic problem. Imaging findings usually allow differentiation from gastrointestinal epithelial tumours but not from non-epithelial tumours, for which histological confirmation is necessary, in part to verify potential response to therapy. Smaller lesions, which are usually benign, tend to be well-defined, relatively homogeneous, and with intraluminal growth. Larger lesions normally show well-defined or ill defined margins, inhomogeneous density both on unenhanced and on contrast-enhanced scans, with combined intraluminal/extra luminal growth and a tendency to spread to surrounding structures. Internal attenuation is often necrotic or clearly fluid. Signs of high-grade GIST include liver metastasis, gastrointestinal wall infiltration, large volume, irregular surface, ill-defined margins, inhomogeneous enhancement and peritoneal spread. Recurrences usually share the appearance of the larger, primary malignant GIST

  16. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Determination of sarcosine as possible tumour marker of prostate tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid sarcosine, known also as N-methylglycine, may beestablished as new very important marker in prostate malignant tumours and may be determined by very simple test. Cancer of prostate is one of the most incident types of malignant tumours in men. More than one thousand men in Czech Republic die due to this disease. As well as in the case of other malignant tumours, for initiation of treatment well timed diagnosis of disease is necessary. For determination of sarcosine we employed the ionex chromatography with postcolumn derivatization by ninhydrin. We achieved the calibration curve linearity R2=0.9984 with limit of detection 500nM. Moreover we confirmed that the calibration was not affected by presence of another aminoacids and ensure thatselectivity of separation is near to 99% efficiency.

  18. Tumour oxygenation measurements by 19F magnetic resonance imaging of perfluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid tumours are well known to be heterogeneous and contain a significant fraction of hypoxic cells, which are protected against the effects of radiotherapy. A non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygenation would therefore be useful. The 19F magnetic resonance signals from perfluorocarbons are sensitive to oxygen concentration. We have used this property to measure tumour oxygenation of the GH3 prolactinoma, RIF-1 fibrosarcoma and SaF sarcoma in mice by fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intravenously injected perfluorocarbons which are taken up by macrophages in the tumour. We have also studied the injection of perfluorocarbons directly into the tumour, which allows less of the tumour to be studied but has a higher success rate and gives values more consistent with Eppendorf polarographic electrode measurements. (author)

  19. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  20. Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.

  1. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  2. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  3. Tracing the antibody mediated acquired immunity by Foot and Mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever combined vaccine in pregnant ewes and their lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Mossad Gamal; Eman Mahmoud Mohamed Soliman; Mona Ali El-Manzalawy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide adequate protection to ewes and their lambs against Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). Materials and Methods: A combined inactivated oil vaccine was prepared successfully. Such vaccine was found to be free from foreign contaminants, safe and potent as determined by quality control tests such as challenge protection percentage for FMD and mice ED50 for RVF. Vaccination of pregnant ewes with the prepared combined vaccine and de...

  4. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  5. Cardiac tumours simulating collagen vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Lanham, J. G.; Doyle, D V

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac tumours can mimic collagen vascular disease and they are often accompanied by profound systemic upset. Both benign and malignant tumours may present in this way. Three cases of cardiac tumour, two malignant and one benign, are reported with just such a presentation. A review of fifteen similar case reports showed that a spectrum of different collagen vascular diseases was diagnosed and treated before the true diagnosis emerged. In half of these cases the cardiac tumour was only diagno...

  6. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Leroy, A; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Leroy, Antoine; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2001-01-01

    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible. Alternative techniques consist in locally using chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour and this may be performed percutaneously. It requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction to these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency whilst benefiting from minimal invasiveness. This communication introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation.

  7. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  8. Intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Hille, JJ; Singh, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of an intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour of the dorsum of the tongue in a 73-year-old Caucasian male is reported. This case describes the oldest patient with this pathology to date. Immunoperoxidase staining for neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression d

  9. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Solitary fibrous tumour of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordani, J.P. [City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Haq, I.U. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Singh, J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2000-09-01

    We report an intramedullary primary solitary fibrous tumour of the cervical spinal cord in a 33-year-old man. The tumour predominantly consisted of monomorphic spindle cells with a storiform pattern. MRI demonstrated an inhomogeneously enhancing cervical intramedullary tumour. The patient was well without recurrence 18 months after surgery. (orig.)

  11. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav; Avishek; Pallab Kumar; Bandana; Mrinmoyee

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which pro...

  12. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Modupeola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. Materials and Methods : An eight year (2000-2007 consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumours were characterised histologically into tissues of origin and categorised into three age groups; < 1 year, 1-5 years and 6-15 years. Result : 189 children with malignant tumours were analysed. They showed a male preponderance (M: F; 1.2: 1.0 and their ages ranged from 5 days to 15 years. Tumours of mesenchymal origin were the commonest (115: 60.8% while epithelial tumours including germ cell tumours accounted for 74 (39.2% cases. The age group 1-5 years had the highest epithelial tumours while age group 6-15 years had the most tumours with 102 (54% cases overall. The five commonest tumours over-all were rhabdomyosarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and nephroblastoma. Germ cell tumours affected the ovary predominantly and two of the endodermal sinus tumour cases were seen in the testis of an eighteen month child and sacrococcygeum of a 5 year old girl, respectively. Of the six immature teratoma cases, four were cutaneous in distribution. The vascular tumours included epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, haemangioblastoma and Dabska tumour and they accounted for (5.8% of all tumours seen. The commonest sites of occurrence of these tumours were the oculo-orbital, jaw, head and neck regions with 82 cases (43.4% while lymph nodes were involved in 31 (16.4% cases. Conclusion : The distribution and occurrence of malignant tumours in children is age related. Lymphomas were the commonest tumours overall while retinoblastoma and Burkitt lymphoma

  13. Lutetium-labelled peptides for therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, B.L.R.; Teunissen, J.J.M.; Krenning, E.P.; Khan, S.; Vliet, E.I. van; Kwekkeboom, D.J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, W.W. de [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Treatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with {sup 177}Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The results obtained with {sup 177}Lu-[DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate (DOTATATE) are very encouraging in terms of tumour regression. Dosimetry studies with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE as well as the limited side effects with additional cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE suggest that more cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE can be safely given. Also, if kidney-protective agents are used, the side effects of this therapy are few and mild and less than those from the use of {sup 90}Y-[DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotide (DOTATOC). Besides objective tumour responses, the median progression-free survival is more than 40 months. The patients' self-assessed quality of life increases significantly after treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Lastly, compared to historical controls, there is a benefit in overall survival of several years from the time of diagnosis in patients treated with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. These findings compare favourably with the limited number of alternative therapeutic approaches. If more widespread use of PRRT can be guaranteed, such therapy may well become the therapy of first choice in patients with metastasized or inoperable neuroendocrine tumours. (orig.)

  14. A Panel of IgG1 b12 Variants with Selectively Diminished or Enhanced Affinity for Fcγ Receptors To Define the Role of Effector Functions in Protection against HIV ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moldt, Brian; Schultz, Niccole; Dunlop, D. Cameron; Alpert, Michael D.; Harvey, Jackson D.; Evans, David T.; Poignard, Pascal; Hessell, Ann J.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies is effective in protecting rhesus macaques against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. In addition to neutralization, effector functions of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of antibodies are involved in antibody-mediated protection against a number of viruses. We recently showed that interaction between the Fc fragment of the broadly neutralizing antibody IgG1 b12 and cellular Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) plays an important role in protec...

  15. Targeting hypoxic tumour cells to overcome metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microenvironment within solid tumours can influence the metastatic dissemination of tumour cells, and recent evidence suggests that poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) cells in primary tumours can also affect the survival and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells in distant organs. Hypoxic tumour cells have been historically targeted during radiation therapy in attempts to improve loco-regional control rates of primary tumours since hypoxic cells are known to be resistant to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. There are, therefore, a number of therapeutic strategies to directly target hypoxic cells in primary (and metastatic) tumours, and several compounds are becoming available to functionally inhibit hypoxia-induced proteins that are known to promote metastasis. This mini-review summarizes several established and emerging experimental strategies to target hypoxic cells in primary tumours with potential clinical application to the treatment of patients with tumour metastases or patients at high risk of developing metastatic disease. Targeting hypoxic tumour cells to reduce metastatic disease represents an important advance in the way scientists and clinicians view the influence of tumour hypoxia on therapeutic outcome

  16. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  17. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising treatment option for patients with inoperable or metastasised neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with all of the various 111In, 90Y, or 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used. Since tumour size reduction was seldom achieved with 111Indium labelled somatostatin analogues, radiolabelled somatostatin analogues with beta-emitting isotopes like 90Y and 177Lu were developed. Reported anti-tumour effects of [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide vary considerably between various studies: Tumour regression of 50% or more was achieved in 9 to 33% (mean 22%). With [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate treatments, tumour regression of 50% or more was achieved in 28% of patients and tumour regression of 25 to 50% in 19% of patients, stable disease was demonstrated in 35% and progressive disease in 18%. Predictive factors for tumour remission were high tumour uptake on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and limited amount of liver metastases. The side-effects of PRRT are few and mostly mild, certainly when using renal protective agents: Serious side-effects like myelodysplastic syndrome or renal failure are rare. The median duration of the therapy response for [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide and [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate is 30 months and more than 36 months respectively. Lastly, quality of life improves significantly after treatment with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. These data compare favourably with the limited number of alternative treatment approaches, like chemotherapy. If more widespread use of PRRT is possible, such therapy might become the therapy of first choice in patients with metastasised or inoperable gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Also the role in somatostatin receptor expressing non-GEP tumours, like metastasised paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and non-radioiodine-avid differentiated thyroid carcinoma might become more important

  18. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  19. Tracing the antibody mediated acquired immunity by Foot and Mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever combined vaccine in pregnant ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mossad Gamal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to provide adequate protection to ewes and their lambs against Foot and Mouth disease (FMD and Rift Valley Fever (RVF. Materials and Methods: A combined inactivated oil vaccine was prepared successfully. Such vaccine was found to be free from foreign contaminants, safe and potent as determined by quality control tests such as challenge protection percentage for FMD and mice ED50 for RVF. Vaccination of pregnant ewes with the prepared combined vaccine and determination of the antibody level via serum neutralization test (SNT and Enzyme Linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA in the vaccinated pregnant ewes and their lambs. Results: Vaccination of pregnant ewes revealed that these ewes exhibited high levels of specific antibodies against the included vaccine antigens (Foot and Mouth disease virus type A Iran O5, O PanAsia and SAT2/EGY/2012 and RVFV-ZH501. FMD antibodies recorded their peaks by the 10th week while those of RVF recorded their peaks by the 12th week post vaccination then all antibodies began to decrease gradually to reach their lowest protective titers for FMD by the 32nd week post vaccination and those for RVF by the 34th week post vaccination. Potency test of the prepared combined vaccine expressed as protection percentage of vaccinated sheep against target virulent FMD virus serotypes reflected a protection percentage of 80% against type O and SAT2 and 100% against A while for RVF, the mice ED50 was found to be 0.009 indicating the potency of the prepared vaccine. The antibody titer in serum and colostrum of vaccinated pregnant ewes at day of parturition (10-12 week post vaccination recorded a high titer against FMD serotype (O, serotype (A, serotype (SAT2 and against RVF. It was noticed that the colostrum antibody titers were slightly higher than those in the sera of vaccinated ewes at time of parturition. The newly born lambs from vaccinated ewes, exhibited good levels of maternal immunity against the

  20. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  1. Explorative laparotomy of solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can state that the diagnostical advantages of exploratory laparotomy must be compared to the risk of surgery. It requires a critical determination of indications and should not be primarily planned in a clinical-exploratory form but always also as therapeutic laparotomy. In addition, the general state of the patient must be so good that the anaesthesia and operative trauma can be tolerated. The patient must be prepared bearing in mind that the possible tumour resection or at least tumour reduction or other surgical palliative measures can be carried out. The wide spectrum of precise pre-examinations which are possible nowadays has caused the exploratory laparotomy to lose some of its importance. (orig.)

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshingkar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a biologically controversial entity that was originally described as non-neoplastic lesion in the lungs and designated initially as inflammatory pseudotumour. The lesion has recently been recognized to occur at various sites but rarely affects head and neck region. Controversies still exist regarding its reactive versus neoplastic nature. The lesion has a potential for recurrence, persistent local growth, progression to frank sarcoma and metastasis. Hence IMT can best be regarded as a low-grade sarcoma. A case of a 30-year-old female with swelling in the right maxilla and associated ophthalmic manifestations is discussed here. Contribution of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of IMT is emphasized. Additional cytogenetic studies of this highly enigmatic and minimally studied tumour are warranted.

  3. Human T Cell and Antibody-Mediated Responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Recombinant 85A, 85B, and ESAT-6 Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sergio C.; Macedo, Gilson C.; Teixeira, Henrique C.; Andre Bafica; Adriana Bozzi; Helena Rachel Weinreich

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem throughout the world causing large number of deaths. Effective disease control and eradication programs require the identification of major antigens recognized by the protective responses against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we have investigated humoral and cellular immune responses to M. tuberculosis-specific Ag85A, Ag85B, and ESAT-6 antigens in Brazilian patients with pulmonary (P, n = 13) or extrapulmonary (EP, n = 12) tuberculosis, patients u...

  4. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  5. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  6. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which proved to be a yolk sac tumour and was successfully managed.

  7. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin;

    2015-01-01

    . Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm...... birth, and low birthweight. Antibody responses to the N-terminal region of VAR2CSA during early pregnancy were associated with reduced risks for infections and low birthweight. Among women infected during pregnancy, an increase in CSA binding inhibition was associated with reduced risks for placental...

  8. Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatoe H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.

  9. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  10. Clinical relevance of intermittent tumour blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of translational cancer research is to understand basic 'phenomena' so that tumour response to therapy can be improved. One such phenomenon is intermittent tumour blood flow. The impact of the transient hypoxia that results from decreased tumour blood flow is now beginning to be appreciated in preclinical systems, and also receiving some attention in clinical practise. Thus in this article we review the nature and frequency of microregional blood flow changes in preclinical and clinical tumours and examine the impact of those changes on response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additionally, the implications of non-constant blood flow for both the growth of the unperturbed tumour and the regrowth of surviving tumour clonogens during and after therapy are examined

  11. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of pr...

  12. Placental Tumour: What could it be?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Hadabi, Rahma; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Riyami, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    Placental tumours include placental chorioangiomas, teratomas, haemangiomas, and haematomas. Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours and are the most common placental tumours, with a prevalence of 1%. Large placental chorioangiomas are rare and may lead to pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcomes. These complications include fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, fetal growth restriction, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. We report a case of a large placental chorioangiom...

  13. Computer aided diagnosis of bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four radiologists, three of whom having no special expertise in bone tumour radiology, analysed 177 bone tumours. One of the radiologists, using a computer aided bone tumour program, performed significantly better than the other two at a comparable level of training and was able to compete successfully with the fourth radiologist experienced in bone diagnosis. The results validate the assumption that computer aided diagnostic programs may improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiologists having limited experience with the problem at hand. (Auth.)

  14. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  15. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  16. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria

    OpenAIRE

    Samaila Modupeola

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. Materials and Methods : An eight year (2000-2007) consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumour...

  17. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  18. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of proliferating capillary and cavernous sized vessels in the tumour wall. Such associations are rare and must be differentiated from a vascular neoplasm.

  19. Tumour angiogenesis-Origin of blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Priya, S; Nagare, R P; Sneha, V S; Sidhanth, C; Bindhya, S; Manasa, P; Ganesan, T S

    2016-08-15

    The conventional view of tumour vascularization is that tumours acquire their blood supply from neighbouring normal stroma. Additional methods of tumour vascularization such as intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, vessel co-option and vasculogenesis have been demonstrated to occur. However, the origin of the endothelial cells and pericytes in the tumour vasculature is not fully understood. Their origin from malignant cells has been shown indirectly in lymphoma and neuroblastoma by immuno-FISH experiments. It is now evident that tumours arise from a small population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour initiating cells. Recent data suggest that a proportion of tumour endothelial cells arise from cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells showed identical genetic changes to those identified in tumour cells. However, another report contradicted these results from the earlier studies in glioblastoma and had shown that CSCs give rise to pericytes and not endothelial cells. The main thrust of this review is the critical analysis of the conflicting data from different studies and the remaining questions in this field of research. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is also discussed in detail. The transdifferentiation of CSCs to endothelial cells/pericytes has many implications in the progression and metastasis of the tumours and hence it would be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26934471

  20. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  1. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.)

  2. Tumour Therapy with Particle Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Grupen, C.

    2000-01-01

    Photons are exponentially attenuated in matter producing high doses close to the surface. Therefore they are not well suited for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Charged particles, in contrast, exhibit a sharp increase of ionisation density close to the end of their range, the so-called Bragg-peak. The depth of the Bragg-peak can be adjusted by varying the particle's energy. In parallel with the large energy deposit the increase in biological effectiveness for cell killing at the end of ...

  3. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  4. Human T Cell and Antibody-Mediated Responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Recombinant 85A, 85B, and ESAT-6 Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson C. Macedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a major health problem throughout the world causing large number of deaths. Effective disease control and eradication programs require the identification of major antigens recognized by the protective responses against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we have investigated humoral and cellular immune responses to M. tuberculosis-specific Ag85A, Ag85B, and ESAT-6 antigens in Brazilian patients with pulmonary (P, n=13 or extrapulmonary (EP, n=12 tuberculosis, patients undergoing chemotherapy (PT, n=23, and noninfected healthy individuals (NI, n=7. Compared to NI, we observed increased levels of IgG1 responses to Ag85B and ESAT-6 in P and PT groups. Regarding cellular immunity, Ag85A and ESAT-6 were able to discriminate P, PT, and EP patients from healthy individuals by IFN-γ production and P and PT groups from EP individuals by production of TNF-α. In summary, these findings demonstrate the ability of Ag85A, Ag85B, and ESAT-6 to differentiate TB patients from controls by IgG1, IFN-γ and TNF-α production.

  5. Why are epididymal tumours so rare?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Hei Yeung; Kai Wang; Trevor G Cooper

    2012-01-01

    Epididymal tumour incidence is at most 0.03% of all male cancers.It is an enigma why the human epididymis does not often succumb to cancer,when it expresses markers of stem and cancer cells,and constitutively expresses oncogenes,pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic factors that allow tumour cells to escape immunosurveillance in cancer-prone tissues.The privileged position of the human epididymis in evading tumourigenicity is reflected in transgenic mouse models in which induction of tumours in other organs is not accompanied by epididymal neoplasia.The epididymis appears to:(i) prevent tumour initiation (it probably lacks stem cells and has strong anti-oxidative mechanisms,active tumour suppressors and inactive oncogene products); (ii) foster tumour monitoring and destruction (by strong immuno-surveillance and -eradication,and cellular senescence); (iii) avert proliferation and angiogenesis (with persistent tight junctions,the presence of anti-angiogenic factors and misplaced pro-angiogenic factors),which together (iv) promote dormancy and restrict dividing cells to hyperplasia.Epididymal cells may be rendered non-responsive to oncogenic stimuli by the constitutive expression of factors generally inducible in tumours,and resistant to the normal epididymal environment,which mimics that of a tumour niche promoting tumour growth.The threshold for tumour initiation may thus be higher in the epididymis than in other organs.Several anti-tumour mechanisms are those that maintain spermatozoa quiescent and immunologically silent,so the low incidence of cancer in the epididymis may be a consequence of its role in sperm maturation and storage.Understanding these mechanisms may throw light on cancer prevention and therapy in general.

  6. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  7. Lymphangiogenesis in malignant tumours: Does it occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarijs, R; Ruiter, D J; de Waal, R M

    2001-02-01

    The development of a vascular bed is essential for solid tumour growth and metastasis. In many tumours, mean vascular density can be related to the rate of metastasis and, therefore, to prognosis. In other tumour types, such as cutaneous melanoma and head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, this relation is absent. Until now, the reason for this has been unclear, but since these particular tumour types are also known for their propensity to spread via the lymphatic system, it may be speculated that the presence of a pre-existing lymphatic bed and the formation of new lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) are important factors. Growth factors involved in lymphangiogenesis during embryogenesis have been recently identified and these are also expressed in many tumour types, but the existence of tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis has not so far been reported. Partly, this could be due to the lack of reliable endothelial markers, thereby hampering a consistent evaluation of lymphatic vasculature. This editorial discusses the role of the lymphatic bed in mediating the metastasis of solid tumours, summarizes known methods to detect lymphatics, and proposes a hypothetical mechanism of tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis. PMID:11180158

  8. Wilms' tumour and renal dysplasia: an hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, HB; Lawler, W

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of renal dysplasia in a series of Wilms' tumours is presented. The distribution of such lesions is discussed, together with their course of development and regression. The kidney is regarded as a particularly suitable organ for studying the relation between dysplasia and neoplasia. A schema is suggested for this association with regard to Wilms' tumour.

  9. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  10. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types

  11. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund;

    2013-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  12. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period.

  13. Expressing Tumour Staging Using the Read Thesaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Philip J. B.; Read, Graham; Price, Colin

    1996-01-01

    The expression of tumour staging is an important component of clinical care and the electronic capture of this data offers great potential. Version 3 of the Read Thesaurus includes a template table which offers a robust mechanism for applying specific staging detail to tumours within the clinical record.

