Sample records for antibody-dependent transplacental transfer

  1. Transplacental transfer of environmental genotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Vestergaard, Astrid Beck; Okkels, Henrik


    Transplacental transfer of genotoxic material has been determined by measuring the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-albumin adduct level in serum isolated from the mother and the umbilical cord using a competitive ELISA assay and the antibody (8E11) against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) tetrols. Smoking ...... that local production of incomplete combustion products, like vehicle exhaust or heat generation, is the major contributing factor to genotoxic compounds in the general environment....

  2. [Transfer of genetic constructions through the transplacental barrier into mice embryos]. (United States)

    Efremov, A M; Buglaeva, A O; Orlov, S V; Burov, S V; Ignatovich, I A; Dizhe, E B; Shavva, V S; Perevozchikov, A P


    Genetic modification of mammalian embryos is an important way to model various changes in human development; also, it is an instrument for studying the functions of certain genes in mammals. Using our own experience in developing modes of delivery of genetic constructions to mammals in a nonviral way, we present here data on the delivery of a eukaryotic expression vector to mice embryos through the transplacental barrier with the use of hydrodynamic intravenous injections of DNA-hybrid peptide complexes to pregnant females. The peptide has a cationic part for interaction with DNA and includes a ligand structure towards receptors of the releasing factor of luteinizing hormone (RFLH, luliberin). Advantages of the suggested method are simplicity, economy, nonimmunogenicity for females, and the ability to multiply repeat the procedure. On the basis of the method, systemic gene delivery into tissues of mammalian embryos may be developed.

  3. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten;


    and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained immediately after elective cesarean section and dually perfused in a recirculation system. mMP or mEHP was added to maternal perfusion medium to obtain concentrations at 10 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The placental transfer was followed...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  4. Transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide are comparable to that of antipyrine in perfused human placenta. (United States)

    Annola, Kirsi; Karttunen, Vesa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Myllynen, Päivi; Segerbäck, Dan; Heinonen, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi


    Most drugs can penetrate the placenta but there are only a few studies on placental transfer of environmental toxic compounds. In this study, we used dual recirculating human placental perfusion to determine the transfer rate through the placenta of a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound found in food, acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Putative acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide during the 4-h perfusions and acrylamide-derived DNA adducts in placental DNA after perfusions were also analyzed. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and kept physiologically functional as confirmed by antipyrine kinetics, glucose consumption and leak from fetal to maternal circulation. Acrylamide (5 or 10 microg/ml) or glycidamide (5 microg/ml), both with antipyrine (100 microg/ml), was added to maternal circulation. Acrylamide and glycidamide were analyzed in the perfusion medium by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acrylamide and glycidamide crossed the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation with similar kinetics to antipyrine, suggesting fetal exposure if the mother is exposed. The concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations equilibrated within 2h for both studied compounds and with both concentrations. Acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide was not detected during the 4-h perfusions. Moreover, DNA adducts were undetectable in the placentas after perfusions. However, fetuses may be exposed to glycidamide after maternal metabolism. Although not found in placental tissue after 4h of perfusion, it is possible that glycidamide adducts are formed in fetal DNA.

  5. Transplacental transfer of genotoxins and transplacental carcinogenesis.



    A number of chemical compounds induce cancer in the offspring of animals treated with these compounds. The fetus is sensitive to the toxic and teratogenic effects of chemicals in the early embryonic stages, whereas it is sensitive to carcinogenic effects during late fetal stages. Carcinogens may be direct acting or may require metabolic oxidation such as those in tobacco smoke. Activation can occur in utero. Animal experiments indicate that tumors can be initiated in utero, commonly by activa...

  6. Time trends and transplacental transfer of perfluorinated compounds in melon-headed whales stranded along the Japanese coast in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006. (United States)

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Yamada, Tadasu K; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    As a result of the phase-out of production of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based compounds by a major producer, concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in marine mammals from North American and European coastal waters have been declining since the early 2000s. Nevertheless, temporal trends in perfluorochemical (PFC) concentrations in marine mammals from Asian coastal waters have not been examined. In this study, PFCs were determined in livers of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) collected along the coast of Japan, from three mass strandings that occurred during the past 25 years. Concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in livers of 48 melon-headed whales that were collected during strandings in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006. In addition, concentrations in liver tissues obtained from two pregnant females and their fetuses were compared for determination of transplacental transfer rates of PFCs during gestation. PFOS and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) were the predominant PFCs found in livers of melon-headed whales collected in 1982 (n = 22). PFOS, PFOSA, perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were found in whales collected in 2001/2002 (n = 21) and in 2006 (n = 5). Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were approximately 10-fold higher in 2001/2002 than in 1982. Whereas concentrations of PFOSA then declined by 2-fold from 2001/ 2002 to 2006, concentrations of PFOS and perfluorocarboxylates did not decline after 2001/2002. Conversely, concentrations of PFNA and PFDA increased significantly from 2001/2002 to 2006. The proportion of perfluoroalkylsulfonates in total PFC concentrations decreased from 75% in 1982 to 51% in 2006. Conversely, the contribution of perfluorocarboxylates to total PFC concentrations increased from 25% in 1982 to 49% in 2006. PFUnDA was the major perfluorocarboxylate found in whale livers collected after 2000. Analysis of paired samples of mother

  7. Transplacental transfer and neonatal influences of sonophoretically administered sufentanil versus epidural sufentanil in labor peridural analgesia: A randomized prospective double-blind contemplate

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    Riham Hussein Saleh


    Conclusion: Sufentanil transplacental transport and fetal exposure appeared greater in epidural than in sonophoretic sufentanil. The former group women were facing more difficulty at starting breast-feeding on postpartum day 1 and were more apt to have stopped breast-feeding 6 weeks postpartum than the latter group women.

  8. Mercury Accumulation in Harbour Seals from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: The Role of Transplacental Transfer, Lactation, Age and Location. (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Jeffries, Steven; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Telmer, Kevin; Macdonald, Robie; Ross, Peter S


    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain in the form of methylmercury, a compound well known for its neurotoxicity. We analyzed total mercury (THg) in hair collected from 209 harbour seals captured at 10 sites in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (USA) between 2003 and 2010. In addition, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allowed for a highly refined analysis of THg accumulation over time by examining nine whiskers taken from 4- to 6-week-old pups. We estimate that THg concentrations in pups increased sharply at a point corresponding to mid- to late gestation of their time in utero (4.7 ± 0.8 and 6.6 ± 1.3 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively), and then again at the onset of nursing (8.1 ± 1.3 µg/g dw). These abrupt changes highlight the importance of both pre- and post-natal THg transfer from the mother to the growing fetus and the newborn pup. While THg levels varied among sites, hair analyses from seals collected at the same site demonstrated the influence of age in THg accumulation with pups (5.3 ± 0.3 µg/g) and juveniles (4.5 ± 0.5 µg/g) having lower levels than those in adults (8.3 ± 0.8 µg/g). Our results revealed that 33 % of the pups sampled (n = 167) had THg levels that surpassed a mammalian hair threshold for neurochemical alterations. This study suggests that Hg could represent a health concern to marine wildlife, especially as atmospheric emissions of this toxic element from human activities in the Pacific Rim and worldwide continue.

  9. Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus

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    Serafini Eduardo P


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1 in the pregnant woman, (a genital; (b peripheral blood; (2 in the newborn, (a oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c cord blood; (3 in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human β-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49 had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49 there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49 there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011. In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed.

  10. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis. (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R


    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.

  11. Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection

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    Penny Emily


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.

  12. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives. (United States)

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang


    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  13. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

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    Milly M Choy


    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.

  14. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and skin disease

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    Norris, D.A.; Lee, L.A.


    Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a recently described mechanism of immunologic lysis in which cellular targets sensitized by specific antibodies are efficiently and selectively lysed by Fc receptor (FcR) bearing nonspecific effectors. Immunoglobulins of various classes (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and various cellular effectors (large granular lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils) can induce ADCC in vitro, and the importance of ADCC in vivo is being tested experimentally in resistance to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infection, in tumor surveillance, in allograft rejection, and in inflammatory diseases. There is much indirect evidence that ADCC may be the mechanism of damage of different cellular targets in skin diseases, but the best direct evidence concerns immunologic keratinocyte damage, especially in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). The authors have shown that keratinocytes of several species are highly susceptible to lymphocyte and monocyte-mediated ADCC, but not to neutrophil or eosinophil ADCC in vitro using two different cytotoxicity assays. In contrast, complement was a relatively ineffective mediator of lysis of metabolically intact keratinocyte targets. Patients with certain cutaneous lupus syndromes have serum antibodies capable of inducing monocyte and lymphocyte ADCC of targets coated with extractable nuclear antigens. The authors have shown that these antigens apparently move to the cell membrane of keratinocytes in vitro following ultraviolet irradiation. In an animal model, they have shown that antibodies to SSA/Ro bind to human keratinocytes in vivo, especially after ultraviolet irradiation.

  15. Transplacental isopropanol exposure: case report and review of metabolic principles. (United States)

    Wood, J N; Carney, J; Szczepanski, K; Calello, D P; Hurt, H


    Isopropanol, a known central nervous system depressant has been reported to cause toxicity via multiple routes including ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. We present a case of transplacental isopropanol exposure in a neonate. A woman reported polysubstance abuse in the 1 to 2 days before precipitously delivering a newborn infant. The neonate developed hypotension, hypotonia and seizure activity within the first few hours of life. Blood samples from the infant revealed toxic levels of isopropanol. Similar symptoms have been reported in infants with isopropanol toxicity from other routes of exposure.

  16. Transplacental Passage of Acetaminophen in Term Pregnancy. (United States)

    Nitsche, Joshua F; Patil, Avinash S; Langman, Loralie J; Penn, Hannah J; Derleth, Douglas; Watson, William J; Brost, Brian C


    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of acetaminophen after administration of a therapeutic oral dose. Study Design After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval and their written informed consent, pregnant women were given a single oral dose (1,000 mg) of acetaminophen upon admission for scheduled cesarean delivery. Maternal venous blood and fetal cord blood were obtained at the time of delivery and acetaminophen levels were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. PK parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. Nonparametric correlation of maternal/fetal acetaminophen levels and PK curves were calculated. Results In this study, 34 subjects were enrolled (median, 32 years; range, 25-39 years). The median maternal weight was 82 kg (range, 62-100 kg). All but two subjects were delivered beyond 39 weeks' gestation. The median newborn birth weight was 3,590 g (interquartile range, 3,403-3,848 g). Noncompartmental analysis described similar PK parameters in the maternal (T1/2, 84 minutes; apparent clearance [Cl/F], 28.8 L/h; apparent volume of distribution [Vd/F], 57.5 L) and fetal compartments (T1/2, 82 minutes; Cl/F, 31.2 L/h; Vd/F, 61.2 L). Paired maternal/fetal acetaminophen levels were highly correlated (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Fetal acetaminophen PKs in the fetus parallels that in the mother suggesting that placental transfer is flow limited. Maternal acetaminophen levels can be used as a surrogate for fetal exposure.

  17. Transplacental clastogenic and epigenetic effects of gold nanoparticles in mice

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    Balansky, Roumen [National Center of Oncology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Longobardi, Mariagrazia [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta [National Center of Oncology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Atanasov, Petar [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Toshkova, Reneta [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); De Flora, Silvio [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Izzotti, Alberto, E-mail: [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)


    Highlights: • We evaluated transplacental genotoxicity of 40 nm- and 100 nm-gold nanoparticles. • AuNP-100 nm significantly enhanced MN PCE in fetal liver and blood. • In fetal lung, out of 1281 miRNA analyzed, 28 were significantly altered in their expression. • In fetal liver, 5 miRNA were significantly altered in their expression. • Altered miRNAs are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, stress response. - Abstract: The broad application of nanotechnology in medicine, biology, and pharmacology is leading to a dramatic increase of the risk of direct contact of nanoproducts, among which gold nanoparticles (AuNP), with the human organism. The present study aimed at evaluating in vivo the genotoxicity of AuNPs with average size of 40 nm and 100 nm. A single intraperitoneal treatment of adult male and female Swiss mice (strain H) with AuNPs, at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg body weight, had no effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN PCEs) in bone marrow. Conversely, the transplacental treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, applied intraperitoneally at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg to pregnant mice on days 10, 12, 14, and 17 of gestation, resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of MN PCEs in both liver and peripheral blood of mouse fetuses. In parallel, the same treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, produced significant changes in microRNA expression. In particular, out of 1281 mouse microRNAs analyzed, 28 were dys-regulated more than two-fold and to a statistically significant extent in fetus lung, and 5 were up-regulated in fetal liver. Let-7a and miR-183 were significantly up-regulated in both organs. The data presented herein demonstrate for the first time the transplacental size-dependent clastogenic and epigenetic effects of AuNPs in mouse fetus, thus highlighting new aspects concerning the putative genotoxicity of AuNPs during a vulnerable period of life.

  18. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection is inhibited by SA-17, a doxorubicin derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala Nunez, Vanesa; Jarupathirun, Patsaporn; Kaptein, Suzanne; Neyts, Johan; Smit, Jolanda


    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to play a critical role in the exacerbation of dengue virus (DENV)-induced disease during a heterologous re-infection. Despite ADE's clinical impact, only a few antiviral compounds have been assessed for their anti-ADE activity. We reported earlier tha

  19. Role of tumor suppressor genes in transplacental lung carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Rollins, L A; Leone-Kabler, S; O'Sullivan, M G; Miller, M S


    Most human cancers involve multiple genetic changes, including activation of oncogenes such as Ki-ras-2 (Kras2) and inactivation of any one of a number of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) regulatory axis. As part of an ongoing project to determine how in utero exposure to chemical carcinogens affects the molecular pathogenesis of murine lung tumors, the p53 and p16Cdkn2a genes were analyzed by using paraffin-embedded lung tissues from mice treated transplacentally with 3-methylcholanthrene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene, as well as their flanking introns, demonstrated an absence of mutations at this gene locus. However, a genetic polymorphism was identified at nt 708 in intron 4 of the DBA/2 strain of mice 5 bp downstream of a 3' branching-point splice signal. Analysis of exons 1 and 2 of the Cdkn2a gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analyses revealed mutations in exon 2 in 7% of the tumors examined. Tumor 23-1 exhibited a CAC-->TAC transition at nt 301 (His74-->Tyr74), and tumor 36-1 exhibited a GGG-->GAG transition at nucleotide 350 (Gly90-->Glu90). Northern blot analysis of 14 of the larger tumors showed a marked decrease in the levels of Rb RNA expression. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a spectrum of pRb expression, with the smaller adenomas showing moderate numbers of nuclei with heterogeneous staining for pRb in contrast with a highly reduced or near-complete absence of expression in the nuclei of larger tumors with features of adenocarcinomas. The low incidence of mutations at tumor suppressor loci suggested that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes was a late event in murine lung tumor pathogenesis. The identification of both mutations at the Cdkn2a gene locus and reduced levels of Rb expression combined with previous studies demonstrating a high incidence of mutated Kras2 alleles in these tumors implies that alterations of the Rb

  20. Discrepancy between direct and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activities of human LAK cells. (United States)

    Potapnev, M P; Garbuzenco, T S; Goncharova, N V; Zobnin, V D; Shadrin, O V; Bykovskaya, S N


    Human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells display cytotoxic activity against natural killer (NK)-resistant tumor cells in an antibody-independent and -dependent manner. We compared LAK cell-mediated antibody-independent cytotoxicity (LAK activity) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against untreated and antibody-coated Raji cells, respectively. Human lymphocytes showed drastically increased LAK activity after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 3 or 7 days when compared to non-activated cells. The level of ADCC was reduced for 3-day-generated LAK cells and augmented for 7-day-generated LAK cells as compared to non-activated cultured lymphocytes. Phenotypical analysis revealed IL-2-induced up-regulation of the proportion of CD11b+ (but not CD16+) lymphocyte subpopulation in 7-day-generated LAK cells. The data imply that human LAK cells exhibit antibody-dependent and -independent cytotoxic activities via distinct effector pathways at different stages of generation. These stages may be associated with changes in adhesion molecule (CD11b/CD18) expression on the surface of IL-2-activated lymphocytes.

  1. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

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    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren


    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy...

  2. Transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in minipigs infected with strains of different virulence

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    Jungersen, Gregers; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jensen, Lene Bai;


    Infections with the Zoonotic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can result in severe fetal infections. To investigate the use of pigs as animal models for congenital toxoplasmosis, tachyzoites of 5 T. gondii strains, with low to intermediate virulence in mice, were intravenously...... animal models fur studies of transplacental transmission and pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis....

  3. Transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle chronically infected in southern Brazil

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    Hermann Eduardo Gonzalez Grau

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission ofA. marginale. Blood samples were collected from 30 cows at three different periods: at the time of artificial insemination, at gestational diagnosis, and after calving. Also, blood was collected from the newborn calves, including one sample before colostrum intake, and another three days after birth. A. marginale-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Also, we observed that all of the three-day-old newborn calves were seropositive by IFAT. According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale, as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. This represented a transplacental transmission rate of 10.5%. Furthermore, a correlation of 93.3% was observed between the two serodiagnostic techniques, demonstrating that both ELISA and IFAT can be used in epidemiological surveys of A. marginale. These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability.

  4. NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in cancer immunotherapy

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    Wei eWang


    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a major role in cancer immunotherapies that involve tumor-antigen targeting by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. NK cells express a variety of activating and inhibitory receptors that serve to regulate the function and activity of the cells. In the context of targeting cells, NK cells can be specifically activated through certain Fc receptors that are expressed on their cell surface. NK cells can express FcγRIIIA and/or FcγRIIC, which can bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, transmitting activating signals within NK cells. Once activated through Fc receptors by antibodies bound to target cells, NK cells are able to lyse target cells without priming, and secrete cytokines like interferon gamma to recruit adaptive immune cells. This antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC of tumor cells is utilized in the treatment of various cancers overexpressing unique antigens, such as neuroblastoma, breast cancer, B cell lymphoma, and others. NK cells also express a family of receptors called Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs, which regulate the function and response of NK cells towards target cells through their interaction with their cognate ligands that are expressed on tumor cells. Genetic polymorphisms in KIR and KIR ligands, as well as FcγRs may influence NK cell responsiveness in conjunction with mAb immunotherapies. This review focuses on current therapeutic mAbs, different strategies to augment the anti-tumor efficacy of ADCC, and genotypic factors that may influence patient responses to antibody-dependent immunotherapies.

  5. Molecular pathogenesis of transplacentally induced mouse lung tumors. (United States)

    Miller, M S; Leone-Kabler, S; Rollins, L A; Wessner, L L; Fan, M; Schaeffer, D O; McEntee, M F; O'Sullivan, M G


    lung tissue. The results suggest that Ki-ras-2 mutations are an early and frequent event in lung tumorigenesis, and that the type of mutation produced by environmental chemicals can influence the carcinogenic potential of the tumor. The results obtained with the Cdkn2a and Rb genes suggest that alterations in the Rb regulatory axis may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary tumors and appear to occur later in the neoplastic process. It appears from these experiments that the combination of mutated Ki-ras-2 and alterations in the Rb regulatory gene locus, which are frequent alterations in human lung tumors, may be the preferred pathway for lung tumor pathogenesis in mice exposed transplacentally to environmental carcinogens.

  6. Risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in California horses. (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Conrad, Patricia A; Barr, Bradd C; Wilson, W David; Ferraro, Gregory L; Packham, Andrea E; Carpenter, Tim E; Gardner, Ian A


    The study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in foals from 4 California farms during 3 foaling seasons. Serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody tests for S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serum antibody titers were California. The strength of association between positivity to either parasite and state of birth decreased as age increased. Mares positive for S. neurona and N. hughesi were 2.2 and 1.7 times more likely, respectively, to have a previous abortion than negative mares, adjusted for age and state of birth. The annual mortality rate for mares was 4%. The annual incidence rate of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis was 0.2%. In conclusion, there was no detectable risk of transplacental transmission of S. neurona and N. hughesi. Prevalence of antibodies against both parasites in mares increased with age.

  7. Serological investigation of transplacental infection with Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in broodmares. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mackie, Sarah; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the likelihood of transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in foals, born from seropositive mares. Three broodmares with persistent N. hughesi infection gave birth to eight healthy foals over a period of 7 years. These foals were seropositive to N. hughesi prior to colostrum ingestion, with titers ranging between 640 and 20,480, measured by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Of 174 foals born at another farm to mares with a high seroprevalence to S. neurona, only one (with a pre-colostrum antibody titer of 80) tested seropositive. Transplacental transmission of N. hughesi seems to occur from latently infected mares to their foals, while this route of transmission does not seem to occur commonly for S. neurona.

  8. Malignant monoblasts can function as effector cells in natural killer cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Ellegaard, J


    This is the first report describing natural killer (NK) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of malignant monoblasts. Pure acute monoblastic leukemia was diagnosed in bone marrow aspirations from two patients by use of conventional cytochemical methods as well as multiple immunologic...