  14. Limitations in localising and killing tumours using radiolabelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled antibodies against tumours are being studied intensely for their use in tumour detection and tumour destruction. Although a host of different tumour types can be localised, results at present are no better than other scanning techniques. In addition no tumour has been eradicated using labelled antibodies. Dramatic improvements will depend upon a fuller understanding of tumour cell biology and optimising all the parameters involved. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours by radiation dose redistribution: a modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour hypoxia is a known cause of clinical resistance to radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to model the effects on tumour control probability (TCP) of selectively boosting the dose to hypoxic regions in a tumour, while keeping the mean tumour dose constant. A tumour model with a continuous oxygen distribution, incorporating pO2 histograms published for head and neck patients, was developed. Temporal and spatial variations in the oxygen distribution, non-uniform cell density and cell proliferation during treatment were included in the tumour modelling. Non-uniform dose prescriptions were made based on a segmentation of the tumours into four compartments. The main findings were: (1) Dose redistribution considerably improved TCP for all tumours. (2) The effect on TCP depended on the degree of reoxygenation during treatment, with a maximum relative increase in TCP for tumours with poor or no reoxygenation. (3) Acute hypoxia reduced TCP moderately, while underdosing chronic hypoxic cells gave large reductions in TCP. (4) Restricted dose redistribution still gave a substantial increase in TCP as compared to uniform dose boosts. In conclusion, redistributing dose according to tumour oxygenation status might increase TCP when the tumour response to radiotherapy is limited by chronic hypoxia. This could potentially improve treatment outcome in a subpopulation of patients who respond poorly to conventional radiotherapy

  16. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  17. Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  19. The two aspects of tumour hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia is a therapeutic problem as it renders solid tumours resistant to sparsely ionizing radiation and some forms of chemotherapy. At present it is postulated that tumour hypoxia induces two types of reactions. On the one hand tissue O2 concentration 2 2 0.5-20 mm Hg), not severely, hypoxic cells may be of the greatest importance in determining biological resistance. The methods of assessing hypoxia currently applied in clinical practice are not satisfactory. However, recent advances in imaging technologies suggest that in the near future it might be possible to track temporal changes in O2 level and acute and chronic hypoxic tumour sub fractions. The ultimate goal is understanding tumour biology basing on the clinical bio markers that reflect hypoxia-associated genetic or proteomic signatures in tumour cells, in order to individualize therapy. (authors)

  20. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  1. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  2. Interaction of human IgG chimeric antibodies with the human FcRI and FcRII receptors: requirements for antibody-mediated host cell-target cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M R; Woof, J M; Brüggemann, M; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1989-04-01

    Chimeric monoclonal antibodies (McAb), specific for the hapten 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl (NIP), expressing human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 subclass constant domains, have been examined for their ability to interact with the human FcRII receptor. Human red blood cells (RBC) sensitized by each of these McAbs have been assayed for their ability to form rosettes with the human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line, human B cell line Daudi and erythroblastoid K562 cell line. IgG1 and IgG3 sensitized RBC formed significant rosettes with the FcR- and FcRII+ Daudi and K562 cell lines, the percentage of cells forming rosettes being directly proportional to the degree of sensitization of the RBC. Bromelin treating Daudi cells did not alter this pattern of reactivity, whereas bromelin treated FcRI+ and FcRII+ U937 cells formed significant resettes with IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 sensitized RBC, demonstrating a difference in the IgG subclass specificity between human FcRI and FcRII. Murine IgG2b anti-NIP sensitized RBC did not form rosettes with any cell line tested; however, RBC sensitized by some members of a panel of murine IgG1 McAb, specific for the glycophorin A molecule, were able to form rosettes with Daudi, U937 and K562 cells. This interaction was enhanced by bromelin treating the Daudi or U937 cells and can be correlated to the disposition of the epitopes recognized, relative to the target cell membrane, those McAbs recognizing epitopes furthest from the RBC surface being most effective in interacting with FcRII. The data are interpreted in terms of a simple model for antibody-mediated cell--cell interaction. PMID:2716734

  3. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Radioimmunoassay for the measurement of tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the new concept of tumour markers (TM) includes not only the ''classical'' secretion products bu also all changes (immunological, biochemical, morphological, antigenic, etc.) which the cell undergoes throughout the transformation process. With the use of isotopic methods we can determine some tumour markers in biological fluids which are useful in clinical practice (preferentially in the follow-up of cancer patients undergoing treatment). Nevertheless, with the new concept to TM, we can also determine other new substances in tumour specimens, prior to any treatment, which can help in the early characterization of the tumour (tissular markers) related to hormone dependence, aggressiveness, drug resistance, free survival interval, etc. The isotopic methods allow us to determine hormone receptors (e.g. oestrogen, androgen, progesterone receptors), growth factor receptors (e.g. epidermal, insulin-like, platelet derived), changes in oncogenes and anti-oncogenes (amplifications, mutations, deletions, overexpression, etc.) oncogene and anti-oncogene products (neu, p53, Rb protein, etc.), proteinases (cathepsins, collagenases, etc.), proteinase inhibitors, some biochemical changes of the different components of cell surface, proteins related to drug resistance and to cell proliferation, etc. In conclusion, the new concept of tumour marker includes all aspects of tumours cells and requires an intercollaborative and co-ordinated study to determine early on the behaviour (characterization) of a tumour and to provide the oncologist with ''real'' information. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  6. [34 epibulbar malignant tumours (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzenberg, T; Vancea, P P; Dobrescu, G

    1979-02-01

    Based on a study of 34 cases, the authors make therapeutical and diagnostical references concerning the epibulbar malignant tumours. These were met with a frequency of 10% of the total amount of the malignant tumours of the visual apparatus. The most frequent setting were at the level of the bulbar conjunctiva and of the sclero-corneal limb, especially in front of the opening of the palpebral slit and in the temporal area. The histological examination of the tumours pointed out the following morphological types; epitheliomas (61%), especially spino-cellular, malignant melanomas (32%) and sarcomas (6%). The therapeutical attitude was the surgical one -- the accurate extirpation -- in the limited tumours, followed by radiotherapy when neoplasic lesions were found at the limit of section. In the invaded tumours, the exenteration of the orbit was performed followed by radiotherapy. On the terms of such a therapeutical conduct, the distant prognosis proved to be dependent on two factors: a. The early diagnosis, that is the stage of the therapeutical action. It is insisted upon the importance of the signs of malignization of some benign tumors: papillomas or naevi. b. The nature and origin of the tumour: the secondary tumours are more severe from the beginning. PMID:444115

  7. Protective effects of L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in proximal tubular cells against glomerular injury in anti-GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaguchi, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Osaki, Ken; Sugaya, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Background. In glomerulonephritis (GN), an overload of free fatty acids (FFA) bound to albumin in urinary protein may induce oxidative stress in the proximal tubules. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in human proximal tubules, but not rodents, participates in intracellular FFA metabolism and exerts anti-oxidative effects on the progression of tubulointerstitial damage. We examined whether tubular enhancement of this anti-oxidative action modulates the progressio...

  8. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumour progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterina eD'Asti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumours. The clinical intractability of many brain tumours and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs. Their biogenesis (vesiculation and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumour cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumour-derived EVs (oncosomes also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA and microRNA (miR. Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumour microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumour-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII, tumour suppressors (PTEN and oncomirs (miR-520g. It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of brain tumour patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumours (e.g. glioma or medulloblastoma. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies.

  9. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm3) and mucinous (6358.2 cm3) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim

  10. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  12. Clinic histological pattern of ovarian tumours in peshawar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian tumours are one of the major health problems confronting the general practitioners in general and gynaecologists in particular. Ovarian tumours may either be asymptomatic, found on the routine ultrasound examination or symptoms may be vague till the patient has an acute emergency like torsion or rupture of a benign cyst. The worst is late presentation of a malignant ovarian tumour. There is marked variation in the presentation of the tumour as well as in histological types. This study was undertaken to analyse modes of presentation and various histopathological patterns of ovarian tumours. This study was conducted from 1st January, 2002 to 31st December, 2002, in Gynaecology 'A' Unit, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) Peshawar. After admitting patients with ovarian tumours a detailed case history was taken followed by thorough clinical examination. All the relevant details were recorded using the questionnaire. Patients were investigated after performing various surgical procedures; the specimens of ovarian tumours were subjected to Histopathological examination in the histopathology section, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Amongst the total numbers of 5732 gynaecological admissions during study period the total numbers of ovarian tumours were sixty-eight. Out of which benign ovarian tumours were 61 (89.71%) and malignant ovarian tumours were 7 (10.29%) There were no tumours with borderline malignancy. The commonest histological pattern observed in the study was epithelial tumours (76.5%) including both benign and malignant tumours. The commonest benign tumour was serous cyst adenoma (24%) followed by mature cystic teratoma (18%). Common malignant ovarian tumours were granulosa cell tumours and Endometriod carcinoma (each 28.5%). Epithelial tumours are the commonest variety of ovarian tumours followed by Germ cell tumours. The histological type of ovarian tumour correlates with the prognosis of the tumour. (author)

  13. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalopathies and Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Thouin, Anaïs; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. The diseases are not invariably cancer-related and are therefore different from the classical paraneoplastic neurological diseases that are associated with, but not caused by, Abs to intracellular proteins. Most importantly, the new antibody-associated diseases almost invariably respond to immunotherapies with considerable and sometimes complete recovery, and there is convincing evidence of their pathogenicity in the relatively limited studies performed so far. Treatments include first-line steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasma exchange, and second-line rituximab and cyclophosphamide, followed in many cases by steroid-sparing agents in the long-term. This review focuses mainly on N-methyl D-aspartate receptor- and voltage-gated potassium channel complex-related Abs in adults, the clinical phenotypes, and treatment responses. Pediatric cases are referred to but not reviewed in detail. As there have been very few prospective studies, the conclusions regarding immunotherapies are based on retrospective studies. PMID:26692392

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone tumours and mimics: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays several roles in the evaluation of bone tumours and tumour-like conditions. Basic MRI technique for evaluation of bone tumours is discussed in this article, and the local staging of bone tumours and the MRI appearance of common and characteristic osseous lesions are reviewed. (author)

  15. Solitary perirenal metastasis from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour mimicking a primary renal tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncommon case of a large solitary perirenal metastasis from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) mimicking a primary renal tumour, is presented. A metastatic MPNST to the perirenal space is unusual and, in this rare location, is difficult to differentially diagnose from a primary renal tumour. It is shown that in differentiating between a solitary metastasis and a primary neoplasm, surgical or pre cutaneous biopsy will be necessary for a final diagnosis. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. TSH receptors in human thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the binding of human TSH (h-TSH) to various human thyroid tumour s using radio receptor assay technique, 26 thyroid tumour specimens were examined. Five specimens did not show displacement by stable h-TSH. A wide variation was observed in B0, non specific binding, affinity and capacity of TSH in all the tumours examined. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of h-TSH to thyroid membranes suggested the presence of the receptors in 57.7 per cent (15 of 26, Ka≥ 109) and more than one component in 46 per cent (12 of 26) of the tumours studied. There was no consistent pattern of the binding of TSH for thyroid tissue with respect to its pathology. However, with 35 pairs of observations log affinity appeared to be linearly related to log capacity with a slope -0.95, intercept 9.96 and r value -0.93. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Chronic anaemia, hyperbaric oxygen and tumour radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.; Nias, A.H.W.; Smith, Eileen (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK). Richard Dimbleby Research Lab.)

    1990-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anaemia and tumour response to radiation given in air or HPO in C{sub 3}H mice transplanted with a mammary adenocarcinoma using a growth delay assay to assess radiation response. Radiation studies with these anaemic mice demonstrated that the tumour radiosensitivity was decreased when treatment was given in air. HPO was successful in overcoming the increased radioresistance associated with anaemia. This result suggested that tumours grown in anaemic mice have a higher hypoxic fraction than those grown in control mice. Changes in host physiology with chronic anaemia may contribute to the benefit seen with HPO but such alterations per se may be inadequate to maintain tumour oxygenation when treatment is given in air. (author).

  18. Computerized tomography of fatty tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    34 fatty tissue tumours were diagnosed in the course of 7 040 CT scans, including rare intracranial, intraspinal, intrahepatic and intrarenal localisations. The fatty tissue tumours were examined in respect of position, size, absorption coefficients, marginal structure and relation to the adjacent organs. Growths with density values below -80 HU were safely diagnosed as lipomas. Tumours with density values abow -80 HU will almost always require clarification of diagnosis by surgical means. In some patients, computerized tomography can help to avoid the risks of general narcosis for exploratory laparotomy in cases where the space-occupying growth would otherwise be of a doubtful nature. The three-dimensional extension of the tumour can be demonstrated in all body regions. Computerized tomography supplies information on the infiltration of the liposarcoma into neighbouring organs. Such information has become indispensable for proper planning of surgery and radiotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Angiographic diagnosis and differentiation of pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an 8-year period (1971-1978) 92 patients were examined because of suspected pancreatic tumour and the following symptoms were found: in 13 cases (14.1%) inoperable pancreatic carcinoma, in 2 cases insuloma, in 5 patients pancreatic cyst, in 5 cases pancreatitis, in one patient pancreatic abscess and in 12 cases alterations in the environing organs. The observed angiographic symptoms are described in detail. Except the richly vascularized tumour grown together with the stomach all pancreatic carcinomas were poor in vessels and they caused tumourous invasions in the greater arteries. The obliteration of the lienal vein, as well as the development of mesenteric venous collateral circulation signify an inoperable stage. The signs of the differential diagnosis of the pancreatitis and the carcinoma are dealt with in detail. In case of secondary pancreatic tumours - not even detectable by post-mortem examination - the angiographic signs are to be taken into consideration. (author)

  20. Primary malignant tumours of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, G A; Wilson, J H; Dees, J

    1985-04-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in 19 patients with primary duodenal malignancy are described. Weight loss, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were the main symptoms. Diagnosis was made by endoscopy or ERCP (71%) or by barium studies (68%). In retrospect the tumour was visible in 97% of the studies. Tumour growth was longitudinal, circular or spiral, the inner curvature being involved over a greater length than the outer curvature. Exophytic tumour growth, involvement of the papilla of Vater, malignant spikes, transient, non-constant tumour image, skip lesions and ulceration were often seen. Mean survival time was 18 months from start of symptoms in 10 inoperable patients, and 24 months in 9 patients undergoing resection. PMID:2986213

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Intracranial Tumours Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Barrueta Reyes; Juan Guillermo Trigo Naranjo

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Intracranial Tumours Treatment. We review the physiopathology, diagnosis (stressing screening studies) and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  2. Radiation biology of human tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation response of human tumour xenografts can be measured with sufficient accuracy using cell survival in vitro and tumour growth delay in vivo as endpoints. There is evidence that radiation response of xenografts mirrors clinical radioresponsiveness of corresponding tumours in patients. Thus xenografts may have a significant potential in experimental radiotherapeutic research, e.g. in development of in vitro and in vivo predictive assays of clinical radioresponsiveness. There are at least three main disadvantages with xenografts as models for human cancer. Firstly, volume doubling time is usually shorter for xenografts than for tumours in patients. Secondly, the haematological system and vascular network of xenografts originate from the host. Thirdly, host defence mechanisms may be active against xenografts. These disadvantages may limit the usefulness of xenografts as models for human cancer in some types of radiobiological studies. (author)

  3. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a questionably benign tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a rare intracranial tumour of childhood that involves the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges. We report two patients with desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas and multiple cerebrospinal metastases. To our knowledge, only two similar cases have been reported in the published literature. Pathologically, this rare intracranial tumour shows glial and ganglionic differentiation, accompanied by an extreme desmoplastic reaction. These are low-grade neoplasms that are questionably benign. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Putrescine accumulation in human pulmonary tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoet, P H; Dinsdale, D.; Verbeken, E.K.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B

    1996-01-01

    Type II pneumocytes and Clara cells, both epithelial cells that possess an active uptake system for polyamines, have been identified as possible precursor cells of at least some types of lung tumours. In this study we have investigated whether human pulmonary tumours exhibit putrescine uptake. Lung slices from both tumoral tissue and non-tumoral tissue, obtained from patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer, were incubated with radiolabelled putrescine at both 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C....

  5. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach. PMID:19776004

  6. Somatostatin analogue treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    de Herder, W. W.; van der Lely, A.J.; Lamberts, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    The long-acting analogues of somatostatin have an established place in the medical treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. They act through binding with specific, high-affinity membrane receptors. Somatostatin analogue therapy is an effective and safe treatment for most growth hormone and thyrothropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. The potential therapeutic consequences of the presence of somatostatin receptors on clinically 'nonfunctioning' pituitary tumours are still uncertain. So...

  7. Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

    2001-12-01

    In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours. PMID:11734406

  8. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  9. Tumour size in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a randomized trial comprising 204 patients with operable cervical carcinomas stages I and II, two low-dose rates in gynaecological brachytherapy were compared. Treatment consisted of Cs-137 uterovaginal application followed by surgery (either immedidate or delayed). The results for the two dose rates have been published previously. The present paper concerns the correlation between outcome and tumour size. Tumour size was carefully estimated in two ways: by clinical examination under general anaesthesia and by measurements on the customized vaginal mould used for the brachytherapy. Ninety-one patients (45%) were classified as stage I, and 113 were classified as stage II proximal. The mean tumour size was 39 mm (range 15-64 mm). Cox's multivariate analysis indicated that the factors with a poor prognostic value were for survival: node involvement (N+) (p<0.001), large tumour size (T+) (p<0.001); for local control; N+ (p=0.0001); for metastasis and regional relapse: N+ (p<0.001) and T+ (p<0.001). Stage was not a prognostic factor over the present range in either univariate or multivariate analysis. In this series tumour size is a powerful independent prognostic factor. It is therefore suggested that for the classification of cervical cancer and the indications for surgical staging and adjuvant treatment, tumour size should be taken into account. (orig.)

  10. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, W; Kruitwagen, R; Bastiaans, B; Hanselaar, T; Rolland, R

    1993-04-17

    Ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility is far from physiological because patients and their ovaries are exposed to high concentrations of gonadotropins. Many studies have focused on the two most common side-effects of ovarian stimulation--ie, hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy. We describe 12 patients in whom granulosa-cell tumour was discovered after ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate and/or gonadotropins. Although we cannot prove a causal link between the tumour and the medication, investigations in animals have shown a relation between gonadotropin exposition and the development of granulosa-cell tumours. The possible relation of ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumours in human beings has not been published before. We postulate three explanations for this finding; first, the granulosa-cell tumour is present in the ovary, waiting for a hormonal trigger; second, increased follicle stimulating hormone concentrations are oncogenic to granulosa cell; and third, the onset of the granulosa-cell tumour during ovarian stimulation is coincidental. We recommend that ovarian stimulation is done only if there is a valid indication after proper assessment of the ovaries, and that women who have had ovarian stimulation are followed for longer than at present. PMID:8096944

  11. Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küster Jens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females. Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed. Case report A 47-year-old postmenopausal female presented to the urologist with flank pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 30-mm-in-diameter uniform mass adjacent to the pelvis of the left kidney. Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney. The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney. By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma. Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour. Discussion MEST typically presents in perimenopausal women as a primarily cystic mass. Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis. The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas. The stromal cells typically demonstrate an ovarian-type stroma showing expression for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conclusion MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman. The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms. By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour. Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.

  12. Variable tumour blood flow influences tumour growth and hypoxia in rodents and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are studying the causes and implications of variable tumour blood flow in clinical and xenografted tumours using immunohistochemical techniques with flow cytometry and image analysis. Both established tumour xenograft systems and biopsies of in-situ cervical cancer after pimonidazole administration have been evaluated. In the laboratory, enzymatic reduction of part of the biopsy to a single cell suspension has been followed by pulse labelling with iododeoxyuridine, then fixation for flow analysis of DNA content. The remaining material, like that from xenografts infused with Hoechst 33342 to indicate blood flow, has been analyzed by image cytometry after staining with proliferation (IUdR, PCNA or Ki-67/MIB1) or structural (cytokeratin, CD31, CD104, etc.) markers. The variability of tumour blood flow that can be easily documented in xenografts leads to discontinuities in proliferation and hypoxia that appear to be duplicated in the clinic. Interestingly, more than half of the tumours with substantial pimonidazole labelling showed hypoxic cells capable of incorporating IUdR in vitro, thus suggesting transient hypoxia in in-situ human tumours. Other evidence also suggests that tumour blood flow is non-constant in patients. Two preliminary conclusions are emerging: 1) non-constant blood flow that provides an additional restriction on tumour growth rate in the pre-treatment situation may lead to rapidly accelerated repopulation following the initiation of chemo- or radiotherapy, and 2) a significant fraction of human cervix cancers may express both 'acute' and 'chronic' hypoxia. Both observations are consistent with non-constant blood flow leading to dynamic time-dependent changes in hypoxia and proliferation patterns. With our xenograft systems, we are now undertaking 3-D assessments of tumour vasculature and its function that are expected to provide an improved understanding of the tumour-level factors that result in non-constant tumour blood flow

  13. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on antibody-mediated immune response and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens immunized with T-cell dependent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Echeverry, H; Crow, G H; Slominski, B A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on innate and antibody mediated immune response in broiler chickens following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). One-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments of 9 replicate cages of 5 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a Control diet without antibiotic, and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus containing processed yeast and nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On days 21 and 28 post-hatching, 5 birds per treatment were immunized intramuscularly with both SRBC and BSA. One week after each immunization, blood samples were collected. Serum samples were analyzed by hemagglutination test for antibody response to SRBC, and by ELISA for serum IgM and IgG response to BSA. On d 35, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and the tissue samples from the cecal tonsils were collected to assess the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, monocyte mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-12p35, and IFN-γ. The results for gene expression analysis demonstrated that the diet supplemented with YCW increased the expression of TLR2b and T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 relative to the Control; and the expression of TLR4 and IL-13 was upregulated in the nucleotide-containing diet. However, the diets containing antibiotics or Maxi-Gen Plus downregulated the expression of IFN-γ compared to the control. The primary antibody response to SRBC was not affected by diets. However, the diet containing YCW increased the secondary antibody response to SRBC compared to the antibiotic treatment. Neither primary nor secondary IgG and IgM response against BSA were affected by diets. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with YCW stimulated Th2 cell

  14. Brain tumour migration and invasion. The role of in vitro model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human primary (intrinsic) brain tumours rarely metastasis to distant organs, however they do show a marked propensity for diffuse infiltrative invasion of the contiguous, normal brain tissue. This is arguably the most important biological feature of this group of - predominantly glial - neoplasms. Single neoplastic glia may migrate several millimetres, or even centimetres from the major tumour mass and there is increasing evidence that during the migratory phase these cells transiently arrest from the cell cycle therefore rendering them refractory to therapeutic radiation. Moreover, they are protected from the action of the majority of cytotoxic drugs by virtue of their investment within areas of intact blood-brain barrier. These migratory, socalled ''guerrilla'' cells later return to the division phase, under hither to unknown microenvironmental cues, to form local recurrences of the primary tumour. (author)

  15. Lessons from T cell responses to virus induced tumours for cancer eradication in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melief, C J; Kast, W M

    1992-01-01

    Immunotherapy of virus induced tumours by adoptive transfer of virus specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is now feasible in experimental murine systems. These CTL recognize viral peptide sequences of defined length presented in the groove of MHC class I molecules. Effective eradication of large tumour masses requires coadministration of IL-2. In essence, T cell immunity against virus induced tumours does not differ from anti-viral T cell immunity in general. Tumour escape strategies are numerous but, in various instances, can be counteracted by defined measures. Initiation of CTL responses against poorly immunogenic non-virus induced tumours (the majority of human cancer) requires novel strategies to overcome T cell inertia. Rather than waiting to see whether tumour specific CTL (against unknown antigens) can be cultured from TIL, we propose an alternative strategy in which CTL are raised against target molecules of choice, including differentiation antigens of restricted tissue distribution (autoantigens) or mutated/overexpressed oncogene products. The various steps proposed include: (a) identification of target molecules of choice; (b) identification in these target molecules of MHC allele specific peptide motifs involved in peptide binding to MHC molecules; (c) evaluation of actual binding of such peptides to specific MHC class I molecules; (d) in vitro CTL response induction by such peptides, presented either by highly efficient antigen presenting cells (such as processing defective cells, which carry empty MHC class I molecules) loaded with a single peptide or by dendritic cells, both cell types being capable of primary CTL response induction in vitro and (e) adoptive transfer of tumour specific CTL generated in vivo or, more conveniently, vaccination with immunodominant peptides. The latter possibility seems to be feasible because peptide vaccination with a single immunodominant viral peptide can install CTL memory and confer protection against lethal virus

  16. The response of tumour vasculature to angiotensin II revealed by its systemic and local administration to 'tissue-isolated' tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, G M; Shaffi, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    A tissue-isolated preparation of the P22 rat carcinosarcoma was used to investigate the tumour vascular response to angiotensin II (ATII). In particular, the relative importance of systemic and local tumour factors was assessed by comparing tumour vascular resistance during systemic administration of ATII and during administration directly into the tumour-supplying artery. The effect of hypervolaemia on tumour vascular resistance was determined as well as the effect of ATII on oxygen metaboli...

  17. Synchronous and Metachronous Malignant Tumours expect the un-expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate occurrence of synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours, to find tumour types, age group, and relationship to treatment received. Methods: Previously diagnosed first primary tumour cases experiencing a synchronous or metachronous tumour, seen at AOI from February 2003 to August 2009 (78 months) were included. The cases were analyzed for morphology/histology of first primary tumour, age and gender of patient, treatment received for first tumour, time interval between the first and second primary tumour, morphology/histology of second tumour, and the treatment conferred for second tumour. Results: The second synchronous and metachronous tumours were 46/4025 (1.14%), in 18 males and 28 females (M:F 1:1.6). The age range was 16-75 years (median 43 years). The follow up time was 24-150 months. The time to second primary tumour was 2-132 months. The first primary tumours were breast, ovary, GIT and urinary bladder. The patients received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy alone or as multi-modality treatment for the first tumours. The frequent second tumours were breast, ovary and Gastro Intestinal tumours. Conclusion: It is imperative that patients with a primary malignant tumour should be thoroughly, closely, and regularly followed. Genetic counseling, risk estimation, cancer screening and hemo prevention must be emphasized. Every subsequent occurring tumour should be biopsied. The effect of first tumour on the second or vice versa are still not fully understood and need exploration. The second primary tumour is usually more aggressive, treatment resistant, and metastasizes early requiring a more aggressive treatment strategy. (author)

  18. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  19. Tumour-induced neoneurogenesis and perineural tumour growth: a mathematical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Georgios; Bianchi, Arianna; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis. The present work is a first attempt to model the neurobiological aspect of cancer development through a system of differential equations. The model confirms the experimental observations that a tumour is able to promote nerve formation/elongation around itself, and that high levels of nerve growth factor and axon guidance molecules are recorded in the presence of a tumour. Our results also reflect the observation that high stress levels (represented by higher norepinephrine release by sympathetic nerves) contribute to tumour development and spread, indicating a mutually beneficial relationship between tumour cells and neurons. The model predictions suggest novel therapeutic strategies, aimed at blocking the stress effects on tumour growth and dissemination.