  9. CD16 is indispensable for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by human monocytes (United States)

    Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko; Teo, Esmeralda Chi Yuan; Quek, Jeffrey Kim Siang; Yong, Hao Xiang; Diong, Colin Phipps; Bertoletti, Antonio; Linn, Yeh Ching; Wong, Siew Cheng


    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is exerted by immune cells expressing surface Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) against cells coated with antibody, such as virus-infected or transformed cells. CD16, the FcγRIIIA, is essential for ADCC by NK cells, and is also expressed by a subset of human blood monocytes. We found that human CD16− expressing monocytes have a broad spectrum of ADCC capacities and can kill cancer cell lines, primary leukemic cells and hepatitis B virus-infected cells in the presence of specific antibodies. Engagement of CD16 on monocytes by antibody bound to target cells activated β2-integrins and induced TNFα secretion. In turn, this induced TNFR expression on the target cells, making them susceptible to TNFα-mediated cell death. Treatment with TLR agonists, DAMPs or cytokines, such as IFNγ, further enhanced ADCC. Monocytes lacking CD16 did not exert ADCC but acquired this property after CD16 expression was induced by either cytokine stimulation or transient transfection. Notably, CD16+ monocytes from patients with leukemia also exerted potent ADCC. Hence, CD16+ monocytes are important effectors of ADCC, suggesting further developments of this property in the context of cellular therapies for cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:27670158

  10. Enhancement of antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity: a new era in cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran N


    Full Text Available Narendiran Rajasekaran,1,* Cariad Chester,1,* Atsushi Yonezawa,1,2 Xing Zhao,1,3 Holbrook E Kohrt1 1Division of Oncology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Research Center, Department of Immunology, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The therapeutic efficacy of some anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs depends on the capacity of the mAb to recognize the tumor-associated antigen and induce cytotoxicity via a network of immune effector cells. This process of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC against tumor cells is triggered by the interaction of the fragment crystallizable (Fc portion of the mAb with the Fc receptors on effector cells like natural killer cells, macrophages, γδ T cells, and dendritic cells. By augmenting ADCC, the antitumor activity of mAbs can be significantly increased. Currently, identifying and developing therapeutic agents that enhance ADCC is a growing area of research. Combining existing tumor-targeting mAbs and ADCC-promoting agents that stimulate effector cells will translate to greater clinical responses. In this review, we discuss strategies for enhancing ADCC and emphasize the potential of combination treatments that include US Food and Drug Administration-approved mAbs and immunostimulatory therapeutics. Keywords: ADCC, NK cell, reovirus, TLR, CD137

  11. A Neutralizing Antibody Assay Based on a Reporter of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Li, Jia J; Kim, Hyun Jun; Liu, Xu; Liu, Weiyi; Akhgar, Ahmad; Bowen, Michael A; Spitz, Susan; Jiang, Xu-Rong; Roskos, Lorin K; White, Wendy I


    Benralizumab is a humanized anti-IL5 receptor α (IL5Rα) monoclonal antibody (mAb) with enhanced (afucosylation) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) function. An ADCC reporter cell-based neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay was developed and characterized to detect NAb against benralizumab in human serum to support the clinical development of benralizumab. The optimal ratio of target cells to effector cells was 3:1. Neither parental benralizumab (fucosylated) nor benralizumab Fab resulted in ADCC activity, confirming the requirement for ADCC activity in the NAb assay. The serum tolerance of the cells was determined to be 2.5%. The cut point derived from normal and asthma serum samples was comparable. The effective range of benralizumab was determined, and 35 ng/mL [80% maximal effective concentration (EC80)] was chosen as the standard concentration to run in the assessment of NAb. An affinity purified goat anti-benralizumab polyclonal idiotype antibody preparation was shown to have NAb since it inhibited ADCC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. The low endogenous concentrations of IL5 and soluble IL5 receptor (sIL5R) did not demonstrate to interfere with the assay. The estimated assay sensitivities at the cut point were 1.02 and 1.10 μg/mL as determined by the surrogate neutralizing goat polyclonal and mouse monoclonal anti-drug antibody (ADA) controls, respectively. The assay can detect NAb (at 2.5 μg/mL) in the presence of 0.78 μg/mL benralizumab. The assay was not susceptible to non-specific matrix effects. This study provides an approach and feasibility of developing an ADCC cell-based NAb assay to support biopharmaceuticals with an ADCC function.

  12. Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement. (United States)

    Imai, Masaki; Ohta, Rieko; Varela, Juan C; Song, Hongbin; Tomlinson, Stephen


    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide a hindrance to the therapeutic efficacy of some monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We investigated a novel strategy to overwhelm complement inhibitor activity and amplify complement activation on tumor cells. The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to target and amplify complement deposition on tumor cells was investigated. CR2 binds C3 activation fragments, and CR2-Fc targeted tumor cells by binding to C3 initially deposited by a tumor-specific antibody. Complement deposition on Du145 cells (human prostate cancer cell line) and anti-MUC1 mAb-mediated complement-dependent lysis of Du145 cells were significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc. Anti-MUC1 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of Du145 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc in both the presence and the absence of complement. Radiolabeled CR2-Fc targeted to s.c. Du145 tumors in nude mice treated with anti-MUC1 mAb, validating the targeting strategy in vivo. A metastatic model was used to investigate the effect of CR2-Fc in a therapeutic paradigm. Administration of CR2-Fc together with mAb therapy significantly improved long-term survival of nude mice challenged with an i.v. injection of EL4 cells. The data show that CR2-Fc enhances the therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapy, and the construct may provide particular benefits under conditions of limiting antibody concentration or low tumor antigen density.

  13. CD8+ T cells prevent antigen-induced antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue disease in mice


    Zellweger, Raphaël M.; Eddy, William E.; Tang, William W.; Miller, Robyn; Shresta, Sujan


    Dengue virus (DENV) causes pathologies ranging from the febrile illness dengue fever to the potentially lethal severe dengue disease. A major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease is the presence of sub-protective DENV-reactive antibodies from a previous infection (or from an immune mother), which can induce antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). However, infection in the presence of sub-protective anti-DENV antibodies does not always result in severe disease, suggestin...

  14. Epitope specificity plays a critical role in regulating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza A virus. (United States)

    He, Wenqian; Tan, Gene S; Mullarkey, Caitlin E; Lee, Amanda J; Lam, Mannie Man Wai; Krammer, Florian; Henry, Carole; Wilson, Patrick C; Ashkar, Ali A; Palese, Peter; Miller, Matthew S


    The generation of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies against influenza A virus is known to confer potent protection against homologous infections. The majority of these antibodies bind to the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and function by blocking the receptor binding site, preventing infection of host cells. Recently, elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies which target the conserved HA stalk domain has become a promising "universal" influenza virus vaccine strategy. The ability of these antibodies to elicit Fc-dependent effector functions has emerged as an important mechanism through which protection is achieved in vivo. However, the way in which Fc-dependent effector functions are regulated by polyclonal influenza virus-binding antibody mixtures in vivo has never been defined. Here, we demonstrate that interactions among viral glycoprotein-binding antibodies of varying specificities regulate the magnitude of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity induction. We show that the mechanism responsible for this phenotype relies upon competition for binding to HA on the surface of infected cells and virus particles. Nonneutralizing antibodies were poor inducers and did not inhibit antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Interestingly, anti-neuraminidase antibodies weakly induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and enhanced induction in the presence of HA stalk-binding antibodies in an additive manner. Our data demonstrate that antibody specificity plays an important role in the regulation of ADCC, and that cross-talk among antibodies of varying specificities determines the magnitude of Fc receptor-mediated effector functions.

  15. Molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Brucella canis and Ehrlichia canis in dogs. (United States)

    Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Barbosa, Tatiane Rodrigues; Martini, Andresa de Cássia; Pitchenin, Letícia Camara; Braga, Ísis Assis; de Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura


    Given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of Brucella canis, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. This study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for T. gondii, 52.4% for N. caninum and 59.5% for B. canis. E. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. Pregnancy is an important physiological condition for the transmission of infectious agents to puppies and transplacental transmission may be epidemiologically relevant in the spread of these opportunistic agents.

  16. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  17. Transplacental nutrient transfer during gestation in the Andean lizard Mabuya sp. (Squamata, Scincidae). (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena


    Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.

  18. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.


    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven ou

  19. Twin study on transplacental-acquired antibodies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilenberg, Niels; Hougaard, David; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent;


    -18years) questionnaire data on hyperactivity and inattention was collected. Blood samples taken 5days after birth from 190 ADHD-score discordant pairs (15% MZ) were analyzed for antibodies. RESULTS: Pneumococcus Polysaccaride 14 (PnPs14) was present in the ADHD high scoring twin more often than......OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that maternal transplacentally acquired antibodies may cause Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms years after birth, and tested the hypothesis in twins discordant for ADHD symptoms. METHOD: In a pre-screened sample of 7793 same sex twin pair's (4...... in the lower scoring twin (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Although the study provides no strong support for the hypothesis, infection or immunological factors may be one among several causes of ADHD. The genetic control obtained in a twin design may reduce the exposure contrast and a larger sample is needed to further...

  20. Intrauterine Zika virus infection of pregnant immunocompetent mice models transplacental transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes (United States)

    Vermillion, Meghan S.; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K.; Crilly, Nathan P.; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E.; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.; Burd, Irina


    Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal–fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system. PMID:28220786

  1. Demonstration of transplacental transmission of a human isolate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in an experimentally infected sheep. (United States)

    Reppert, E; Galindo, R C; Breshears, M A; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F; de la Fuente, J


    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, first identified as a pathogen of sheep in Europe, more recently has been recognized as an emerging tick-borne pathogen of humans in the U.S. and Europe. Transmission of A. phagocytophilum is reported to be by ticks, primarily of the genus Ixodes. While mechanical and transplacental transmission of the type genus organism, A. marginale, occur in addition to tick transmission, these modes of transmission have not been considered for A. phagocytophilum. Recently, we developed a sheep model for studying host-tick-pathogen interactions of the human NY-18 A. phagocytophilum isolate. Sheep were susceptible to infection with this human isolate and served as a source of infection for I. scapularis ticks, but they did not display clinical signs of disease, and the pathogen was not apparent in stained blood smears. In the course of these experiments, one sheep unexpectedly gave birth to a lamb 5 weeks after being experimentally infected by inoculation with the pathogen propagated in HL-60 cells. The lamb was depressed and not feeding and was subsequently euthanized 18 h after birth. Tissues were collected at necropsy for microscopic examination and PCR to confirm A. phagocytophilum infection. At necropsy, the stomach contained colostrum, the spleen was moderately enlarged and thickened with conspicuous lymphoid follicles, and mesenteric lymph nodes were mildly enlarged and contained moderate infiltrates of eosinophils and neutrophils. Blood, spleen, heart, skin and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes tested positive for A. phagocytophilum by PCR, and sequence analysis confirmed that the lamb was infected with the NY-18 isolate. Transplacental transmission should therefore be considered as a means of A. phagocytophilum transmission and may likely contribute to the epidemiology of tick-borne fever in sheep and other mammals, including humans.

  2. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Holly R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fcγ receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

  3. Affinity-purified respiratory syncytial virus antibodies from intravenous immunoglobulin exert potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimesh Gupta

    Full Text Available Mixed infections are one of the major therapeutic challenges, as the current strategies have had limited success. One of the most common and widespread conditions of mixed infection is respiratory syncytial virus-mediated pathology of the respiratory tract in children. There is a dire need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches during mixed infections. Therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, obtained from plasma pools of healthy donors have been used in immune deficiencies. This study was thus designed to characterize the functional efficacy of RSV-specific antibodies in IVIg. To explore the functional ability of these affinity-purified RSV-specific antibodies, the antibody-dependent and complement dependent cytotoxicity was determined using peripheral cells of healthy donors. This study demonstrates the existence of highly potent RSV-specific antibodies in IVIg preparations and provides the basis for the use of IVIg as broad-spectrum protective shield to RSV-infected children during mixed infections.

  4. Transplacental transmission of field and rescued strains of BTV-2 and BTV-8 in experimentally infected sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Savini, Giovanni; Lorusso, Alessio;


    Transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus has been shown previously for the North European strain of serotype 8 (BTV-8) and for tissue culture or chicken egg-adapted vaccine strains but not for field strains of other serotypes. In this study, pregnant ewes (6 per group) were inoculated...... with either field or rescued strains of BTV-2 and BTV-8 in order to determine the ability of these viruses to cross the placental barrier. The field BTV-2 and BTV-8 strains was passaged once in Culicoides KC cells and once in mammalian cells. All virus inoculated sheep became infected and seroconverted...... against the different BTV strains used in this study. BTV RNA was detectable in the blood of all but two ewes for over 28 days but infectious virus could only be detected in the blood for a much shorter period. Interestingly, transplacental transmission of BTV-2 (both field and rescued strains...

  5. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mercedes Boggiatto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically. AIMS: Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania. METHODOLOGY: A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR, gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. KEY RESULTS: This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic

  6. Transplacental pharmacokinetics and maternal/fetal plasma concentrations of cocaine in pregnant macaques near term. (United States)

    Binienda, Z; Bailey, J R; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G


    The transplacental pharmacokinetics of cocaine were studied in three pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at 150-154 days of pregnancy (term approximately 165 days). Animals were dosed intramuscularly with cocaine hydrochloride at 1 mg/kg, supplemented with a tritiated cocaine tracer. Plasma cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine levels were determined after separation by HPLC and subsequent quantification by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Cocaine levels peaked in maternal blood within 10-20 min after dosing, and cocaine was detected in fetal blood within 5 min, reaching peak concentrations within 30-120 min. Mean maternal elimination half-lives (t1/2) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine were 1.2 +/- 0.5 hr and 12.4 +/- 6.6 hr (+/- SEM), respectively; fetal half-lives were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.0 hr. Mean maternal residence times were 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.0 +/- 9.1 hr for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively; fetal values were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 11.6 +/- 3.5 hr. Total areas under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine in maternal plasma were 360 +/- 38 and 585 +/- 260 (ng/ml) hr, respectively; fetal values were 104 +/- 29 and 262 +/- 61 (ng/ml) hr. Based on AUC comparisons for cocaine, fetal exposures are thus approximately one-third of maternal exposures, demonstrating that substantial exposure to cocaine does occur in utero.

  7. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)


    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  8. Transplacental Transmission of Cutaneous Leishmania mexicana Strain in BALB/c Mice (United States)

    Avila-García, Miroslava; Mancilla-Ramírez, Javier; Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Farfan-Labonne, Blanca; Ramírez-Ramírez, Alicia; Galindo-Sevilla, Norma


    The vertical transmission of leishmaniasis has been reported in species that cause visceral leishmaniasis. However, this condition has scarcely been documented in species that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to determine experimentally whether L. mexicana is transmitted vertically. A control group of BALB/c mice and a group infected with L. mexicana were mated, the gestation was monitored, and females were killed before delivery. Four resorptions (P = 0.023) and eight fetal deaths (P = 0.010) were observed in the infected female group; furthermore, the offspring body weight of the infected group was lower than the body weight of the healthy group (P = 0.009). DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all placentas and maternal spleens as well as 39 of 110 fetal spleens obtained from the offspring of infected mothers tested positive for Leishmania. In conclusion, L. mexicana is transmitted transplacentally and causes fetal death, resorption, and reduction in offspring body weight. PMID:23798582

  9. Characterization of in vitro antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity of therapeutic antibodies - impact of effector cells. (United States)

    Chung, Shan; Lin, Yuwen L; Reed, Chae; Ng, Carl; Cheng, Zhijie Jey; Malavasi, Fabio; Yang, Jihong; Quarmby, Valerie; Song, An


    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important mechanism of action implicated in the clinical efficacy of several therapeutic antibodies. In vitro ADCC assays employing effector cells capable of inducing lysis of target cells bound by antibodies are routinely performed to support the research and development of therapeutic antibodies. ADCC assays are commonly performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), natural killer (NK) cells or engineered cell lines as effector cells. In this study we evaluated the impact of different effector cell types including primary PBMCs, primary NK cells, engineered NK cell lines, and an engineered reporter cell line, on the in vitro ADCC activity of two glycoforms of a humanized IgG1 antibody. The results of this study show the differential effects on both the efficacy and potency of the antibodies by different effector cells and the finding that both the allotype and the expression level of CD16a affect the potency of effector cells in ADCC assays. Our results also show that engineered NK or reporter cell lines provide reduced variability compared to primary effector cells for in vitro ADCC assays.

  10. Antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-inducing antibodies significantly affect the post-exposure treatment of Ebola virus infection (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Li, Qianqian; Zhou, Shuya; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Lan; Sun, Chunyun; Wang, Meng; Wu, Xi; Ma, Jian; Li, Baowen; Xie, Liangzhi; Wang, Youchun


    Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an efficacious treatment for Ebola virus (EBOV) infections in animal models and humans. Understanding what constitutes a protective response is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. We generated an EBOV-glycoprotein-pseudotyped Human immunodeficiency virus to develop sensitive neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays as well as a bioluminescent-imaging-based mouse infection model that does not require biosafety level 4 containment. The in vivo treatment efficiencies of three novel anti-EBOV mAbs at 12 h post-infection correlated with their in vitro anti-EBOV ADCC activities, without neutralizing activity. When they were treated with these mAbs, natural killer cell (NK)-deficient mice had lower viral clearance than WT mice, indicating that the anti-EBOV mechanism of the ADCC activity of these mAbs is predominantly mediated by NK cells. One potent anti-EBOV mAb (M318) displayed unprecedented neutralizing and ADCC activities (neutralization IC50, 0.018 μg/ml; ADCC EC50, 0.095 μg/ml). These results have important implications for the efficacy of antiviral drugs and vaccines as well as for pathogenicity studies of EBOV. PMID:28358050

  11. Potential for Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity for Control of Human Cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Aicheler


    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is an important pathogen that infects the majority of the population worldwide, yet, currently, there is no licensed vaccine. Despite HCMV encoding at least seven Natural Killer (NK cell evasion genes, NK cells remain critical for the control of infection in vivo. Classically Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC is mediated by CD16, which is found on the surface of the NK cell in a complex with FcεRI-γ chains and/or CD3ζ chains. Ninety percent of NK cells express the Fc receptor CD16; thus, they have the potential to initiate ADCC. HCMV has a profound effect on the NK cell repertoire, such that up to 10-fold expansions of NKG2C+ cells can be seen in HCMV seropositive individuals. These NKG2C+ cells are reported to be FcεRI-γ deficient and possess variable levels of CD16+, yet have striking ADCC functions. A subset of HCMV cell surface proteins will induce robust antibody responses that could render cells susceptible to ADCC. We will consider how the strong anti-HCMV function of NKG2C+ FcεRI-γ-deficient NK cells could potentially be harnessed in the clinic to treat patients suffering from HCMV disease and in the development of an efficacious HCMV vaccine.

  12. Tumour antigen targeted monoclonal antibodies incorporating a novel multimerisation domain significantly enhance antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity against colon cancer. (United States)

    Jain, Ajay; Poonia, Bhawna; So, Edward C; Vyzasatya, Ravi; Burch, Erin E; Olsen, Henrik S; Mérigeon, Emmanuel Y; Block, David S; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Schulze, Dan H; Hanna, Nader N; Twadell, William S; Yfantis, Harris G; Chan, Siaw L; Cai, Ling; Strome, Scott E


    Tumour antigen targeted antibodies (mAbs) can induce natural killer (NK) cells to kill tumours through antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) upon engagement of NK cell expressed FcγRIIIa. FcγRIIIa polymorphisms partially dictate the potency of the ADCC response. The high affinity FcγRIIIa-158-valine (V) polymorphism is associated with more potent ADCC response than the low affinity FcγRIIIa-158-phenylalanine (F) polymorphism. Because approximately 45% of patients are homozygous for the FcγRIIIa-158-F polymorphism (FF genotype), their ability to mount ADCC is impaired. We investigated whether a novel mAb capable of binding multiple antigen specific targets and engaging multiple low affinity FcγRIIIa receptors could further enhance ADCC against colon cancer in vitro. Specifically, we generated a novel anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody (termed a stradobody) consisting of an unmodified Fab sequence and two Immunoglobulin G, subclass 1 (IgG1) Fc domains separated by an isoleucine zipper domain and the 12 amino-acid IgG2 hinge. The stradobody framework induced multimerisation and was associated with increased binding to the EGFR and FcγRIIIa. From a functional perspective, when compared to an unmodified anti-EGFR mAb with a sequence identical to cetuximab (a commercially available anti-EGFR mAb), stradobodies significantly enhanced ADCC. These effects were observed using both KRAS wild type HT29 and KRAS mutant SW480 colon cancer cells as targets, and by NK cells obtained from healthy donors and a cohort of patients with colon cancer. These data suggest that high avidity cross-linking of multiple tumour surface antigens and multiple NK cell associated FcγRIIIa molecules can enhance ADCC and partially overcome impaired ADCC by FF genotype individuals in vitro.

  13. Antibody-dependent enhancement infection facilitates dengue virus-regulated signaling of IL-10 production in monocytes.

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    Tsung-Ting Tsai


    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 levels are increased in dengue virus (DENV-infected patients with severe disorders. A hypothetical intrinsic pathway has been proposed for the IL-10 response during antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE of DENV infection; however, the mechanisms of IL-10 regulation remain unclear.We found that DENV infection and/or attachment was sufficient to induce increased expression of IL-10 and its downstream regulator suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood monocytes. IL-10 production was controlled by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB, primarily through protein kinase A (PKA- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/PKB-regulated pathways, with PKA activation acting upstream of PI3K/PKB. DENV infection also caused glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inactivation in a PKA/PI3K/PKB-regulated manner, and inhibition of GSK-3β significantly increased DENV-induced IL-10 production following CREB activation. Pharmacological inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk activity significantly decreased DENV-induced IL-10 production, whereas silencing Syk-associated C-type lectin domain family 5 member A caused a partial inhibition. ADE of DENV infection greatly increased IL-10 expression by enhancing Syk-regulated PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β/CREB signaling. We also found that viral load, but not serotype, affected the IL-10 response. Finally, modulation of IL-10 expression could affect DENV replication.These results demonstrate that, in monocytes, IL-10 production is regulated by ADE through both an extrinsic and an intrinsic pathway, all involving a Syk-regulated PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β/CREB pathway, and both of which impact viral replication.

  14. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Pereira, Clifford B. [Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States)


    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  15. A rare case of Brucella melitensis infection in an obstetrician during the delivery of a transplacentally infected infant. (United States)

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Markou, Fani; Xipolitos, Ioannis; Skandalakis, Panayotis N


    We report a case of Brucella melitensis infection in an obstetrician who was infected during the delivery of an infant suffering from congenital brucellosis. The obstetrician was treated with doxycycline and rifampin and fully recovered. This is the first reported case of Brucella infection transmitted through infectious secretions at the delivery of a transplacentally infected newborn and emphasizes that, especially in endemic areas educational and technical measures are needed in order the obstetricians to avoid ingestion of secretions during clearance of the newborn's respiratory tract from saliva and amniotic fluid.

  16. Aberrantly glycosylated MUC1 is expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells and a target for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrsen, Kirstine; Madsen, Caroline B; Rasch, Morten G


    not covered by immunological tolerance in MUC1 humanized mice and man. The objective of this study was to determine if mouse antibodies to this Tn-MUC1 epitope induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) pivotal for their potential use in cancer immunotherapy. Binding affinity of mAb 5E5 directed...... is expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells and a target for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity suggesting that antibodies targeting glycopeptide epitopes on mucins are strong candidates for cancer-specific immunotherapies.......Protein glycosylation often changes during cancer development, resulting in the expression of cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens. In particular mucins such as MUC1 are subject to these changes. We previously identified an immunodominant Tn-MUC1 (GalNAc-α-MUC1) cancer-specific epitope...

  17. HIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) - Mediating Antibodies Decline while NK Cell Function Increases during Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Borggren, Marie


    Understanding alterations in HIV-specific immune responses during antiretroviral therapy (ART), such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is important in the development of novel strategies to control HIV-1 infection. This study included 53 HIV-1 positive individuals. We evaluated...... during ART. These findings suggest improved cytotoxic function of the NK cells if initiating ART early during infection, while the levels of ADCC mediating antibodies declined during ART....

  18. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  19. Anti-Glycoprotein G Antibodies of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Contribute to Complete Protection after Vaccination in Mice and Induce Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Mediated Cytolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Görander


    Full Text Available We investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein G (mgG-2 of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 in protective immunity after vaccination. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgG-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two CpG motifs plus alum as adjuvant. All C57BL/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. High levels of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced IFN-γ. None of the sera from immunized mice exhibited neutralization, while all sera exerted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement-mediated cytolysis (ACMC activity. Passive transfer of anti-mgG-2 monoclonal antibodies, or immune serum, to naive C57BL/6 mice did not limit disease progression. Immunized B‑cell KO mice presented lower survival rate and higher vaginal viral titers, as compared with vaccinated B-cell KO mice after passive transfer of immune serum and vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Sera from mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously and intranasally with mgG-2 presented significantly lower titers of IgG antibodies and lower ADCC and ACMC activity. We conclude that anti-mgG-2 antibodies were of importance to limit genital HSV‑2 infection. ADCC and ACMC activity are potentially important mechanisms in protective immunity, and could tentatively be evaluated in future animal vaccine studies and in clinical trials.

  20. Antibody-dependent NK cell activation is associated with late kidney allograft dysfunction and the complement-independent alloreactive potential of donor-specific antibodies

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    Tristan Legris


    Full Text Available Although kidney transplantation remains the best treatment for end-stage renal failure, it is limited by chronic humoral aggression of the graft vasculature by donor-specific antibodies (DSAs. The complement-independent mechanisms that lead to the antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR of kidney allografts remain poorly understood. Increasing lines of evidence have revealed the relevance of natural killer (NK cells as innate immune effectors of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, but few studies have investigated their alloreactive potential in the context of solid organ transplantation. Our study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of the antibody-dependent alloreactive function of NK cells to kidney graft dysfunction. We first conducted an observational study to investigate whether the cytotoxic function of NK cells is associated with chronic allograft dysfunction. The NK-Cellular Humoral Activation Test (NK-CHAT was designed to evaluate the recipient and antibody-dependent reactivity of NK cells against allogeneic target cells. The release of CD107a/Lamp1+ cytotoxic granules, resulting from the recognition of rituximab-coated B cells by NK cells, was analyzed in 148 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs, mean graft duration: 6.2 years. Enhanced ADCC responsiveness was associated with reduced graft function and identified as an independent risk factor predicting a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR over a 1-year period (hazard ratio: 2.83. In a second approach, we used the NK-CHAT to reveal the cytotoxic potential of circulating alloantibodies in vitro. The level of CD16 engagement resulting from the in vitro recognition of serum-coated allogeneic B cells or splenic cells was further identified as a specific marker of DSA-induced ADCC. The NK-CHAT scoring of sera obtained from 40 patients at the time of transplant biopsy was associated with ABMR diagnosis. Our findings indicate that despite the administration

  1. CD8+ T cells prevent antigen-induced antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue disease in mice. (United States)

    Zellweger, Raphaël M; Eddy, William E; Tang, William W; Miller, Robyn; Shresta, Sujan


    Dengue virus (DENV) causes pathologies ranging from the febrile illness dengue fever to the potentially lethal severe dengue disease. A major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease is the presence of subprotective DENV-reactive Abs from a previous infection (or from an immune mother), which can induce Ab-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). However, infection in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs does not always result in severe disease, suggesting that other factors influence disease severity. In this study we investigated how CD8(+) T cell responses influence the outcome of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease. Mice were primed with aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted UV-inactivated DENV prior to challenge with DENV. Priming failed to induce robust CD8(+) T cell responses, and it induced nonneutralizing Ab responses that increased disease severity upon infection. Transfer of exogenous DENV-activated CD8(+) T cells into primed mice prior to infection prevented Ab-dependent enhancement and dramatically reduced viral load. Our results suggest that in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs, efficient CD8(+) T cell responses reduce the risk of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease.

  2. Reactive oxygen species induced by therapeutic CD20 antibodies inhibit natural killer cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against primary CLL cells (United States)

    Werlenius, Olle; Aurelius, Johan; Hallner, Alexander; Akhiani, Ali A.; Simpanen, Maria; Martner, Anna; Andersson, Per-Ola; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B.


    The antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of natural killer (NK) cells is assumed to contribute to the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other hematopoietic malignancies of B cell origin. We sought to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing monocytes regulate the ADCC of NK cells against primary CLL cells using anti-CD20 as the linking antibody. The monoclonal CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab were found to trigger substantial release of ROS from monocytes. Antibody-exposed monocytes induced NK cell apoptosis and restricted NK cell-mediated ADCC against autologous CLL cells. The presence of inhibitors of ROS formation and scavengers of ROS preserved NK cell viability and restored NK cell-mediated ADCC against primary CLL cells. We propose that limiting the antibody-induced induction of immunosuppressive ROS may improve the anti-leukemic efficacy of anti-CD20 therapy in CLL. PMID:27097113

  3. Maternofetal transplacental transport of recombinant IgG antibodies lacking effector functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Leif K; Andersen, Jan Terje;


    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) directs the transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies across the placenta and thus provides the fetus and newborn with passive protective humoral immunity. Pathogenic maternal IgG antibodies will also be delivered via the placenta and can cause alloimm...

  4. Transplacental transmission of antibodies to tubular basement membrane in guinea-pigs with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis. (United States)

    Albini, B; Milgrom, M; Noble, B; Albini, C; Ossi, E; Andres, G A


    The offspring of female guinea-pigs with tubulo-interstitial nephritis were studied for possible passive transfer of disease. Whereas no immune deposits were seen on or before day 30 of gestation, IgG was detected in the tubular basement membrane (TBM) of fetuses at and after day 44. Serum of offspring contained antibodies to TBM, albeit in much lower titres than found in circulation of the mother guinea-pigs. No histopathological changes were seen in fetal kidneys. Thus, autoantibodies induced by heteroimmunization of pregnant guinea-pigs may be transmitted to offspring in the last third of the gestation period and can bind to fetal TBM. However, this transfer of antibodies does not cause disease.

  5. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva. (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S


    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  6. Combined use of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibodies and erlotinib enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of wild-type erlotinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavazzoni Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is an established target for anti-cancer treatment in different tumour types. Two different strategies have been explored to inhibit this pivotal molecule in epithelial cancer development: small molecules TKIs and monoclonal antibodies. ErbB/HER-targeting by monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and trastuzumab or tyrosine-kinase inhibitors as gefitinib or erlotinib has been proven effective in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Results In this study we explored the potential of combining either erlotinib with cetuximab or trastuzumab to improve the efficacy of EGFR targeted therapy in EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines. Erlotinib treatment was observed to increase EGFR and/or HER2 expression at the plasma membrane level only in NSCLC cell lines sensitive to the drug inducing protein stabilization. The combined treatment had marginal effect on cell proliferation but markedly increased antibody-dependent, NK mediated, cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, in the Calu-3 xenograft model, the combination significantly inhibited tumour growth when compared with erlotinib and cetuximab alone. Conclusion Our results indicate that erlotinib increases surface expression of EGFR and/or HER2 only in EGFR-TKI sensitive NSCLC cell lines and, in turns, leads to increased susceptibility to ADCC both in vitro and in a xenograft models. The combination of erlotinib with monoclonal antibodies represents a potential strategy to improve the treatment of wild-type EGFR NSCLC patients sensitive to erlotinib.

  7. HIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) -Mediating Antibodies Decline while NK Cell Function Increases during Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). (United States)

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Borggren, Marie; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Rasmussen, Line Dahlerup; Pedersen, Court; Karlsson, Ingrid


    Understanding alterations in HIV-specific immune responses during antiretroviral therapy (ART), such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is important in the development of novel strategies to control HIV-1 infection. This study included 53 HIV-1 positive individuals. We evaluated the ability of effector cells and antibodies to mediate ADCC separately and in combination using the ADCC-PanToxiLux assay. The ability of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to mediate ADCC was significantly higher in individuals who had been treated with ART before seroconversion, compared to the individuals initiating ART at a low CD4+ T cell count (ART-naïve individuals. The frequency of CD16 expressing natural killer (NK) cells correlated with both the duration of ART and Granzyme B (GzB) activity. In contrast, the plasma titer of antibodies mediating ADCC declined during ART. These findings suggest improved cytotoxic function of the NK cells if initiating ART early during infection, while the levels of ADCC mediating antibodies declined during ART.

  8. Substitution of the precursor peptide prevents anti-prM antibody-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Si, Lu-Lu; Guo, Xiao-Lan; Cui, Guo-Hui; Fang, Dan-Yun; Zhou, Jun-Mei; Yan, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Li-Fang


    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is currently considered as the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease. Many studies have shown that precursor (pr) peptide-specific antibodies do not efficiently neutralize infection but potently promote ADE of dengue virus (DENV) infection. To explore the effect of pr peptide substitution on neutralization and ADE of DENV infection, the rabbit anti-prM polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) and anti-JEVpr/DENV-M pAbs were prepared, and the neutralization and ADE of these two pAbs were further compared. Here, we report that both anti-JEVpr/DENV-M and anti-prM pAbs exhibited broad cross-reactivity and only partial neutralization with four DENV serotypes and immature DENV. Rabbit anti-prM pAbs showed a significant enhancement in a broad range of serum dilutions. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the enhancing activity of rabbit anti-JEVpr/DENV-M pAbs at various levels of dilution. These results demonstrate that anti-prM antibody-mediated ADE can be prevented by JEV pr peptide replacement. The present study contribute further to research on the pathogenesis of DENV infection.

  9. Small CD4 Mimetics Prevent HIV-1 Uninfected Bystander CD4+ T Cell Killing Mediated by Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Richard


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes a progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells. Despite its importance for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the precise mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell depletion remain incompletely understood. Here we make the surprising observation that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC mediates the death of uninfected bystander CD4+ T cells in cultures of HIV-1-infected cells. While HIV-1-infected cells are protected from ADCC by the action of the viral Vpu and Nef proteins, uninfected bystander CD4+T cells bind gp120 shed from productively infected cells and are efficiently recognized by ADCC-mediating antibodies. Thus, gp120 shedding represents a viral mechanism to divert ADCC responses towards uninfected bystander CD4+ T cells. Importantly, CD4-mimetic molecules redirect ADCC responses from uninfected bystander cells to HIV-1-infected cells; therefore, CD4-mimetic compounds might have therapeutic utility in new strategies aimed at specifically eliminating HIV-1-infected cells.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of fucose reducing effects in a humanized antibody on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activities. (United States)

    Chung, Shan; Quarmby, Valerie; Gao, Xiaoying; Ying, Yong; Lin, Linda; Reed, Chae; Fong, Chris; Lau, Wendy; Qiu, Zhihua J; Shen, Amy; Vanderlaan, Martin; Song, An


    The presence or absence of core fucose in the Fc region N-linked glycans of antibodies affects their binding affinity toward FcγRIIIa as well as their antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. However, the quantitative nature of this structure-function relationship remains unclear. In this study, the in vitro biological activity of an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody was fully characterized. Further, the effect of fucose reduction on Fc effector functions was quantitatively evaluated using the afucosylated antibody, its "regular" fucosylated counterpart and a series of mixtures containing varying proportions of "regular" and afucosylated materials. Compared with the "regular" fucosylated antibody, the afucosylated antibody demonstrated similar binding interactions with the target antigen (CD20), C1q and FcγRIa, moderate increases in binding to FcγRIIa and IIb, and substantially increased binding to FcγRIIIa. The afucosylated antibodies also showed comparable complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity but markedly increased ADCC activity. Based on EC 50 values derived from dose-response curves, our results indicate that the amount of afucosylated glycan in antibody samples correlate with both FcγRIIIa binding activity and ADCC activity in a linear fashion. Furthermore, the extent of ADCC enhancement due to fucose depletion was not affected by the FcγRIIIa genotype of the effector cells.

  11. Fcγ-receptor IIa-mediated Src Signaling Pathway Is Essential for the Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection (United States)

    Furuyama, Wakako; Marzi, Andrea; Maruyama, Junki; Kuroda, Makoto; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Manzoor, Rashid; Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato


    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection has been demonstrated in vitro, raising concerns about the detrimental potential of some anti-EBOV antibodies. ADE has been described for many viruses and mostly depends on the cross-linking of virus-antibody complexes to cell surface Fc receptors, leading to enhanced infection. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Here we show that Fcγ-receptor IIa (FcγRIIa)-mediated intracellular signaling through Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is required for ADE of EBOV infection. We found that deletion of the FcγRIIa cytoplasmic tail abolished EBOV ADE due to decreased virus uptake into cellular endosomes. Furthermore, EBOV ADE, but not non-ADE infection, was significantly reduced by inhibition of the Src family protein PTK pathway, which was also found to be important to promote phagocytosis/macropinocytosis for viral uptake into endosomes. We further confirmed a significant increase of the Src phosphorylation mediated by ADE. These data suggest that antibody-EBOV complexes bound to the cell surface FcγRIIa activate the Src signaling pathway that leads to enhanced viral entry into cells, providing a novel perspective for the general understanding of ADE of virus infection. PMID:28036370

  12. Chemoprevention of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene transplacental carcinogenesis in mice born to mothers administered green tea: primary role of caffeine. (United States)

    Castro, David J; Yu, Zhen; Löhr, Christiane V; Pereira, Clifford B; Giovanini, Jack N; Fischer, Kay A; Orner, Gayle A; Dashwood, Roderick H; Williams, David E


    Our laboratory recently developed a mouse model of transplacental induction of lymphoma, lung and liver cancer by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP). Pregnant B6129SF1 females, bred to 129S1/SvIm males, were treated on day 17 of gestation with an oral dose of 15 mg/kg DBP. Beginning on day 0 of gestation, dams were given (ad lib) buffered water, 0.5% green tea, 0.5% decaffeinated green tea, caffeine or epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (both at equivalent concentrations found in tea). The concentration of the teas (and corresponding caffeine and EGCG) was increased to 1.0% upon entering the second trimester, 1.5% at onset of the third trimester and continued at 1.5% until pups were weaned at 21 days of age. Offspring were raised with normal drinking water and AIN93G diet. Beginning at 2 months of age, offspring experienced significant mortalities due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoma as seen in our previous studies. Ingestion of caffeinated, but not decaffeinated, green tea provided modest but significant protection (P = 0.03) against mortality. Caffeine provided a more robust (P = 0.006) protection, but EGCG was without effect. Offspring also developed DBP-dependent lung adenomas. All treatments significantly reduced lung tumor multiplicity relative to controls (P green tea, during pregnancy and nursing, provides protection against transplacental carcinogenesis.

  13. Glycoengineered Monoclonal Antibodies with Homogeneous Glycan (M3, G0, G2, and A2 Using a Chemoenzymatic Approach Have Different Affinities for FcγRIIIa and Variable Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kurogochi

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic antibodies have been developed, and IgG antibodies have been extensively generated in various cell expression systems. IgG antibodies contain N-glycans at the constant region of the heavy chain (Fc domain, and their N-glycosylation patterns differ during various processes or among cell expression systems. The Fc N-glycan can modulate the effector functions of IgG antibodies, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC. To control Fc N-glycans, we performed a rearrangement of Fc N-glycans from a heterogeneous N-glycosylation pattern to homogeneous N-glycans using chemoenzymatic approaches with two types of endo-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidases (ENG'ases, one that works as a hydrolase to cleave all heterogeneous N-glycans, another that is used as a glycosynthase to generate homogeneous N-glycans. As starting materials, we used an anti-Her2 antibody produced in transgenic silkworm cocoon, which consists of non-fucosylated pauci-mannose type (Man2-3GlcNAc2, high-mannose type (Man4-9GlcNAc2, and complex type (Man3GlcNAc3-4 N-glycans. As a result of the cleavage of several ENG'ases (endoS, endoM, endoD, endoH, and endoLL, the heterogeneous glycans on antibodies were fully transformed into homogeneous-GlcNAc by a combination of endoS, endoD, and endoLL. Next, the desired N-glycans (M3; Man3GlcNAc1, G0; GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, G2; Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, A2; NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1 were transferred from the corresponding oxazolines to the GlcNAc residue on the intact anti-Her2 antibody with an ENG'ase mutant (endoS-D233Q, and the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody was obtained. The binding assay of anti-Her2 antibody with homogenous N-glycans with FcγRIIIa-V158 showed that the glycoform influenced the affinity for FcγRIIIa-V158. In addition, the ADCC assay for the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody (mAb-M3, mAb-G0, mAb-G2, and mAb-A2 was performed using SKBR-3 and BT-474 as target

  14. Molecular determinants of dengue virus 2 envelope protein important for virus entry in FcγRIIA-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of infection

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    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T. [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Schlesinger, Jacob J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Blair, Carol D. [Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Huang, Claire Y.-H., E-mail: [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States)


    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus–Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. - Highlights: • KKK305/307/310 in DENV2 E-DIII is critical for virus attachment in ADE and non-ADE infection. • Binding of DENV2–Ab complex with FcγRII alone is not sufficient for virus entry in ADE infection. • Other primary receptors were required for DENV2 internalization during FcγRII–mediated ADE. • G104 and L135 of DENV2 E are critical for virus-mediated membrane fusion. • DENV2 virus-mediated membrane fusion is required for both ADE and non-ADE infection.

  15. A Phase I Trial to Evaluate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Cetuximab and Lenalidomide in Advanced Colorectal and Head and Neck Cancer. (United States)

    Bertino, Erin M; McMichael, Elizabeth L; Mo, Xiaokui; Trikha, Prashant; Davis, Melanie; Paul, Bonnie; Grever, Michael; Carson, William E; Otterson, Gregory A


    mAbs can induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) via the innate immune system's ability to recognize mAb-coated cancer cells and activate immune effector cells. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with the capacity to stimulate immune cell cytokine production and ADCC activity. This phase I trial evaluated the combination of cetuximab with lenalidomide for the treatment of advanced colorectal and head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC). This trial included patients with advanced colorectal cancer or HNSCC. Treatment consisted of cetuximab 500 mg/m(2) i.v. every two weeks with lenalidomide given orally days 1-21 on a 28-day cycle. Three dose levels of lenalidomide were evaluated (15, 20, 25 mg). Correlative studies included measurement of ADCC, FcγRIIIA polymorphism genotyping, measurement of serum cytokine levels, and flow cytometric analysis of immune cell subtypes. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (19 colorectal cancer, 3 HNSCC). Fatigue was the only dose-limiting toxicity. One partial response was observed and 8 patients had stable disease at least 12 weeks. The recommended phase II dose is cetuximab 500 mg/m(2) with lenalidomide 25 mg daily, days 1-21. Correlative studies demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in natural killer cytotoxic activity with increasing doses of lenalidomide. Cetuximab and lenalidomide were well tolerated. There was a lenalidomide dose-dependent increase in ADCC with higher activity in patients enrolled in cohort 3 than those enrolled in cohorts 1/2. Although response was not a primary endpoint, there was evidence of antitumor activity for the combination therapy. Further investigation of lenalidomide as an immunomodulator in solid tumors is warranted. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2244-50. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application. (United States)

    Ichiyama, Koji; Gopala Reddy, Sindhoora Bhargavi; Zhang, Li Feng; Chin, Wei Xin; Muschin, Tegshi; Heinig, Lars; Suzuki, Youichi; Nanjundappa, Haraprasad; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Ryo, Akihide; Nomura, Nobuo; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Naoki


    Curdlan sulfate (CRDS), a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV). CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E) protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion). The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  17. Hyperimmune antisera against synthetic peptides representing the glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 can mediate neutralization and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity. (United States)

    Björling, E; Broliden, K; Bernardi, D; Utter, G; Thorstensson, R; Chiodi, F; Norrby, E


    Twenty-five 13- to 35-amino-acid-long peptides representing regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), strain SBL6669, envelope proteins were evaluated for their immunogenic activity in guinea pigs. The peptides were selected to provide homologous representation of sites in the HIV-1 envelope proteins that were previously documented to have a particular immunogenic importance. A number of the HIV-2 peptides were found to be capable of inducing strain SBL6669 neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies. Two overlapping peptides covering amino acids 311-337 representing the central and C-terminal part of the variable third (V3) region, terminology according to Modrow et al. [Modrow, S., Hahn, B., Shaw, G. M., Gallo, R. C., Wong-Staal, F. & Wolf, H. (1987) J. Virol. 61, 570-578], showed the most pronounced capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies. One of the peptides (amino acids 318-337) also induced antibodies mediating ADCC. Two additional regions in the large glycoprotein, gp125, containing linear sites reacting with neutralizing antibodies were identified (amino acids, 119-137 and 472-509). The transmembrane protein, gp36, of HIV-2 harbored two regions of importance for induction of neutralizing antibodies (amino acids 595-614 and 714-729). ADCC activity was induced by two additional gp125-specific peptides (amino acids 291-311 and 446-461). Thus, except for the single V3-specific site there was no correlation between linear immunogenic sites stimulating neutralizing antibody and ADCC activity. These findings pave the way for development of synthetic vaccines against HIV-2 and possibly also simian immunodeficiency virus infections. The capacity of such a product to induce protective immunity can be evaluated in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:2068087

  18. The role of IgG subclass of mouse monoclonal antibodies in antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection of feline macrophages. (United States)

    Hohdatsu, T; Tokunaga, J; Koyama, H


    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection was studied in feline alveolar macrophages and human monocyte cell line U937 using mouse neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed to the spike protein of FIPV. Even among the MAbs that have been shown to recognize the same antigenic site, IgG 2a MAbs enhanced FIPV infection strongly, whereas IgG 1 MAbs did not. These IgG 2a MAbs enhanced the infection even when macrophages pretreated with the MAb were washed and then inoculated with the virus. Immunofluorescence flow cytometric analysis of the macrophages treated with each of the MAbs showed that the IgG 2a MAbs but not the IgG 1 MAbs bound to feline alveolar macrophages. Treatment of the IgG 2a MAb with protein A decreased the binding to the macrophages and, in parallel, diminished the ADE activity. Although no infection was observed by inoculation of FIPV to human monocyte cell line U937 cells, FIPV complexed with either the IgG 2a MAb or the IgG 1 MAb caused infection in U937 cells which are shown to express Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R) I and II that can bind mouse IgG 2a and IgG 1, respectively. These results suggest that the enhancing activity of MAb is closely correlated with IgG subclass and that the correlation is involved in binding of MAb to Fc gamma R on feline macrophage.

  19. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors

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    Elizabeth M. Bruckheimer


    Full Text Available EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes. Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells.