  20. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, L.; Bezak, E.; Olver, I.; van Doorn, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure.

  1. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure

  2. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

  3. A retrospective study of ovarian tumours and tumour-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ovaries are common site of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. They can present from the neonatal period to post menopause. Most are functional in nature and resolve with minimal treatment. Objective of the study was to determine the nature of various ovarian lesions and to ascertain the frequency and distribution of the various non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Methods: The study was a retrospective review of all cases of ovarian cancer, benign ovarian neoplasm and functional ovarian cysts received during Jan-Dec 2008 at Chughtai's Lahore Laboratory. The clinical data of the patients was obtained from their respective files. Results: A total of 498 different non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were seen during one calendar year 2008. Non-neoplastic cysts were more common (343, 68.87%) than neoplastic tumours (155, 31.12%). The commonest non-neoplastic cyst was luteal cyst followed by follicular cyst. Among the neoplastic tumours 78.70% were benign and 21.29% were malignant. Benign serous cysts were the commonest benign tumour followed by mature cystic teratoma and mucinous cyst. Serous cyst adenocarcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour followed closely by endometrioid carcinoma and granulosa cell tumour. Krukenberg tumour, tumour metastatic to ovaries and non-Hodgkins lymphoma was also diagnosed during this period. Malignant germ cell tumours were seen in much younger age group followed by sex cord stromal tumours. Epithelial tumours were seen in much older age group. Conclusion: The morphologic diversity of ovarian masses poses many challenges. A specific diagnosis can usually be made by evaluating routinely stained slides but sometimes immunohistochemistry is required in difficult cases. Gross features also provide useful diagnostic clues. (author)

  4. Targeting ALCAM in the cryo-treated tumour microenvironment successfully induces systemic anti-tumour immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Fuwa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Cryoablative treatment has been widely used for treating cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacies are still controversial. The molecular mechanisms of the cryo-induced immune responses, particularly underlying the ineffectiveness, remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a new molecular mechanism involved in the cryo failure. We used cryo-ineffective metastatic tumour models that murine melanoma B16-F10 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted into C57BL/6 mice. When the subcutaneous tumours were treated cryoablation on day 7 after tumour implantation, cells expressing activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) were significantly expanded not only locally in the treated tumours but also systemically in spleen and bone marrow of the mice. The cryo-induced ALCAM(+) cells including CD45(-) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly suppressed interferon γ production and cytotoxicity of tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells via ALCAM expressed in these cells. This suggests that systemic expansion of the ALCAM(+) cells negatively switches host-immune directivity to the tumour-supportive mode. Intratumoural injection with anti-ALCAM blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) following the cryo treatment systemically induced tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher cytotoxic activities, resulting in suppression of tumour growth and metastasis in the cryo-resistant tumour models. These suggest that expansion of ALCAM(+) cells is a determinant of limiting the cryo efficacy. Further combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-CTLA4 mAb optimized the anti-tumour efficacy of the dual-combination therapy. Targeting ALCAM may be a promising strategy for overcoming the cryo ineffectiveness leading to the better practical use of cryoablation in clinical treatment of cancer. PMID:27208904

  5. Tumour-host dynamics under radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placeres Jimenez, Rolando, E-mail: rpjcu@yahoo.com [Departamento de Fi' sica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Ortiz Hernandez, Eloy [Centre of Medicine and Complexity, Medical University Carlos J. Finlay, Carretera Central s/n, Camagueey (Cuba)

    2011-09-15

    Highlight: > Tumour-host interaction is modelled by Lotka-Volterra equations. > A brief review of the motion integral and analysis of linear stability is presented. > Radiotherapy is introduced into the model, using a periodic Dirac delta function. > A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model. > It is shown that tumour can be controlled by a correct selection of therapy strategy. - Abstract: Tumour-host interaction is modelled by the Lotka-Volterra equations. Qualitative analysis and simulations show that this model reproduces all known states of development for tumours. Radiotherapy effect is introduced into the model by means of the linear-quadratic model and the periodic Dirac delta function. The evolution of the system under the action of radiotherapy is simulated and parameter space is obtained, from which certain threshold of effectiveness values for the frequency and applied doses are derived. A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model and used to simulate the effectiveness of radiotherapy in different regimens of tumour development. The results show the possibility of achieving a successful treatment in each individual case by employing the correct therapeutic strategy.

  6. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  7. Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, Asif [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Brockley Hill, HA7 4LP, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. X-rays pinpoint tumour targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a surgeon in Birmingham used an X-ray photograph to guide the removal of a needle buried in a woman's hand in January 1896, it became the first X-ray guided operation in medical history. Since then X-rays have been widely used for medical imaging, and 'computed tomography' now provides us with exquisite 2D cross-sectional images of the human body. The technique creates images by passing X-rays along a plane through the body and recording the transmitted signals from various angles. A 'CT scan' lets us locate and visualize tumours with a resolution of 1 mm. But there is more to X-rays than imaging - they can also treat patients by killing cancerous tumours. When X-rays interact with tissue, they release highly reactive radicals that break the double strands in DNA molecules and cause the rapidly dividing cancerous cells to die. But because X-rays kill both healthy and diseased tissue in equal measure, it is vital to minimize the radiation received by healthy organs and tissue surrounding the tumour. The goal of radiotherapy is to find the precise location of a tumour using a CT scan - or other imaging technique - and then concentrate the X-rays on it to destroy the diseased tissue. In the August issue of Physics World Matin Durrani describes how intensity-modulated radiation therapy can deliver precise doses of X-rays to tumours while leaving surrounding, healthy tissue relatively unscathed. (U.K.)

  9. A STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMOURS : CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  10. Novel antimalarial antibodies highlight the importance of the antibody Fc region in mediating protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleass, Richard J; Ogun, Solabomi A; McGuinness, David H; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Holder, Anthony A; Woof, Jenny M

    2003-12-15

    Parasite drug resistance and difficulties in developing effective vaccines have precipitated the search for alternative therapies for malaria. The success of passive immunization suggests that immunoglobulin (Ig)-based therapies are effective. To further explore the mechanism(s) by which antibody mediates its protective effect, we generated human chimeric IgG1 and IgA1 and a single-chain diabody specific for the C-terminal 19-kDa region of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119), a major target of protective immune responses. These novel human reagents triggered in vitro phagocytosis of merozoites but, unlike their parental mouse IgG2b, failed to protect against parasite challenge in vivo. Therefore, the Fc region appears critical for mediating protection in vivo, at least for this MSP119 epitope. Such antibodies may serve as prototype therapeutic agents, and as useful tools in the development of in vitro neutralization assays with Plasmodium parasites. PMID:12855589

  11. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Mukada, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Arita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Sugiyama, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Onda, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Satoh, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Migita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  12. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S. E-mail: laushunhk@yahoo.com.hk; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L

    2004-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed.

  13. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our interpretation of HRMAS data and the translation of NMR tumour biomarkers to in-vivo studies. Results 1D and 2D 1H HRMAS NMR was used to determine that 29 small molecule metabolites, along with 8 macromolecule signals, account for the majority of the HRMAS spectrum of the main types of brain tumour (astrocytoma grade II, grade III gliomas, glioblastomas, metastases, meningiomas and also lymphomas. Differences in concentration of 20 of these metabolites were statistically significant between these brain tumour types. During the course of an extended 2D data acquisition the HRMAS technique itself affects sample analysis: glycine, glutathione and glycerophosphocholine all showed small concentration changes; analysis of the sample after HRMAS indicated structural damage that may affect subsequent histopathological analysis. Conclusions A number of small molecule metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of tumour type that may enable development of more selective in-vivo 1H NMR acquisition methods for diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumours.

  14. Angiofibroma, a rare cardiac tumour in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibromas, located in any other sites than nasopharynx are unusual. Cardiac angiofibromas are a very rare cardiac tumours in comparison to rhabdomyomas which are the commonest in the children. We report a right ventricular tumour in a10 year old girl which was excised under cardiopulmonary bypass successfully and diagnosed as angiofibroma on histopathology. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 51-54 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8702  

  15. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a very rare entity in head and neck with high rate of recurrences and local invasiveness. This tumour is usually found in lower extremities and only 10-12% occur in head and neck region. The diagnosis is considered as the most elusive and difficult among soft tissue sarcomas because of its non specific presentation, both clinically as well as pathologically. This difficulty has now been overcome by immunohistochemistry. We report here a case of MPNST in a 50 years old male with a localized right maxillary growth. (author)

  16. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diracca Laura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C, its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Methods Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG, ten benign (BT and 32 malignant (MT tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. Results All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. Conclusion The number of both

  17. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  18. Extracutaneous glomus tumour of the trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łochowski, Mariusz Piotr; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, Józef

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presenting expiratory stridor and high-grade dyspnoea was admitted to hospital in Lodz in February 2013. Chest radiographs and computed tomography scans showed a solid lesion in the upper part of the trachea occluding 85% of the airway lumen. A segmental resection of the trachea with a subsequent end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology showed an extracutaneous glomus tumour. There were no postoperative complications. Tracheal resection is the primary curative method in cases of this rare tumour. PMID:26702289

  19. [Surgical treatment of children with hepatic tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A.; Kvist, N.; Kirkegaard, P.;

    2008-01-01

    difference in survival dependent on the type of resection, and there was no impact of the extension of tumour growth at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection or liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in all children with......INTRODUCTION: In this paper we review the results of surgical treatment of children with hepatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprises 33 children who have undergone lever resection or liver transplantation since 1990. 26 patients had hepatoblastoma, 3 had hepatocellular carcinoma, 2...

  20. Wilms' tumour and parental age: a report from the National Wilms' Tumour Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, J. M.; Breslow, N. E.; Beckwith, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Age distributions of parents at birth of patients registered in the National Wilms' Tumour Study were compared to those of the general population. An increasing incidence of sporadic Wilms' tumour with increasing paternal age was found, with a relative risk of 2.1 of tumour in children of fathers over 55 compared to children of fathers younger than 20. A similar effect for maternal age was found, with a relative risk of 1.4 in children of mothers over 40 compared to children of mothers younge...

  1. Coupled modeling of tumour angiogenesis, tumour growth,and blood perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a more realistic mathematical simulation method to investigate the dynamic process of tumour angio-genesis by fully coupling the vessel growth,tumour growth and associated blood perfusion.The tumour growth and angiogenesis are coupled by the chemical microenvironment and the cell-matrix interaction.The haemodynamic calculation is carried out on the new vasculature,and an estimation of vessel collapse is made according to the wall shear stress criterion.The results are consistent with phy...

  2. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The growth in biotechnology has led to new techniques for the design, selection and production of ligands capable of molecular recognition. One promising approach is the production of specific receptor binding molecules based on specific nucleic acid sequences that are capable of recognising a wide array of target molecules. These oligonuclide ligands are known as aptamers. The technology that allows production of aptamer molecules is known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). We have used combinatorial chemistry techniques coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly select aptamers from degenerate libraries that bind with high affinity and specificity to the protein core of the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy. MUC1 is widely expressed by normal glandular epithelial cells, however this expression is dramatically increased when the cells become malignant. This has been well documented for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as some lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Recently it has also been shown that MUC1 is a valuable marker for bladder and has been used for the imaging and targeted therapy of bladder cancer. The aptamer selection process was performed on affinity chromatography matrices. After ten rounds of selection and amplification, aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Post SELEX amino modifications have been used to confer nuclease resistance and coupling potential. The aptamers bound to MUC1 antigen with a Kd of 5nm and high specificity, demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy on MUC1-expressing tumour cells. Using peptide coupling reactions, we have successfully attached chelators for Tc-99m radiolabelling. Two of the constructs tested were based on mono-aptamer chelator complexes, one with commercially available MAG3 and one with a novel designed cyclen-based chelator. The other two constructs were based on the use of multi-aptamer complexes

  3. Models of tumourigenesis and their relevance for tumour pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Mader

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complex interplay between tumour biology and tumour pharmacology is the most promising approach to implement novel and rationally designed pharmacologic concepts. The current models of tumourigenesis are an indispensable impetus to this learning process.

  4. Pedunculated islet-cell tumour of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, R P

    1966-05-01

    An unusual islet-cell tumour found at necropsy in a patient who had died from a myocardial infarction is described. Of particular interest were the pedunculated nature and large size of the tumour. The clinical features of the case are considered. Four islet-cell tumours in the duodenum have previously been reported and it seems probable that such tumours arise in heterotopic pancreas. PMID:4287114

  5. Contributory role of viral infection in congenital tumour development

    OpenAIRE

    Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Sarmadi, Soheila; Moeini, Maryam; Vasei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Nima; Abbasi, Ata; Shahsiah, Reza; Tanzifi, Parin; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Congenital tumours are a group of distinct infrequent disorders whose exact aetiologies have not clearly been understood so far. Viral infection seems to be one of the key factors involved in the carcinogenesis of certain tumours. This study was performed to assess whether viral DNAs are present in the congenital tumours or not. Nucleic acid from 31 congenital tumours was extracted. Detection of Epstein–Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and 2, Human ...

  6. A large abdominal desmoid tumour associated with pregnancy and puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    Setu Rathod; Sunil Kumar Samal; Purna Chandra Mahapatra

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of huge abdominal desmoid tumour first detected during pregnancy. The patient delivered vaginally and the size of the tumour increased during puerperium for which resection was done. Most of these tumours occur in the abdominal muscles particularly right rectus abdominis, perhaps related to trauma from abdominal stretching and movement. These tumours are known to regress spontaneously after delivery which was not in our case. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to resul...

  7. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  8. [Unknown primary tumour - diagnostic strategies and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne Kirstine Hundahl; Gundgaard, M.G.; Petersen, Bodil Laub;

    2008-01-01

    Unknown primary tumour (UPT) is defined as a histologically confirmed metastatic malignancy for which no primary site has been detected. It accounts for approximately 3-5% of all malignant neoplasms. UPT represents a group of heterogeneous cancers with rapid progression and random, atypical metas...

  9. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  10. MR diffusion imaging of human intracranial tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Gideon, P; Wagn, P; Hansen, Ulla; Thomsen, C; Madsen, F

    1997-01-01

    We used MRI for in vivo measurement of brain water self-diffusion in patients with intracranial tumours. The study included 28 patients (12 with high-grade and 3 with low-grade gliomas, 7 with metastases, 5 with meningiomas and 1 with a cerebral abscess). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) wer...

  11. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.)

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for tumour resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Li, Zhi-Ling; He, Zhi-Xu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the prevailing methods used to treat malignant tumours, but the outcome and prognosis of tumour patients are not optimistic. Cancer cells gradually generate resistance to almost all chemotherapeutic drugs via a variety of distinct mechanisms and pathways. Chemotherapeutic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is caused and sustained by reduced drug accumulation and increased drug export, alterations in drug targets and signalling transduction molecules, increased repair of drug-induced DNA damage, and evasion of apoptosis. In order to better understand the mechanisms of chemoresistance, this review highlights our current knowledge of the role of altered drug metabolism and transport and deregulation of apoptosis and autophagy in the development of tumour chemoresistance. Reduced intracellular activation of prodrugs (e.g. thiotepa and tegafur) or enhanced drug inactivation by Phase I and II enzymes contributes to the development of chemoresistance. Both primary and acquired resistance can be caused by alterations in the transport of anticancer drugs which is mediated by a variety of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein. Presently there is a line of evidence indicating that deregulation of programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagy is also an important mechanism for tumour resistance to anticancer drugs. Reversal of chemoresistance is likely via pharmacological and biological approaches. Further studies are warranted to grasp the full picture of how each type of cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer drugs and to identify novel strategies to overcome it. PMID:27097837

  14. A practical approach to oral tumour therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Barth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral anti-tumour drugs present many challenges for medical staff, pharmacists, and patients [1]. Arecent German Society for Oncological Pharmacy (DGOP initiative sought to address some of the more urgent questions in this complex field [2]. This article summarises the collaborative thoughts of a haemato-oncologist and a pharmacist.

  15. Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Tavares, Anthony J.; Dai, Qin; Ohta, Seiichi; Audet, Julie; Dvorak, Harold F.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-05-01

    Targeting nanoparticles to malignant tissues for improved diagnosis and therapy is a popular concept. However, after surveying the literature from the past 10 years, only 0.7% (median) of the administered nanoparticle dose is found to be delivered to a solid tumour. This has negative consequences on the translation of nanotechnology for human use with respect to manufacturing, cost, toxicity, and imaging and therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we conduct a multivariate analysis on the compiled data to reveal the contributions of nanoparticle physicochemical parameters, tumour models and cancer types on the low delivery efficiency. We explore the potential causes of the poor delivery efficiency from the perspectives of tumour biology (intercellular versus transcellular transport, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and physicochemical-dependent nanoparticle transport through the tumour stroma) as well as competing organs (mononuclear phagocytic and renal systems) and present a 30-year research strategy to overcome this fundamental limitation. Solving the nanoparticle delivery problem will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.

  16. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  17. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  18. ANTI – TUMOUR ACTIVITY OF AN AYURVEDIC OIL PREPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Panikar, K. R.; Bhanumathy, P.; P. N. Raghunath

    1986-01-01

    An ayurvedic oil preparation containing flowers of ixora coccinea and cortus sativum was subjected to an animal experimentation to find out how far it is efficient in preventing the development of Dalton's lymphoma as solid tumour. The oil was applied after injecting the cells and we found it could retard the development of tumour and arrest further development of already formed tumour.

  19. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum—part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael); A. Marx (Alexander); K. Mukai (Kiyoshi); P. Ströbel (Philipp)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an upd

  20. The roles of TGFβ in the tumour microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, Michael; Novitskiy, Sergey; Harold L Moses

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the microenvironment on tumour progression is becoming clearer. In this Review we address the role of an essential signalling pathway, that of transforming growth factor-β, in the regulation of components of the tumour microenvironment and how this contributes to tumour progression.

  1. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth is...

  2. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  3. PET and PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper three modes of PET diagnostics are analyzed. Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)18F is recommended for evaluation of the most solid tumours. 18F DOPA PET with an aromatic aminoacid radiotracer is promising for studying neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Successes of PET of somatostatin receptors (SS-RPET) recently reported were mainly connected with high diagnostic accuracy achieved in NET tumours

  4. Evidence for intermittent radiobiological hypoxia in experimental tumour systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes flow and static fluorescence cytometry techniques to visualize and quantitate acute radiobiological hypoxia resulting from transient fluctuation in tumour blood flow in experimental tumour systems. The application of these techniques in two murine tumour systems provides evidence that such hypoxia exists and reduces the effectiveness of single doses of radiation. Possible mechanisms for and implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  5. Primary peritoneal borderline tumour: report of an unusual case

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, D; Mota, F.; Silva, T.; Oliveira, CF

    2007-01-01

    Primary peritoneal borderline tumour is a rare lesion, histologically indistinguishable from non-invasive peritoneal implants found in association with ovarian tumours of borderline malignancy. We report a case of a primary peritoneal borderline tumour diagnosed in a 30-year-old patient with pelvic pain, infertility and elevated serum CA-125.

  6. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocri...

  7. TSPO expression in brain tumours:is TSPO a target for brain tumour imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaroli, Federico; Su, Zhangjie; Herholz, Karl; Gerhard, Alexander; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TS...

  8. Absence of proteins related to murine mammary tumour virus polypeptides in rat mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since normal rat DNA contains sequences which hybridize with the genome of the murine mammary tumour virus (MuMTV), it is possible that a related virus would play a role in mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The authors screened a number of rat mammary tumours for antigens related to the MuMTV polypeptides gp52 and p28 by means of a radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  9. Renal space-occupying solid growth of uncertain tumour status in metastasising tumour of the testicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a particular case of 'atypical' hypernephroma the main differential diagnosis of solid renal masses are described with reference to the basis disease: testicle tumour causing metastasis. The problems of determining the dignity of the disease by methods of sonography, pyelogram and CT are pointed out as well as the differences between those characteristics of the said tumour revealed by X-ray diagnosis and the known characteristics of substantial kidney deformations as described in medical literature. (orig.)

  10. A tale of two tumours: Comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumo...

  11. The effect of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP) on programmed cell death in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoepflinger, Marion Christine; Reitsamer, Johannes; Geretschlaeger, Anja Maria; Mehlmer, Norbert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    Background: Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP), a well known protein of the animal kingdom, was shown to be a Ca2+-binding protein with important functions in many different cellular processes (e.g. protection against stress and apoptosis, cell growth, cell cycle progression, and microtubule organization). However, only little is known about TCTP in plants. Transcript and protein levels of plant TCTPs were shown to be altered by various stress conditions (e.g. cold, salt, draugh...

  12. pH distributions in spontaneous and isotransplanted rat tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kallinowski, F; Vaupel, P

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous mammary tumours of the rat with various degrees of malignancy exhibit similar tissue pH distributions. The mean pH (+/- s.d.) of dysplasia is 7.05 +/- 0.20. In benign tumours the mean pH is 6.95 +/- 0.19 and in malignant tumours it is 6.94 +/- 0.19. In contrast, tumours with the same degree of malignancy but different histologies show different pH distributions. Benign tumours with a higher percentage of fibrous tissue exhibit less acidic pH values than those with larger portions ...

  13. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of tyrosinase expressing tumours in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Jathoul, Amit; Johnson, Peter; Zhang, Edward; Lythgoe, Mark; Pedley, R. Barbara; Pule, Martin; Beard, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Two human tumour cell lines (K562, 293T) were stably transfected to achieve the genetic expression of tyrosinase, which is involved in the production of the pigment eumelanin. The cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to form tumour xenografts, which were imaged over a period of up to 26 days using an all-optical photoacoustic imaging system. 3D photoacoustic images of the tumours and the surrounding vasculature were acquired at excitation wavelengths ranging from 600nm to 770nm. The images showed tumour growth and continued tyrosinase expression over the full 26 day duration of the study. These findings were confirmed by histological analysis of excised tumour samples.

  14. IMRT technique application in vertebra L3 giant cell tumour - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giant cell tumour is a rare locally malignant neoplasm of the bone, which is characterised by a high risk of recurrence. The main management is surgery and, in the case of a nonradical operation, radiotherapy. The aim of the paper is to present the case of a 38-year old woman with a diagnosis of giant cell tumour localised in the 3rd vertebral body. For this rare localisation both surgery and radiotherapy are at high risk of neurological complications due to the close neighbourhood of critical organs (the spinal cone and cauda equina). The treatment of the patient consisted of a non radical operation and postoperative radiotherapy with a total dose of 54 Gy given in 27 fractions. In this case the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique seemed to be specially beneficial (a high dose gradient), enabling radiosensitive critical organs to be protected. After 3 months, in spite of the treatment, a recurrence was detected by CT and the patient was re operated on. The reason for the local regrowth of the tumour might be insufficient stabilization of the irradiated region. The literature reports only a few cases of IMRT usage for paraspinal tumour treatment. Immobilization body frames were used for these patients. Thus this modern radiotherapy technique requires not only a doctors experience but also improvement of ways of its application in new organ localizations. (authors)

  15. Tumour resistance in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from naked mole-rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Oiwa, Yuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Bono, Hidemasa; Koya, Ikuko; Okada, Yohei; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Narita, Minoru; Ikeda, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seino, Ken-ichiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which is the longest-lived rodent species, exhibits extraordinary resistance to cancer. Here we report that NMR somatic cells exhibit a unique tumour-suppressor response to reprogramming induction. In this study, we generate NMR-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and find that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumour-suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS). The forced expression of Arf in mouse iPSCs markedly reduces tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we identify an NMR-specific tumour-suppression phenotype—ARF suppression-induced senescence (ASIS)—that may protect iPSCs and somatic cells from ARF suppression and, as a consequence, tumorigenicity. Thus, NMR-specific ARF regulation and the disruption of ERAS regulate tumour resistance in NMR-iPSCs. Our findings obtained from studies of NMR-iPSCs provide new insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenicity in iPSCs and cancer resistance in the NMR. PMID:27161380

  16. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  17. Aniridia-Wilms′ tumour syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar M

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms′ tumour is rarely associated with sporadic non-familial congenital aniridia. A child with sporadic aniridia has a 25% chance of subsequently developing Wilms′ tumour. Unawareness of this association can lead to a delayed diagnosis of Wilms′ tumour. One such case in a 2 year old is reported. Wilms′ tumour, one of the common childhood malignancies, is associated with other congenital anomalies in about 15% of cases. These include hemihypertrophy, genitourinary abnormalities, mental retardation, aniridia etc. Sporadic non-familial aniridia was noted in only 1.1% of 547 children with Wilms′ tumours evaluated by the National Wilms′ Tumour study group. Unawareness on the part of a clinician about these associated anomalies can lead to an avoidable delay in diagnosing Wilms′ tumour. One such case in a two year old girl is being reported.

  18. Electrochemotherapy for rat implanted liver tumour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most common interventional therapies for liver cancer at present include transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE),1 percutaneous ethanol injection2 and radiofrequency ablation,3 but all these therapies have some intrinsic disadvantages. Since the advent of electrochemo- therapy (EChT), it has been accepted as a safe and effective therapy for malignant tumors4,5 There are only a few experimental studies reporting the use of EChT in the treatment of liver cancer in the foreign medical literature.6-8 However, there have been some clinical studies, and even fewer reports of experimental studies on EChT for liver cancer in China. We used a rat implanted liver cancer animal model to monitor changes in tumour size, tumour necrosis, cellular apoptosis, expression of peripheral immunological markers (IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-α) and survival.

  19. Chapter 21. Selective detection of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that circulation and tissue exchange deteriorations and changes in the cell metabolism explain in part the tumoral uptake of many kinds of molecules, which can be used for diagnosis by radioactive labelling. Although an abnormal concentration of these tracers is not specific to malignant tumours, longthy persistence or gradual accentuation of the hyperactive centre are warning signs. Apart from a few tracers relatively selective for a given variety of tissue, the choice of non-specific tumour indicators used at present is the result of a compromise between their tumoral localisation and their physical and dosimetric properties. The most important are examined: selenium 75 fixed or not on methionine, metallic complexes, those of mercury-197, of gallium-67, of bleomycine with cobalt-57, indium-111, technetium-99m. The physical properties, distribution and metabolism, tumoral uptake methods and indications are described for each. Finally the results and limits of radioisotopic exploration are examined

  20. Special radiation therapy for malignent tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the section on 'Special radiotherapy of malignant tumours', tumours of various parts of the body are treated in 11 chapters, whereby partly different authors have made even further subdivisions. The following chapters are dealt with: Skin (including lips and anal region) with separate treatment of melanomes, head region (with finer subdivision of eye, orbita, eye lid; ear, auditory meatus and parotis; oropharynx; nasopharynx; nasal cavities and paranasal sinus), neck region (subdivided into larynx and hypopharynx and glands), thorax (split into lungs, mediastinum and oesophagus), digestive organs (summarized together stomach and small intestine, colon and rectum, liver, gall and pancreas), male sex organs (subdivided into testicles, prostate and spermatocyst, penis and urethra), female sex organs (separately treated corpus uteri, collum uteri, vagina, vulva, urethra and ovary), female and male mamma, urinary organs (kidneys and ureter as well as bladder), sarcoma of moving and supporting organs and finally the nervous system. (MG)

  1. Improved tumour response by laser light treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graschew, Georgi; Smith, Janice; Rakowsky, Stefan; Roelofs, Theo A.; Schlag, Peter M.; Stein, Ulrike

    2008-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a serious barrier to the efficacy of clinical treatment of human cancers with chemotherapeutic drugs. This barrier might be reduced and eventually overcome by the simultaneous application of two or more treatment modalities. This study reports on the synergetic effect of combined application of laser light and cytostatic drugs to induce an improved tumour response in MDR cancer cells. The MDR breast cancer cell line MaTu/ADR, resistant to the drug adriamycin (ADR), was treated with a combination of ADR (125-1000 ng/ml) and laser light (488 nm with a total light dose between 6-18 J/cm2). This combined treatment leads to an additional reduction of the cell vitality by a factor of 2-3 as compared to treatment with ADR alone, suggesting that combined application of laser light and other treatment modalities might constitute a promising strategy for improvements in the tumour response.

  2. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  3. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  4. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  5. Cancer from Hell: Devil Facial Tumour Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Pinfold

    2013-01-01

    Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is a rare form of cancer that spreads like a contagious disease. It is a parasitic clonal cell line transmitted between hosts through biting. The disease is limited to Tasmanian devils, which are carnivorous marsupials endemic to Tasmania, an island state of Australia. It has a 100% mortality rate, has reduced the population by 80% and may cause extinction of the Tasmanian devil in the wild within the next 30 years. The lack of immunogenicity may b...

  6. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, T; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to...

  7. Adolescent ovarian tumours: a gynecologist's dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedevi Tanksale

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Early correct diagnosis of ovarian masses in young girls is important and can be reached by careful physical examination, imaging and tumour markers. Surgery should be as much as possible for fertility preservation. The treatment of malignant tumors would involve complete staging, resection of the tumor, postoperative chemotherapy when indicated, to give the patient a chance for future childbearing. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 833-836

  8. Immunohistochemistry in Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Tumours

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Immunohistochemistry in soft tissue tumours, and especially sarcomas, is used to identify differentiation in the neoplastic cells. In some cases, specific antigens are expressed; however, an initial panel of antibodies is often required in order to establish the broad lineage, with a subsequent, more focussed panel to allow classification. Immunohistochemical evaluation must be employed with the clinical picture, the morphology, and, when necessary, other ancillary techn...

  9. ABCB1 in children's brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Beth; Kessler, Maya; Sabnis, Durgagauri H; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-10-01

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the most common solid tumour, accounting for a quarter of the 1500 cases of childhood cancer diagnosed each year in the U.K. They are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Treatment consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Survival rates have generally increased, but many survivors suffer from radiotherapy-related neurocognitive and endocrine side effects as well as an increased risk of secondary cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is normally given in combination to circumvent chemoresistance, but several studies have demonstrated it to be ineffective in the absence of radiotherapy. The identification of children with drug-resistant disease at the outset could allow stratification of those that are potentially curable by chemotherapy alone. Ultimately, however, what is required is a means to overcome this drug resistance and restore the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Medulloblastomas and ependymomas account for over 30% of paediatric brain tumours. Advances in neurosurgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to improvements in 5-year overall survival rates. There remain, however, significant numbers of medulloblastoma patients that have intrinsically drug-resistant tumours and/or present with disseminated disease. Local relapse in ependymoma is also common and has an extremely poor prognosis with only 25% of children surviving first relapse. Each of these is consistent with the acquisition of drug and radiotherapy resistance. Since the majority of chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat these patients are transport substrates for ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) we will address the hypothesis that ABCB1 expression underlies this drug resistance. PMID:26517917

  10. Pattern of malignant renal tumours using 2004 who classification of renal tumours on radical nephrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the type of malignant renal tumours subjected to radical nephrectomy at a tertiary care urology unit using the 2004 WHO classification for renal tumours. Methods: It was an observational study conducted at Department of Urology, AFIU Rawalpindi, from October 2008 to September 2010. The study included 92 patients with malignant renal tumours of both genders aged above 15 years. The histopathological types and grades were recorded along with the gross tumour presentation. The data was entered in structured proforma and analysed for descriptive statistics using SPSS-14. Results: Over the span of 24 months study, 92 cases of malignant renal tumours were subjected to radical nephrectomy. The age was 16-82 (57.23+-14.61) Years and male to female ratio was 2.1:1. The lesions were mostly uni focal (96.7%) and 58.6% affecting the right side. The commonest malignant renal tumour encountered was the conventional clear cell renal carcinoma (78.2%). The other tumours in descending order were the transitional cell carcinoma (7.6%), papillary (chromphilic) renal cell carcinoma (6.5%), renal cell carcinoma unclassified (3.2%), chromophore renal cell carcinoma (2.1%), Wilm's tumour and oncocytoma (1.7%). T1 lesions were found in 42 cases (45.6%), T2 lesions in 25 cases (27.1%), T3a lesions in 17 cases (18.4%) each, while 8 cases (8.6%) had T3b lesions. Four cases had high and 3 had low grade lesions in ransitional cell carcinoma. Wilm's tumour had favourable prognosis, 1 case had oncocytoma limited to kidney. Among the rest, 26 (28.2%) were G1, 35 (38%) were G2, 16 (17.3%) were G3, and 6 (6.5) were G4. Conclusion: The commonest type of the malignant renal neoplasm remains the clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinoma. The lesions from T1 to T3 are amenable to radical nephrectomy and may not include the ipsilateral adrenalectomy as well. The grade may range from G1 to G4. (author)

  11. Verification of genes differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tumours: a study of potential tumour suppressor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogner Per

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most striking features of the childhood malignancy neuroblastoma (NB is its clinical heterogeneity. Although there is a great need for better clinical and biological markers to distinguish between tumours with different severity and to improve treatment, no clear-cut prognostic factors have been found. Also, no major NB tumour suppressor genes have been identified. Methods In this study we performed expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR on primary NB tumours divided into two groups, of favourable and unfavourable outcome respectively. Candidate genes were selected on basis of lower expression in unfavourable tumour types compared to favourables in our microarray expression analysis. Selected genes were studied in two steps: (1 using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA targeting 89 genes on a set of 12 NB tumour samples, and (2 12 genes were selected from the TLDA analysis for verification using individual TaqMan assays in a new set of 13 NB tumour samples. Results By TLDA analysis, 81 out of 87 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between groups, of which 14 have previously been reported as having an altered gene expression in NB. In the second verification round, seven out of 12 transcripts showed significantly lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours, ATBF1, CACNA2D3, CNTNAP2, FUSIP1, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B. The gene that showed the highest fold change in the TLDA analysis, POU4F2, was investigated for epigenetic changes (CpG methylation and mutations in order to explore the cause of the differential expression. Moreover, the fragile site gene CNTNAP2 that showed the largest fold change in verification group 2 was investigated for structural aberrations by copy number analysis. However, the analyses of POU4F2 and CNTNAP2 showed no genetic alterations that could explain a lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours. Conclusion Through two steps of verification, seven

  12. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermont Alexander MM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently affects the pleura, although it has been reported with increasing frequency in various other sites such as in the peritoneum, pericardium and in non-serosal sites such as lung parenchyma, upper respiratory tract, orbit, thyroid, parotid gland, or thymus. Liver parenchyma is rarely affected. Clinically, SFTs cause symptoms after having reached a certain size or when vital structures are involved. In recent years, SFTs are more often identified and distinguished from other tumours with a similar appearance due to the availability of characteristic immunohistochemical markers. Case presentation In this manuscript we report the case of a large tumour of the liver, which was histologically diagnosed as a SFT, and showed involvement of a single hepatic segment. Because of the patient's presentation and clinical course, it may represent a radiation-induced lesion. Conclusion When a SFT has been diagnosed, surgery is the treatment of choice. The small number of patients with a SFT of the liver and its unknown natural behaviour creates the need to a careful registration and follow-up of all identified cases

  13. Role of tumour angiogenesis in haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinger, Michael; Passweg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of haematological malignancies. Thereby, pro- and anti-angiogenic growth factors and cytokines regulate the angiogenic process. The most important growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its signaling through its receptors 1 and 2, is not only involved in solid tumours, but there is also emerging evidence that tumour progression in haematological malignancies also depends on the induction of new blood vessel formation. The evidence supporting this theory includes the finding of increased bone marrow microvessel density and increased levels of plasma pro-angiogenic cytokines. Leukaemia cells interact with surrounding host cells and extracellular matrix, this crosstalk affecting the most important aspects of the malignant phenotype. The pathophysiology of leukaemia induced angiogenesis involves both direct production of angiogenic cytokines by leukaemia cells and their interaction with bone marrow microenvironment. The inhibition of VEGF signalling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully used for the treatment of different cancer entities, and multiple new drugs are being tested. This review summarises recent advances in the basic understanding of the role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies and the translation of such basic findings into clinical studies. PMID:25375891

  14. Cell metabolism, tumour diagnosis and multispectral FLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, A.; Hauser, C.; Lorenz, S.; Mosch, S.; Rotte, S.; Kessler, M.; Kalinina, S.

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence guided diagnosis of tumour tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results are interfering with the outcome. Discrimination between tumour and inflammation could be therefore difficult. Improvement of fluorescence diagnosis through observation of cell metabolism could be the solution, which needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. However, a complex combination of fluorophores give rise to the emission signal. Also in PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) different photosensitizer metabolites contribute to the fluorescence signal. Therefore, the fluorescence decay in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. The discussion will focus on the detection of NADH, FAD and 5-ALA induced porphyrins. With respect to NADH and FAD the discrimination between protein bound and free coenzyme was investigated with multispectral FLIM in normal oral keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells from different origin. The redox ratio, which can be correlated with the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD changed depending on the state of the cells. Most of the investigations were done in monolayer cell cultures. However, in order to get information from a more realistic in vivo situation additionally the chorioallantoismembrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs was used where tumour cells or biopsies were allowed to grow. The results of theses measurements will be discussed as well.

  15. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  16. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  17. Clinical tumour markers in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, A; Nikliński, J; Laudański, T; Pluygers, E

    1998-02-01

    Within past few years, the measurement of serological, histochemical and molecular genetic markers has had an increasing influence on clinical decisions about initial treatment and follow-up. This review presents data concerning the most studied and interesting markers in ovarian cancer. CA 125, CA 19.9, TATI, CASA, CEA, TPA, TPS and CYFRA21-1 are now the most widely used serological tumour markers for management of ovarian cancer patients. Ras oncogenes, C-erb2 proto-oncogene, p53 suppressor gene and Bcl-2 oncogene are examples of currently used molecular genetic markers. As histochemical markers-proliferation markers, flow cytometric analysis, thymidine labelling index, Ki-67 nuclear antigen or differentiation markers are nowadays the ones most often determined. Some of these markers might be useful adjuncts for monitoring response to therapy, including early detection of tumour reactivation to allow curative therapy and rapid detection of treatment failure. The study of these markers may also lead to a better understanding of the biological characteristics of ovarian cancer. Numerous tumour markers characterized in this paper have been recognized as promising prognostic factors. The information derived from studies of these markers also represents the most promising avenue towards new treatment strategies; nevertheless to validate these factors, prospective studies of a large patient population are needed. PMID:9511849

  18. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of retroperitoneal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testini, M; Catalano, G; Macarini, L; Paccione, F

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine the various techniques for diagnosing Retroperitoneal Tumours (RPT) and analyse the results of the surgical treatment performed. Between March 1987 and February 1991, 20 patients with RPT (6 benign and 14 malignant forms) were observed in our Institution. CT and NMR revealed more diagnostic accuracy than other techniques (100%), while NMR had greater accuracy than CT in predictly resectability preoperatively (100% vs. 80.0%, respectively). A total of 26 laparotomies were performed: 20 for primary neoplasms and 6 for recurrent tumours. Exeresis of the mass was performed in 18/20 (90%) patients. Mean follow-up was 57.6 months (84-36). The benign forms had no recurrence. In malignant cases the disease recurred in 58.3% of the cases after an interval varying from 10 to 59 months. Overall mean survival of the 12 patients with malignant tumours subjected to resection was 58.3%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 91.7% and 58.3% respectively. Prognosis in malignant RPT is still very poor. PMID:8803715

  19. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1995-04-01

    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays. PMID:7710943

  20. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  1. Induction of IL-25 secretion from tumour-associated fibroblasts suppresses mammary tumour metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs), as a functionally supportive microenvironment, play an essential role in tumour progression. Here we investigate the role of IL-25, an endogenous anticancer factor secreted from TAFs, in suppression of mouse 4T1 mammary tumour metastasis. We show that a synthetic dihydrobenzofuran lignan (Q2-3), the dimerization product of plant caffeic acid methyl ester, suppresses 4T1 metastasis by increasing fibroblastic IL-25 activity. The secretion of IL-25 from treated human or mouse fibroblasts is enhanced in vitro, and this activity confers a strong suppressive effect on growth activity of test carcinoma cells. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed that the anti-metastatic effects of Q2-3 on 4T1 and human MDA-MD-231 tumour cells are additive when employed in combination with the clinically used drug, docetaxel. Altogether, our findings reveal that the release of IL-25 from TAFs may serve as a check point for control of mammary tumour metastasis and that phytochemical Q2-3 can efficiently promote such anticancer activities. PMID:27089063

  2. The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 ± 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. Yanagawa, T. et al. (2001)

  3. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubender, Ruediger P. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lynghjem, Julia; D' Anastasi, Melvin; Graser, Anno [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker; Modest, Dominik P. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Department of Medical Oncology, Munich (Germany); Mansmann, Ulrich R. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Sartorius, Ute; Schlichting, Michael [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  5. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Dose-response effect of Gelofusine on renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled octreotate in rats with CA20948 tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using β-emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues like DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate shows beneficial results in patients suffering from somatostatin receptor overexpressing tumours. However, after high-dose therapy partial renal reabsorption of radiopeptides may lead to nephrotoxicity. Co-infusion of lysine/arginine lowers renal retention of these radiopeptides without affecting tumour uptake. Recently co-administration of Gelofusine has been described to have a comparable kidney-protecting effect in rats. In the present study optimal dosing of Gelofusine co-administration was studied in tumour-bearing rats. Doses of 40, 80, 120 or 160 mg/kg Gelofusine were co-injected with 15 μg DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, labelled with 3 MBq 111In for biodistribution (24 h post-injection, n = 4 per group) and with 60 MBq 111In for microSPECT imaging experiments at 3, 24 and 48 h post-injection. An additional group of rats received 80 mg/kg Gelofusine plus 400 mg/kg lysine co-injection. Biodistribution studies were performed both in older (475 g) and younger (300 g) rats, the latter bearing CA20948 tumours. Co-injection of 40 mg/kg Gelofusine resulted in 40-50% reduction of renal uptake and retention of 111In-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, whereas higher doses further increased the reduction to 50-60% in both groups of rats. Combining Gelofusine and lysine caused 70% reduction of renal uptake. The uptake of radiolabelled octreotate both in somatostatin receptor-expressing normal tissues and tumours was not affected by Gelofusine co-injection. In rats co-injection of 80 mg/kg Gelofusine resulted in maximum reduction of renal retention of 111In-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, which was further improved when combined with lysine. Tumour uptake of radiolabelled octreotate was not affected, resulting in an increased tumour to kidney ratio. (orig.)

  7. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  8. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Ciro BS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170. These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT and B16F10 melanoma. Methods Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained

  9. Thoracic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour mimicking a pleural tumour: a rare pedunculated appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) generally occurs in adults and often in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). We present a rare case of a huge thoracic MPNST arising from the intercostal nerve in a 12-year-old girl without NF-1. In addition to the unusual occurrence in a child without NF-1, MRI demonstrated a unique pedunculated appearance mimicking a pleural tumour. In this report, we present the CT and MRI findings of our case, together with the histopathological findings, and review previous reports. (orig.)

  10. Severe hypofractionation: Non-homogeneous tumour dose delivery can counteract tumour hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Ruggero; Naccarato, Stefania (Medical Physics Dept., Inst. Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, FC (Italy)), E-mail: ruggieri.ruggero@gmail.com; Nahum, Alan E. (Physics Dept., Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington CH63 4JY (United Kingdom))

    2010-11-15

    Background. The current rationale for severely hypofractionated schedules (3-5 fractions) used in stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the small size of the irradiated volumes. Being the dose prescribed to the 60-80% isodose line enclosing the PTV, a non-homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery results which might impact on tumour hypoxia. A comparison between homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery is then proposed here, using severe hypofractionation on large tumour volumes where both dose prescription strategies are applicable. Materials and methods. For iso-NTCP hypofractionated schedules (1f/d5d/w) with respect to standard fractionation (d=2Gy), computed from the individual DVHs for lungs, oesophagus, heart and spinal cord (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman NTCP-model), TCP values were calculated (a-averaged Poissonian-LQ model) for homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans both with and without tumour hypoxia. Two different estimates of the oxygen-enhancement-ratio (OER) in combination with two distinct assumptions on the kinetics of reoxygenation were considered. Homogeneous and SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans were finally compared in terms of therapeutic ratio (TR), as the product of TCP and the four (1-NTCPi) values. Results. For severe hypofractionation (3-5 fractions) and for any of the hypotheses on the kinetics of reoxygenation and the OER, there was a significant difference between the computed TRs with or without inclusion of tumour hypoxia (anova, p=0.01) for homogeneous tumour-dose-delivery, but no significant difference for the SBRT-like non-homogeneous one. Further, a significantly increased mean TR for the group of SBRT-like non-homogeneous plans resulted (t-test, p=0.05) with respect to the group with homogeneous target-dose-coverage. Conclusions. SBRT-like dose-boosting seems to counterbalance the loss of reoxygenation within a few fractions. For SBRT it then seems that, in addition to the high

  11. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of desmoid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1974 to 1983 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, 21 patients with desmoid tumours were treated with radiation therapy. Nineteen patients were irradiated postoperatively (11 patients had micro- or macroscopic residual disease, 8 patients treated for recurrent disease had narrow surgical margins), 2 patients with inoperable tumours were treated with radiation alone. The entire involved muscle received a dose of 40 Gy, while a boost of 20 Gy was delivered to the tumour bed. Local control was achieved in 19 out of 21 patients, with an actuarial 5 year disease-free survival of 90%. No relation could be found between the amount of tumour present and local control. With careful set-up of treatment fields and long-term physical therapy, complications like fibrosis, ankylosis and oedema could be minimised. These excellent results with radiotherapy for minimal residual tumour, or even for macroscopic tumour, makes mutilating surgery unnecessary. (Auth.)