  20. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  1. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab administered at approved doses may delay development of trastuzumab resistance by additively enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Tóth, Gábor; Szöőr, Árpád; Simon, László; Yarden, Yosef; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György


    Although the recently concluded CLEOPATRA trial showed clinical benefits of combining trastuzumab and pertuzumab for treating HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab monotherapy is still the mainstay in adjuvant settings. Since trastuzumab resistance occurs in over half of these cancers, we examined the mechanisms by which treatment of intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant and -sensitive tumors can benefit from the combination of these antibodies. F(ab')2 of both trastuzumab and pertuzumab were generated and validated in order to separately analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)-based and direct biological effects of the antibodies. Compared to monotherapy, combination of the two antibodies at clinically permitted doses enhanced the recruitment of natural killer cells responsible for ADCC, and significantly delayed the outgrowth of xenografts from intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells. Antibody dose-response curves of in vitro ADCC showed that antibody-mediated killing can be saturated, and the two antibodies exert an additive effect at sub-saturation doses. Thus, the additive effect in vivo indicates that therapeutic tissue levels likely do not saturate ADCC. Additionally, isobole studies with the in vitro trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 cells showed that the direct biological effect of combined treatment is additive, and surpasses the maximum effect of either monotherapy. Our results suggest the combined therapy is expected to give results that are superior to monotherapy, whatever the type of HER2-positive tumor may be. The combination of both antibodies at maximum clinically approved doses should thus be administered to patients to recruit maximum ADCC and cause maximum direct biological growth inhibition.

  2. Influenza virus A(H1N1)2009 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in young children prior to the H1N1 pandemic. (United States)

    Mesman, Annelies W; Westerhuis, Brenda M; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Jacobi, Ronald H; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Josine; Buisman, Annemarie M; Koopmans, Marion P; van Binnendijk, Robert S


    Pre-existing immunity played a significant role in protection during the latest influenza A virus H1N1 pandemic, especially in older age groups. Structural similarities were found between A(H1N1)2009 and older H1N1 virus strains to which humans had already been exposed. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing the A(H1N1)2009 virus have been implicated in this immune protection in adults. We investigated the serological profile of a group of young children aged 9 years (n=55), from whom paired blood samples were available, just prior to the pandemic wave (March 2009) and shortly thereafter (March 2010). On the basis of A(H1N1)2009 seroconversion, 27 of the 55 children (49 %) were confirmed to be infected between these two time points. Within the non-infected group of 28 children (51 %), high levels of seasonal antibodies to H1 and H3 HA1 antigens were detected prior to pandemic exposure, reflecting past infection with H1N1 and H3N2, both of which had circulated in The Netherlands prior to the pandemic. In some children, this reactivity coincided with specific antibody reactivity against A(H1N1)2009. While these antibodies were not able to neutralize the A(H1N1)2009 virus, they were able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro upon interaction with the A(H1N1)2009 virus. This finding suggests that cross-reactive antibodies could contribute to immune protection in children via ADCC.

  3. Disruption of Skin Stem Cell Homeostasis following Transplacental Arsenicosis; Alleviation by Combined Intake of Selenium and Curcumin (United States)

    Poojan, Shiv; Kumar, Sushil; Verma, Vikas; Dhasmana, Anupam; Lohani, Mohtashim; Verma, Mukesh K.


    Of late, a consirable interest has grown in literature on early development of arsenicosis and untimely death in humans after exposure to iAs in drinking water in utero or during the childhood. The mechanism of this kind of intrauterine arsenic poisoning is not known; however it is often suggested to involve stem cells. We looked into this possibility by investigating in mice the influence of chronic in utero exposure to arsenical drinking water preliminarily on multipotent adult stem cell and progenitor cell counts at the beginning of neonatal age. We found that repeated intake of 42.5 or 85ppm iAs in drinking water by pregnant BALB/c mice substantially changed the counts of EpASCs, the progenitor cells, and the differentiated cells in epidermis of their zero day old neonates. EpASCs counts decreased considerably and the differentiated / apoptosed cell counts increased extensively whereas the counts of progenitor cell displayed a biphasic effect. The observed trend of response was dose-dependent and statistically significant. These observations signified a disruption in stem cell homeostasis. The disorder was in parallel with changes in expression of biomarkers of stem cell and progenitor (TA) cell besides changes in expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant molecules namely Nrf2, NFkB, TNF-α, and GSH. The biological monitoring of exposure to iAs and the ensuing transplacental toxicity was verifiable correspondingly by the increase in iAs burden in hair, kidney, skin, liver of nulliparous female mice and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in neonate bone marrow cells. The combined intake of selenite and curcumin in utero was found to prevent the disruption of homeostasis and associated biochemical changes to a great extent. The mechanism of prevention seemed possibly to involve (a) curcumin and Keap-1 interaction, (b) consequent escalated de novo GSH biosynthesis, and (c) the resultant toxicant disposition. These observations are important with respect to

  4. Disruption of Skin Stem Cell Homeostasis following Transplacental Arsenicosis; Alleviation by Combined Intake of Selenium and Curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Poojan

    Full Text Available Of late, a consirable interest has grown in literature on early development of arsenicosis and untimely death in humans after exposure to iAs in drinking water in utero or during the childhood. The mechanism of this kind of intrauterine arsenic poisoning is not known; however it is often suggested to involve stem cells. We looked into this possibility by investigating in mice the influence of chronic in utero exposure to arsenical drinking water preliminarily on multipotent adult stem cell and progenitor cell counts at the beginning of neonatal age. We found that repeated intake of 42.5 or 85 ppm iAs in drinking water by pregnant BALB/c mice substantially changed the counts of EpASCs, the progenitor cells, and the differentiated cells in epidermis of their zero day old neonates. EpASCs counts decreased considerably and the differentiated/apoptosed cell counts increased extensively whereas the counts of progenitor cell displayed a biphasic effect. The observed trend of response was dose-dependent and statistically significant. These observations signified a disruption in stem cell homeostasis. The disorder was in parallel with changes in expression of biomarkers of stem cell and progenitor (TA cell besides changes in expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant molecules namely Nrf2, NFkB, TNF-α, and GSH. The biological monitoring of exposure to iAs and the ensuing transplacental toxicity was verifiable correspondingly by the increase in iAs burden in hair, kidney, skin, liver of nulliparous female mice and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in neonate bone marrow cells. The combined intake of selenite and curcumin in utero was found to prevent the disruption of homeostasis and associated biochemical changes to a great extent. The mechanism of prevention seemed possibly to involve (a curcumin and Keap-1 interaction, (b consequent escalated de novo GSH biosynthesis, and (c the resultant toxicant disposition. These observations are important

  5. Disruption of Skin Stem Cell Homeostasis following Transplacental Arsenicosis; Alleviation by Combined Intake of Selenium and Curcumin. (United States)

    Poojan, Shiv; Kumar, Sushil; Verma, Vikas; Dhasmana, Anupam; Lohani, Mohtashim; Verma, Mukesh K


    Of late, a consirable interest has grown in literature on early development of arsenicosis and untimely death in humans after exposure to iAs in drinking water in utero or during the childhood. The mechanism of this kind of intrauterine arsenic poisoning is not known; however it is often suggested to involve stem cells. We looked into this possibility by investigating in mice the influence of chronic in utero exposure to arsenical drinking water preliminarily on multipotent adult stem cell and progenitor cell counts at the beginning of neonatal age. We found that repeated intake of 42.5 or 85 ppm iAs in drinking water by pregnant BALB/c mice substantially changed the counts of EpASCs, the progenitor cells, and the differentiated cells in epidermis of their zero day old neonates. EpASCs counts decreased considerably and the differentiated/apoptosed cell counts increased extensively whereas the counts of progenitor cell displayed a biphasic effect. The observed trend of response was dose-dependent and statistically significant. These observations signified a disruption in stem cell homeostasis. The disorder was in parallel with changes in expression of biomarkers of stem cell and progenitor (TA) cell besides changes in expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant molecules namely Nrf2, NFkB, TNF-α, and GSH. The biological monitoring of exposure to iAs and the ensuing transplacental toxicity was verifiable correspondingly by the increase in iAs burden in hair, kidney, skin, liver of nulliparous female mice and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in neonate bone marrow cells. The combined intake of selenite and curcumin in utero was found to prevent the disruption of homeostasis and associated biochemical changes to a great extent. The mechanism of prevention seemed possibly to involve (a) curcumin and Keap-1 interaction, (b) consequent escalated de novo GSH biosynthesis, and (c) the resultant toxicant disposition. These observations are important with respect to

  6. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

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    Jogdand Prajakta S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP

  7. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R


    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient–mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (Treg) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID. PMID:24666246

  8. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R


    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient-mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID.

  9. Identifying Efficacious Approaches to Chemoprevention with chlorophyllin, purified chlorophylls and freeze-dried spinach in a Mouse Model of Transplacental Carcinogenesis

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    Castro, David J.; Lohr, Christiane V.; Fischer, Kay A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Bailey, George S.; Williams, David E.


    The carcinogenic potential of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been well characterized in numerous animal models. We have previously documented that a single dose of 15 mg/Kg DBP to pregnant mice late in gestation (GD 17) produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma as well as lung and liver cancer in offspring. The current study examines the chemopreventative properties of chlorophyllin (CHL) and chlorophyll (Chl) in this transplacental carcinogenesis model. Pregnant B6129SF1 females, bred to 129S1/SvIm males, received purified diets incorporated with either 2000 ppm CHL, 2000 ppm Chl, or 10% freeze-dried spinach beginning at gestation day 9. Lymphoma-dependent mortality was not significantly altered by maternal consumption of any of the diet and little effect on lung tumor burden in mice surviving to 10 months of age was observed. However, co-administration of CHL at 380 mg/Kg with DBP by gavage (molar ratio of 10:1, CHL:DBP) provided significant protection against DBP initiated carcinogenesis. Offspring born to dams receiving CHL co-gavaged with DBP exhibited markedly fewer lymphoma-dependent mortalities (p< 0.001). The degree of protection by CHL, compared to controls dosed with DBP in tricaprylin (TCP) as the vehicle, were less marked, but still significant. Co-administration of CHL (TCP as vehicle) also reduced lung tumor multiplicity in mice by approximately 50% and this was observed throughout the study (p< 0.005). This is the first demonstration that CHL can provide potent chemoprotection in a transplacental carcinogenesis model and supports a mechanism involving complex-mediated reduction of carcinogen uptake.

  10. Visualized gene network reveals the novel target transcripts Sox2 and Pax6 of neuronal development in trans-placental exposure to bisphenol A.

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    Chung-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical in our daily life, and its health effect in response to prenatal exposure is still controversial. Early-life BPA exposure may impact brain development and contribute to childhood neurological disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular target genes of neuronal development in trans-placental exposure to BPA.A meta-analysis of three public microarray datasets was performed to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs in exposure to BPA. The candidate genes of neuronal development were identified from gene ontology analysis in a reconstructed neuronal sub-network, and their gene expressions were determined using real-time PCR in 20 umbilical cord blood samples dichotomized into high and low BPA level groups upon the median 16.8 nM.Among 36 neuronal transcripts sorted from DAVID ontology clusters of 457 DEGs using the analysis of Bioconductor limma package, we found two neuronal genes, sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2 and paired box 6 (Pax6, had preferentially down-regulated expression (Bonferroni correction p-value <10(-4 and log2-transformed fold change ≤-1.2 in response to BPA exposure. Fetal cord blood samples had the obviously attenuated gene expression of Sox2 and Pax6 in high BPA group referred to low BPA group. Visualized gene network of Cytoscape analysis showed that Sox2 and Pax6 which were contributed to neural precursor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation might be down-regulated through sonic hedgehog (Shh, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA and Notch signaling.These results indicated that trans-placental BPA exposure down-regulated gene expression of Sox2 and Pax6 potentially underlying the adverse effect on childhood neuronal development.

  11. Increased sensitivity to testicular toxicity of transplacental benzo[a]pyrene exposure in male glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit knockout (Gclm-/-) mice. (United States)

    Nakamura, Brooke N; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W; Cortés, Mabel M; Hoang, Yvonne D; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A; McConnachie, Lisa A; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Luderer, Ulrike


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and spermatogenesis and its effect on the sensitivity of male embryos to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. Gclm-/- males had dramatically decreased testicular and epididymal GCL enzymatic activity and total GSH concentrations compared with Gclm+/+ littermates. Ratios of reduced to oxidized GSH were significantly increased in Gclm-/- testes. GSH reductase enzymatic activity was increased in Gclm-/- epididymides. We observed no changes in fertility, testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, or testicular histology and subtle changes in cauda epididymal sperm counts, motility, and morphology in Gclm-/- compared with Gclm+/+ males. Prenatal exposure to BaP from gestational day 7 to 16 was dose dependently associated with significantly decreased testicular and epididymal weights, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, and with vacuolated seminiferous tubules at 10 weeks of age. Gclm-/- males exposed prenatally to BaP had greater decreases in testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility than Gclm+/+ littermates. These results show no effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and testicular spermatogenesis and subtle epididymal effects but support increased sensitivity of Gclm-/- males to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP.

  12. Identifying efficacious approaches to chemoprevention with chlorophyllin, purified chlorophylls and freeze-dried spinach in a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Castro, David J; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay A; Waters, Katrina M; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Dashwood, Roderick H; Bailey, George S; Williams, David E


    The carcinogenic potential of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been well characterized in numerous animal models. We have previously documented that a single dose of 15 mg/Kg DBP to pregnant mice late in gestation (GD 17) produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma as well as lung and liver cancer in offspring. The current study examines the chemopreventative properties of chlorophyllin (CHL) and chlorophyll (Chl) in this transplacental carcinogenesis model. Pregnant B6129SF1 females, bred to 129S1/SvIm males, received purified diets incorporated with either 2000 p.p.m. CHL, 2000 p.p.m. Chl or 10% freeze-dried spinach beginning at gestation day 9. Lymphoma-dependent mortality was not significantly altered by maternal consumption of any of the diet and little effect on lung tumor burden in mice surviving to 10 months of age was observed. However, coadministration of CHL at 380 mg/Kg with DBP by gavage (molar ratio of 10:1, CHL:DBP) provided significant protection against DBP-initiated carcinogenesis. Offspring born to dams receiving CHL co-gavaged with DBP exhibited markedly less lymphoma-dependent mortality (P < 0.001). The degree of protection by CHL, compared with controls dosed with DBP in tricaprylin (TCP) as the vehicle, was less marked, but still significant. Coadministration of CHL (TCP as vehicle) also reduced lung tumor multiplicity in mice by approximately 50% and this was observed throughout the study (P < 0.005). This is the first demonstration that CHL can provide potent chemoprotection in a transplacental carcinogenesis model and support a mechanism involving complex-mediated reduction of carcinogen uptake.

  13. Frecuencia espontánea en inducida de micronúcleos transplacentarios en ratas Sprague Dawley Spontaneous and induced frequency of transplacental micronucleus in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Arencibia


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia espontánea e inducida de micronúcleos transplacentarios en ratas Sprague Dawley, demostrando el efecto clastogénico o aneugénico en el feto a través de la exposición materna y su vinculación con el efecto genotóxico y reproductivo. Se formaron 4 grupos experimentales, 1 control negativo (simulacro, 2 control solvente NaCl (0,9%, 3 ciclofosfamida 50 mg/kg, y 4 bleomicina 30 mg/kg. Todos los grupos se administraron por vía intraperitoneal a los días 14, 15 y 16 de la gestación. A las 48 h posteriores a la última inoculación se procedió a realizar la eutanasia obteniéndose muestras de médula ósea materna y de hígado fetal. Se observó mayor inducción de daño en células hepáticas fetales que en médula ósea materna. Se demostró que la ciclofosfamida es capaz de inducir mayor citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad que la bleomicina en ambos tipos celulares, demostrando el poder clastogénico transplacentario de ambos mutágenos vinculando este ensayo de genotoxicidad a la reproducción. Además estos resultados se podrán utilizar en la evaluación de nuevas drogas con carácter antigenotóxico por vía transplacentaria.The aim of this work were to determine the spontaneous and induced frequency of transplacental micronucleis in Sprague Dawley rats, demonstrating the clastogenic or aneugenic effects in the fetus through the maternal exposure, and their linking with the genotoxic and reproductive effect. Four experimental groups were formed, 1 negative control (mockery, 2 solvent control NaCl (0,9 %, 3 cyclophosphamide to 50 mg/kg, and 4 bleomycin to 30 mg/kg. All the groups were administered the 14, 15 and 16 days of the gestation by intraperitoneal route. 48 h to the last inoculation was preceded to the euthanasia, being obtained the maternal bone marrow and fetal liver samples. Bigger induction of damage was observed in fetal hepatic cells when it was compared with

  14. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). (United States)

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D


    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta.

  15. Augmentation of natural killer cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in BALB/c mice by sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate from broccoli through enhanced production of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma. (United States)

    Thejass, P; Kuttan, G


    Effect of sulforaphane on cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was studied in normal as well as Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Administration of sulforaphane significantly enhanced natural killer (NK) cell activity in both normal as well as tumor-bearing animals, and the activity was observed earlier than in tumor-bearing control animals. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) also was enhanced significantly in both normal as well as tumor-bearing animals after sulforaphane administration compared with untreated control tumor-bearing animals. An early antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) also was observed in sulforaphane-treated normal and tumor-bearing animals. Administration of sulforaphane significantly enhanced the production of Interleukin-2 and Interferon-gamma in normal as well as tumor-bearing animals. In addition, sulforaphane significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes, bone marrow cells, and thymocytes by stimulating the mitogenic potential of various mitogens such as concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin, poke weed mitogen, and lipopolysaccharide.

  16. Transplacentally acquired antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen in full term infants%足月新生儿母源性抗-HBs及其亚型的特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武巧珍; 胡娅莉; 周乙华; 王志群; 陈建琴; 叶晓东; 蒋红


    Objective To analyze the correlation of the concentration of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) between normal full term pregnant women and their newborns.Methods Sixty-three paired serum samples from infants and their anti-HBs positive mothers,who delivered in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing Medical University School from Dec.2006 to Feb.2007,were quantitatively tested for anti-HBs by AxSYM AUSAB immunoassay.Subclasses of anti-HBs IgG were analyzed.The neutralizing activity of maternal anti-HBs in infants was assessed by surrogate assay. Results All infants born to anti-HBs positive mothers were also seropositive.Anti-HBs 1evels in infants were correlated with the maternal concentration(rs=0.976,P<0.01),and majority of the infants had higher concentrations than their mothers(195.4 mIU/ml vs 141.6 mIU/ml,P<0.01).The mean half-life of maternal anti-HBs in infants was estimated to be 41 days.Anti-HBs IgGl subclass was predominantly in infants,which was in agreement with that in their mothers.Transplacentally transferred anti-HBs in infants efficiently bound the hepatitis B surface antigen derived from hepatitis B patients. Conclusions Anti-HBs IgG carl efficiently transfer through the placenta.Infants born to anti-HBs positive mothers may be immune to hepatitis B virus in the early life of several months.%目的 分析了解足月新生儿母源性乙型肝炎表面抗体(抗-HBs)及其亚型的特性.方法 2006年12月至2007年02月在南京大学附属鼓楼医院住院分娩的单胎足月孕妇及其新生儿为研究对象,AxSYM全自动免疫分析仪定量检测63例抗-HBs阳性的单胎足月孕妇及其新生儿脐血婴儿和1月龄时的血清抗-HBs浓度,用固相酶联免疫法检测孕妇和脐血中抗-HBs 4种IgG亚型的含量,及其中和乙型肝炎患者血清中HBsAg的能力.结果 63例抗-HBs阳性孕妇分娩的新生儿脐血抗-HBs均为阳性,几何平均浓度为195.4 mIU/ml,

  17. Mutation of neutralizing/antibody-dependent enhancing epitope on spike protein and 7b gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus: influences of viral replication in monocytes/macrophages and virulence in cats. (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Tomiyama, Yoshika; Katoh, Yasuichiroh; Nakamura, Michiyo; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu


    We previously prepared neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-resistant (mar) mutant viruses using a laboratory strain feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) 79-1146 (Kida et al., 1999). Mar mutant viruses are mutated several amino acids of the neutralizing epitope of Spike protein, compared with the parent strain, FIPV 79-1146. We clarified that MAb used to prepare mar mutant viruses also lost its activity to enhance homologous mar mutant viruses, strongly suggesting that neutralizing and antibody-dependent enhancing epitopes are present in the same region in the strain FIPV 79-1146. We also discovered that amino acid mutation in the neutralizing epitope reduced viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. We also demonstrated that the mutation or deletion of two nucleotides in 7b gene abrogate the virulence of strain FIPV 79-1146.

  18. Analysis of the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: aminopeptidase N is not important and a process of acidification of the endosome is necessary. (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Katada, Yukari; Moritoh, Saiko; Ogasawara, Mika; Satoh, Kumi; Satoh, Ryoichi; Tanabe, Maki; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu


    Infection of the monocyte/macrophage lineage with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is enhanced in the presence of anti-FIPV antibodies (antibody-dependent enhancement or ADE). We investigated the following unclear points concerning ADE of FIPV infection: (i) involvement of the virus receptor, feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN), in ADE activity in FIPV infection; (ii) necessity of acidification of the endosome in cellular invasion of FIPV. Virus receptor-blocking experiments using anti-fAPN antibodies at 4 or 37 degrees C and experiments using fAPN-negative U937 cells revealed that fAPN is not involved in ADE of FIPV infection. Experiments using lysosomotropic agents clarified that acidification of the endosome is necessary for cellular invasion by FIPV, regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies. These findings may be very important for understanding the mechanism of ADE of FIPV infection.

  19. Advances in antibody-dependent enhancement for dengue virus%登革病毒抗体依赖性感染增强作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋克玉; 李晓峰; 江振友; 秦成峰


    Antibody-dependent enhancement ( ADE ) present in the infection of dengue virus ( DENV ) has huge effect on the effect of treatment. ADE of virus replication is believed to occur when heterotypic, nonneutralizing antibody present in the host from a previous DENV infection binds to the virus via binding to the Fey receptors ( Fc-yR ) during a subsequent heterotypic infection but is unable to neutralize the virus. The overall result is an increase in virus replication and the level of viremia, which is associated with an increase in disease severity. Studies on the immune response of ADE can contribute to the derelopment of effective vaccines and drugs. In this review, the resent advances of ADE in dengue virus are discussed.%抗体依赖性感染增强作用(antibody-dependent enhancement,ADE)在登革病毒的致病机制中发挥重要作用.在存在亚中和浓度抗体的条件下,登革病毒可通过Fc受体或补体受体等途径进入靶细胞,进而导致ADE的发生.ADE的发生受病毒和宿主一系列复杂因素的调节,直接影响患者的临床表现和病情进展,对其作用机制的研究有助于加深对登革出血热发病机制的认识,对登革热疫苗以及治疗性抗体的研发具有重要意义.本文综述了登革病毒ADE的研究进展.

  20. Infected Dendritic Cells Facilitate Systemic Dissemination and Transplacental Passage of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Neospora caninum in Mice (United States)

    Collantes-Fernandez, Esther; Arrighi, Romanico B. G.; Álvarez-García, Gema; Weidner, Jessica M.; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Boothroyd, John C.; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.; Barragan, Antonio


    The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9) was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC) by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22403627

  1. Infected dendritic cells facilitate systemic dissemination and transplacental passage of the obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Collantes-Fernandez

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9 was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites.