  12. Imaging of rare medullary adrenal tumours in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, C A; Tang, Y Z; Coniglio, G; Sahdev, A

    2016-05-01

    Although adrenal medullary tumours are rare, they have important clinical implications. They form a heterogeneous group of tumours, ranging from benign, non-secretory, incidental masses to hormonally active tumours presenting acutely, or malignant tumours with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Increasingly, benign masses are incidentally detected due to the widespread use of imaging and routine medical check-ups. This review aims to illustrate the multimodality imaging appearances of rare adrenal medullary tumours, excluding the more common phaeochromocytomas, with clues to the diagnosis and to summarise relevant epidemiological and clinical data. Careful correlation of clinical presentation, hormone profile, and various imaging techniques narrow the differential diagnosis. Image-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, allowing for conservative management in selected cases. A close collaboration between the radiologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon is of the utmost importance in the management of these tumours. PMID:26944698

  13. Contribution of transient blood flow to tumour hypoxia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumours grown in mice typically exhibit regions of hypoxia believed to result from two different processes: chronic oxygen deprivation due to consumption/diffusion limitations, and periodic deprivation resulting from transient reductions in tumour blood flow. The relative contribution of each is, however, not generally known. We have addressed this issue in transplanted SCCVII squamous cell carcinomas in C3H mice, using a quantitative extension of the fluorescence 'mismatch' technique coupled with cell sorting from irradiated tumours. At least half of the vessels in these tumours exhibit transient perfusion changes. Additionally, a majority of the 15-20% of cells that are sufficiently hypoxic to be resistant to radiation in the SCCVII tumours appear to result from cyclic, not continuous (diffusion-limited) hypoxia. Since different strategies may be necessary to counteract cyclic hypoxia in tumours, the possibility of transient blood flow changes should not be ignored when planning cancer therapy for humans. (orig.)

  14. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells can act separately in tumour rejection after immunization with murine pneumotropic virus chimeric Her2/neu virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Andreasson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization with murine pneumotropic virus virus-like particles carrying Her2/neu (Her2MPtVLPs prevents tumour outgrowth in mice when given prophylactically, and therapeutically if combined with the adjuvant CpG. We investigated which components of the immune system are involved in tumour rejection, and whether long-term immunological memory can be obtained. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: During the effector phase in BALB/c mice, only depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ in combination, with or without NK cells, completely abrogated tumour protection. Depletion of single CD4+, CD8+ or NK cell populations only had minor effects. During the immunization/induction phase, combined depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells abolished protection, while depletion of each individual subset had no or negligible effect. When tumour rejection was studied in knock-out mice with a C57Bl/6 background, protection was lost in CD4-/-CD8-/- and CD4-/-, but not in CD8-/- mice. In contrast, when normal C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of different cell types, protection was lost irrespective of whether only CD4+, only CD8+, or CD4+ and CD8+ cells in combination were eradicated. No anti-Her2/neu antibodies were detected but a Her2/neu-specific IFNgamma response was seen. Studies of long-term memory showed that BALB/c mice could be protected against tumour development when immunized together with CpG as long as ten weeks before challenge. CONCLUSION: Her2MPtVLP immunization is efficient in stimulating several compartments of the immune system, and induces an efficient immune response including long-term memory. In addition, when depleting mice of isolated cellular compartments, tumour protection is not as efficiently abolished as when depleting several immune compartments together.

  15. Hyperandrogenism due to ovarian tumour mimicking PCOS: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Pidaparthy

    2013-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age group. While 82% of the cases are due to PCOS, steroid cell tumours account for less than 1% of cases. These tumours are mostly seen in perimenopausal women and 25-30% of these tumours show malignant potential. Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment. In a young patient unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and subsequent follow up can be offered. We present one such rare case of a you...

  16. Malignant tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx: staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staging of malignant tumours of the oral cavity and the oropharynx not only requires far more than a basic knowledge of anatomy and the usual pathways of spread, but also a broad understanding of the diagnostic benefits of current imaging modalities. As radiology should never try to replace histology, the main aim should be precise prediction of tumour margins and differention of tumour from edema and posttherapeutic changes. Only then will imaging studies have a significant clinical impact. (orig.)

  17. Malignant ovarian tumours in childhood in Britain, 1962-78.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Morris, H. B.; Draper, G J

    1983-01-01

    The files of the Childhood Cancer Research Group and of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers were scrutinized for all the ovarian neoplasms registered in England, Scotland and Wales in children under age 15 years throughout the period 1962-78. Among 172 cases confirmed as malignant ovarian tumours, 145 (84%) were tumours of germ cell origin (54 dysgerminomas, 36 malignant teratomas, 26 endodermal sinus tumours, 4 embryonal carcinomas, 2 pure choriocarcinomas, 20 mixed germ cell neoplasms, 3...

  18. Combination of hyperthermia and radiation therapy in malignant cutaneous tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen patients with malignant cutaneous tumours were treated with a combination of hyperthermia and radiation. Complete relief of symptoms in 12 (70.6%) cases and partial relief 5 (29.4%) cases was noticed. The initial tumour regression rate was faster in these cases. Complete regression of gross tumour occurred in 10 (58,8%) cases and partial regression in 7 (41,2%) cases. No unusual reactions were observed in the present study. (author)

  19. Giant Appendiceal Leiomyosarcoma: A Rare and Unusual Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Christine; Koh, Cherry E.; Lee, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Appendiceal tumours are uncommon but may be present in 0.9–1.4% of all appendicectomy specimens. While carcinoid tumours and adenocarcinomas comprise the majority of appendiceal tumours, rarely, lymphomas or sarcomas may also present in the appendix. Appendiceal leiomyosarcomas are rare, and to date, only a handful of cases have been reported. The current paper presents a case of giant appendiceal leiomyosarcoma followed by a review of the literature. PMID:22606577

  20. Steroid hormone receptors in human salivary gland tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamey, P J; Leake, R. E.; Cowan, S K; Soutar, D S; McGregor, I. A.; McGregor, F M

    1987-01-01

    Major salivary gland tumours were studied for the presence of hormone receptors for oestrogen and progesterone. Of the eight salivary gland tumours exhibiting varied histology, none showed high affinity receptors for oestrogen or progesterone. Salivary tissue from four patients with non-neoplastic salivary gland disease was also studied and found not to contain high affinity receptor sites. The absence of hormone receptors in these glands suggests that such tumours are not dependent on endocr...

  1. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the se...

  2. Somatostatin receptors in gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Herder, Wouter; Hofland, Leo; Lely, Aart-Jan; Lamberts, Steven

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFive somatostatin receptor (sst) subtype genes, sst(1), sst(2), sst(3), sst(4) and sst(5), have been cloned and characterised. The five sst subtypes all bind natural somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 with high affinity. Endocrine pancreatic and endocrine digestive tract tumours also express multiple sst subtypes, but sst(2) predominance is generally found. However, there is considerable variation in sst subtype expression between the different tumour types and among tumours of t...

  3. An Approach to Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: The Apoptotic Activity of Recombinant Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibodies in Intact Tumour Microenvironment of Breast Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, S; Moaaz, M; Sheta, M; Motawea, M A

    2016-06-01

    Current work is one of our comprehensive preclinical studies, a new approach to breast cancer (BC) immunotherapy through induction of tumour cell apoptosis. Tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled cell proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with metastatic BC and correlated with poor survival as it promotes growth of tumour-initiating cells during early tumorigenesis protecting these cells from apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the potential of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies to suppress IL-6 proliferative/anti-apoptotic activities in intact tumour microenvironment of BC. Fresh sterile tumour and normal breast tissue specimens were taken from 50 female Egyptian patients with BC undergoing radical mastectomy. A unique tissue culture system designed to provide cells of each intact tumour/normal tissue sample with its proper microenvironment either supplemented or not with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the apoptotic activity of anti-IL-6 as a novel candidate for BC treatment strategy, we compared its effects with those obtained using tumour necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL as an established apoptotic agent. Our results revealed that levels of either anti-IL-6- or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumour or normal tissue cultures were significantly higher than those in their corresponding untreated ones (P Recombinant anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies could represent a novel effective element of immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for BC. The selectivity and anti-apoptotic potential of anti-IL-6 is highly hopeful in IL-6- abundant BC tumour microenvironment. PMID:26971879

  4. Active treatment of murine tumors with a highly attenuated vaccinia virus expressing the tumor associated antigen 5T4 (TroVax) is CD4+ T cell dependent and antibody mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Richard; Ryan, Matthew G; Myers, Kevin A; Redchenko, Irina; Kingsman, Susan M; Carroll, Miles W

    2006-09-01

    5T4 is a tumor associated antigen that is expressed on the surface of a wide spectrum of human adenocarcinomas. The highly attenuated virus, modified vaccinia Ankara, has been engineered to express human 5T4 (h5T4). In a pre-clinical murine model, the recombinant virus (TroVax) induces protection against challenge with CT26-h5T4 (a syngeneic tumor line expressing h5T4). Anti-tumor activity is long lived, with protection still evident 6 months after the final vaccination. In a therapeutic setting, injection of mice with TroVax results in a reduction in tumor burden of >90%. Depletion of CD8+ T cells has no effect upon therapy in the active treatment model, whereas depletion of CD4+ T cells completely abrogates anti-tumor activity. In a prophylactic setting, depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after the induction of a h5T4 immune response has no deleterious effect on protection following challenge with CT26-h5T4. In light of these studies, the role of antibodies in protection against tumor challenge was investigated. 5T4 specific polyclonal serum decreased tumor burden by approximately 70%. Thus, we conclude that CD4+ T cells are essential for the induction of a protective immune response and that antibodies are the likely effector moiety in this xenogeneic murine tumor model. PMID:16311730

  5. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  6. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Angelina J.; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Kisker, Oliver; Flynn, Evelyn; Underwood, Anne; Condron, Rosemary; Hogg, Philip J.

    2000-12-01

    Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. New blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is critical for tumour expansion and metastasis. Here we show that the plasmin reductase isolated from conditioned medium of fibrosarcoma cells is the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase. Recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase had the same specific activity as the fibrosarcoma-derived protein. Plasma of mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours contained several-fold more phosphoglycerate kinase, as compared with mice without tumours. Administration of phosphoglycerate kinase to tumour-bearing mice caused an increase in plasma levels of angiostatin, and a decrease in tumour vascularity and rate of tumour growth. Our findings indicate that phosphoglycerate kinase not only functions in glycolysis but is secreted by tumour cells and participates in the angiogenic process as a disulphide reductase.

  7. Multidisciplinary treatment of Wilms' tumour. 13 years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the results obtained by them personally in their multidisciplinary treatment of Wilms' tumour. In the National Paediatric Institute, Mexico City, 116 cases of Wilms' tumour in children were studied between January 1971 and December 1983. Of these, only 57 were evaluated as only they had completed their multidisciplinary treatment and had been followed up for over two years. Wilms' tumour is the solid abdominal tumour most frequently found in Mexican children. It is the fifth most frequent malign tumour after leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and retinoblastoma. The multidisciplinary treatment included: radical surgery; radiotherapy (site and dosage by group and by age of the child) and chemotherapy (drugs according to the group and histology of the tumour). In 82% of cases, the tumours occurred before the age of five, predominantly in girls. The average growth time was three months. Where tumour histology was favourable, 78% survived; 45% survived when the histology was adverse. For the various groups, survival was 100% in group I, 83.5% in group II, and 71.5% in group III and 25% in group IV. The survival of all groups was 67% and the actuarial survival was 83%. (author)

  8. Radionuclide imaging of neuroendocrine tumours: biological basis and diagnostic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregni, E.; Chiti, A.; Bombardieri, E. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    At present it is known that a group of neuroendocrine tumours derive from pluripotent stem cells or from differentiated neuroendocrine cells, and that they have a particular pattern of histology due to the presence of some secretory products and particular cytoplasmic proteins. Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to visualise neuroendocrine tumours; most of them are based on specific uptake mechanisms, but some are non-specific probes. This review is focussed on the clinical application of radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine, indium-111 pentetreotide, radiolabelled vasointestinal peptide, radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies and positron-emitting tracers. While many different types of neuroendocrine tumours are identified today, only the most common histotypes and those tumours of major relevance for nuclear medicine are considered in this review (anterior pituitary tumours and neuroblastoma are excluded). New knowledge in molecular biology, relevant biological and histological patterns, and the physiological and clinical behaviour are described for neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic tract, medullary thyroid carcinoma, tumours of sympatho-adrenal lineage, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. The nuclear medicine results in diagnostic imaging are presented, and the major comparative studies with different tracers are reported. The study of further possible diagnostic approaches addressing the biological characteristics of these tumours could open the way to various new therapeutic options. (orig./MG) (orig.) With 2 figs., 7 tabs., 161 refs.

  9. Radionuclide imaging of neuroendocrine tumours: biological basis and diagnostic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present it is known that a group of neuroendocrine tumours derive from pluripotent stem cells or from differentiated neuroendocrine cells, and that they have a particular pattern of histology due to the presence of some secretory products and particular cytoplasmic proteins. Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to visualise neuroendocrine tumours; most of them are based on specific uptake mechanisms, but some are non-specific probes. This review is focussed on the clinical application of radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine, indium-111 pentetreotide, radiolabelled vasointestinal peptide, radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies and positron-emitting tracers. While many different types of neuroendocrine tumours are identified today, only the most common histotypes and those tumours of major relevance for nuclear medicine are considered in this review (anterior pituitary tumours and neuroblastoma are excluded). New knowledge in molecular biology, relevant biological and histological patterns, and the physiological and clinical behaviour are described for neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic tract, medullary thyroid carcinoma, tumours of sympatho-adrenal lineage, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. The nuclear medicine results in diagnostic imaging are presented, and the major comparative studies with different tracers are reported. The study of further possible diagnostic approaches addressing the biological characteristics of these tumours could open the way to various new therapeutic options. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  10. Manipulation and exploitation of the tumour environment for therapeutic benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe aspects of the tumour microenvironment that are available as targets for manipulation. In particular, the question asked is whether hypoxia in tumours is a problem to be overcome, or a physiological abnormality to be exploited? Bioreductive drugs require metabolic reduction to generate cytotoxic metabolites. This process is facilitated by appropriate reductases and the lower oxygen conditions present in solid tumours compared with normal tissues. Because of their specificity, bioreductive drugs are used to help answer this question. Other aspects of tumour physiology and biochemistry that may be exploited include tissue dependent reductase expression, pH and angiogenesis. (author)

  11. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  12. Bone tumours in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auther stresses the importance 1) of clinical data (e.g. age of the patient, localisation of the lesion, type and duration of the symptoms), 2) of radiographic findings and 3) of anatomicopathological changes which must all be taken into account especially in the judgment of bone tumours. Radiographic examination is of importance here also as a morphological method as it gives a picture of the 'mosaic' of a bone change. Biopsy material alone may contain only isolated parts with ambiguous histological findings, so that the true nature of the bone lesion can only be recognized by comparsion with the X-ray findings. (orig.)

  13. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colour scanner has been used to scan two small clinical series of brain tumour cases, one by means of As74 using positron detection, the other with I131-labelled albumin using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. The results of these series are given and the value of the procedure to the clinician is presented. Matthews has shown, in studies on tumour- bearing rats, that Bi206 citrate should be a particularly favourable material for brain tumour localization and a preliminary attempt has been made to scan with this material using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. Preliminary results of this study are presented. The focusing collimators used with the gamma-emitting isotopes have a deep geometrical focus and isocount responses are obtained on point sources which are almost depth independent for 20 cm. Experimental results on a series of collimators lead to design data for building such collimators to a given specification. Stationary detector scanning has been carried out on brain-tumour cases using a gamma camera with storage-tube display. The advantages of such machines lie in greater sensitivity and more rapid visualization of the pattern of distribution of radioactivity, which in turn enables dynamic studies to be carried out. Problems which occur with such machines include the difficulty in marking anatomical features and the geometric distortions which occur. These are compared for pin-hole and matrix viewing apertures. The improvement in performance resulting from circuit modifications to remove the dependence of picture size on gamma-ray energy is discussed. The analysis of cerebral scans presents difficulties when the suspected region is only slightly greater in count-rate than its surroundings. A ''normal'' count-rate pattern for a head has been determined by dividing scans into regions which are approximately anatomically equivalent from patient to patient, and counting scintiscan marks in each region. Any abnormal scan may then be

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour in Meckel's diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mahesh H

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's Diverticulum is the most commonly encountered congenital anomaly of the small intestine, occurring in approximately 2% of the population. Occasionally Meckel's diverticulum harbors neoplasms. Case presentation A 65 year old gentleman, presented with a pelvic mass. On exploratory laparotomy, it turned out to be gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST arising from Meckel's diverticulum. Short history and review of literature are discussed. Conclusion Neoplasms occurring from Meckel's diverticulum, even though rare, should be considered as differential diagnosis of pelvic masses arising from bowel, wherever imaging modalities fail to give a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codia...

  16. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin®) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib®) inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy

  17. Tumour Lysis Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Metastatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Treated with Glivec (Imatinib Mesylate, Gleevec, STI571

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Pinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS is a rare side effect of chemotherapy for solid tumours. It describes the metabolic derangements following rapid and extensive tumour cell death following a good response to chemotherapy. Symptoms are those of metabolic derangement and renal failure. Treatment involves rehydration and correction of metabolic abnormalities. TLS should be considered in high risk groups. We report a case of TLS in a patient with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour treated with imatinib mesylate. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case.

  18. Contemporary nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, heterogeneous, and often hormonally active neoplasms. Nuclear medicine (NM) imaging using single photon- and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals allows sensitive and highly specific molecular imaging of NETs, complementary to anatomy-based techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy is a whole-body imaging technique widely used for diagnosis, staging and restaging of NETs. The increasing availability of hybrid single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT cameras now offers superior accuracy for localization and functional characterization of NETs compared to traditional planar and SPECT imaging. The potential role of positron-emission tomography (PET) tracers in the functional imaging of NETs is also being increasingly recognized. In addition to 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), newer positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and 68Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) peptides, show promise for the future. This article will summarize the role of current and emerging radiopharmaceuticals in NM imaging of this rare but important group of tumours.

  19. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhetiya, Ashish; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rambha; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-05-27

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majority of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117 (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs. PMID:27231512

  1. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  2. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  4. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan); Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  5. Blood vessel hyperpermeability and pathophysiology in human tumour xenograft models of breast cancer: a comparison of ectopic and orthotopic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human tumour xenografts in immune compromised mice are widely used as cancer models because they are easy to reproduce and simple to use in a variety of pre-clinical assessments. Developments in nanomedicine have led to the use of tumour xenografts in testing nanoscale delivery devices, such as nanoparticles and polymer-drug conjugates, for targeting and efficacy via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. For these results to be meaningful, the hyperpermeable vasculature and reduced lymphatic drainage associated with tumour pathophysiology must be replicated in the model. In pre-clinical breast cancer xenograft models, cells are commonly introduced via injection either orthotopically (mammary fat pad, MFP) or ectopically (subcutaneous, SC), and the organ environment experienced by the tumour cells has been shown to influence their behaviour. To evaluate xenograft models of breast cancer in the context of EPR, both orthotopic MFP and ectopic SC injections of MDA-MB-231-H2N cells were given to NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. Animals with matched tumours in two size categories were tested by injection of a high molecular weight dextran as a model nanocarrier. Tumours were collected and sectioned to assess dextran accumulation compared to liver tissue as a positive control. To understand the cellular basis of these observations, tumour sections were also immunostained for endothelial cells, basement membranes, pericytes, and lymphatic vessels. SC tumours required longer development times to become size matched to MFP tumours, and also presented wide size variability and ulcerated skin lesions 6 weeks after cell injection. The 3 week MFP tumour model demonstrated greater dextran accumulation than the size matched 5 week SC tumour model (for P < 0.10). Immunostaining revealed greater vascular density and thinner basement membranes in the MFP tumour model 3 weeks after cell injection. Both the MFP and SC tumours showed evidence of insufficient lymphatic drainage

  6. Ptosis as the early manifestation of pituitary tumour.

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, M Y; Liu, J H; Jaw, S J

    1990-01-01

    Three patients who developed unilateral ptosis followed by partial third nerve palsy were found to have a pituitary tumour. The visual field defects were minimal and asymptomatic. Two patients had a chromophobe adenoma and one patient had a prolactinoma. The importance of recognising a pituitary tumour as the cause of acquired unilateral ptosis is emphasised.

  7. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow studies in patients with pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in seven patients with pituitary tumours, in one patient with a craniopharyngioma, and in one patient with an empty sella; rCB was increased only in patients with gonadotrophin deficiency. The preliminary conclusion is that this is perhaps related to the pituitary tumour itself, and in particular to the endocrine state. (author)

  9. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial. PMID:24567746

  10. Tumour and leukaemia morbidity in infants in Germany after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after Chernobyl, a higher incidence of infant tumours and leukaemia was observed. This corresponds to the established latency periods after the occurence of a nuclear accident. Further, the types of tumour that have a higher incidence are known to be easily induced by radiation. However, further investigations are required also in other countries to make a valid statement. (orig.)

  11. Glycolytic metabolism and tumour response to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To study whether pre-therapeutic lactate or pyruvate predict for tumour response to fractionated irradiation and to identify possible coherencies between intermediates of glycolysis and expression levels of selected proteins. Materials and methods: Concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and ATP were quantified via bioluminescence imaging in tumour xenografts derived from 10 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines. Tumours were irradiated with 30 fractions within 6 weeks. Expression levels of the selected proteins in tumours were measured at the mRNA and protein level. Tumour-infiltrating leucocytes were quantified after staining for CD45. Results: Lactate but not pyruvate concentrations were significantly correlated with tumour response to fractionated irradiation. Lactate concentrations in vivo did not reflect lactate production rates in vitro. Metabolite concentrations did not correlate with GLUT1, PFK-L or LDH-A at the transcriptional or protein level. CD45-positive cell infiltration was low in the majority of tumours and did not correlate with lactate concentration. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the antioxidative capacity of lactate may contribute to radioresistance in malignant tumours. Non-invasive imaging of lactate to monitor radiation response and testing inhibitors of glycolysis to improve outcome after fractionated radiotherapy warrant further investigations.

  12. Multiple sclerosis with clinical and radiological features of cerebral tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, HJ; Warlow, CP; Sheldon, PWE; Esiri, MM

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of multiple sclerosis, all confirmed pathologically, are described in whom both the unusual clinical features and the CT scan appearances suggested cerebral tumours. The failure of mass effect reliably to differentiate plaques and tumours on a CT scan is stressed and the literature relating to CT scanning in multiple sclerosis is reviewed.

  13. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  14. Lung tumour ablation – where are we now?

    OpenAIRE

    Gillams, A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ablation of lung tumours is the fastest expanding area within interventional oncology. Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been shown to be effective. Which of these ablation technologies becomes the preferred technique for lung tumours remains to be seen.

  15. Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a mass in the left cerebral hemisphere of a 20-year-old man. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were consistent with primary malignant rhabdoid tumour. The age of presentation, imaging features prior to histological examination, and prognosis in this case were unusual. (orig.)

  16. Dexamethasone and radiation response in the Lewis lung tumour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dexamethasone on the radiation response of Lewis lung tumour growth in the gastronemius muscle of mice was studied. The log average tumour volume/time curve did not show any significant difference in radiation response between the mice given dexamethasone and the mice not given the drug. (UK)

  17. Melanosomes foster a tumour niche by activating CAFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Silva, Susana; Peinado, Héctor

    2016-08-30

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are important effectors in the formation of tumour-fostering niches. Pigmented melanosomes are now shown to have a relevant role in establishing a tumour niche in primary melanoma by reprogramming dermal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts through the transfer of miR-211. PMID:27571736

  18. Wilms' tumour gene 1 (WT1) in human neoplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilholz, U.; Menssen, H.D.; Gaiger, A.; Menke, A.; Oji, Y.; Oka, Y.; Scheibenbogen, C.; Stauss, H.; Thiel, E. van; Sugiyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factor Wilms' tumour gene 1 (WT1) is important as a prognostic marker as well as in the detection and monitoring of minimal residual disease in leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Evidence has accumulated over the past decade to show that WT1 is a key molecule for tumour proli

  19. Overcoming tumour radiation resistance resulting from acute hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioresistant hypoxic cells in tumours are believed to compromise the success of clinical radiotherapy. This brief article discusses three methods of overcoming acute hypoxia in tumours, all of which are applicable in clinical radiotherapy. Of these nicotinamide probably has the greatest clinical potential. (UK)

  20. Oesophageal gastro-intestinal stromal tumour presenting with rupture into pleural cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, CS; T. Chan; Chu, YC; Cheng, LF; Mak, YF; Lee, KY; Au Yeung, MC

    2007-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours are rarely found in the oesophagus and it is uncommon for these tumours to present with rupture. In this paper, we report a case where the tumour ruptured through the distal oesophagus. As a result, the patient underwent surgical tumour dissection. A histopathological examination of the tumour mass confirmed that it was a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. In this report, we review the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of a patient presenting with a ruptured ...

  1. Genomic Restructuring in the Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour: Chromosome Painting and Gene Mapping Provide Clues to Evolution of a Transmissible Tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Janine E.; Bender, Hannah S.; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia C.M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Morris, Katrina; Taylor, Robyn; Stuart, Andrew; Belov, Katherine; Amemiya, Chris T.; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary The world's largest carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil, is threatened with extinction due to the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a fatal transmissible tumour. Critical loss of genetic diversity has rendered the devil vulnerable to transmission of tumour cells by grafting or transplanting the cells while biting and jaw wrestling. Initial studies of DFTD tumours revealed rearrangements among tumour chromosomes, with several missing chromosomes and four ad...

  2. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The...

  3. Where is the Lesion? Glomus Tumours of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumours are vascular hamartomas that are commonly found in the hand, particularlythe subungual region. They appear as solitary or multiple tumours, and often present as abluish discoloration of the nail plate. Different diagnostic tests are outlined, as well as imagingstudies such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and delayeddiagnosis of these tumours are common, while a familial tendency is a potential risk factor butnot yet proven. Complete surgical excision often results in complete symptomatic relief, whilerecurrences are largely due to incomplete excision or the growth of a new glomus tumour. Thisarticle aims to review the key aspects of glomus tumours and provide a diagnostic algorithmso that the lesion can be recognized and treated earlier.

  4. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomography in primary and secondary adrenal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to find out how reliably benign and malignant adrenal tumours can be differentiated on the basis of CT characteristics. The material included 86 adrenal tumours with the following confirmed diagnoses: 48 primary adrenal tumours (8 carcinomas, 1 neuroblastoma, 4 pheochromocytomas, 31 adenomas, 3 cysts, 1 haemangioma) and 38 metastases. The size, density, homogeneity, enhancement and growth of the tumours were evaluated. No specific CT findings could separate benign from malignant tumours. Coexistence of cancer and bilateral non-homogenous adrenal masses is probably sufficient for the diagnosis of adrenal metastases. In cases of coincidental small (< 3 cm), homogeneous and relatively hypodense masses with no signs of hormonal activity, a follow-up examination of the lesion within three months is recommended. Other masses may indicate further diagnostic procedures. (orig.)

  6. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Stenholm, A C; Kronborg, O; Fenger, C; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Zeuthen, J; Kristensen, T; Christensen, P B

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression of...... immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled the...... criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80. There...

  7. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Subapriya, R; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Thangadurai, A; Nagini, S

    2006-09-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms in female dogs. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between different clinical stages with activities of phase I and phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours. The levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and NADPH diaphorase in tumour tissues of 25 bitches was estimated. Enhanced levels of cytochrome P450 and b5 and phase II enzyme activities were observed in tumour tissues compared to the corresponding uninvolved adjacent tissues. The magnitude of the changes in phase I and phase II enzyme status was, however, more pronounced in stages I and II compared to stages III and IV. The results suggest that the balance between phase I carcinogen activation and phase II detoxification systems may play an important role in canine mammary tumour development. PMID:16014333

  8. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  9. Paratesticular liposarcoma-masquerading as a testicular tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-02-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years' duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  10. Modulation of DNA Damage and Repair Pathways by Human Tumour Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hollingworth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With between 10% and 15% of human cancers attributable to viral infection, there is great interest, from both a scientific and clinical viewpoint, as to how these pathogens modulate host cell functions. Seven human tumour viruses have been identified as being involved in the development of specific malignancies. It has long been known that the introduction of chromosomal aberrations is a common feature of viral infections. Intensive research over the past two decades has subsequently revealed that viruses specifically interact with cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition and repair of DNA lesions, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR. These interactions can involve activation and deactivation of individual DDR pathways as well as the recruitment of specific proteins to sites of viral replication. Since the DDR has evolved to protect the genome from the accumulation of deleterious mutations, deregulation is inevitably associated with an increased risk of tumour formation. This review summarises the current literature regarding the complex relationship between known human tumour viruses and the DDR and aims to shed light on how these interactions can contribute to genomic instability and ultimately the development of human cancers.

  11. Continuous, pulsed or single acute irradiation of a transplanted rodent tumour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recent advances in remote afterloading pulsed mode brachytherapy have provided a much needed tool for the radiation oncologist. It has the versatility of optimised physical dose distribution along with improved staff radiation protection and patient nursing. Purpose: This preliminary study was designed to explore the radiobiological equivalence between conventional continuous low dose rate tumour irradiation (CLDR) and the new technique of pulsed dose irradiation (PDR). Materials and methods: Subcutaneous isogenic sarcomas transplanted in female John's Strain Wistar rats were irradiated locally with acute, pulsed or continuous interstitial low dose-rate exposures at 9-11 mm mean diameter. Results: As expected, single acute doses (5-40 Gy) were more effective (P < 0.01) in achieving tumour growth delay (1.4 days/Gy) than CLDR exposure (4-51 Gy) over 24-48 h (0.93 days/Gy). However, PDR treatment (8 hourly fractions/day) at high dose-rate (8-48Gy) over 8-72 h was significantly (P = 0.01) more effective (1.66 days/Gy) than CLDR but not acute exposures. Conclusions: These data suggest that, clinically a significantly improved therapeutic ratio may also be achievable with pulsed high dose rate brachytherapy, and that further radiobiological studies with in-vivo tumour models are needed

  12. Features of immunohistochemical diagnostic of melanocytic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpon’ka I.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The malignant melanomas are the most important group of skin cancers. Although less common than the familiar basal and squamous cell tumours of the skin, they are much more frequently fatal, due to their intrinsic tendency to lymphatic and haematogenic metastasis. Objective. The article is devoted to parsing cases melanocytic tumours that were established through immunohistochemical study. Methods. In the study analyzed 236 patient material (150 women and 86 men aged 28 to 77 years during 2010-2013 turned out to clarify the histological diagnosis of skin tumors or metastases to lymph nodes (rare at other sites. The primary monoclonal antibodies used Сytokeratin, Рan Ab1 (clone AE1/AE3, S100 (clone 4C4.9, Ki-67 (clone SP6, Vimentin (clone V9, Melanoma gp100 (clone HMB-45. Results. Naevus proliferation rate showed a statistically significant difference with respect to proliferation rate of malignant melanomas (p<0,05. All samples (100% showed positive expression of high-intensity staining (+++ or moderate (++ intensity on the marker S100; 98,30% of samples (232 of 236 showed positive expression of marker HMB-45 at least in terms of tumor cells with intensity color from the high (+++ to weak (+ and 83.89% of the samples (198 of 236 were negative (– Сytokeratin, Рan Ab1 (other 38 cases showed weakly positive expression (+/– of tumor cells. Conclusions. 1. In the differential diagnosis of melanoma and naevus, we must bear in mind the uniformity immunophenotype of these tumors and consider only the cytological features of the tumor, changes in the structure of the epidermis and dermis (contour, symmetry, depth, inflammatory infiltration and proliferation rate. 2. Patients whose lymph nodes were the first clinical signs of cancer are always in need for additional immunohistochemical studies to avoid diagnostic errors. 3. The most common phenotype of melanocytic tumours responsible Сytokeratin, Рan–, Vimintin+, S100+, HMB-45

  13. Histopathological characteristics of adult renal tumours: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of different renal tumours in adults and to analyze the histopathologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma and its variants in the population studied. The study was carried out at Histopathology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) from April 2004 to October 2004. All consecutive adult patients with renal tumours managed surgically with tumour nephrectomies, were included. Nephrectomy specimens were fixed in 10% formalin. Gross and microscopic examination of the specimens was done according to standard protocol. Patients' demographic and clinical data were obtained from clinical charts and the histopathological features of tumours were retrieved from biopsy reports. Among 50 patients, 33 (66%) were males and 17 (34%) females. Mean age was 47.9+-15.1 years (range; 17 - 80 years). Most tumours were malignant: 47 (94%) vs. 3 (6%) benign. Among malignant tumours, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was commonest; 41 (87.2%). Various subtypes of RCC included: conventional/clear cell RCC, 30 (73.2%); papillary RCC, 6 (14.6%); chromophobe RCC, 1 (2.4%) and sarcomatoid RCC, 4 (9.7%). Other malignant tumours were: rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 (4.2%); primitive neuroectodermal tumour, 1 (2.1%); transitional cell carcinoma, 2 (4.2%); and squamous cell carcinoma, 1 (2.1%). Benign renal tumours included one case each of angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma and metanephric adenoma. The spectrum of adult renal tumours in this study consistent with that of previously reported literature. RCC is the commonest malignant tumor and conventional/clear cell RCC is the most common subtype. However, RCC presentation is delayed with a large size and an advanced stage of the disease, compared to published literature. (author)

  14. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase activity and isoenzyme composition in benign ovarian tumours, untreated malignant ovarian tumours, and malignant ovarian tumours after platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, A.G. Van der; van Ommen, B.; Meijer, C; Hollema, H; Bladeren, P.J. van; de Vries, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme composition, isoenzyme quantities and enzymatic activity were investigated in benign (n = 4) ovarian tumours and malignant ovarian tumours, before (n = 20) and after (n = 16) chemotherapy. Enzymatic activity of GST in cytosols was measured by determining 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene conjugation with glutathione, cytosolic GST subunits were determined by wide pore reversed phase HPLC, using a S-hexylglutathione-agarose affinity column, and isoelectric f...

  16. Systemic therapy for selected skull base sarcomas: Chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colia, Vittoria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Hindi, Nadia; Casali, Paolo G; Stacchiotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the data currently available on the activity of systemic therapy in chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour of the bone (GCTB) and solitary fibrous tumour, i.e., four rare sarcomas amongst mesenchymal malignancy arising from the skull base. PMID:27330421

  17. Human α-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the infrequence of salivary gland tumours and their complex histopathological diagnosis it is still difficult to exactly predict their clinical course by means of recurrence, malignant progression and metastasis. In order to define new proliferation associated genes, purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human α-defensins (DEFA) 1/3 and 4 in different tumour entities of the salivary glands with respect to malignancy. Tissue of salivary glands (n=10), pleomorphic adenomas (n=10), cystadenolymphomas (n=10), adenocarcinomas (n=10), adenoidcystic carcinomas (n=10), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=10) was obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of DEFA 1/3 and 4 were analyzed by quantitative realtime PCR and compared with healthy salivary gland tissue. Additionally, the proteins encoded by DEFA 1/3 and DEFA 4 were visualized in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining. Human α-defensins are traceable in healthy as well as in pathological altered salivary gland tissue. In comparison with healthy tissue, the gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) increased in all tumours – except for a significant decrease of DEFA 4 gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas and a similar transcript level for DEFA 1/3 compared to healthy salivary glands. A decreased gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 might protect pleomorphic adenomas from malignant transformation into adenocarcinomas. A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin’s tumour

  18. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......-day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation to......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of...

  19. Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called “hadrontherapy”. The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the approaches either adopted or suggested to face them. The challenges are the treatment of moving organs, the development of new tools for Quality Assurance, the design of rotating gantries for carbon ions. The last discussed issue con...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of ganglion cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI and CT studies of four patients with ganglion cell tumours, one with a cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte-Duclos disease), and three with gangliogliomas are reported. MRI in Lhermitte-Duclos disease clearly demonstrated a mass of low signal intensity in the left cerebellum on T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images and an area of high signal intensity with a blurred margin on T2-weighted SE images. These MRI studies were useful for delineating the lesion, which was verified at surgery. In the ganglioglioma, MRI demonstrated two isointense solid masses on T1-weighted SE images, which enhanced clearly with Gd-DTPA. The enhancement study was advantageous in planning surgery. (orig.)

  1. Radiological behaviour patterns of bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiograph is usually the first step in diagnosis of tumorous bone lesions. Although definitive diagnosis depends on biopsy in many instances the radiograph allows the most essential decision on malignancy or benignity. This radiological grading of neoplasitc bone disease is based on various criteria, in particular the pattern of bone destruction and behaviour of the cortex. 3 main types of bone destruction predicting tumour behaviour can be differentiated: 1. the geographic well-defined destruction which is characteristic of static or slowly growing lesions; 2. moth-eaten pattern with scattered and confluent holes reflecting a highly aggresive lesion; 3. most aggresive permeative pattern characterized by multiple tiny holes. The cortex also reflects the response of normal bone against destruction. Depending on the activity of the process, the cortex will either remain intact, or will be expanded, or is even penetrated. The characteristic features of the different destruction patterns are illustrated by radiographs and corresponding pathologico-anatomical slices. (orig.)

  2. Radiation protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every irradiation contributes to increasing the risk and cost-benefit considerations went into radiation protection work. The stochastic effect of cancer induction is the main concern in today's work on radiation protection of the patient. In radiation therapy, doses to the target volume (tumour and nearby healthy tissues) are part of the therapy and not a matter of radiation protection; doses to distant organs need, however, to be minimised to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced cancer later in life. The present recommendations by the ICRP are gathered in three publications for patients in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, respectively. This article discusses some of the social and economical aspects of diagnostic radiology, reviews its biological effects and gives risk estimates according to the ICRP 60. The concepts of radiation protection are also discussed and some of the strategies for dose reduction adopted by the European Union are outlined

  3. Tumour growth delay and cell survival in rat R-1 tumours after radiation and methotrexate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma which forms colonies in vitro has been used to investigate the effectiveness of radiochemotherapy. Tumour growth delay data were compared with those on survival of cells derived from tumours treated in situ. Methotrexate (MTX) was administered i.p. in three doses of 10 mg per kg body weight at intervals of 4 h. A dose of 10 Gy of 300 kV X rays was given at different time intervals before or after the MTX treatment. The observed tumour growth delays for the combined treatment for intervals of up to 4 d were less than the sum of those following separate treatments. An excess in growth delay was observed when MTX was given 6 to 8 days after or 5 days before a dose of 10 Gy. The radiation treatment resulted in fractions of surviving cells which remained constant for up to 6 days after treatment. The effectiveness of the MTX treatment could be assessed at 3d after administration of the drug, that of the combined treatments as at least 3 days after the MTX treatment. (Auth.)

  4. Huge Perineal Tumour: A Rare Presentation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour of Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, K; Salahuddin, G M; Islam, M R; Islam, M S; Quddus, M A; Islam, M A; Debnath, B C

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is a relatively rare neoplasm of gastrointestinal tract of which Rectal GIST is uncommon. It produces symptoms of per rectal bleeding or change in bowel habit. Recurrences following curative resection are predominantly intraabdominal, hepatic metastasis occurring at a median 20-25 months following the primary surgery. A 42 years old male presented a huge mass in hypogastrium, the size of which was reduced ofter neoadjuvant therapy for period of 1.5 years. He underwent abdominoperineal resection. He developed recurrences in perineum three times and in thigh at short intervals after primary resection. He also developed liver metastasis. He died two and half years after primary diagnosis. Rectal GIST should be included in differential diagnosis of intraabdominal mass and preoperative diagnosis based on histopathological as well as the immunohistochemical feature of the CD(117) and CD(34). Although complete surgical resection with negative tumour margin is the principal curative procedure for primary and non metastatic tumours, further studies are still needed for the determination of the most effective treatment strategy for patients of rectal GIST. PMID:27277373

  5. Dendritic cells and T cells deliver oncolytic reovirus for tumour killing despite pre-existing anti-viral immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Ilett, EJ; Prestwich, RJ; Kottke, T; Errington, F; Thompson, JM; Harrington, KJ; Pandha, HS; Coffey, M; Selby, PJ; Vile, RG; Melcher, AA

    2009-01-01

    Reovirus is a naturally occurring oncolytic virus currently in early clinical trials. However, the rapid induction of neutralizing antibodies represents a major obstacle to successful systemic delivery. This study addresses, for the first time, the ability of cellular carriers in the form of T cells and dendritic cells (DC) to protect reovirus from systemic neutralization. In addition, the ability of these cellular carriers to manipulate the subsequent balance of anti-viral versus anti-tumour...

  6. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs

  7. Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome Accompanies Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bertani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a small percentage of pancreatic neoplasia (10% (1. Diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours is difficult, especially if the tumours are small and nonfunctional. CT scans, MRI, and nuclear scans are sufficiently sensitive assessment tools for tumours with diameters of at least 2 cm; otherwise, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques is less than 50% (2. Myasthenia gravis (MG is a heterogeneous neuromuscular junction disorder that is primarily caused when antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors (Ab-AchR. MG can develop in conjunction with neoplasia, making MG a paraneoplastic disease. In those cases, MG is most commonly associated with thymomas and less frequently associated with extrathymic malignancies. The mechanism underlying this paraneoplastic syndrome has been hypothesized to involve an autoimmune response against the tumour cells (3. No published reports have linked malignant pancreatic diseases with MG. Here, we report the case of a young woman, negative for Ab-AchR, with a neuroendocrine tumour in the pancreatic head, who experienced a complete resolution of her MG-like syndrome after surgical enucleation of the tumour.

  8. Blood vessel hyperpermeability and pathophysiology in human tumour xenograft models of breast cancer: a comparison of ectopic and orthotopic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Karyn S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human tumour xenografts in immune compromised mice are widely used as cancer models because they are easy to reproduce and simple to use in a variety of pre-clinical assessments. Developments in nanomedicine have led to the use of tumour xenografts in testing nanoscale delivery devices, such as nanoparticles and polymer-drug conjugates, for targeting and efficacy via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect. For these results to be meaningful, the hyperpermeable vasculature and reduced lymphatic drainage associated with tumour pathophysiology must be replicated in the model. In pre-clinical breast cancer xenograft models, cells are commonly introduced via injection either orthotopically (mammary fat pad, MFP or ectopically (subcutaneous, SC, and the organ environment experienced by the tumour cells has been shown to influence their behaviour. Methods To evaluate xenograft models of breast cancer in the context of EPR, both orthotopic MFP and ectopic SC injections of MDA-MB-231-H2N cells were given to NOD scid gamma (NSG mice. Animals with matched tumours in two size categories were tested by injection of a high molecular weight dextran as a model nanocarrier. Tumours were collected and sectioned to assess dextran accumulation compared to liver tissue as a positive control. To understand the cellular basis of these observations, tumour sections were also immunostained for endothelial cells, basement membranes, pericytes, and lymphatic vessels. Results SC tumours required longer development times to become size matched to MFP tumours, and also presented wide size variability and ulcerated skin lesions 6 weeks after cell injection. The 3 week MFP tumour model demonstrated greater dextran accumulation than the size matched 5 week SC tumour model (for P  Conclusions Dextran accumulation and immunostaining results suggest that small MFP tumours best replicate the vascular permeability required to observe the EPR effect

  9. Radiation treatment dose optimisation using Poisson tumour control probability parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the Poisson tumour control probability (TCP) γ37 and D37 parameters of a uniformly irradiated numerical tumour model using changes in tumour burden as a surrogate for treatment response information. An optimum dose Di for a tumour sub-volume element Vi is described that maximizes TCP as a function of fixed tumour integral dose ξ. TCP was calculated for spatially-varying clonogen density for a total 108 cells and radiosensitivity α with mean radiosensitivity in the range 0.4 – 1.0 Gy−1. A bivariate normal distribution is used to describe the radiosensitivity α and the linear term of the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell kill governed the changes in the regional tumour burden within sub-volumes Vi. The optimum dose distribution, Di, for Vi is obtained as a function of fixed tumour integral dose ξ. For a uniform dose delivery and for TCP = 37%, γ37 and D37 are described by the effective radiosensitivity αeff and the effective clonogen number N0,eff, respectively. αeff is equivalent to differential dose changes in the number of clonogenic cells (tumour burden). The γ37 values were found to be inversely correlated with variance of the probability density function of the α distribution. For the biologically optimum dose distribution, γ37 was found to converge to the theoretical maximum limit and D37 was found to reduce relative to that obtained for the uniform dose case. The TCP parameters γ37 and D37 could thus be useful in optimising individual radiation treatment doses even when tumour heterogeneity is taken into account.

  10. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  11. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Mackay, Andrew Reay, E-mail: andrewreay.mackay@univaq.it [Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function.

  13. Tirapazamine causes vascular dysfunction in HCT-116 tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Tirapazamine is a hypoxic cytotoxin currently undergoing Phase II/III clinical evaluation in combination with radiation and chemotherapeutics for the treatment of non-hematological cancers. Tissue penetration studies using multicellular models have suggested that tirapazamine exposure may be limited to cells close to blood vessels. However, animal studies show tirapazamine enhances the anti-tumour activity of radiation and chemotherapy and clinical studies with tirapazamine, so far, are promising. To investigate this apparent paradox we examined the microregional effects of tirapazamine in vivo by mapping drug effects with respect to the position of blood vessels in tumour cryosections. Patients and methods: Tirapazamine was administered i.p. to mice bearing HCT-116 tumours, which were excised at various times after treatment. Images of multiple-stained cryosections were overlaid to provide microregional information on the relative position of proliferating cells, hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature. Results: We observed extensive and permanent vascular dysfunction in a large proportion of tumours from mice treated with tirapazamine. In the affected tumours, blood flow ceased in the centrally located tumour vessels, leaving a rim of functional vessels around the periphery of the tumour. This vascular dysfunction commenced within 24 h after tirapazamine administration and the areas affected appeared to be replaced by necrosis over the following 24-48 h. Conclusions: Because the majority of hypoxic cells are located in the center of tumours we propose that the activity of tirapazamine in vivo may be related to its effects on tumour vasculature and that its activity against hypoxic cells located distal to functional blood vessels may not be as important as previously believed

  14. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  15. Two unusual tumours in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K

    2004-09-01

    This case report describes the clinical history, diagnosis and treatment of a ferret with a tumour of the right adrenal gland and insulinomas of the pancreas. Histopathology of both lesions confirmed the diagnoses. Clinical signs of the adrenal gland tumour were a swollen vulva, overgrooming, sexual activity and pruritus. The clinical signs suggesting insulinomas were collapse of the ferret, disorientation and ptyalism. A low blood glucose level assisted the diagnosis of insulinomas. This is believed to be the first reported case of concurrent insulinomas and adrenal gland tumour in a ferret in the United Kingdom. PMID:15460204

  16. Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney - a rare aggressive tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shetty MV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney is a rare highly aggressive neoplasm of childhood. We present the case of a 18-months old girl presenting with decreased appetite, abdominal distention of 20 days duration and 3 episodes of haematuria. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination of the excised specimen confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney. This case highlights the need to consider malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney of possibility young children in presenting with a renal mass.