  2. Transplacental and mammary passage of radioactivity in rats treated vaginally and orally with (/sup 14/C)propranolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttar, H.S.; Moffatt, J.H.; Bura, C.


    Single doses (10 mg/kg) of an aqueous solution of (14C)propranolol were administered either orally (po) or intravaginally (ivg) on gestational d 15, or on postpartum d 7-10. Upon ivg administration, (14C)propranolol was quickly transferred to systemic circulation and the mean blood (14C) concentrations were significantly greater during the first 0.25-2 h than in po dosed counterparts. About 98% of the ivg applied dose was absorbed after 6 h in gravid rats, and the combined 6-h excretions of radioactivity in the urine (ivg = 24.6%; po = 22.9%) and feces (ivg = 16.8%; po = 14.6%) were equivalent in both groups. At the end of 6 h, the levels of (14C) in the urinary bladder, adrenal, uterus, ovary, spleen, skeletal muscle, brain, heart, lung and fat were significantly higher in ivg treated rats than po dosed animals. Compared with the maternal plasma (ivg = 0.76; po = 0.88 microgram/ml), the mean concentrations of (14C) in the placentas were similar in both groups, while the amounts of (14C) were three to five times lower in the amniotic fluids and the fetuses of both po and ivg treated dams. In lactating rats, over 99% of the administered radioactivity was absorbed from the vagina within 6 h. The blood concentrations of (14C) were significantly elevated at 0.5 and 1 h in the per vaginam treated animals, and afterward the disappearance rate of (14C) followed a similar course in both groups. Following ivg application, the milk radioactivity peaked at 0.5 h and declined rapidly. However, the appearance of (14C) in milk was rather slow after oral dosing: the milk (14C) peaked between 2 and 3 h posttreatment and remained steady thereafter. The milk to blood (M/B) (14C) concentration ratios were markedly greater during 0.5 to 1 h in the ivg group than in their po dosed counterparts.

  3. A Human Anti-M2 Antibody Mediates Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC and Cytokine Secretion by Resting and Cytokine-Preactivated Natural Killer (NK Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara R Simhadri

    Full Text Available The highly conserved matrix protein 2 (M2 is a good candidate for the development of a broadly protective influenza vaccine that induces long-lasting immunity. In animal models, natural killer (NK cells have been proposed to play an important role in the protection provided by M2-based vaccines through a mechanism of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. We investigated the ability of the human anti-M2 Ab1-10 monoclonal antibody (mAb to activate human NK cells. They mediated ADCC against M2-expressing cells in the presence of Ab1-10 mAb. Furthermore, NK cell pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion is also enhanced when Ab1-10 mAb is present. We also generated cytokine-preactivated NK cells and showed that they still displayed increased effector functions in the presence of Ab1-10 mAb. Thus, our study has demonstrated that human resting and cytokine-preactivated NK cells may have a very important role in the protection provided by anti-M2 Abs.

  4. Peritoneal lavage cells of Indonesian thin-tail sheep mediate antibody-dependent superoxide radical cytotoxicity in vitro against newly excysted juvenile Fasciola gigantica but not juvenile Fasciola hepatica. (United States)

    Piedrafita, David; Estuningsih, Endah; Pleasance, Jill; Prowse, Rhoda; Raadsma, Herman W; Meeusen, Els N T; Spithill, Terry W


    Indonesian thin-tail (ITT) sheep resist infection by Fasciola gigantica by an immunological mechanism within 2 to 4 weeks of infection yet are susceptible to F. hepatica infection. Studies of ITT sheep show that little liver damage occurs following F. gigantica infection, suggesting that the invading parasites are killed within the peritoneum or shortly after reaching the liver. We investigated whether cells isolated from the peritoneums of ITT sheep could kill newly excysted juvenile F. gigantica in vitro and act as a potential mechanism of resistance against F. gigantica infection. Peritoneal cells from F. gigantica-infected sheep, rich in macrophages and eosinophils, mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against juvenile F. gigantica in vitro. Cytotoxicity was dependent on contact between the parasite and effector cells. Isolated mammary gland eosinophils of F. gigantica-infected sheep, or resident peritoneal monocytes/macrophages from uninfected sheep, also killed the juvenile parasites in vitro. By using inhibitors, we show that the molecular mechanism of killing in these assays was dependent on the production of superoxide radicals by macrophages and eosinophils. In contrast, this cytotoxic mechanism was ineffective against juvenile F. hepatica parasites in vitro. Analysis of superoxide dismutase activity and mRNA levels showed that activity and gene expression were higher in F. hepatica than in F. gigantica, suggesting a possible role for this enzyme in the resistance of F. hepatica to superoxide-mediated killing. We suggest that ovine macrophages and eosinophils, acting in concert with a specific antibody, may be important effector cells involved in the resistance of ITT sheep to F. gigantica.

  5. Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus. (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Rupprecht, Sven; Dreiling, Michelle; Bergmeier, Christoph; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias


    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). However, cortisol alone cannot fully explain all effects of maternal stress especially during early to mid pregnancy before maturation of the fetal HPAA has even begun and expression of fetal glucocorticoid receptors is limited. This review focuses on mediators of maternal fetal stress transfer that in addition to cortisol have been proposed as transmitters of maternal stress: catecholamines, cytokines, serotonin/tryptophan, reactive-oxygen-species and the maternal microbiota. We propose that the effects of psychosocial maternal stress on fetal development and health and disease in later life are not a consequence of a single pathway but are mediated by multiple stress-transfer mechanisms acting together in a synergistic manner.

  6. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.


    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  7. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo


    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  8. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer (United States)

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes


    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  9. Impaired Haemophilus influenzae Type b Transplacental Antibody Transmission and Declining Antibody Avidity through the First Year of Life Represent Potential Vulnerabilities for HIV-Exposed but -Uninfected Infants


    Gaensbauer, James T.; Rakhola, Jeremy T.; Onyango-Makumbi, Carolyne; Mubiru, Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F; Asturias, Edwin J; Fowler, Mary Glenn; McFarland, Elizabeth; Janoff, Edward N.


    To determine whether immune function is impaired among HIV-exposed but -uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected mothers and to identify potential vulnerabilities to vaccine-preventable infection, we characterized the mother-to-infant placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b-specific IgG (Hib-IgG) and its levels and avidity after vaccination in Ugandan HEU infants and in HIV-unexposed U.S. infants. Hib-IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 57 Ugandan HIV-inf...

  10. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  11. Study of post-natal effect of chemopreventive agents on ethylnitrosourea-induced transplacental carcinogenesis in rats. III. Inhibitory action of indomethacin, voltaren, theophylline and epsilon-aminocaproic acid. (United States)

    Alexandrov, V A; Bespalov, V G; Petrov, A S; Troyan, D N; Lidaks MYu


    The influence of the arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitors, indomethacin and voltaren; an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity, theophylline and the protease inhibitor epsilonaminocaproic acid (EACA) on N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced transplacental carcinogenesis was studied in rats. ENU was given to pregnant rats as a single i.v. exposure at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight on the 21st day after conception. Indomethacin and voltaren (20 p.p.m. in drinking water), theophylline (0.01% in diet) and EACA (1000 p.p.m. in drinking water) were given to the offspring throughout their post-natal life until all survivors were killed at 12 months. In the ENU-only control groups, 100% of the offspring developed tumors of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system or kidneys, with a total average number of 3.1 tumors per rat. The most marked inhibitory effect was exerted by theophylline, which significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors, and at all main sites selectively (brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and kidneys). It also prolonged average survival time of the offspring. Indomethacin and voltaren significantly decreased total tumor incidence and multiplicity and brain tumor incidence and multiplicity. Indomethacin also decreased kidney tumor multiplicity and voltaren diminished spinal cord tumor multiplicity. EACA decreased multiplicities of total, brain, peripheral nerve and kidney tumors, and diminished the incidence of brain tumors. These chemopreventive agents decreased tumor incidences 20-33% and tumor multiplicities 1.4-2.7 times, compared with the ENU-only controls.

  12. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?" (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  13. Technology Transfer (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.


    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  14. Blastocyst Transfer




    ### Method: Blastocyst transfer is usually performed 24 hours after aggregation when the morulae have become expanded blastocysts and on the same day as injection. A little time is given between injection and transfer to allow blastocysts to re-expand. **The Recipient** Careful selection of the recipient is most important as the pups are the end result of a lot of hard work. Two strains of mice are used:RB Swiss and (CBA*C57BL6/J)f1. RB Swiss are quiet and make excellent mothers ...

  15. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P


    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  16. Sophisticated transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.


    On the eve of the Iraq war, fears were expressed in different circles that under the cover of war, Israel may attempt a transfer of Palestinians in the “seam line” area of the northern West Bank (Kalkilya, Tulkarem). Last week, the army produced a scene from this scenario. On April 2 at 3 AM, a larg

  17. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  18. Transplacental haemorrhage and maternal iso-immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Daxa


    Full Text Available Foetomaternal haemorrhage is one of the important factors influencing maternal iso-immunization. In the present report at-tempt is made to study various aspects of foetomaternal haemor-rhage. While the overall incidence of foetal cell leak was observed in 21.43%, the incidence in the complicated deliveries ranged from. 27.94 to 85.72%. Incidence was not influenced by parity, however ABO compatible deliveries showed slight increase in the incidence (22.56% as compared to ABO incompatible (18.75% deliveries. ABO incompatible foetal cells were eliminated within 24 hours after delivery. Incidence of foetal cell leak was 8.28% in medical termination of pregnancy. Anth-Rh was produced in two out of nine women having foetal cell leak.

  19. moisture transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kulasiri


    model drying porous materials. Coupled partial differential equations governing the moisture and heat transfer can be solved using numerical techniques, and in this paper we solve them analytically in a setting suitable for industrial drying situations. We discuss the nature of the solutions using the physical properties of Pinus radiata. It is shown that the temperature gradients play a significant role in deciding the moisture profiles within the material when thickness is large and that models based only on moisture potential gradients may not be sufficient to explain the drying phenomena in moist porous materials.

  20. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie


    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  1. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Marburg Virus Infection


    Nakayama, Eri; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Matsuno, Keita; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato


    Background. Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in primates. Earlier studies demonstrated that antibodies to particular epitopes on the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV enhanced virus infectivity in vitro.

  2. Technology transfer by multinationals



    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  3. High hair selenium mother to fetus transfer after the Brazil nuts consumption. (United States)

    Momčilović, B; Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Brundić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N


    Lactating mother and her two month old healthy daughter (APGAR 10) gave their scalp hair for a multielement profile analysis; 25 elements were analyzed with the ICP MS. Mother's hair was divided into 5cm long segment proximal to the scull (Young), and the distal segment further up to the hair tip (Old). One centimeter of hair records one month of the metabolic activity of the bioelements in the body. Mother's Young hair and daughters hair have 2.70 and 9.74μgg(-1)Se, a distinctly higher Se concentrations than the Old hair of 0.87μgg(-1). The adequate hair Se concentrations in Croatia women population vary from 0.08 to 0.63μgg(-1); values below or above that range indicate deficiency or excess, respectively. Dietary recall revealed that during the last trimester of pregnancy and over a period of a week, the mother has consumed 135g of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) (BN); BN is an exceptionally rich Se dietary source. The amount of Se in BN varies and one week consumption of 135g of BN may result in Se daily intake of 367 to 492μgg(-1)day(-1) over a period of seven consecutive days, and what is about or exceeds the Upper Limit of daily selenium intake of 400μg(-1)g(-1). The excessively high infant hair Se mirrored a natural high mother to fetus transplacental transfer of bio elements in the last trimester of pregnancy. The potential toxicological risks of such a high Se transfer remains to be elucidated.

  4. Obinutuzumab (GA101) compared to rituximab significantly enhances cell death and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and improves overall survival against CD20(+) rituximab-sensitive/-resistant Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B-ALL): potential targeted therapy in patients with poor risk CD20(+) BL and pre-B-ALL. (United States)

    Awasthi, Aradhana; Ayello, Janet; Van de Ven, Carmella; Elmacken, Mona; Sabulski, Anthony; Barth, Matthew J; Czuczman, Myron S; Islam, Humayun; Klein, Christian; Cairo, Mitchell S


    Obinutuzumab is a novel glycoengineered Type-II CD20 monoclonal antibody. CD20 is expressed in approximately 100% of children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 40% with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B-ALL). We evaluated the anti-tumour activity of obinutuzumab versus rituximab against rituximab-resistant (Raji 4RH) and -sensitive (Raji) BL and pre-B-ALL (U698-M) cells in vitro and in human BL or Pre-B-ALL xenografted mice. We demonstrated that obinutuzumab compared to rituximab significantly enhanced cell death against Raji 35·6 ± 3·1% vs. 25·1 ± 2·0%, (P = 0·001), Raji4RH 19·7 ± 2·2% vs. 7·9 ± 1·5% (P = 0·001) and U-698-M 47·3 ± 4·9% vs. 23·2 ± 0·5% (P = 0·001), respectively. Obinutuzumab versus rituximab also induced a significant increase in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with K562-IL15-41BBL expanded NK cells against Raji 73·8 ± 8·1% vs. 56·81 ± 4·6% (P = 0·001), Raji-4RH 40·0 ± 1·6% vs. 0·5 ± 1·1% (P = 0·001) and U-698-M 70·0 ± 1·6% vs. 45·5 ± 0·1% (P = 0·001), respectively. Overall survival in tumour xenografted mice receiving 30 mg/kg of obinutuzumab was significantly increased when compared to those receiving 30 mg/kg of rituximab in BL; Raji (P = 0·05), Raji4RH (P = 0·02) and U698-M (P = 0·03), respectively. These preclinical data suggest obinutuzumab is significantly superior to rituximab in inducing cell death, ADCC and against rituximab-sensitive/-resistant BL and pre-B-ALL xenografted mice. Taken together, these preclinical results provide evidence to suggest that future investigation of obinutuzumab is warranted in patients with relapsed/refractory CD20(+) BL and/or pre-B-ALL.

  5. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study. (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  6. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F


    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  7. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert


    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  8. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  9. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  10. Transfer of gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.


    An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific comp

  11. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D


    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  12. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang


    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  14. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I. J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.


    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  15. 76 FR 44761 - Remittance Transfers (United States)


    ... Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), as an example of money transfer instruments Federal credit unions (FCUs... receiving international and domestic electronic fund transfers'' after the words ``money orders'' from... checks, money orders, and other similar transfer instruments, including international and...

  16. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))


    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  17. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  18. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation


    Wachinger, C.; Toews, M.; Langs, G.; Wells, W.; Golland, P.


    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for th...

  19. Wireless power transfer system


    Arai, Hiroyuki


    This paper presents a survey of recent wireless power transfer systems. The issue of wireless power transfer is to achieve a highly efficient system with small positioning errors of the facilities setting. Several theories have been presented to obtain precise system design. This paper presents a summary of design theory for short range power transfer systems and detailed formulations based on a circuit model and an array of infinitesimal dipoles. In addition to these theories, this paper in...

  20. Strategic Transfer Pricing


    Michael Alles; Srikant Datar


    Most research into cost systems has focused on their motivational implications. This paper takes a different approach, by developing a model where two oligopolistic firms strategically select their cost-based transfer prices. Duopoly models frequently assume that firms game on their choice of prices. Product prices, however, are ultimately based on the firms' transfer prices that communicate manufacturing costs to marketing departments. It is for this reason that transfer prices will have a s...

  1. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H


    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  2. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)


    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  3. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.


    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  4. Technology transfer and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.


    Despite the fact that international technology transfer has been widely studied its management still encounters many difficulties. To fully understand the issues that are relevant to the process of transferring production technology, it is necessary to determine the important factors that influence

  5. Electron transfer in peptides. (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard


    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  6. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F


    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  7. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun


    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  8. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy


    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...... Danish and Vietnamese firms. The paper suggests that learning in IJVs, even in the context of one-way knowledge transfer from the foreign parent, should be managed in a mutual perspective and with thoughtful coordination of individual learning....

  9. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  10. Dexter energy transfer pathways. (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N


    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  11. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  12. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang


    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  13. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H


    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  14. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning (United States)


    class •!Classes: llama , deer, horse, giraffe, elephant, anteater •!Transferred knowledge: •!Location of keypoints (landmarks) •!Variability of...keypoints TL7 Raw Curves for deer- llama One class to another class Transfer No Transfer TL7 Raw Curves for pairs One class to another class Deer...Elephant Deer-Horse Deer-Giraffe Deer- Llama Giraffe-Deer Elephant-Deer Llama -Deer Horse-Deer TL7 Average Curve for deer- llama One class to another

  15. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center (United States)


    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  16. Condensation heat transfer (United States)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  17. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  18. Technology transfer for adaptation (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia


    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  19. Digitized Heat Transfer (United States)

    Mohseni, Kamran; Young, Patrick


    This presentation presents theoretical and numerical results describing digitized heat transfer (DHT), an active thermal management technique for high-power electronics and integrated micro systems. In digitized heat transfer discrete droplets are employed. The internal flow inside a discrete droplet is dominated by internal circulation imposed by the boundaries. This internal circulation imposes a new timescale for recirculating cold liquid from the middle of the droplet to the boundary. This internal circulation produces periodic oscillation in the overall convective heat transfer rate. Numerical simulations are presented for heat transfer in the droplet for both constant temperature and flux boundary conditions. The effectiveness of DHT for managing both localized temperature spikes and steady state cooling is demonstrated, identifying key parameters for optimization of the DHT method.

  20. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer (United States)


    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  1. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332


    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  2. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I


    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  3. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training. (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.


    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  4. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian


    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  5. Principles of tendon transfers. (United States)

    Coulet, B


    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively.

  6. Development of allogeneic NK cell adoptive transfer therapy in metastatic melanoma patients: in vitro preclinical optimization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal J Besser

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells have long been considered as potential agents for adoptive cell therapy for solid cancer patients. Until today most studies utilized autologous NK cells and yielded disappointing results. Here we analyze various modular strategies to employ allogeneic NK cells for adoptive cell transfer, including donor-recipient HLA-C mismatching, selective activation and induction of melanoma-recognizing lysis receptors, and co-administration of antibodies to elicit antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC. We show that NK cell activation and induction of the relevant lysis receptors, as well as co-administration of antibodies yield substantial anti-cancer effects, which are functionally superior to HLA-C mismatching. Combination of the various strategies yielded improved effects. In addition, we developed various clinically-compatible ex vivo expansion protocols that were optimized according to fold expansion, purity and expression of lysis receptors. The main advantages of employing allogeneic NK cells are accessibility, the ability to use a single donor for many patients, combination with various strategies associated with the mechanism of action, e.g. antibodies and specific activation, as well as donor selection according to HLA or CD16 genotypes. This study rationalizes a clinical trial that combines adoptive transfer of highly potent allogeneic NK cells and antibody therapy.

  7. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka


    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  8. Interlingual Transfer in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Interlingual transfer refers to transfer rules from the first language. There are many differences between English and Chinese, which will unavoidably interfere with the English learning. When the interference of mother tongue fosters target language learning, it is called mother tongue’s positive transfer. Conversely, the mother tongue’s negative transfer will emerge. With mother tongue mode of thinking automatically, Chinese students always make errors when they compose a sentence or write a passage. Interlingual transfer includes three aspects: lexical transfer, grammatical transfer and cultural transfer.

  9. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena


    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  10. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter


    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  11. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S


    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  12. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  13. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E


    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  14. Nuclear transfer in rodents. (United States)

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J


    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  15. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra


    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  16. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.


    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  17. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P


    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  18. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens


    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  19. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  20. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke


    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  1. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan


    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  2. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum


    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  3. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation. (United States)

    Wachinger, C; Toews, M; Langs, G; Wells, W; Golland, P


    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for the inference of keypoint labels and for image segmentation, where keypoint matches are treated as a latent random variable and are marginalized out as part of the algorithm. We report segmentation results for abdominal organs in whole-body CT and in contrast-enhanced CT images. The accuracy of our method compares favorably to common multi-atlas segmentation while offering a speed-up of about three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, keypoint transfer requires no training phase or registration to an atlas. The algorithm's robustness enables the segmentation of scans with highly variable field-of-view.

  4. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, National Nuclear Regulator, P O Box 7106, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)


    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  5. Transfer metrics analytics project

    CERN Document Server

    Matonis, Zygimantas


    This report represents work done towards predicting transfer rates/latencies on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites using Machine Learning techniques. Topic covered are technologies used for the project, data preparation for ML suitable format and attribute selection as well as a comparison of different ML algorithms.

  6. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...

  7. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  8. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.


    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  10. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  11. Modelling of human transplacental transport as performed in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mørck, Thit A.; Zuri, G.;


    Placenta perfusion models are very effective when studying the placental mechanisms in order to extrapolate to real-life situations. The models are most often used to investigate the transport of substances between mother and foetus, including the potential metabolism of these. We have studied...

  12. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens


    The present paper describes Danish research activities on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) with emphasis on experimental infections in pregnant swine. The first case of PRRS was diagnosed in Denmark in 1992 and subsequently the disease spread to most other parts of the country....... The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of American type...... PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field...

  13. Wireless power transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron


    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  14. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre


    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  15. Nickel transfer by fingers. (United States)

    Isnardo, D; Vidal, J; Panyella, D; Vilaplana, J


    We investigated fingers as a potential source of nickel transfer to the face in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and a history of facial dermatitis. Samples were collected from the fingers and cheeks of volunteers using the stripping method with standard adhesive tape, and nickel levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. Fingers and cheeks of individuals who had handled coins were both positive for nickel, with levels ranging from 14.67 to 58.64 ppm and 1.28 to 8.52 ppm, respectively. The levels in a control group were considerably and significantly lower. Transfer of nickel from a person's fingers to their face after handling a nickel-containing object could explain the presence of facial dermatitis in patients with nickel hypersensitivity.

  16. Technology Transfer and Commercialization (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin


    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  17. Invisible Transfer: An Unexpected Finding in the Pursuit of Transfer (United States)

    Schieber, Danica L.


    Much research shows that students do not transfer learning well from one class to the next. This study was designed to investigate if students were transferring rhetorical strategies from their disciplinary courses to advanced writing courses. The findings suggest that business majors not only transferred rhetorical knowledge from their other…

  18. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.


    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  19. The argument from transfer. (United States)

    Munthe, Christian


    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma.

  20. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail:


    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  1. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  2. Lack of protection following passive transfer of polyclonal highly functional low-dose non-neutralizing antibodies. (United States)

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Chan, Ying; Hoffner, Michelle; Licht, Anna; Nkolola, Joseph; Li, Hualin; Streeck, Hendrik; Suscovich, Todd J; Ghebremichael, Musie; Ackerman, Margaret E; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit


    Recent immune correlates analysis from the RV144 vaccine trial has renewed interest in the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in mediating protection from infection. While neutralizing antibodies have proven difficult to induce through vaccination, extra-neutralizing antibodies, such as those that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), are associated with long-term control of infection. However, while several non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been tested for their protective efficacy in vivo, no studies to date have tested the protective activity of naturally produced polyclonal antibodies from individuals harboring potent ADCC activity. Because ADCC-inducing antibodies are highly enriched in elite controllers (EC), we passively transferred highly functional non-neutralizing polyclonal antibodies, purified from an EC, to assess the potential impact of polyclonal non-neutralizing antibodies on a stringent SHIV-SF162P3 challenge in rhesus monkeys. Passive transfer of a low-dose of ADCC inducing antibodies did not protect from infection following SHIV-SF162P3 challenge. Passively administered antibody titers and gp120-specific, but not gp41-specific, ADCC and antibody induced phagocytosis (ADCP) were detected in the majority of the monkeys, but did not correlate with post infection viral control. Thus these data raise the possibility that gp120-specific ADCC activity alone may not be sufficient to control viremia post infection but that other specificities or Fc-effector profiles, alone or in combination, may have an impact on viral control and should be tested in future passive transfer experiments.

  3. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1996. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The Student Transfer Matrix provides data on the numbers of students transferring from Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to other Oklahoma institutions, using data from receiving institutions. Among the highlights are: the number of students who transferred to four-year and two-year institutions remained steady at 57.8…

  4. Teaching Mathematics Understandings for Transfer (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.


    Promoting student understanding for transfer is an illusive hallmark of effective mathematics instruction. While much research has shown the necessity of promoting understanding for transfer, less attention has been paid to actual pedagogical strategies that can be used to promote transfer of mathematical ideas. Using Fogarty et al. (1992, "How to…

  5. Teaching for Transfer in ELT (United States)

    James, Mark A.


    A basic goal of ELT is that students will apply outside the classroom what they have learned in the classroom. This goal is related to transfer of learning. Research on transfer of learning suggests that this phenomenon is not automatic and can be difficult to stimulate. However, instruction can be designed to try to promote transfer of learning.…

  6. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction. (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.


    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  7. 76 FR 73993 - Remittance Transfers (United States)


    ... resolution, and provides a detailed analysis of the services offered by remittance transfer providers. 99 FR... money transfer instruments in paragraph (a). The Board also amended paragraph (b) to remove the language... funds transfers was simply to remove redundant language and has no substantive effect. III. Final...

  8. The Role of Antibody Isotypes Against Fasciola Gigantica In Immune Response With An Emphasis On Antibody Dependent Cell Mediated Cytoxicity%抗巨片形吸虫同型抗体在动物巨片形吸虫感染所致的抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应( ADCC )免疫应答作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思礼; 陈强; 周雨丝; 李玲; 陈思义; 吴风娇; 陈思祗; 丁书茂; SPITHILL Terry


    The study was carried out in two breeds of sheep, Indonesia Thin Tail (ITT) and Merino, both infected with F. gigantica. Kinetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica specific antibody responses revealed that resistant ITT do not produce a parasite specific IgG2 response; whereas susceptible Merino sheep produce a high parasite specific IgG2 response. The IgG2 produced in Merino sheep might act as a blocking antibody for antibody dependant cell mediated cytotoxicity by macrophages. Whereas, ITT appeared to down regulate IgG2 response, which might enable these sheep to possess an enhanced capacity of killing F. gigantica. The purified IgG1 and IgG2 were used in in vitro killing assays. IgG1 promotes the highest amount of killing compared to immune sera and IgG2 using purified Merino sera antibodies for in vitro killing assays. F. gigantica cultured in increasing amount of IgG1 had a trend of increasing the death rate. Parasites cultured in 10 ug/ml of IgG1 showed the highest amount of death. F. gigantica cultured in eosinophils with immune ITT sera (Day35) was 55% death after 24 hours. It should be that using purified eosinophils with immune ITT serum resulted in a strong trend of killing occurring in those wells which contained a combination of immune sera complement, IL-5 and eosinophils.%以印尼短尾羊(ITT)和美利奴细毛羊( Merino )两种品系的绵羊为实验动物,研究动物感染巨片形吸虫后所产生的抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应的免疫应答.结果显示:对巨片形吸虫感染具有抗性的印尼短尾羊不产生特异性的IgG2, 而易感品系的美利奴细毛羊感染巨片形吸虫后体内产生高滴度特异性IgG2抗体.特异性IgG2抗体在免疫应答中起着封闭抗体的作用,抑制巨噬细胞抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应.由于印尼短尾羊不产生特异性IgG2抗体,对巨噬细胞抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应不产生抑制作用,因此印尼短尾羊对巨片形吸

  9. Transferring superfluid helium in space (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    A simple thermodynamic model of a transfer system for resupplying liquid helium in space is presented, with application to NASA projects including the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Large Deployable Reflector, and the Hubble Space Telescope. The relations between different thermodynamic regimes that can be expected in the transfer line are used to study the relative efficiencies of various possible transfer techniques. Low heat leak into the transfer line, particularly at point sources such as the coupling, is necesssary for efficient transfer of liquid helium, and proper selection of supply tank temperature is important during helium resupply.

  10. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S


    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  11. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  12. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja


    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  13. Dynamics of Lipid Transfer by Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Proteins in Cells


    Shadan, S.; Holic, R; Carvou, N.; Ee, P.; Li, M.; Murray-Rust, J.; Cockcroft, S


    Of many lipid transfer proteins identified, all have been implicated in essential cellular processes, but the activity of none has been demonstrated in intact cells. Among these, phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are of particular interest as they can bind to and transfer phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) - the precursor of important signalling molecules, phosphoinositides - and because they have essential functions in neuronal development (PITP alpha) and cytokinesis (PITP beta). Str...

  14. Technology transfer 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  15. Heat transfer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviany, Massoud


    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  16. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server


    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  17. Elements of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan


    1 Basic Concepts and Definitions1.1 Introduction1.1.1 Driving Potential1.2 Dimensions and Units1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity1.3 Closed and Open Systems1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)1.3.2 Isolated System1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)1.4 Forms of Energy1.4.1 Internal Energy1.5 Properties of a System1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties1.6 State and Equilibrium1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas 1.8 The Perfect Gas1.9 Summary1.10 Exercise ProblemsConduction Heat Transfer2.1 Introduction2.2 Conduction Heat Trans

  18. Knowledge Transfer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard


    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  19. Dual Space Technology Transfer (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.


    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  20. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Xi, N; Wang, Yougui; Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning


    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides explaining income and wealth distributions, money transfer models can also be applied to other disciplines. In this paper we summarize these areas as statistical distribution, economic mobility, transfer rate and money creation. First, money distribution (or income distribution) can be exhibited by recording the money stock (flow). Second, the economic mobility can be shown by tracing the change in wealth or income over time for each agent. Third, the transfer rate of money and its determinants can be analyzed by tracing t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvin, V.P.


    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  2. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements. (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  3. Molecular mechanisms involved in antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, Jacky; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.


    Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in humans with similar to 50 million cases annually worldwide. In recent decades, a steady increase in the number of severe dengue cases has been seen. Severe dengue disease is most often observed in individuals that have pre-existing immunit

  4. Importance of (antibody-dependent) complement-mediated serum killing in protection against Bordetella pertussis. (United States)

    Geurtsen, Jeroen; Fae, Kellen C; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M


    Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite being vaccine preventable, pertussis rates have been rising steadily over the last decades, even in areas with high vaccine uptake. Recently, experiments with infant baboons indicated that although vaccination with acellular pertussis vaccines prevented disease, no apparent effect was observed on infection and transmission. One explanation may be that current acellular pertussis vaccines do not induce high levels of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal activity, implying that engineering of vaccines that promote bacterial killing may improve efficacy. Here, we discuss the importance of complement-mediated killing in vaccine-induced protection against B. pertussis. We first examine how B. pertussis may have evolved different complement evasion strategies. Second, we explore the benefits of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal killing in vaccine-induced protection and discuss whether or not inclusion of new opsonophagocytic or bactericidal target antigens in pertussis vaccines may benefit efficacy.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of dengue virus infection : cell tropism, antibody-dependent enhancement, and cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, Jacobus


    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. Although most infections occur in the (sub)tropical areas, recent outbreaks in Italy and Madeira indicate that the virus is spreading into Europe. Despite its relevance, no vaccine or medications are available against this virus. T

  6. Clinical Cancer Therapy by NK Cells via Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kory L. Alderson


    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are powerful effector cells that can be directed to eliminate tumor cells through tumor-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Some tumor-targeted mAbs have been successfully applied in the clinic and are included in the standard of care for certain malignancies. Strategies to augment the antitumor response by NK cells have led to an increased understanding of how to improve their effector responses. Next-generation reagents, such as molecularly modified mAbs and mAb-cytokine fusion proteins (immunocytokines, ICs designed to augment NK-mediated killing, are showing promise in preclinical and some clinical settings. Continued research into the antitumor effects induced by NK cells and tumor-targeted mAbs suggests that additional intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence the antitumor response. Therefore more research is needed that focuses on evaluating which NK cell and tumor criteria are best predictive of a clinical response and which combination immunotherapy regimens to pursue for distinct clinical settings.

  7. Assessment of the neutrophilic antibody-dependent respiratory burst (ADRB) response to Plasmodium falciparum. (United States)

    Kapelski, Stephanie; Klockenbring, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Barth, Stefan; Fendel, Rolf


    Semi-immunity against Pf malaria is based on a combination of cellular and humoral immune responses. PMNs and IgGs are considered important components of this process, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the neutrophilic ADRB by analyzing the production of ROS in response to Pf antigen-specific IgGs bound to solid-phase immobilized antigens (sADRB) or whole merozoites (mADRB). We found that the PMN stimulations in each assay were based on different underlying mechanisms, demonstrating the importance of the assay set-up for the evaluation of antibody-triggered PMN responses. In the sADRB assay, ROS were produced externally, and by specific blocking of CD32(a)/FcγRII(a), the immediate neutrophilic response was abolished, whereas the removal of CD16(b)/FcγRIII(b) had no substantial effect. The key role of CD32(a) was confirmed using CD16(b)-deficient PMNs, in which similar changes of neutrophilic ADRB profiles were recorded after treatment. In the mADRB assay, ROS were produced almost exclusively within the cell, suggesting that the underlying mechanism was phagocytosis. This was confirmed using an additional phagocytosis assay, in which PMNs specifically ingested merozoites opsonized with Ghanaian plasma IgGs, seven times more often than merozoites opsonized with European plasma IgGs (P<0.001). Our data show that assay set-ups used to evaluate the responses of PMNs and perhaps other effector cells must be chosen carefully to evaluate the appropriate cellular responses. Our robust, stable, and well-characterized methods could therefore be useful in malaria vaccine studies to analyze the antimalarial effector function of antibodies.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibits HLA Class I Antibody-Dependent Endothelial Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zilian

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a key limiting factor for long-term graft survival in solid organ transplantation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I (HLA I antibodies (Abs play a major role in the pathogenesis of AMR via their interactions with HLA molecules on vascular endothelial cells (ECs. The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO-1 has anti-inflammatory functions in the endothelium. As complement-independent effects of HLA I Abs can activate ECs, it was the goal of the current study to investigate the role of HO-1 on activation of human ECs by HLA I Abs. In cell cultures of various primary human macro- and microvascular ECs treatment with monoclonal pan- and allele-specific HLA I Abs up-regulated the expression of inducible proinflammatory adhesion molecules and chemokines (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 with cobalt-protoporphyrin IX reduced, whereas inhibition of HO-1 with either zinc-protoporphyrin IX or siRNA-mediated knockdown increased HLA I Ab-dependent up-regulation of VCAM-1. Treatment with two carbon monoxide (CO-releasing molecules, which liberate the gaseous HO product CO, blocked HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation. Finally, in an in vitro adhesion assay exposure of ECs to HLA I Abs led to increased monocyte binding, which was counteracted by up-regulation of HO-1. In conclusion, HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation is modulated by endothelial HO-1 and targeted induction of this enzyme may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AMR in solid organ transplantation.

  9. High-Throughput Testing of Antibody-Dependent Binding Inhibition of Placental Malaria Parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Salanti, Ali


    The particular virulence of Plasmodium falciparum manifests in diverse severe malaria syndromes as cerebral malaria, severe anemia and placental malaria. The cause of both the severity and the diversity of infection outcome, is the ability of the infected erythrocyte (IE) to bind a range......-throughput assay used in the preclinical and clinical development of a VAR2CSA based vaccine against placental malaria....

  10. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath


    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  11. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.


    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  12. Geothermal Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V.V.


    This patent describes a heat transfer apparatus which consists of: heat exchanging means for orientation in the earth below ground substantially vertically, having a hollow conduit of length from top to bottom much greater than the span across the hollow conduit orthogonal to its length with a top, bottom and an intermediate portion contiguous and communicating with the top and bottom portions for allowing thermally conductive fluid to flow freely between the top, intermediate and bottom portions for immersion in thermally conductive fluid in the region around the heat exchanging means for increasing the heat flow between the latter and earth when inserted into a substantially vertical borehole in the earth with the top portion above the bottom portion. The heat exchanger consists of heat exchanging conduit means in the intermediate portion for carrying refrigerant. The heat exchanging conduit consisting of tubes of thermally conductive material for carrying the refrigerant and extending along the length of the hollow conduit for a tube length that is less than the length of the hollow conduit. The hollow conduit is formed with port means between the top and the plurality of tubes for allowing the thermally conductive fluid to pass in a flow path embracing the tubes, the bottom portion, an outer channel around the hollow conduit and the port means.

  13. Connectors: The Way beyond Transferring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.


    In the Netherlands, travellers transfer from one mode of transport to another millions of times a day. In all, billions of minutes are lost during these transfers. Most of this time is taken in actually moving from one mode of transport to another, waiting time at a stop or station, and time lost wh

  14. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner


    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  15. Transfers, Contracts and Strategic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.; Borm, P.E.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.


    This paper analyses the role of transfer payments and strategic con- tracting within two-person strategic form games with monetary pay- offs. First, it introduces the notion of transfer equilibrium as a strat- egy combination for which individual stability can be supported by allowing the possibilit


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  17. Technology Transfer: A Policy Model (United States)


    34 Caveman Club-Without Nail." More serious scholars indicate that understand- ing how to start and maintain fires was the first tech- nology transfer of...others. From caveman clubs to hyper- velocity missiles, technology transfer has played a significant military role; it also has assisted imperialis- tic

  18. Language Transfer and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1.Introduction In English language teaching,language transfer has been a controversial topic and more linguistic researchers have a better and more comprehensive understanding of it.Transfer means the influence resulting from the similarities and differences between the English language and mother tongue which has been previously acquired.

  19. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification (United States)


    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  20. Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Tanenbaum, Sandra


    Purpose: This study examines whether the relationship between making familial wealth transfers and becoming a Medicaid recipient sheds light on the current debate about Medicaid estate planning, whereby some elders transfer their assets to their families to qualify for Medicaid. Design and Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, we tracked…

  1. Honeywell technical order transfer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report covers testing being conductd by the Air Force Logistics Command on the Military Standard for the Automated Interchange of Technical Information (AITI). The objective is to demonstrate the validity of the transfer protocol defined in the standard and the viability of standarized formats for the transfer of technical information defined in other specifications used by the standard. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.

  3. Intermanual transfer in prosthetic training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske


    The concept of intermanual transfer might be used to start prosthesis training faster after the amputation. Intermanual transfer means that after training motor skills on one side, the other side will also improve. For prosthesis training this means that, directly after the amputation, one starts to

  4. Transfer mellem uddannelse og arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Rapporten sammenfatter eksisterende forskning om faktorer, der bidrager til transfer, altså faktorer som bidrager til, at det, vi lærer i undervisningen, efterfølgende anvendes i en arbejdssituation. Forskningsoversigten præsenterer emririsk funderede resultater om, hvad vi ved om transfer. Den t...

  5. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012


    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  6. Flavin Charge Transfer Transitions Assist DNA Photolyase Electron Transfer



    This contribution describes molecular dynamics, semi-empirical and ab-initio studies of the primary photo-induced electron transfer reaction in DNA photolyase. DNA photolyases are FADH−-containing proteins that repair UV-damaged DNA by photo-induced electron transfer. A DNA photolyase recognizes and binds to cyclobutatne pyrimidine dimer lesions of DNA. The protein repairs a bound lesion by transferring an electron to the lesion from FADH−, upon photo-excitation of FADH− with 350–450 nm light...

  7. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bougouffa, Smail


    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four qubit system and we demonstrate under which conditions the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of a nonzero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. The complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes only with the transfer to the other pairs being limited to up to 50%. We have found that the complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of...

  8. Advances in industrial heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Minea, Alina Adriana


    Advances in Industrial Heat Transfer presents the basic principles of industrial heat transfer enhancement. Serving as a reference and guide for future research, this book presents a complete approach, from redesigning equipment to the use of nanofluids in industry. Based on the latest methods of the experiment and their interpretation, this book presents a unified conception of the industrial heat transfer process and procedures which will help decrease global energy consumption. Containing both theoretical and practical results, the book uses text, pictures, graphs, and definitions to illust

  9. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V


    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  10. Heat-transfer thermal switch (United States)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.


    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  11. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin


    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  12. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, M.D.; Szollosi, G.; Daubin, V.; Tannier, E.


    Background. Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer,

  13. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum


    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  14. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation (United States)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm


    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  15. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence (United States)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre


    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  16. A Primer on Transfer of Training. (United States)

    Kelly, Helen Bryman


    Unless education transfers back to the job, training is wasted and its value questioned. This article examines resistance to transfer and provides strategies for building transfer into training design. (CT)

  17. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  18. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina


    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  19. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.


    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  20. Migration, transfers and child labor


    Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S; Gang, Ira N.


    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  1. Why Have They Not Transferred? (United States)

    Roberts, Hilda

    In 1986, a study was conducted at Rancho Santiago College (RSC) to determine the reasons that students whose educational goal was to transfer to a four-year college did not complete their objective. In fall 1983, 6,030 of the students enrolled at RSC indicated on their application for admission that they planned to transfer to a four-year college.…

  2. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  3. Automatic computation of transfer functions (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale


    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  4. The transfer of second language acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu Lu


    Language transfer is a very important phenomenon in second language acquisition(SLA), which many linguists and psychologists would like to research. People who learn second language must be familiar with the rules of their mother tongue, so they often transfer those rules into the second language unconsciously, and then transfers appear. Language transfer divided into positive and negative transfer. The article use Odlin' s definition of language transfer in SLA.

  5. Debugging Data Transfers in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, G; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernandez, J; D'Hondt, J; Kadastik, M; Klem, J; Kodolova, O; Kuo, C M; Letts, J; Maes, J; Magini, N; Metson, S; Piedra, J; Pukhaeva, N; Tuura, L; Sonajalg, S; Wu, Y; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wurthwein, F


    The CMS experiment at CERN is preparing for LHC data taking in several computing preparation activities. In early 2007 a traffic load generator infrastructure for distributed data transfer tests called the LoadTest was designed and deployed to equip the WLCG sites that support CMS with a means for debugging, load-testing and commissioning data transfer routes among CMS computing centres. The LoadTest is based upon PhEDEx as a reliable, scalable data set replication system. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) task force was created to coordinate the debugging of the data transfer links. The task force aimed to commission most crucial transfer routes among CMS sites by designing and enforcing a clear procedure to debug problematic links. Such procedure aimed to move a link from a debugging phase in a separate and independent environment to a production environment when a set of agreed conditions are achieved for that link. The goal was to deliver one by one working transfer routes to the CMS data operations team...

  6. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer. (United States)

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan


    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  7. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project will demonstrate the capability to safely and efficiently store, transfer and measure cryogenic propellants,...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani


    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  9. Nanofluid impingement jet heat transfer. (United States)

    Zeitoun, Obida; Ali, Mohamed


    Experimental investigation to study the heat transfer between a vertical round alumina-water nanofluid jet and a horizontal circular round surface is carried out. Different jet flow rates, jet nozzle diameters, various circular disk diameters and three nanoparticles concentrations (0, 6.6 and 10%, respectively) are used. The experimental results indicate that using nanofluid as a heat transfer carrier can enhance the heat transfer process. For the same Reynolds number, the experimental data show an increase in the Nusselt numbers as the nanoparticle concentration increases. Size of heating disk diameters shows reverse effect on heat transfer. It is also found that presenting the data in terms of Reynolds number at impingement jet diameter can take into account on both effects of jet heights and nozzle diameter. Presenting the data in terms of Peclet numbers, at fixed impingement nozzle diameter, makes the data less sensitive to the percentage change of the nanoparticle concentrations. Finally, general heat transfer correlation is obtained verses Peclet numbers using nanoparticle concentrations and the nozzle diameter ratio as parameters.

  10. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I


    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  11. Transfers, money and the balance of payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Marrewijk, Charles van


    The literature on international transfers largely ignores the fact that transfers are often given in the form of money. We analyze both the welfare consequences of financial transfers for the donor and the recipient, and their impact on the current account. Under normal circumstances transfer parado

  12. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.


    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  13. Transfer in Second Language Learning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Transfer is the carryover of the previous linguistic knowledge to the subsequent target language learning. Positive transfer facilitates while negative one impedes the acquisition of a second language. Therefore teachers and learners can enhance their efficiency by taking advantage of positive transfer and minimizing negative transfer or interference of their native languages.

  14. 75 FR 57252 - Designated Transfer Date (United States)


    ... PROTECTION Designated Transfer Date AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... designates July 21, 2011, as the date for the transfer of functions to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (``CFPB''). On this ``designated transfer date,'' certain authorities will transfer from...

  15. 26 CFR 1.679-3 - Transfers. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers. 1.679-3 Section 1.679-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... recognition of gain on the transfer, see section 684. Example 3. Transfer not treated as transfer to trust....

  16. Energy Transfer in molecular devices

    CERN Document Server

    Caraglio, M


    Protein machines often exhibit long range interplay between different sites in order to achieve their biological tasks. We investigate and characterize the non--linear energy localization and the basic mechanisms of energy transfer in protein devices. By studying two different model protein machines, with different biological functions, we show that genuinely non--linear phenomena are responsible for energy transport between the different machine sites involved in the biological functions. The energy transfer turns out to be extremely efficient from an energetic point of view: by changing the energy initially provided to the model device, we identify a well defined range of energies where the time for the energy transport to occur is minimal and the amount of transferred energy is maximum. Furthermore, by introducing an implicit solvent, we show that the energy is localized on the internal residues of the protein structure, thus minimizing the dissipation.