  17. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A;

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  18. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on. PMID:18690513

  19. A fatal pseudo-tumour: disseminated basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemelman Willem A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basidiobolomycosis is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum, member of the class Zygomycetes, order Entomophthorales, found worldwide. Usually basidiobolomycosis is a subcutaneous infection but rarely gastrointestinal manifestations have been described; 13 adults and 10 children and a few retroperitoneal or pulmonary cases. In gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis the colon is most frequently involved, usually presenting with subacute mild abdominal pain. In contrast to children only very few described adult patients had hepatic masses. Definitive diagnosis requires culture, serological testing can be helpful. The fungal morphology and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon are characteristic histological features. There are no prominent risk factors. Usually surgery and prolonged antifungal therapy are required. Case presentation A 61 year old man presented with progressive left abdominal pain and constipation since a few months. Colonoscopy showed an obstructing tumour in the descending colon, and a hemicolectomy was performed. Histology showed inflammation, possibly caused by a fungal or parasitic infection, without definite identification of an organism. A few weeks postoperatively a CT scan made because of abdominal discomfort, revealed a livermass (6 cm. Treatment with metronidazole, directed against an amoebic liver abscess, was unsuccessful. He developed a marked eosinophilia (27.7%. A liver biopsy was performed and the patient was referred to a university hospital. A repeated CT scan showed a livermass of 9 cm diameter. Review of colon and liver biopsy samples showed extensive necrosis and histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and numerous eosinophils. Grocott stained sections contained unusually large hyphae surrounded by strongly eosinophilic material in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. A presumptive diagnosis of Basidiobolus spp. infection was made and treated

  20. Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumour. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Hoang, Catherine; Le Bodic, Marie Francoise; Polivka, Marc; Hautefeuille, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumours are rare neoplasms which in most cases exhibit malignant biological behaviour. These tumours, in the majority of the well-documented cases, are composed of argyrophil- and argentaffin-positive cells which contain large pleomorphic neurosecretory granules. In contrast, argyrophilic non-argentaffin pancreatic endocrine tumours with tumour cells containing round neurosecretory granules are exceptional. In this study...

  1. Results of primary and postoperative radiotherapy of malignant tumours of the larynx and posterior pharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study on the epidemiology of laryngeal and pharyngeal tumours, a coincidence was found between established alcohol abuse and tumours of the two organs. The results of surgery followed by gammatron radiotherapy (laryngeal tumours) or betatron therapy (pharyngeal tumours) are prescuted and discussed. (APR)

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of human brain tumours: assessment of differences between tumour types and its applicability in brain tumour categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in categorizing brain tumours. In vivo single-voxel 1H MRS at an echo time of 136 ms was performed in 108 patients with brain neoplasms that included 29 meningiomas (MEN), 15 low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), 12 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 25 glioblastomas (GBM) and 27 metastases (MET). Time-domain fitted areas of nine resonances were evaluated in all spectra. Twenty-five additional tumours were prospectively included as independent test set. Differences in at least two resonances were found in all pairwise comparisons of tumour groups except in GBM vs MET. Large lipid resonance at 1.30 ppm was found to be characteristic of GBM and MET, and alanine was characteristic of MEN. Significant differences were found between LGA and AA in choline-containing compounds and total creatine resonances. When implemented in a stepwise algorithm, these findings correctly classified 84% (21 of 25) tumours in the independent test set. Some additional utility was found in glycine/myo-inositol at 3.55 ppm for bilateral differentiation between GBM and MET (9 of 11, 82% correct classification in the test set). 1H MRS provides useful information to categorize the most common brain tumours that can be implemented in clinical practice with satisfactory results. (orig.)

  3. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  4. Inferring mutational timing and reconstructing tumour evolutionary histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turajlic, Samra; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Cancer evolution can be considered within a Darwinian framework. Both micro and macro-evolutionary theories can be applied to understand tumour progression and treatment failure. Owing to cancers' complexity and heterogeneity the rules of tumour evolution, such as the role of selection, remain incompletely understood. The timing of mutational events during tumour evolution presents diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic opportunities. Here we review the current sampling and computational approaches for inferring mutational timing and the evidence from next generation sequencing-informed data on mutational timing across all tumour types. We discuss how this knowledge can be used to illuminate the genes and pathways that drive cancer initiation and relapse; and to support drug development and clinical trial design. PMID:25827356

  5. EGFR and microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Guimarães, Maria João; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2013-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor which has been shown to have an important role in human breast cancer. Its role appears to be associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. In order to clarify its role in canine mammary tumours (CMT), 61 malignant neoplasms were studied by using immunohistochemistry, comparing expression of EGFR, microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 immunolabelling and characteristics of tumour aggressiveness. High EGFR immunoexpression was statistically significantly associated with tumour size, tumour necrosis, mitotic grade, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. High CD31 immunoreactivity was statistically significantly associated with tubule formation, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. A positive correlation between EGFR and CD31 immunoexpression (r = 0.843; P aggression in malignant CMT, presenting the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors in the context of metastatic disease treatment. PMID:24091029

  6. Detection of multiple endocrine tumours using 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An 131l-MIBG scan was requested in an effort to locate an endocrine tumour after the patient presented with a history of funny turns, intermittent hypertension and elevated urinary catecholamines. The patient was injected with 131l-MIBG, and scanned 48 and 72 hours post-injection. Anterior and posterior static images of the torso identified several abnormal accumulations of 131l-MIBG. To help with the diagnosis a 99mTc-MPP scan followed. Blood pool images showed areas of intense activity matching some of the abnormalities on the 131l-MIBG scan. The delayed images were unremarkable. Some of these abnormalities were palpable on physical examination and the patient was aware of these lesions since childhood. Surgical excision of five tumours was performed. Histology of 131l tumours confirmed the diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. The nuclear medicine scans successfully identified the location and type of tumour responsible for the patient''s hormonal problems

  7. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  8. Computed tomography staging of gastro-intestinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a period of six years 131 patients had CT for gastrointestinal tumours or inflammatory bowel disease; the results were analysed retrospectively according to standard criteria. The preoperative CT appearances were compared with the surgical and histological findings. Confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained at surgery and from pathologicl studies carried out within six weeks of the CT. There were 93 malignant and 8 benign tumours and 30 inflammatory lesions. The reliability of CT for determining tumour extent and the presence of metastases can be improved by standardising the method of examination. Altogether a sensitivity of 75-85%, a specificity of 89-96% and an accuracy of 83-86% was obtained, depending on the anatomical lesion. Correct findings of all three staging parameters T, N and M for carcinomas was, however, obtained in only 56%. Differentiation between malignant and benign tumours and from inflammatory lesions was possible in the presence of specific CT patterns. (orig.)

  9. Risk for borderline ovarian tumours after exposure to fertility drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Sarah Marie; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do fertility drugs increase the risk for borderline ovarian tumours, overall and according to histological subtype? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of any fertility drug did not increase the overall risk for borderline ovarian tumours, but an increased risk for serous borderline ovarian...... and risk for borderline ovarian tumours, and the results are inconsistent. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective case-cohort study was designed with data from a cohort of 96 545 Danish women with fertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-2006. All women were...... followed for first occurrence of a borderline ovarian tumour from the initial date of infertility evaluation until a date of migration, date of death or 31 December 2006, whichever occurred first. The median length of follow-up was 11.3 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Included...

  10. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation requirements and preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible, since it depends on different factors, among which their location inside the liver functional segments. Alternative techniques consist in local use of chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour. Radio frequency and cryosurgical ablations are examples of such alternative techniques that may be performed percutaneously. This requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction with these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency, whilst they benefit from minimal invasiveness. This paper introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation and describes preliminary experiments focusing on data registration evaluation. To keep close to conventional protocols, we consider registration of pre-operative CT or MRI data to intra-operative echographic data.

  11. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  12. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India, and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  13. Proliferating trichilemmal tumour: a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating trichilemmal tumour is a solid-cystic neoplasm that shows trichilemmal differentiation similar to that of the isthmus of the hair follicle histologically characteristed by the presence of trichilemmal keratinization. Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumour (PTT appears mainly in elderly women and is in general a solitary lesion on the scalp. Proliferating trichilemmal tumours generally have a benign clinical course, and a clinical differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma is often difficult. We report a case of PTT in a 30 year old man presenting as a solitary 10x8 cm ulcerated nodule on the scalp since 3 months clinically resembled a malignant tumour. The therapeutic approach is surgical removal with a wide clear margin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1223-1225

  14. A large abdominal desmoid tumour associated with pregnancy and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Rathod

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of huge abdominal desmoid tumour first detected during pregnancy. The patient delivered vaginally and the size of the tumour increased during puerperium for which resection was done. Most of these tumours occur in the abdominal muscles particularly right rectus abdominis, perhaps related to trauma from abdominal stretching and movement. These tumours are known to regress spontaneously after delivery which was not in our case. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to result in recurrence in either FAP (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis or non-FAP patients. It is not clear from currently available data whether pregnancy associated desmoids are molecularly distinct from other desmoids. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 270-272

  15. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...... residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  16. Induction of tumour hypoxia by a vasoactive agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hydralazine treatment on 3 murine tumours (RIF-1, KHT and 16/C) was monitored using 31P-NMR. Changes in the 31P-NMR spectrum are compared with measurements of radiobiological hypoxic fraction (RHF) in the RIF-1 and KHT. Hydralizine is known to reduce temporarily blood flow in experimental tumours, and thus cause a transient increase in the RHF to j100% (in RIF-1 and KHT). This correlates with a decline in energy status as measured by 31P-NMR (i.e. there was an increase in Pi in all three tumours). Time-course data from the RIF-1 and KHT tumours show that maintenance of anaesthesia prolongs the hypoxia induced by hydralazine. (author). 16 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Epidermal growth factor and imagine diagnosis and therapy of tumour with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has a direct proportion correlation between the epidermal growth factor receptor levels of tumour and tumour differentiation degree, tumour sizes, stage, mototic index or cancer recurrence. Epidermal growth factor receptor is detected in 90% of the tumours, in which, 54% of epidermal growth factor receptor of malignant tumours can link with external genous ligand. Therefore, radionuclide labelled epidermal growth factor will bring about the imaging diagnosis and therapy of malignant tumours. The research present situation and clinical significance of radionuclide labelled epidermal growth factor for receptor imaging diagnosis and therapy of tumour are emphatically elaborated

  18. Principles and methods of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia is briefly outlined and the principles thereof are shown. The individual types of radiation effects, ie., early and delayed effects, are listed according to their symptoms. The concepts of the so-called stochastic and nonstochastic effects are explained in detail. The classification of radiation effects and the life-long risk coefficients of malignant tumours induced by radiation are tabulated. The criteria and methods of radiation protection are treated in detail with reference to ICRP recommendations and the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Socialist Republic on health protection from ionizing radiations. (L.O.)

  19. Investigation of the biophysical dose planning for radiotherapy of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical part, the calculation of a purely geometrical distribution of the radiation dose in the human body, is solved nearly completely and is applicable for frequently-used types of radiation in the computer with error rates below 1%. The biomedical section consists of two partial sections, the protection of the healthy tissue and the distruction of the tumour tissue. The unavoidable radiation exposure of healthy organs is to be kept as low as possible and should not exceed the limit to an irreversible damage at any point. For the tolerance limit of various organs of the ''average patient'' we could derive a mathematical function which allows to calculate the dose distribution before starting therapy, protecting critical organs or organ section from too much exposure. Another set of formulas allows, by authomatical calculation with exactly prescribed therapy dose, to estimate the radiation exposure of healthy sections in the subtolerance region and to choose the geometrical dose distribution in a way keeping the total exposure of a healthy person as low as possible. This dose depends on a big number of factors such as sensitivity to radiation, oxygen supply, anoxic share of cells, growth speed, and reoxygenization. Provided that the sensitivity of the tumour to radiation remains stronger than that of the normal tissue the formalism developed here can be used as a criterion for forecasting the success of the therapy. The calculation scheme introduced here can be regarded as a clinical tool which must be further developed in the following time. (orig./MG)

  20. A tale of two tumours: comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-09-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD. PMID:23200636

  1. Liver metastases of neuroendocrine tumours; early reduction of tumour load to improve life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lips Cornelis JM

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroendocrine tumours frequently metastasize to the liver. Although generally slowly progressing, hepatic metastases are the major cause of carcinoid syndrome and ultimately lead to liver dysfunction, cardiac insufficiency and finally death. Methods A literature review was performed to define the optimal treatment strategy and work-up in patients with neuroendocrine hepatic metastases. Based on this, an algorithm for the management of these patients was established. Results Platelet serotonin and chromogranin A are useful biomarkers for detection and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumour. Helical computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy are the most sensitive diagnostic modalities. Surgical debulking is an accepted approach for reducing hormonal symptoms and to establish better conditions for medical treatment, but is frequently impossible due to the extent of disease. A novel approach is the local ablation of tumour by thermal coagulation using therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA or laser induced thermotherapy (LITT. These techniques preserve normal liver tissue. There is a tendency to destroy metastases early in the course of disease, thereby postponing or eliminating the surgically untreatable stage. This can be combined with postoperative radioactive octreotide to eliminate small multiple metastases. In patients with extensive metastases who are not suitable for local destruction, systemic therapy by octreotide, 131I-MIBG treatment or targeted chemo- and radiotherapy should be attempted. A final option for selective patients is orthotopic liver transplantation. Conclusion Treatment for patients with neuroendocrine hepatic metastases must be tailored for each individual patient. When local ablative therapies are used early in the course of the disease, the occurrence of carcinoid syndrome with end stage hepatic disease can be postponed or prevented.

  2. Flow cytofluorometric evidence for the differential radioresponsiveness of aneuploid and diploid cervix tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    348 patients have been included in the study over a 54-month period. Data on these patients have shown that DNA aneuploid tumours are significantly more radioresponsive than diploid cervix tumours. Analysis of the data on 213 patients with a minimum follow-up time of 15 months has, however, failed to show an overall more favourable prognosis conferred by tumour DNA aneuploidy. Analysis of the relationship between clinical stage and disease state and tumour DNA ploidy, however, suggests that (1) aneuploid tumours metastasize to distant sites at an earlier stage of the disease than diploid tumours and (2) local recurrence rates for diploid tumours, in late stage disease, are double those for aneuploid tumours. Improved staining procedures, and instrument modification, has also shown that cervix tumour heterogeneity is of considerably greater frequency than at first appeared to be the case (approximately 75% of DNA aneuploid tumours show heterogeneity). (Auth.)

  3. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitsidou, Ioanna G.; Ioannis T. Astreidis; Kontos, Konstantinos I.; Lazaridou, Maria N.; Eleni T. Bourlidou; Gerasimidou, Domniki K; Vladika, Natalia P.; Mangoudi, Doxa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approac...

  4. Benign cardiac tumours: cardiac CT and MRI imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary benign cardiac tumours are rarely found in clinical practice and are generally evaluated with echocardiography. However, with the increasing usage of helical multislice CT, the initial detection and evaluation of these masses may be made by the radiologist during routine daily practice for other indications. The echocardiographic, CT and cardiac MRI appearances of various benign cardiac tumours and masses are described and illustrated in this review

  5. Targeting tumour hypoxia to improve outcome of stereotactic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenborn, Thomas R; Horsman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of solid tumours that significantly reduces the efficacy of conventional radiation therapy. In this study we investigated the role of hypoxia in a stereotactic radiation schedule by using a variety of hypoxic modifiers in a preclinical tumour model...... OXi4503 and heat with the final 15 Gy had a significantly larger effect (TCD50 = 2 Gy). CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant modifiers of hypoxia effectively enhanced an equivalent stereotactic radiation treatment confirming the importance of hypoxia in such schedules....

  6. Increased cell membrane arachidonic acid in experimental colorectal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, M. L.; Neoptolemos, J P; Clayton, H A; Talbot, I C; Bell, P R

    1991-01-01

    Tumour cell membrane fatty acid composition was investigated using an animal model of colorectal carcinogenesis. Eighty six male Wistar rats were fed experimental diets containing either 5% saturated fat or 20% saturated fat. Colorectal tumours were induced by intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane, and control rats received saline. Animals were killed at intervals up to 26 weeks after the last injection of carcinogen for histology and lipid analysis. Cell membrane fatty acids in colonic m...

  7. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, M. E.; Byrne, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional c...

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells: Roles In Tumour Genesis And Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic Ivan; Gajovic Nevena; Radosavljevic Gordana; Pantic Jelena; Pejnovic Nada; Arsenijevic Nebojsa; Lukic Miodrag L.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent the most recently identified members of the innate immune system. These cells play important roles in inflammation, tissue remodelling and metabolic disease. ILCs can be subdivided into three major groups according to their cytokine production. The role of ILCs in tumourigenesis and tumour progression is not completely clarified. In this review, we discuss whether and how ILCs are involved in tumour genesis, growth and metastasis.

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells: Roles In Tumour Genesis And Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs represent the most recently identified members of the innate immune system. These cells play important roles in inflammation, tissue remodelling and metabolic disease. ILCs can be subdivided into three major groups according to their cytokine production. The role of ILCs in tumourigenesis and tumour progression is not completely clarified. In this review, we discuss whether and how ILCs are involved in tumour genesis, growth and metastasis.

  11. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain m...

  12. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. PMID:22943286

  13. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  14. Bioreductive pharmaceuticals. Possible selective chemotherapics of solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical treatment and the radiotherapy allow to reduce the mass tumour in regions you specify from the susceptible body to extirpation or high dose of radiations. But none in the two ways is applicable to the destruction of cells very disseminated or circulating tumour that are present in most of the patients with cancer, for it is development the chemotherapy. Inside the agents used chemotherapy they are distinguished: 1) the biological agents, 2) the endocrine agents, 3) the medicine anti neoplasms

  15. Image-Guided Predictions of Liposome Transport in Solid Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Shawn

    Due to the ability to preferentially accumulate and deliver drug payloads to solid tumours, liposomes have emerged as an exciting therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the initial excitement was dampened by limited clinical results, where only negligible increases in patient survival following liposome therapy have been observed. What are the reasons for the limited clinical efficacy? Is the nanoparticle formulation optimal? Is the enhanced permeability and retention effect overstated? What are the barriers limiting the delivery of drugs to cancer cells? What is the optimal dosing and treatment schedule? Addressing these questions requires developing quantitative tools to understand the behaviour of liposomes in vivo, such as pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, intra-tumoural accumulation, and drug release. Central to each of these questions is the concept of transport - the collection of biophysical processes responsible for the delivery of molecules to tissues. Understanding transport means understanding the crucial links between the spatio-temporal accumulation of liposomes, the physicochemical properties of liposomes, and properties of the tumour microenvironment. In this thesis, a biophysical mathematical transport model is developed that when used in combination with non-invasive imaging methods can predict liposome transport in solid tumours. The mathematical transport framework is validated in its ability to predict the bulk and intra-tumoural accumulation of liposomes based on biophysical transport properties of solid tumours. Furthermore, novel imaging methods are developed and used to elucidate the crucial links between transport barriers and spatial heterogeneity in liposome accumulation. Finally, methods are presented to integrate quantitative imaging and mathematical modelling such that an accurate prediction of liposome transport in solid tumours is possible. In summary, this thesis presents and validates an image-guided mathematical

  16. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis on frozen tumour tissue sections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boultwood, J. (Jacqueline); Kaklamanis, L.; Gatter, K. C.; Wainscoat, J S

    1992-01-01

    The application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the molecular genetic analysis of solid tumours has been restricted by the requirement for whole single cells as a DNA source. A simple technique which allows for the direct analysis of histologically characterised solid tumour material by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was developed. Single frozen tissue sections obtained from colonic carcinoma specimens were embedded without further manipulation in molten, low melting temperatu...

  17. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K;

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated by...

  18. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in inherited disease

    OpenAIRE

    Evans D; Huson Susan M; Birch Jillian M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare tumours known to occur at high frequency in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), but may also occur in other cancer prone syndromes. Methods The North West Regional Genetic Register covers a population of 4.1 million and was interrogated for incidence of MPNST in 12 cancer prone syndromes. Age, incidence and survival curves were generated for NF1. Results Fifty two of 1254 NF1 patients developed MPNST, with MPNST also occurr...

  19. Mediastinal germ cell tumour with massive pulmonary involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamukai, Kenji; Di Saverio, Salomone; Antonacci, Filippo; Lacava, Nicola; Boaron, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality treatment, with chemotherapy and surgery, is potentially curative in case of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. The authors present the case of a primitive mediastinal GTC with bilateral lung metastases. The patient was treated with five cycles of chemotherapy. Restaging showed reduction of the extent and of 18 FDG intake and β-HCG serum levels. The patient underwent two-step surgical excision of the tumours: mediastinal lesion and 35 lung metastases were resected by a right th...

  20. Clinicopathological Profile of Childhood Primary Abdominal Tumours in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Parwez Sajad; Akhter, Zahida; Majeed, Showkat; Wani, Mohd Yousuf; Hayat, Humera

    2015-12-01

    Primary abdominal tumours attract considerable notice because of their serious prognosis, high cost of treatment and the emotional and psychological trauma. Abdominal tumours can present with pain, vomiting, constipation or less commonly intestinal obstruction. The presentation of cancer in children mimic those of childhood conditions like infections particularly viral infections, urinary tract infections, gastro-oesophageal reflux, malnutrition, constipation, lymphadnenitis, glomerulonephritis and congenital urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26730026

  1. Gating and tracking, 4D in thoracic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verellen, D; Depuydt, T; Gevaert, T; Linthout, N; Tournel, K; Duchateau, M; Reynders, T; Storme, G; De Ridder, M

    2010-10-01

    The limited ability to control for a tumour's location compromises the accuracy with which radiation can be delivered to tumour-bearing tissue. The resultant requirement for larger treatment volumes to accommodate target uncertainty restricts the radiation dose because more surrounding normal tissue is exposed. With image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), these volumes can be optimized and tumouricidal doses may be delivered, achieving maximum tumour control with minimal complications. Moreover, with the ability of high precision dose delivery and real-time knowledge of the target volume location, IGRT has initiated the exploration of new indications in radiotherapy such as hypofractionated radiotherapy (or stereotactic body radiotherapy), deliberate inhomogeneous dose distributions coping with tumour heterogeneity (dose painting by numbers and biologically conformal radiation therapy), and adaptive radiotherapy. In short: "individualized radiotherapy". Tumour motion management, especially for thoracic tumours, is a particular problem in this context both for the delineation of tumours and organs at risk as well as during the actual treatment delivery. The latter will be covered in this paper with some examples based on the experience of the UZ Brussel. With the introduction of the NOVALIS system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) in 2000 and consecutive prototypes of the ExacTrac IGRT system, gradually a hypofractionation treatment protocol was introduced for the treatment of lung tumours and liver metastases evolving from motion-encompassing techniques towards respiratory-gated radiation therapy with audio-visual feedback and most recently dynamic tracking using the VERO system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). This evolution will be used to illustrate the recent developments in this particular field of research. PMID:20673737

  2. Cobalamin and folate binding proteins in human tumour tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, K; Bradbury, D A; Davies, J. M.; Ryrie, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The serum of an 84 year old man with disseminated carcinoma was found to contain extremely high concentrations of cobalamin and of a cobalamin binding protein with trans-cobalamin I characteristics. Tumour tissue samples obtained at necropsy contained considerably higher concentrations of cobalamin binding protein (R-binder) than normal tissues. Tumour tissues also contained increased concentrations of specific folate binding protein. In all tissues studied a close correlation existed between...

  3. Small bowel stromal tumour revealed by a lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assamoi B. F. Kassi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel stromal tumour must be systematically researched in the presence of obscure and persistent low gastrointestinal bleeding despite a normal endoscopic examination (OGDF and colonoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy is the best diagnosis examination; if it is not available a CT enterography could be useful. Surgical treatment is effective on localized and weak malignancy small bowel stromal tumours. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1248-1250

  4. Small bowel stromal tumour revealed by a lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Assamoi B. F. Kassi; Lebeau, R; Y. S. Kacou; K. J. N'dah; Traore, M.

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel stromal tumour must be systematically researched in the presence of obscure and persistent low gastrointestinal bleeding despite a normal endoscopic examination (OGDF and colonoscopy). Video capsule endoscopy is the best diagnosis examination; if it is not available a CT enterography could be useful. Surgical treatment is effective on localized and weak malignancy small bowel stromal tumours. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000): 1248-1250

  5. Ethnomedicinal plants for prevention and treatment of tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Madhuri; Govind Pandey

    2009-01-01

    The plant kingdom plays a major role in the life of human beings and animals. The plant, as one of the important sources, still maintains its original place in the treatment of various diseases, including tumours (neoplasms), with no ill effects. Considerable studies have been carried out on ethnomedicinal plants of India; however, only few medicinal plants have attracted the interest of scientists, to investigate them for a remedy for tumours. Plants may promote host resistance against infec...