  17. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter


    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  18. Optimal Current Transfer in Dendrites (United States)

    Bird, Alex D.


    Integration of synaptic currents across an extensive dendritic tree is a prerequisite for computation in the brain. Dendritic tapering away from the soma has been suggested to both equalise contributions from synapses at different locations and maximise the current transfer to the soma. To find out how this is achieved precisely, an analytical solution for the current transfer in dendrites with arbitrary taper is required. We derive here an asymptotic approximation that accurately matches results from numerical simulations. From this we then determine the diameter profile that maximises the current transfer to the soma. We find a simple quadratic form that matches diameters obtained experimentally, indicating a fundamental architectural principle of the brain that links dendritic diameters to signal transmission. PMID:27145441

  19. Some Metapsychological Considerations about Transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guillermo Castellanos-Urrego**


    Full Text Available This paper shows a metapsychological re-creation of transference from a conceptualization of representations as the units of psychism. Transferences have their origins in the effort of an unsatisfied libidinal investiture that continues to be active in the Unconscious, and which allows the primary process to inadvertently filter into the secondary process through a “false link”. Therefore, a current perception becomes identified with the expectative representation, which makes the individual believe that this new person will satisfy the aforementioned investiture. Transference neurosis is a psychoanalytic pillar, since only through it may one consciously and currently have access the repressed unconscious drives, a feature of childhood sexuality, and restart the psychosexual development.

  20. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  1. Evidence that platelet-derived microvesicles may transfer platelet-specific immunoreactive antigens to the surface of endothelial cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells--implication for the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Z Ratajczak


    Full Text Available The pathogenesis and tissue damage that accompanies destruction of platelets in immune thrombocytopenias (IT is still not understood very well and in addition to platelets, other cells (e.g. endothelial cells, CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitors may also become affected. Based on our previous work that platelet antigens (e.g., CD41 may be transferred by platelet-derived microvesicles (PMV to the surface of other cells, we asked if platelet derived-antigens, especially those that are involved in the formation of anti-platelet antibodies in IT (e.g., against antigen HPA 1 a could be also transferred by similar mechanism. To address this issue normal human CD34+ cells, human umbilical vein-endothelial cells (HUVEC and monocytic cell line THP-1 were incubated with PMV derived from HPA1a+ donors. We noticed that the HPA1a antigen is highly expressed on PMV-derived from the HPAla positive platelets and is transferred in PMV-dependent manner to the surface of CD34+ cells, HUVEC and monocytic THP-1 cells. These cells covered with HPA1a positive PMV but not by PMV derived from HPAla negative platelets reacted with anti-HPA1a antibodies derived from the alloimmunized pregnant women. More importantly, human hematopoietic cells that were preincubated with HPA1a+ PMV and subsequently exposed to anti-HPA 1 a serum and human NK cells, become subject to elimination by antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity ADCC. Thus, we postulate that PMV-dependent transfer of antigens may playing an important role in "expanding" the population of target cells that may be affected by anti-platelet antibodies and explain several pathologies that accompany IT (e.g. damage of endothelium, cytopenias.

  2. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency. (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong


    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern.

  3. Transference and Counter-Transference in Treating Incarcerated Sex Offenders. (United States)

    Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.


    Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference…

  4. Dynamics of lipid transfer by phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins in cells. (United States)

    Shadan, Sadaf; Holic, Roman; Carvou, Nicolas; Ee, Patrick; Li, Michelle; Murray-Rust, Judith; Cockcroft, Shamshad


    Of many lipid transfer proteins identified, all have been implicated in essential cellular processes, but the activity of none has been demonstrated in intact cells. Among these, phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are of particular interest as they can bind to and transfer phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)--the precursor of important signalling molecules, phosphoinositides--and because they have essential functions in neuronal development (PITPalpha) and cytokinesis (PITPbeta). Structural analysis indicates that, in the cytosol, PITPs are in a 'closed' conformation completely shielding the lipid within them. But during lipid exchange at the membrane, they must transiently 'open'. To study PITP dynamics in intact cells, we chemically targeted their C95 residue that, although non-essential for lipid transfer, is buried within the phospholipid-binding cavity, and so, its chemical modification prevents PtdIns binding because of steric hindrance. This treatment resulted in entrapment of open conformation PITPs at the membrane and inactivation of the cytosolic pool of PITPs within few minutes. PITP isoforms were differentially inactivated with the dynamics of PITPbeta faster than PITPalpha. We identify two tryptophan residues essential for membrane docking of PITPs.

  5. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen


    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  6. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz


    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  7. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda


    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  8. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S


    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  9. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic


    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  10. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner


    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  11. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S


    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  12. A structured data transfer protocol (United States)

    Barrett, P.; Rots, A.


    The transfer of data between different computers and programs can be a major obstacle during data analysis. We present a new data transfer protocol which is based on a simple structure containing a value, an error, and a unit. Each of these members can be arrays or another structure. The ability to nest structures allows for the concept of objects. When using an object-oriented language such as C++, reference can be made to the object name instead of each element explicitly. Prototype code has been written which implements the basic design with enhancements planned for the future.

  13. Flavin Charge Transfer Transitions Assist DNA Photolyase Electron Transfer (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Prytkova, Tatiana; Beratan, David N.


    This contribution describes molecular dynamics, semi-empirical and ab-initio studies of the primary photo-induced electron transfer reaction in DNA photolyase. DNA photolyases are FADH−-containing proteins that repair UV-damaged DNA by photo-induced electron transfer. A DNA photolyase recognizes and binds to cyclobutatne pyrimidine dimer lesions of DNA. The protein repairs a bound lesion by transferring an electron to the lesion from FADH−, upon photo-excitation of FADH− with 350–450 nm light. We compute the lowest singlet excited states of FADH− in DNA photolyase using INDO/S configuration interaction, time-dependent density-functional, and time-dependent Hartree-Fock methods. The calculations identify the lowest singlet excited state of FADH− that is populated after photo-excitation and that acts as the electron donor. For this donor state we compute conformationally-averaged tunneling matrix elements to empty electron- acceptor states of a thymine dimer bound to photolyase. The conformational averaging involves different FADH− - thymine dimer confromations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated protein with a thymine dimer docked in its active site. The tunneling matrix element computations use INDO/S-level Green’s function, energy splitting, and Generalized Mulliken-Hush methods. These calculations indicate that photo-excitation of FADH− causes a π → π* charge-transfer transition that shifts electron density to the side of the flavin isoalloxazine ring that is adjacent to the docked thymine dimer. This shift in electron density enhances the FADH− - to - dimer electronic coupling, thus inducing rapid electron transfer. PMID:23226907

  14. Flavin Charge Transfer Transitions Assist DNA Photolyase Electron Transfer (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Prytkova, Tatiana; Beratan, David N.


    This contribution describes molecular dynamics, semi-empirical and ab-initio studies of the primary photo-induced electron transfer reaction in DNA photolyase. DNA photolyases are FADH--containing proteins that repair UV-damaged DNA by photo-induced electron transfer. A DNA photolyase recognizes and binds to cyclobutatne pyrimidine dimer lesions of DNA. The protein repairs a bound lesion by transferring an electron to the lesion from FADH-, upon photo-excitation of FADH- with 350-450 nm light. We compute the lowest singlet excited states of FADH- in DNA photolyase using INDO/S configuration interaction, time-dependent density-functional, and time-dependent Hartree-Fock methods. The calculations identify the lowest singlet excited state of FADH- that is populated after photo-excitation and that acts as the electron donor. For this donor state we compute conformationally-averaged tunneling matrix elements to empty electron-acceptor states of a thymine dimer bound to photolyase. The conformational averaging involves different FADH--thymine dimer confromations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated protein with a thymine dimer docked in its active site. The tunneling matrix element computations use INDO/S-level Green's function, energy splitting, and Generalized Mulliken-Hush methods. These calculations indicate that photo-excitation of FADH- causes a π→π* charge-transfer transition that shifts electron density to the side of the flavin isoalloxazine ring that is adjacent to the docked thymine dimer. This shift in electron density enhances the FADH--to-dimer electronic coupling, thus inducing rapid electron transfer.

  15. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan


    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  16. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?" (United States)

    Miller, Judith


    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  17. The economics of international transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractInternational transfers have attracted the attention of economists ever since the famous debate between Keynes and Ohlin on German reparation payments after World War I. Today the subject is of even greater importance with billions of dollars flowing between nations as unilateral transfe

  18. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1992. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Comprised primarily of data matrices, this report provides information on students transferring from Oklahoma public and private post-secondary institutions to other public and private post-secondary institutions in the state in fall 1992. The report consists of nine sections. Section I provides an aggregate flow of all students in the state,…

  19. Efficient transfer of francium atoms (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexander; Pearson, Matt; Tandecki, Michael; Collister, Robert; Gwinner, Gerald; Shiells, Kyle; Gomez, Eduardo; Orozco, Luis; Zhang, Jiehang; Zhao, Yanting; FrPNC Collaboration


    We report on the progress of the FrPNC collaboration towards Parity Non Conservation Measurements (PNC) using francium atoms at the TRIUMF accelerator. We demonstrate efficient transfer (higher than 40%) to the science vacuum chamber where the PNC measurements will be performed. The transfer uses a downward resonant push beam from the high-efficiency capture magneto optical trap (MOT) towards the science chamber where the atoms are recaptured in a second MOT. The transfer is very robust with respect to variations in the parameters (laser power, detuning, alignment, etc.). We accumulate a growing number of atoms at each transfer pulse (limited by the lifetime of the MOT) since the push beam does not eliminate the atoms already trapped in the science MOT. The number of atoms in the science MOT is on track to meet the requirements for competitive PNC measurements when high francium rates (previously demonstrated) are delivered to our apparatus. The catcher/neutralizer for the ion beam has been tested reliably to 100,000 heating/motion cycles. We present initial tests on the direct microwave excitation of the ground hyperfine transition at 45 GHz. Support from NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and Fulbright from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  20. Transfer of Rights and Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Wolf-Georg


    This chapter compares the law on transfer of rights (i.e., assignment) in the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), English law, and German law. It first considers cases in which the three systems produce similar results before concentrating on situations in which the results and the interactions...

  1. Energy transfer with semiconductor nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogach, A.L.; Klar, T.A.; Lupton, J.M.; Meijerink, A.; Feldmann, J.


    Fo¨ rster (or fluorescence) resonant energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful spectroscopic technique to study interactions, conformational and distance changes, in hybrid nanosystems. Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as colloidal quantum dots, are highly efficient fluorophores with a strong band-

  2. Heat transfer and thermal control (United States)

    Crosbie, A. L.

    Radiation heat transfer is considered along with conduction heat transfer, heat pipes, and thermal control. Attention is given to the radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment, bidirectional reflectance measurements of specular and diffuse surfaces with a simple spectrometer, the radiative equilibrium in a general plane-parallel environment, and the application of finite-element techniques to the interaction of conduction and radiation in participating medium, a finite-element approach to combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in a planar medium. Heat transfer in irradiated shallow layers of water, an analytical and experimental investigation of temperature distribution in laser heated gases, numerical methods for the analysis of laser annealing of doped semiconductor wafers, and approximate solutions of transient heat conduction in a finite slab are also examined. Consideration is also given to performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe, heat pipe performance with gravity assist and liquid overfill, vapor chambers for an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a prototype heat pipe radiator for the German Direct Broadcasting TV Satellite, free convection in enclosures exposed to compressive heating, and a thermal analysis of a multipurpose furnace for material processing in space.

  3. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M


    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  4. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer. (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.


    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  5. Mass Transfer Method and Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    .g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon $m(3)) membranes, in the form of hollow fibres having gas-containing pores and contacting the second fluid with the inner surface of the membranes. Useful membranes are characterized in that they e.g. have a porosity ($g(e)) of at least 0.50, a mass transfer coefficient of e...

  6. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa


    , and that the curvilinearity is greater for greenfield entries relative to acquisition entries. The U-shaped relationship between subsidiary innovativeness and reverse knowledge transfers, as well as the sensitivity of this result to entry mode are important new findings in the literature on the role of subsidiaries...

  7. Change of heat transfer- and mass transfer-coefficients with simultaneous heat- and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, W.


    The values of sensible and latent heat and of the resulting energy flow through laminar boundary layer have been developed for the four possible combinations of the directions of heat- and mass flows. When the values of heat- and mass flows are used with the correct sign according to the definitions of Fourier's law and Fick's law, the changes of heat transfer- and mass transfer coefficients can be described by one equation alone for all cases. The equations extended in that way are valid for arbitrary cases of countercurrent diffusing mass flows - not only for the well known case of Stefan diffusion.

  8. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang


    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  9. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove;


    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introducti...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context.......A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introduction...... of a sending and a receiving unit leads to identification of the notion of respectively a dispatching and an absorptive capacity. Whereas the latter has been treated in the literature, the former represents a neglected area. Based on two case studies of relocation processes the paper identifies and discusses...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani


    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  11. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.


    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  12. Stabbing simulations and DNA transfer. (United States)

    Samie, Lydie; Hicks, Tacha; Castella, Vincent; Taroni, Franco


    Technical developments have made it possible to analyze very low amounts of DNA. This has many advantages, but the drawback of this technological progress is that interpretation of the results becomes increasingly complex: the number of mixed DNA profiles increased relatively to single source DNA profiles and stochastic effects in the DNA profile, such as drop-in and drop-out, are more frequently observed. Moreover, the relevance of low template DNA material regarding the activities alleged is not as straightforward as it was a few years ago, when for example large quantities of blood were recovered. The possibility of secondary and tertiary transfer is now becoming an issue. The purpose of this research is twofold: first, to study the transfer of DNA from the handler and secondly, to observe if handlers would transfer DNA from persons closely connected to them. We chose to mimic cases where the offender would attack a person with a knife. As a first approach, we envisaged that the defense would not give an alternative explanation for the origin of the DNA. In our transfer experiments (4 donors, 16 experiments each, 64 traces), 3% of the traces were single DNA profiles. Most of the time, the DNA profile of the person handling the knife was present as the major profile: in 83% of the traces the major contributor profile corresponded to the stabber's DNA profile (in single stains and mixtures). Mixture with no clear major/minor fraction (12%) were observed. 5% of the traces were considered of insufficient quality (more than 3 contributors, presence of a few minor peaks). In that case, we considered that the stabber's DNA was absent. In our experiments, no traces allowed excluding the stabber, however it must be noted that precautions were taken to minimize background DNA as knives were cleaned before the experiments. DNA profiles of the stabber's colleagues were not observed. We hope that this study will allow for a better understanding of the transfer mechanism and

  13. Transient Heat Transfer in Cylinpers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Chopra


    Full Text Available A numerical solution has been obtained for transient heat transfer in cylinders by appropriate choice of body ,conforming grid points. The physical domain is transformed to computational domain using elliptic partial differential equation technique, wherein the grid spacing becomes uniform. The advantage of this method is that the discretisation of transformed equations. and accompanying boundary conditipns becdme very simple. The applicability of this method is very broad, as it can beused for carryinI giout study of any comple'x domain in contrast to finite difference methods, which have limited applicability. Detailedcalculations have been carried out to trace the evolution of temperaturedistribution frpm the initiial stages to the steadystate for circular cylinder, elliptical cylinder and square block with circular hole. This paper is aimed for general-shaped bodies and it has been applied to studytransient heat transfer in combustion-driven shock tube.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri


    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  15. Transference: historico-philosophical note. (United States)

    Pivnicki, D


    Transference as a term in philosophy has been used by Kant and Fichte from the end of the 18th century. By the end of the next one it became widely used. Freud's first "definition" of the term transference (1895) is, as far as daily use of it is concerned, the most precise one and in closet symphony with the early ones in philosophy. The later formulations of his, are dim and vague. But even in this respect they follow the path this metaphore has already passed in the works of Dilthey: from a specific descriptive notion to an all-encircling concept. These uncertainties of meaning, depleated its practical value. Further studies might be of, both, theoretical and practical importance, only if discipline will be applied in defining and testing its definitions. To proceeed further in scholastic disputations is senseless.

  16. System for Multicast File Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Custura


    Full Text Available The distribution of big files over the network from a single source to a large number of recipients is not efficient by using standard client-server or even peer-to peer file transfer protocols.  Thus, the transfer of a hierarchy of big files to multiple destinations can be optimized in terms of bandwidth usage and data storage reads by using multicast networking. In order to achieve that, a simple application layer protocol can be imagined. It uses multicast UDP as transport and it provides a mechanism for data ordering and retransmission. Some security problems are also considered in this protocol, because at this time the Internet standards supporting multicast security are still in the development stage.

  17. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids (United States)

    Choi, Stephen U. S.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.


    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  18. NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between the NIH research laboratories and external partners. With specialized teams, TTC guides the interactions of our partners from the point of discovery to patenting, from invention development to licensing. We play a key role in helping to accelerate development of cutting-edge research by connecting our partners to NIH’s world-class researchers, facilities, and knowledge.

  19. Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Arylpyrazolines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-Liang; LIU Ju-Zheng; XU Chun-Xiang


    @@ Arylpyrazoline microparticles dispersed in water are synthesized and their absorption spectra are compared with those in solution. It is found that the absorbance of pyrazoline group in solution of 5-aryl arylpyrazoline is far greater than that in solution of arylpyrazolines with no 5-aryl group. This hyperchromic effect is intensified in 5-aryl arylpyrazoline microparticles. It is indicated that intramolecular charge transfer exists between pyrazoline group and 5-aryl group and this kind of interaction is increased in their microparticles.

  20. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc. (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng


    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.

  1. Glia to axon RNA transfer. (United States)

    Sotelo, José Roberto; Canclini, Lucía; Kun, Alejandra; Sotelo-Silveira, José Roberto; Calliari, Aldo; Cal, Karina; Bresque, Mariana; Dipaolo, Andrés; Farias, Joaquina; Mercer, John A


    The existence of RNA in axons has been a matter of dispute for decades. Evidence for RNA and ribosomes has now accumulated to a point at which it is difficult to question, much of the disputes turned to the origin of these axonal RNAs. In this review, we focus on studies addressing the origin of axonal RNAs and ribosomes. The neuronal soma as the source of most axonal RNAs has been demonstrated and is indisputable. However, the surrounding glial cells may be a supplemental source of axonal RNAs, a matter scarcely investigated in the literature. Here, we review the few papers that have demonstrated that glial-to-axon RNA transfer is not only feasible, but likely. We describe this process in both invertebrate axons and vertebrate axons. Schwann cell to axon ribosomes transfer was conclusively demonstrated (Court et al. [2008]: J. Neurosci 28:11024-11029; Court et al. [2011]: Glia 59:1529-1539). However, mRNA transfer still remains to be demonstrated in a conclusive way. The intercellular transport of mRNA has interesting implications, particularly with respect to the integration of glial and axonal function. This evolving field is likely to impact our understanding of the cell biology of the axon in both normal and pathological conditions. Most importantly, if the synthesis of proteins in the axon can be controlled by interacting glia, the possibilities for clinical interventions in injury and neurodegeneration are greatly increased.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  3. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  4. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.


    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  5. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema


    It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization......, codification or a combination of these two strategies. The characteristics of the business influence the choice of communication channels used for knowledge transfer. This paper presents a case study exploring the transfer of knowledge within and across projects, specifically the transfer of service knowledge...... in the case of complex machinery. The strategies used for knowledge transfer were analysed and compared with the expected transfer mechanisms, similarities and differences were investigated and are described. A family of four identical rigs for offshore drilling was the selected case. The transfer...

  6. Knowledge transfer from public research organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Erik; Knee, Paula; Brown, Neil; Javorka, Zsuzsa; Giarracca, Flora; Sidiqui, Sabeen


    This study describes knowledge transfer from European universities and institutes to industry, focusing on the role of the Industrial Liaison / Technology / Knowledge Transfer Office function. It explores practices in European institutions and compares these with international ones, especially from

  7. Mass Transfer Cooling Near The Stagnation Point (United States)

    Roberts, Leonard


    A simplified analysis is made of mass transfer cooling, that is, injection of a foreign gas, near the stagnation point for two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies. The reduction in heat transfer is given in terms of the properties of the coolant gas and it is shown that the heat transfer may be reduced considerably by the introduction of a gas having appropriate thermal and diffusive properties. The mechanism by which heat transfer is reduced is discussed.

  8. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.


    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  9. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, D J; Aniol, K A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, G C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Seonho Choi; Chudakov, E; Danagulyan, A S; Degtyarenko, P; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Khandaker, M; Ketikyan, A; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nikolenko, D M; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A V; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Tajima, S; Sulkosky, V; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Weinstein, L B; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Voskanyan, H; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L


    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 (GeV/c)**2 and \\t=-4.0 (GeV/c)**2 via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton and in disagreement with a prediction of pQCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism.

  10. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W


    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik


    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  12. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009


    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  13. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.


    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  14. Transfer across Second Language Acquisition Theories (United States)

    Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat


    Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis [13], [8]. Mishina-Mori [19] has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…

  15. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  16. Technology and technology transfer: some basic issues


    Shamsavari, Ali; Adikibi, Owen; Taha, Yasser


    This paper addresses various issues relating to technology and transfer of technology such as technology and society, technology and science, channels and models of technology transfer, the role of multinational companies in transfer of technology, etc. The ultimate objective is to pose the question of relevance of some existing models and ideas like technological independence in an increasingly globalised world economy.

  17. Laser-Induced Energy Transfer in Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, J.B.W.; Rullmann, Johan; Wiersma, Douwe


    Laser-induced energy transfer was observed and studied in the system pentacene doped into naphthalene. The transfer spectrum shows a remarkable correspondence with the host density of states function. The rate for laser-induced energy transfer is given and it is concluded that most likely, intermole

  18. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen


    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  19. Mechanisms of Learning Transfer in Adventure Education: Qualitative Results from the NOLS Transfer Survey (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Furman, Nate; Paisley, Karen; Gookin, John; Schumann, Scott


    Transfer of learning from adventure programs remains of critical interest to adventure education professionals. Although some research has investigated what transfers, notably less has focused on mechanisms that might influence transfer. This paper explores the mechanisms of transfer reported by a stratified random sample of National Outdoor…

  20. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone


    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  1. 78 FR 17066 - Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in... (United States)


    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ74 Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in Outbound Asset Reorganizations AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... between asset transfers and indirect stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations....