  6. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular head and neck tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The embolization of vascular tumours of the head and neck has become an important adjunct to the surgical treatment of these tumours. A vascular tumour in the head and neck region in a surgically treatable patient may be a candidate for embolization. Palliative embolization may be the sole treatment for high risk patients. Reducing intraoperative bleeding may shorten surgery time thus decreasing morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of embolization as an adjunct to surgery or as a curative measure in the management of hypervascular head and neck tumours. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 consecutive patients 27 men and 16 women; mean age, 37.8 years) with 48 hypervascular head and neck tumours that had undergone preoperative transarterial, direct puncture or combined mode of embolization. Diagnosis of tumours was made on the basis of findings of imaging studies. The 46 patients underwent embolization either through transarterial route, by direct puncture technique or both direct puncture and arterial route. The devascularization reached 90-95% with the use of NBCA. The amount of devascularization reached by transarterial particle embolization is a little lesser. One patient (carotid body tumour) developed mild unilateral seventh, ninth and 10th cranial nerve palsy after transarterial embolization, transient hemiparesis was seen in another patient (nasopharyngeal angiofibroma). Both patients improved completely with steroids and had no deficit on follow up. One patient developed delayed glue migration into the middle cerebral artery territory 6 h after the procedure with no reported increase in size of the lesion in the following 5 years. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular tumour of head and neck region appears to be safe and improves the chance of complete removal during surgery with minimal blood loss

  7. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Lutetium-labelled peptides for therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Boen; Teunissen, Jaap; Krenning, Eric; de Herder, Wouter; Khan, Saima; van Vliet, Esther; Kwekkeboom, Dirk Jan

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTreatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The results obtained with 177Lu-[DOTA 0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) are very encouraging in terms of tumour regression. Dosimetry studies with 177Lu-DOTATATE as well as the limi...

  9. Pleural Mesothelioma Surveillance: Validity of Cases from a Tumour Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Labrèche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumour associated with exposure to asbestos fibres. Fewer than than one-quarter of cases registered in the Quebec Tumour Registry (QTR have been compensated as work-related. While establishing a surveillance system, this led to questioning as to whether there has been over-registration of cases that are not authentic pleural mesotheliomas in the QTR.

  10. Multiple brown tumours from parathyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagang, Daryl Jade Tardo; Gutierrez, Jerico Baliton; Sandoval, Mark Anthony Santiago; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who suffered from severe bilateral inguinal pain and left mandibular mass. CT scan showed innumerable expansile osteolytic bone masses on the iliac wings, femur, ribs and vertebral bodies, diffuse skeletal osteopaenia, calyceal lithiasis on the right kidney and a left thyroid mass. Ionised calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated. Parathyroid sestamibi scan showed a hyperfunctioning left inferior parathyroid gland. Biopsy of the left mandibular mass was consistent with brown tumour. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy of the enlarged parathyroid gland. Final histopathology, however, revealed parathyroid carcinoma, 4.7 cm in widest dimension, with capsular and vascular space invasion. The patient underwent repeat surgery, specifically, left thyroid lobectomy, isthmectomy and central node dissection. Intact PTH decreased from 681.3 to 74 pg/mL (normal range: 10-65) 24 hours postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 months showed normal serum calcium levels, size reduction of bone lesions and improvement of quality of life. PMID:27358103

  11. Aggressive surgical palliation for advanced girdle tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Burd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgical management of advanced, incurable, malignant disease presents particular ethical and technical challenges. The clear goal is palliation and the surgical futility must be avoided. This case series presents some particular challenges in end-of-life surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients referred with advanced malignant disease involving a limb girdle were reviewed. Results: In one case, a patient pleaded for surgery after initially requesting a delay to seek treatment from a Chinese Traditional Herbalist. The increase in tumour bulk led to problems with surgery and the patient died in a hospital a few weeks later. This case illustrates ′futility′ not recognized and encountered. The remaining 14 patients exhibited positive palliation with improved quality of dying and appreciation expressed by patients, relatives and staff. Conclusion: In selected cases, with a skilled and experienced surgical team, patients with advanced malignant disease can still benefit from aggressive surgical palliation. The margin of error is small between palliation being attempted and futility being achieved. This considerably adds to the challenge of end-of-life surgery.

  12. In vitro sublethal damage repair in tumour subpopulations from a heterogeneous human colon tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of sublethal radiation damage in two asynchronously growing tumour cell subpopulations (clones A and D) obtained from a single human adenocarcinoma biopsy specimen has been studied. The survival data found after generation of complete survival curves from split dose experiments in which exposures were separated by 3, 6, 12, or 24 h were examined. It was found that the method of performing irradiations (e.g. suspension cultures versus monolayer cultures) affected the shape of the single dose response curves, and as a result the interpretation of the amount of sublethal damage repair occurring after split dose irradiation. (author)

  13. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Jie [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chan, Tao; Chen, Minhu [Union Hospital, Hong Kong, Medical Imaging Department, Shatin, N.T. (China); Lin, Yuan [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-11-15

    We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs. Forty-one patients, preoperatively investigated by MSCT and subsequently operated on with a histological diagnosis of P-NENs, were included. Various MSCT features of the primary tumour, lymph node, and distant metastasis were analysed. The relationship between MSCT features and pathologic classification of P-NENs was analysed with univariate and multivariate models. Contrast-enhanced images showed significant differences among the three grades of tumours in the absolute enhancement (P = 0.013) and relative enhancement (P = 0.025) at the arterial phase. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences among the tumours of different grades (based on World Health Organization [WHO] 2010 classification) in tumour size (P = 0.001), tumour contour (P < 0.001), cystic necrosis (P = 0.001), tumour boundary (P = 0.003), dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (P = 0.001), peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (P < 0.001), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.011), and distant metastasis (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis suggested that only peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (HR 3.934, 95 % CI, 0.426-7.442, P = 0.028) was significantly associated with WHO 2010 pathological classification. MSCT is helpful in evaluating the pathological classification of P-NENs. (orig.)

  14. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  15. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs. Forty-one patients, preoperatively investigated by MSCT and subsequently operated on with a histological diagnosis of P-NENs, were included. Various MSCT features of the primary tumour, lymph node, and distant metastasis were analysed. The relationship between MSCT features and pathologic classification of P-NENs was analysed with univariate and multivariate models. Contrast-enhanced images showed significant differences among the three grades of tumours in the absolute enhancement (P = 0.013) and relative enhancement (P = 0.025) at the arterial phase. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences among the tumours of different grades (based on World Health Organization [WHO] 2010 classification) in tumour size (P = 0.001), tumour contour (P < 0.001), cystic necrosis (P = 0.001), tumour boundary (P = 0.003), dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (P = 0.001), peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (P < 0.001), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.011), and distant metastasis (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis suggested that only peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (HR 3.934, 95 % CI, 0.426-7.442, P = 0.028) was significantly associated with WHO 2010 pathological classification. MSCT is helpful in evaluating the pathological classification of P-NENs. (orig.)

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  17. Prognosticating and pharmacological prophylaxis of radiogenic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerogenic effect risks due to ionizing radiation, that impacted on large population groups because of Chernobyl and other accidents, cause the actuality of early diagnosis problems and of radiogenic tumour prevention. Since canceroembryonic antigen and α-fetoprotein had been found, the tumour markers began to be frequently used by oncologists. However, attempt to use onco-markers, as test for earlier pre-clinic determination, have been unsuccessful. The secondary messengers of hormonal signal, cyclic nucleotides, that take the leading place in system of organism self-regulation, had attracted our attention. As known, the increase of cell division number and suppression of morphological and biochemical developments of differentiation are the fundamental characteristics of tumour growth and are proceeding together with participating of cyclic nucleotide system. The including of both nucleotides in neoplastic transformation and at the same time their constant presence in extracellular fluid (blood serum, urine) makes the perspective use of these compounds as indicators of tumour growth before the appearance of clinic signs of diseases. This coincides with the modern viewpoints on the developments of optimum programs for pre-clinic diagnosing of tumours, that needs to base on the change in homeostasis preceded the malignant tumour development. (author)

  18. Altered oxidant-antioxidant profile in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Nagini, S

    2005-05-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms in female dogs. Oxidative stress arising due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, coupled with altered antioxidant capacities has been implicated in the pathogenesis of all types of cancers. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants in canine mammary tumours have not been investigated. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant profile in canine mammary tumours. Lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes, as well as the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and vitamin C, in tumour tissues of 25 bitches was estimated. Lipid peroxidation in tumour tissues was enhanced compared to the corresponding adjacent uninvolved tissues. This was accompanied by significant elevation in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. This study suggests that upregulation of antioxidants induced by lipid peroxidation confers a selective growth advantage to tumour cells over their adjacent normal counterparts. PMID:15751580

  19. Bacterial-mediated DNA delivery to tumour associated phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, W L; Murphy, C T; Cronin, M; Wirth, T; Tangney, M

    2014-12-28

    Phagocytic cells including macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils are now recognised as playing a negative role in many disease settings including cancer. In particular, macrophages are known to play a pathophysiological role in multiple diseases and present a valid and ubiquitous therapeutic target. The technology to target these phagocytic cells in situ, both selectively and efficiently, is required in order to translate novel therapeutic modalities into clinical reality. We present a novel delivery strategy using non-pathogenic bacteria to effect gene delivery specifically to tumour-associated phagocytic cells. Non-invasive bacteria lack the ability to actively enter host cells, except for phagocytic cells. We exploit this natural property to effect 'passive transfection' of tumour-associated phagocytic cells following direct administration of transgene-loaded bacteria to tumour regions. Using an in vitro-differentiated human monocyte cell line and two in vivo mouse models (an ovarian cancer ascites and a solid colon tumour model) proof of delivery is demonstrated with bacteria carrying reporter constructs. The results confirm that the delivery strategy is specific for phagocytic cells and that the bacterial vector itself recruits more phagocytic cells to the tumour. While proof of delivery to phagocytic cells is demonstrated in vivo for solid and ascites tumour models, this strategy may be applied to other settings, including non-cancer related disease. PMID:25466954

  20. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours. PMID:26898575

  1. Dose prescription and optimisation based on tumour hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. Tumour hypoxia is an important factor that confers radioresistance to the affected cells and could thus decrease the tumour response to radiotherapy. The development of advanced imaging methods that quantify both the extent and the spatial distribution of the hypoxic regions has created the premises to devise therapies that target the hypoxic regions in the tumour. Materials and methods. The present study proposes an original method to prescribe objectively dose distributions that focus the radiation dose to the radioresistant tumour regions and could therefore spare adjacent normal tissues. The effectiveness of the method was tested for clinically relevant simulations of tumour hypoxia that take into consideration dynamics and heterogeneity of oxygenation. Results and discussion. The results have shown that highly heterogeneous dose distributions may lead to significant improvements of the outcome only for static oxygenations. In contrast, the proposed method that involves the segmentation of the dose distributions and the optimisation of the dose prescribed to each segment to account for local heterogeneity may lead to significantly improved local control for clinically-relevant patterns of oxygenation. The clinical applicability of the method is warranted by its relatively easy adaptation to functional imaging of tumour hypoxia obtained with markers with known uptake properties

  2. Measuring hypoxia in solid tumours - Is there a gold standard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour hypoxia is known to be associated with aggressiveness and poor response to treatment, which has stimulated the development of several methods able to detect hypoxic tumours. To date, only one method, the oxygen microelectrode, has been used to provide pretreatment measures of tumour oxygenation that correlate with local control and disease-free survival. In an effort to validate new methods, comparisons have been made between the Eppendorf oxygen microelectrode, the comet assay, and hypoxia marker binding in tumours of patients undergoing curative treatment or palliative radiotherapy. These comparisons suggest that tumours with median oxygen tensions below 10 mmHg have relatively high hypoxic fractions as measured by the comet assay (>0.20). The fraction of cells that binds pimonidazole, detected in cells obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy, correlates well with the hypoxic fraction measured using the comet assay. However, in general, hypoxic fractions measured by the comet assay and pimonidazole binding correlate only poorly with Eppendorf measurements performed for the same tumour. Factors that might be responsible for these differences, and problems associated with measuring the 'relevant' hypoxic population are discussed

  3. Early recognition and management of brain tumours in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eleanor Katie; Cannon, Anna; Zaborowski, Krzysztof; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-08-31

    Brain tumours comprise over one quarter of all childhood cancers in the UK and are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children. The presentation of brain tumours can vary substantially in children. The presenting symptoms are often similar to less serious conditions, and are often managed as such initially. Therefore, it can be difficult to diagnose brain tumours in children. An early diagnosis is usually associated with more effective treatment and improved health outcomes. The diagnostic interval between first presentation to a health professional and diagnosis for brain tumours in children has been shown to be three times longer in the UK than in other developed countries. As a result, the HeadSmart campaign launched a symptom card in 2011 to increase awareness of brain tumours in children among the general population and healthcare professionals, with the aim of reducing the diagnostic interval to 5 weeks. Nurses have an essential role in early recognition of brain tumours in children, and in providing care and support to the child and their family following a diagnosis. PMID:27577312

  4. The influence of tumour cell DNA content on survival in colorectal cancer: a detailed analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, N C; Ballantyne, K. C.; Evans, D F; Clarke, P; Sheffield, J.; Hardcastle, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of tumour cell DNA content (ploidy) on survival of 416 patients undergoing excisional surgery for colorectal cancer. Two hundred and eleven (51%) tumours had an abnormal DNA content (aneuploid or tetraploid). There was no correlation between ploidy status, sex, age and pathological stage, histological grade, tumour site, local tumour extension or assessment of curability. Patients with tumours with an abnormal DNA content had a poorer survival 68/211 (32%) t...

  5. Survival in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours: A Comparison between Sporadic and Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Porter

    2009-01-01

    As the survival rate in the NF group was dependant on tumour volume, routine screening of these patients with FDG PET and/or MRI may be warranted, thereby staging and controlling them at the earliest possible opportunity.

  6. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand C-11-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; de Jong, Johan R.; de Vries, Erik F.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; van Waarde, Aren

    2009-01-01

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined change

  7. Complications of the post-chemotherapy resection of retroperitoneal residual tumour mass in patients with non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gels, ME; Nijboer, AP; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Molenaar, WM; Plukker, JT; Droste, JHJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the resection of the retroperitoneal residual tumour mass (RRTM) for histological examination after chemotherapy in patients with disseminated non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (NSTGCTs), with particular attention to surgical morbidity. Patients and methods From 197

  8. MRI assessment of cardiac tumours: part 2, spectrum of appearances of histologically malignant lesions and tumour mimics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoey, Edward T.D.; Shahid, Muhammad; Ganeshan, Arul; Baijal, Shobhit; Simpson, Helen; Watkin, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the reference standard technique for assessment and characterization of a suspected cardiac tumour. It provides an unrestricted field of view, high temporal resolution and non-invasive tissue characterization based on multi-parametric assessment of the chemical micro-environment. Sarcomas account for around 95% of all primary malignant cardiac tumours with lymphoma, and primary pericardial mesothelioma making up most of the remainder of cases. By co...

  9. Are ipsilateral breast tumour invasive recurrences in young (⩽40 years) women more aggressive than their primary tumours?

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal-Zafrani, B; Bollet, M. A.; Antoni, G; Savignoni, A.; Vincent-Salomon, A; Pierga, J-Y; Salmon, R; Sastre-Garau, X; Fourquet, A

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrences (IBTRs) relative to those of their primary tumours (PTs) remain scarcely studied. Of 70 young (⩽40 years) premenopausal women with IBTRs, we studied a series of 63 with paired histological data. Median follow-up since IBTR was 10 years. Rates of histological types, grades or hormonal receptors were not significantly different in PTs and in IBTRs. The concordance between IBTRs and their PTs was good for histological types. IBTRs with...

  10. Characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumours, diagnostic procedure and therapeutic management and main directions of nursing practice in gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna R. Wiraszka; Głuszek, Stanisław; Kozieł, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) constitute a separate group of mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They have been commonly recognized for a few years, they have created a new problem in medical practice. GIST are more often centred in the stomach. They equally affect female and male patients and occur mainly in patients older than 50 years of age. The clinical picture of the tumour is non-specific. Radical surgical treatment and molecularly targeted therapy with tyros...

  11. Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminato Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of death in domestic animals. Furthermore, many forms of pet neoplasm resemble that of their human counterparts in biologic behaviour, pathologic expression, and recognised risk factors. In April 2005, a pilot project was activated so as to establish a dog and cat tumour registry living in the Venice and Vicenza provinces (Veneto Region, north-eastern Italy, with the aim of estimating the incidence of spontaneous tumours. Results Through a telephone survey, the estimates of canine and feline populations of the catchment area turned out to be of 296,318 (CI +/- 30,201 and 214,683 (CI +/- 21,755 subjects, respectively. During the first three years, overall 2,509 canine and 494 feline cases of neoplasia were diagnosed. In dogs, the estimated annual incidence rate (IR per 100,000 dogs for all tumours was 282 in all the catchment area, whereas in cats the IR was much lower (IR = 77. Malignant and benign tumours were equally distributed in male and female dogs, whereas cats had a 4.6-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than benign. In both dogs and cats, purebreds had an almost 2-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than mixed breeds. Tumour incidence increased with age in both dog and cat populations. Conclusion This study has provided estimates of incidence of spontaneous neoplasm in companion animals. Further attempts will be made to increase the accuracy in the population size assessment and to ascertain the real gap with the official regional canine demographic registry. Veterinary practitioners may also benefit from the tumour registry insofar they may obtain data for specific breeds, age groups or geographical areas.

  12. Selective assessment of in vitro radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts from single tumour biopsies using immunocytochemical identification of colonies in the soft agar clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assumed selective growth of tumour cells has formed the basis for the use of the soft agar clonogenic assay to test in vitro radio- and chemosensitivity of tumours. However, recent studies have demonstrated that fibroblasts proliferate in soft agar in addition to tumour cells. The present study was initiated to quantify the contaminating growth of non-malignant cells in the modified form of the Courtenay-Mills soft agar assay, in order to establish a reliable assay for estimating tumour cell radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. DNA flow cytometry analysis confirmed that 'tumour fibroblasts' (fibroblasts obtained from tumour biopsies) grow in soft agar. In contrast, white blood cells did not form colonies. Different media were tested with soft agar, but a selective medium for tumour cells was not found. Therefore, a colony filter-technique combined with an immunocytochemical analysis was developed to quantify the number of tumour cell and fibroblast colonies. In 12 tumour biopsies, 2-33% of the colonies were Cytokeratin AE1-3 positive, whereas 83-100% of the colonies were 5B5 fibroblast antibody positive. The parameter normally reported, the overall SF2 (surviving cell fraction at 2 Gy) based on colonies in agar, was found to be statistically significantly correlated to the fibroblast SF2, but not to the tumour cell SF2. The overall SF2 was significantly different from the tumour cell SF2 in half of the tumours. Furthermore, the tumour cell SF2 was not correlated to fibroblast SF2. In consequence of our findings, correcting for fibroblast contamination is a necessity, when studying in vitro sensitivity of tumour cells. Combining the soft agar clonogenic assay with the new colony filter-technique and the immunocytochemical analysis appear to be useful for making this routine correction and for measuring the in vitro radiosensitivity of both tumour cells and fibroblasts from single tumour biopsies, which is of interest in future

  13. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffel, Christine [Service de Radiologie, CHU de Reims, Hopital Robert Debre, Pole d' imagerie, Reims Cedex (France); Pousset, Maud; Elie, Caroline [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Departement de Biostatistiques, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service d' urologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Merran, Samuel [Federation mutualiste parisienne, Service d' imagerie medicale, Paris (France); Tranquart, Francois [Bracco Research, Plan les Ouates (Switzerland); Khairoune, Ahmed; Helenon, Olivier; Correas, Jean-Michel [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Joly, Dominique [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Nephrologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Richard, Stephane [Service d' urologie, Hopital de Bicetre, Centre Pilote Tumeurs rares INCa, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Hopital Necker, Service de Nephrologie, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Le Kremlin-Bicetre et Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Genetique oncologique, CNRS FRE 2939, Faculte de medecine Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement ({kappa} value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  14. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement (κ value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of dynamic tumour tracking radiotherapy with real-time monitoring for lung tumours using a gimbal mounted linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and acute toxicities after dynamic tumour tracking (DTT) irradiation with real-time monitoring for lung tumours using a gimbal mounted linac. Materials and methods: Spherical gold markers were placed around the tumour using a bronchoscope prior to treatment planning. Prescription dose at the isocentre was 56 Gy in 4 fractions for T2a lung cancer and metastatic tumour, and 48 Gy in 4 fractions for the others. Dose-volume metrics were compared between DTT and conventional static irradiation using in-house developed software. Results: Of twenty-two patients enrolled, DTT radiotherapy was successfully performed for 16 patients, except 4 patients who coughed out the gold markers, one who showed spontaneous tumour regression, and one where the abdominal wall motion did not correlate with the tumour motion. Dose covering 95% volume of GTV was not different between the two techniques, while normal lung volume receiving 20 Gy or more was reduced by 20%. A mean treatment time per fraction was 36 min using DTT. With a median follow-up period of 13.2 months, no severe toxicity grade 3 or worse was observed. Conclusions: DTT radiotherapy using a gimbal mounted linac was clinically feasible for lung treatment without any severe acute toxicity

  16. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues for radionuclide therapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging and therapy are rapidly developing and will become important topics in medicine in the 21st century. Radiolabelled peptides that bind to receptors form an important class of radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The specific receptor binding property of the peptide can be exploited by labelling with radionuclide and using the radiolabelled peptide as a vehicle to guide the radioactivity to tumours expressing a particular receptor. The high affinity of the peptide for the peptide-receptor complex facilitates high uptake of the radiolabel in receptor expressing tumours, while its relatively small size facilitates rapid clearance from blood, resulting in low background radioactivity. The use of radiolabelled peptides is growing rapidly due to these favourable characteristics, their low antigenicity and ease of production. Receptor binding peptides labelled with gamma radiation emitters or positron emitters enable non-evasive, whole body visualization. This process is referred to as peptide receptor scintigraphy and is being used to detect, stage and plan the therapy of receptor expressing tumours and also to follow tumours after therapy. In addition, labelled with a therapeutic beta emitter these peptide molecules have the potential to destroy receptor expressing tumours, an approach referred to as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To date, five somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst1-sst5) have been identified and cloned. The diagnostic accuracy of 111In labelled octreotide to visualize tumour lesions after intravenous injection has been determined in a large series of patients with sst2 positive, mostly neuroendocrine tumours. Most interesting is the successful application of somatostatin analogues in PET, after labelling with positron emitters. The next logical step was to try to label these with therapeutic radionuclides and to treat receptor positive tumors with peptide receptor radionuclides. So far, 90Y and 177Lu are

  17. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El All Howayda S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs, although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4, suspicious (n = 2 and malignant (n = 3, based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5 and malignant (n = 3. In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma. For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma. In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes.

  18. Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Tanning Sun Protection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... for integrating sun protection into your daily routine. Sun Protection Tips Avoid overexposure to UV rays from ...

  19. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protti, N., E-mail: nicoletta.protti@pv.infn.it [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Stella, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Geninatti, S.; Alberti, D.; Aime, S. [University of Torino, Chemistry Department, via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino (Italy); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    To test the efficacy of a new {sup 10}B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% {sup 10}B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.

  20. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, N; Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Stella, S; Geninatti, S; Alberti, D; Aime, S; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a new (10)B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% (10)B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5×10(12) cm(-2). PMID:21459587