  2. Exploring the Critical Role of Motivation to Transfer in the Training Transfer Process (United States)

    Grohmann, Anna; Beller, Johannes; Kauffeld, Simone


    The present study aims at exploring the critical role of motivation to transfer within the training transfer process. In a sample of N?=?252 employees of one industrial company, one peer rating and several self-ratings of transfer were used to investigate the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between training…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur


    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  4. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  5. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap


    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  6. Pragmatic Transfer in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Pragmatic.transfer is a common phenomenon that exists in Second Language Acquisition. It is an increasingly important .research of interlanguage pragmatics in the last two decades. Based on the characteristics , it plays an important role in the success of cultural communication and Second Language Acquisition. Based on presenting the concept of pragmatic transfer, this paper presents the concept of pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition and introduces the classification of pragmatic transfer. Then, this paper proposes some suggestions to avoid negative pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition. It is hoped that this paper can help second language learners to develop their communicative competence and avoid pragmatic failures in intercultural communication.

  7. Measuring information-transfer delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wibral

    Full Text Available In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics.

  8. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose. (United States)

    Sederer, L


    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  9. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P


    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  10. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer (United States)

    Klyce, Brig


    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  11. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee


    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  12. Helicity Transfer in Turbulent Models

    CERN Document Server

    Biferale, L; Toschi, F


    Helicity transfer in a shell model of turbulence is investigated. We show that a Reynolds-independent helicity flux is present in the model when the large scale forcing breaks inversion symmetry. The equivalent in Shell Models of the ``2/15 law'', obtained from helicity conservation in Navier-Stokes eqs., is derived and tested. The odd part of helicity flux statistic is found to be dominated by a few very intense events. In a particular model, we calculate analytically leading and sub-leading contribution to the scaling of triple velocity correlation.

  13. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.


    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  14. Cash Transfers, Basic Income and Community Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Forget


    Full Text Available The austerity movement in high-income countries of Europe and North America has renewed calls for a guaranteed Basic Income. At the same time, conditional and unconditional cash transfers accompanied by rigorous impact evaluations have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries with the explicit support of the World Bank. Both Basic Income and cash transfer programs are more confidently designed when based on empirical evidence and social theory that explain how and why cash transfers to citizens are effective ways of encouraging investment in human capital through health and education spending. Are conditional cash transfers more effective and/or more efficient than unconditional transfers? Are means-tested transfers effective? This essay draws explicit parallels between Basic Income and unconditional cash transfers, and demonstrates that cash transfers to citizens work in remarkably similar ways in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It addresses the theoretical foundation of cash transfers. Of the four theories discussed, three explicitly acknowledge the interdependence of society and are based, in increasingly complex ways, on ideas of social inclusion. Only if we have an understanding of how cash transfers affect decision-making can we address questions of how best to design cash transfer schemes.

  15. Analysing CMS transfers using Machine Learning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Diotalevi, Tommaso


    LHC experiments transfer more than 10 PB/week between all grid sites using the FTS transfer service. In particular, CMS manages almost 5 PB/week of FTS transfers with PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export). FTS sends metrics about each transfer (e.g. transfer rate, duration, size) to a central HDFS storage at CERN. The work done during these three months, here as a Summer Student, involved the usage of ML techniques, using a CMS framework called DCAFPilot, to process this new data and generate predictions of transfer latencies on all links between Grid sites. This analysis will provide, as a future service, the necessary information in order to proactively identify and maybe fix latency issued transfer over the WLCG.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  17. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten


    Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context......-accepted transfer pricing methods, and comparability analysis procedures for identifying comparable transactions between independent parties. The case study assumes that you are familiar with responsibility accounting and transfer pricing as discussed by standard management accounting textbooks....

  18. Optical fiber data transfer system (United States)

    Mcmillan, S. H.


    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  19. Transferability of glass lens molding (United States)

    Katsuki, Masahide


    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  20. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Pty (Ltd), P O Box 9394, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa, P O Box 582, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)


    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  1. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons. (United States)

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L


    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes.

  2. Technology Transfer: A Contact Sport (United States)

    Paynter, Nina P.


    Technology transfer is a dynamic process, involving dynamic people as the bridge between NASA Langley Research Center and the outside world. This bridge, for nonaerospace applications, is known as the Technology Applications Group. The introduction of new innovations and expertise where they are needed occurs through a 'push' and 'pull' process. A 'push' occurs when a new technology is first developed with high commercial potential and then a company is found to licence or further develop the technology. The 'pull' process occurs through problem statements. A company or group will submit a written statement of what they need and the shortcomings of commercially available technology. The Technology Transfer Team (T3) reviews these problem statements and decides where NASA LaRC can offer assistance. A researcher or group of researchers are then identified who can help solve the problem and they are put in contact with the company. Depending upon the situation in either method, a Space Act Agreement (SAA), or outline of the responsibilities for each party, is developed.

  3. Energy transfer in macromolecular arrays (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Jenkins, Robert D.


    Macromolecular systems comprised of many light-sensitive centres (the photosynthetic unit, dendrimers, and other highly symmetric multichromophore arrays) are important structures offering challenges to theoreticians and synthetic chemists alike. Here we outline novel photophysical interactions predicted and observed in such arrays. Using the tools of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) we present quantum amplitudes for a variety of higher-order resonance energy transfer (RET) schemes associated with well-known nonlinear optical effects such as two- and three-photon absorption. The initial analysis is extended to account for situations where the participant donor species are identical and exist in a highly symmetric environment, leading to the possible formation of excitons. It emerges from the QED theory that such excitons are closely associated with the higher-order RET processes. General results are interpreted by analyzing particular molecular architectures which offer interesting features such as rate enhancement or limitation and exciton pathway quenching. Applications in the areas of photosynthesis, molecular logic gates and low-intensity fluorescence energy transfer are predicted.

  4. Improving data transfer for model coupling (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, L.; Yang, G.; Li, R.; Wang, B.


    Data transfer, which means transferring data fields between two component models or rearranging data fields among processes of the same component model, is a fundamental operation of a coupler. Most of state-of-the-art coupler versions currently use an implementation based on the point-to-point (P2P) communication of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) (call such an implementation "P2P implementation" for short). In this paper, we reveal the drawbacks of the P2P implementation, including low communication bandwidth due to small message size, variable and big number of MPI messages, and jams during communication. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a butterfly implementation for data transfer. Although the butterfly implementation can outperform the P2P implementation in many cases, it degrades the performance in some cases because the total message size transferred by the butterfly implementation is larger than that by the P2P implementation. To make the data transfer completely improved, we design and implement an adaptive data transfer library that combines the advantages of both butterfly implementation and P2P implementation. Performance evaluation shows that the adaptive data transfer library significantly improves the performance of data transfer in most cases and does not decrease the performance in any cases. Now the adaptive data transfer library is open to the public and has been imported into a coupler version C-Coupler1 for performance improvement of data transfer. We believe that it can also improve other coupler versions.

  5. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence (United States)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)


    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the

  6. Heterostructure Intervalley Transferred Electron Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Fang-Shi


    A Gunn active layer is used as an X electron probe to detect the X tunnelling current in the GaAs-AlAs heterostructure, from which a new heterostructure intervalley transferred electron (HITE) device is obtained. In the 8 mm band, the highest pulse output power of these diodes is 2.65 W and the highest conversion efficiency is 18%. The dc and rf performance of the HITE devices was simulated by the band mixing resonant tunnelling theory and Monte Carlo transport simulation. The HITE effect has transformed the transit-time dipole-layer mode in the Gunn diode into a relaxation oscillation mode in the HITE device. From the comparison of simulated results to the measured data, the HITE effect is demonstrated straightforwardly

  7. Image editing with spatiograms transfer. (United States)

    Papadakis, Nicolas; Bugeau, Aurélie; Caselles, Vicent


    Histogram equalization is a well-known method for image contrast enhancement. Nevertheless, as histograms do not include any information on the spatial repartition of colors, their application to local image editing problems remains limited. To cope with this lack of spatial information, spatiograms have been recently proposed for tracking purposes. A spatiogram is an image descriptor that combines a histogram with the mean and the variance of the position of each color. In this paper, we address the problem of local retouching of images by proposing a variational method for spatiogram transfer. More precisely, a reference spatiogram is used to modify the color value of a given region of interest of the processed image. Experiments on shadow removal and inpainting demonstrate the strength of the proposed approach.

  8. Heat transfer in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Amanifard


    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of electrical double layer (EDL near the solid/ liquid interface, on three dimensional heat transfer characteristic and pressure drop of water flow through a rectangular microchannel numerically are investigated. An additional body force originating from the existence of EDL is considered to modify the conventional Navier-stokes and energy equations. These modified equations are solved numerically for steady laminar flow on the basis of control volume approaches. Fluid velocity distribution and temperature with presence and absence of EDL effects are presented for various geometric cases and different boundary conditions. The results illustrate that, the liquid flow in rectangular microchannels is influenced significantly by the EDL, particularly in the high electric potentials, and hence deviates from flow characteristics described by classical fluid mechanics.

  9. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.


    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  10. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler (United States)

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl


    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  11. Energy Transfer Using Unitary Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny O'Kelly de Galway


    Full Text Available We study the unitary time evolution of a simple quantum Hamiltonian describing two harmonic oscillators coupled via a three-level system. The latter acts as an engine transferring energy from one oscillator to the other and is driven in a cyclic manner by time-dependent external fields. The S-matrix (scattering matrix of the cycle is obtained in analytic form. The total number of quanta contained in the system is a conserved quantity. As a consequence, the spectrum of the S-matrix is purely discrete, and the evolution of the system is quasi-periodic. The explicit knowledge of the S-matrix makes it possible to do accurate numerical evaluations of the time-dependent wave function. They confirm the quasi-periodic behavior. In particular, the energy flows back and forth between the two oscillators in a quasi-periodic manner.

  12. Mass transfer between binary stars (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.


    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  13. Credit Risk Transfer and Crunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan


    banks as risk navigators and generated a competitive hierarchy within the global banking industry determined on a gauge of this capacity. This private regulatory regime promoted market inflation and rendered institutional liquidity and risk transfer definitive of market power. In turn, a ballooning...... credit derivatives market broke the limits of financial production and defined state actions in the face of crisis. A shift from a central concern with solvency to that of liquidity thinly masks a profound redistribution of power from the public to the private. By swapping private assets of uncertain...... value for government bonds, central banks have effectively recognised that the products of innovation in the private sphere are global money. The state is in a curious bind. It takes on limitless exposure to private liabilities while its reform agenda is constrained to calling for greater levels...

  14. Knowledge Transfer in Virtual Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiva Marilena PAPUC


    Full Text Available Increasing development of information and communications technology, continuously transform how the world transmit, receive and manage information. Knowledge transfer switch from classic source - passive receiver to a more complex model, where each receiver can become a new source that regenerates and is thought to enhance the information received by adding its own added value and further resending it to an enhanced group of new receivers, often bigger than initial group. A current study performed jointly by State University of Milan and Facebook revealed that the degree of separation between any two people fell through six levels (as Stanley Milgram's theory, 1960 to less than four between Facebook users, shows that new patterns of social communication tend to transform humanity from a sum of individuals in a common consciousness, able to act in the common interest of humanity.

  15. Energy transfer in nanostructured materials (United States)

    Haughn, Chelsea

    Energy transport and loss are critical to the performance of optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and terahertz imaging devices. Nanostructured materials provide many opportunities to tailor transport and loss parameters for specific device applications. However, it has been very difficult to correlate specific nanoscale structural parameters with changes in these performance metrics. I report the development of new ways of using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) to probe charge and energy transport and loss dynamics. These techniques are applied to several types of nanostructured materials, including bulk semiconductors with defects, self-assembled quantum dots and colloidal quantum dots. First, GaAs/InP double heterostructures grown via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were characterized with TRPL. TRPL is typically used to extract minority carrier lifetimes, but we discovered that the measured lifetime depended critically on the intensity of the exciting laser. We developed a Shockley-Read-Hall model to extract trap state densities from intensity-dependent TRPL measurements. Second, we characterized energy and charge transfer between InAs quantum dots and ErAs nanoinclusions within III-V heterostructures. Using intensity- and temperature-dependent TRPL, we confirmed tunneling as the dominant mechanism of charge transport and characterized the electronic structure of the ErAs nanoparticles. Finally, we characterized energy transport in colloidal quantum dot cascade structures. These cascade structures utilize Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and trap state recycling to funnel excitons from donor layers to acceptor layers and suggest a promising method for avoiding losses associated with surface trap states. Collectively, the analysis of these disparate material types advances our understanding of energy dynamics in nanostructured materials and improves our ability to design the next generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic

  16. Nuclear transfer in nonhuman primates. (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Wolf, Don P


    The nonhuman primate is a highly relevant model for the study of human diseases, and currently there is a significant need for populations of animals with specific genotypes that can not be satisfied by the capture of animals from the wild or by conventional breeding. There is an even greater need for genetically identical animals in vaccine development or tissue transplantation research, where immune system function is under study. Efficient somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures could provide a source for genetically identical nonhuman primates for biomedical research. SCNT offers the possibility of cloning animals using cultured cells and potentially provides an alternative approach for the genetic modification of primates. The opportunity to introduce precise genetic modifications into cultured cells by gene targeting procedures, and then use these cells as nuclear donors in SCNT, has potential application in the production of loss-of-function monkey models of human diseases. We were initially successful in producing monkeys by NT using embryonic blastomeres as the source of donor nuclei and have repeated that success. However, when somatic cells are used as nuclear donor cells, the developmental potential of monkey SCNT embryos is limited, and somatic cell cloning has not yet been accomplished in primates. High rates of in vitro development to blastocysts, comparable with in vitro fertilization controls, and successful production of rhesus monkeys by NT from embryonic blastomeres suggests that basic cloning procedures, including enucleation, fusion, and activation, are consistent with the production of viable embryos. Although modifications or additional steps in SCNT are clearly warranted, the basic procedures will likely be similar to those extant for embryonic cell NT. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for rhesus macaque embryonic cell NT, including oocyte and embryo production, micromanipulation, and embryo transfer in nonhuman

  17. Modeling ozone mass transfer in reclaimed wastewater. (United States)

    Jiang, Pan; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Babcock, Roger W; Stenstrom, Michael K


    Ozone mass transfer in reclaimed water was evaluated at pilot scale to determine mass-transfer characteristics and reaction kinetics and to assess the use of oxygen as a surrogate to measure this process. Tests were conducted in a 40-L/min pilot plant over a 3-year period. Nonsteady-state mass-transfer analyses for both oxygen and ozone were performed for superficial gas flow rates ranging from 0.13m/min to 0.40m/min. The psi factor, which is the ratio of volumetric mass-transfer coefficients of ozone to oxygen, was determined. The decrease in oxygen transfer rate caused by contaminants in reclaimed water was only 10 to 15% compared to tap water. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe transfer rate and steady state ozone concentration. Ozone decay was modeled accurately as a pseudo first-order reaction between ozone and ozone-demanding materials.

  18. Transferring lean management infrastructure for increasing productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Daniel Georgescu


    Full Text Available These years, manufacturing function have been transferred rapidly and globally from matured countries to emerging countries. In this paper is about the critical elements for successful transfer of lean management among sites and countries. Based on this general descriptive analysis, current global transfer activity of Lean as well as its future direction is also described. According to the gradual progress of lean management transfer, necessity of its refinement/reinforcement is recognized and some research subjects are proposed for contributing further encouragement of its global activities. In this paper, based on this understanding, requisites for transfer of lean management are discussed through investigating global activity of Lean and specification of infrastructure enabling its smooth transfer is examined

  19. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 李修伦


    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39 mm ID and 2.0 m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum.The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39mm ID and 2.0m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum. The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  1. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)


    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  2. [Transference and countertransference in Gestalt therapy]. (United States)

    Schnake Silva, A


    The aim is to demonstrate the presence of transference within Gestalt Psychotherapy, opinion not shared by many gestaltists. For this purpose she includes Freud's findings and comments on transference. She also takes into consideration Jung's and Melanie Klein's concepts on transference. The author concludes that transference is in Psychoanalysis a decisive concept in diagnosing and defining a prognosis. She refers to the fact that in Gestalt Psychotherapy the patient projects on the therapist disturbed aspects of his personallity as well as healthy ones, which determines the characteristics of the relationship. In Gestalt Therapy transference is made easy by the self-responsibility the patient has to assume in the process. Within this frame-work some of the techniques which facilitate the use of transference are mentioned: gestual observation, conscience awareness, an alliance with the healthful aspects of the patient, work in the "here-and-now", clarifying projections, switch from environmental support to inner support.

  3. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system. (United States)

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi


    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  4. Intergenerational Transfers and the Demonstration Effect


    Donald Cox; Oded Stark


    How can parents secure old-age support in the form of care, attention or financial transfers from their children? We explore the enforcement of implicit intergenerational agreements from a fresh angle by studying the possibility that the child's conduct is conditioned by the parents' example. Parents can take advantage of this learning potential by making transfers to their own parents when children are present to observe such transfers. Parents who desire old-age support have an incentive to...

  5. Thermal Regulation of Heat Transfer Processes (United States)


    be approximately 320 m2g-1, 32 times higher than graphite flakes for more efficient heat transfer to the fluid. The evaporation rates of water...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0249 THERMAL REGULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES GANG CHEN MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 10/02/2014...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 FINAL REPORT FOR FA9550-11-1-0174 THERMAL REGULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES Principal Investigator: Gang Chen

  6. Radiative heat transfer between metallic nanoparticles


    Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Laroche, Marine; Volz, Sebastian; Greffet, Jean-Jacques


    International audience; In this letter, we study the radiative heat transfer between two nanoparticles in the near field and in the far field. We find that the heat transfer is dominated by the electric dipole-dipole interaction for dielectric particles and by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction for metallic nanoparticles. We introduce polarizabilities formulas valid for arbitrary values of the skin depth. While the heat transfer mechanism is different for metallic and dielectric nanoparti...

  7. Finite element simulation of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bergheau, Jean-Michel


    This book introduces the finite element method applied to the resolution of industrial heat transfer problems. Starting from steady conduction, the method is gradually extended to transient regimes, to traditional non-linearities, and to convective phenomena. Coupled problems involving heat transfer are then presented. Three types of couplings are discussed: coupling through boundary conditions (such as radiative heat transfer in cavities), addition of state variables (such as metallurgical phase change), and coupling through partial differential equations (such as electrical phenomena).? A re

  8. Transfer Entropy Analysis of the Stock Market

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, S K; Kwon, O; Moon, H T; Baek, Seung Ki; Jung, Woo-Sung; Kwon, Okyu; Moon, Hie-Tae


    In terms of transfer entropy, we investigated the strength and the direction of information transfer in the US stock market. Through the directionality of the information transfer, the more influential company between the correlated ones can be found and also the market leading companies are selected. Our entropy analysis shows that the companies related with energy industries such as oil, gas, and electricity influence the whole market.

  9. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this work,a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system.As two special cases,two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail.An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity.Therefore,the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  10. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Quan; LI JiuHui


    In this work, a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail. An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity. Therefore, the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  11. Transfer pricing principles in VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl


    The main part of the article is devoted to a critical analysis of the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive in the light of the principle of fiscal neutrality. As an integrated part of this analysis, the VAT transfer pricing regime is considered in the light of the well......-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The last part of the article contains a brief discussion of to which extent it is desirable to harmonize the two tax systems´ transfer pricing rules....

  12. Electrostatic transfer of epitaxial graphene to glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Taisuke; Pan, Wei; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III


    We report on a scalable electrostatic process to transfer epitaxial graphene to arbitrary glass substrates, including Pyrex and Zerodur. This transfer process could enable wafer-level integration of graphene with structured and electronically-active substrates such as MEMS and CMOS. We will describe the electrostatic transfer method and will compare the properties of the transferred graphene with nominally-equivalent 'as-grown' epitaxial graphene on SiC. The electronic properties of the graphene will be measured using magnetoresistive, four-probe, and graphene field effect transistor geometries [1]. To begin, high-quality epitaxial graphene (mobility 14,000 cm2/Vs and domains >100 {micro}m2) is grown on SiC in an argon-mediated environment [2,3]. The electrostatic transfer then takes place through the application of a large electric field between the donor graphene sample (anode) and the heated acceptor glass substrate (cathode). Using this electrostatic technique, both patterned few-layer graphene from SiC(000-1) and chip-scale monolayer graphene from SiC(0001) are transferred to Pyrex and Zerodur substrates. Subsequent examination of the transferred graphene by Raman spectroscopy confirms that the graphene can be transferred without inducing defects. Furthermore, the strain inherent in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) is found to be partially relaxed after the transfer to the glass substrates.

  13. Biofluid Flow Simulations of Embryo Transfer (United States)

    Shi, W. P.; Ding, D. L.


    The investigation of the fluid flow for embryo transfer (ET) procedure may find the way to increase the success rate of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, the transferred liquid flow in the uterine cavity during ET procedure is simulated by a two dimensional multiphase flow model, and the discrete phase model is adopted to trace the embryo motion. Through the investigation on the transferred liquid outline and the track of each embryo in ET cases with different parameters, we summarize the effect of transferred liquid viscosity and distance between catheter tip and uterine fundus. According to the numerical results, we recommend the optimizing standard to perform the ET procedure.

  14. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT


    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  15. Transfer Matrix for Fibonacci Dielectric Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The transfer matrices, which transfer the amplitudes of the electric fields of second- and third-harmonic waves from one side of the interface to the other, are defined for layers joined coherently, and the total transfer matrices for several sequential interfaces can be simply obtained by multiplication of the matrices. Using the transfer matrix method, the interacting processes of second- and third-harmonic waves in a one-dimensional finite Fibonacci dielectric superlattice are investigated. Applying the numerical procedure described in this letter, the dependence of the second- and third-harmonic fields on sample thickness is obtained. The numerical results agree with the quasi-phase-matching theory.

  16. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.R. Rao


    Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.

  17. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis;


    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  18. Dynamical mass transfer in cataclysmic binaries (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio; Lamb, D. Q.


    When a binary comes into contact and mass transfer begins, orbital angular momentum is stored in the accretion disk until the disk couples tidally to the binary system. Taam and McDermott (1987) have suggested that this leads to unstable dynamical mass transfer in many cataclysmic variables in which mass transfer would otherwise be stable, and that it explains the gap between 2 and 3 h in the orbital period distribution of these systems. Here the consequences of this hypothesis for the evolution of cataclysmic binaries are explored. It is found that systems coming into contact longward of the period gap undergo one or more episodes of dynamical mass transfer.

  19. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI


    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  20. Stability of the LHC transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J


    The LHC is filled from the SPS through two 3 km transfer lines. The injected beam parameters need to be well under control for luminosity performance, machine protection and operational efficiency. Small fractions of beam loss on the transfer line collimation system create showers which can trigger the sensitive LHC beam loss monitor system nearby and cause a beam abort during filling. The stability of the transfer line trajectory through the collimators is particularly critical in this respect. This paper will report on the transfer line trajectory stability during the proton run in 2011, correlations with injection losses, correction frequency and the most likely sources for the observed oscillations.

  1. Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.

  2. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.


    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  3. Fostering transfer of websearchers’ evaluation skills: a field test of two transfer theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els


    Walraven, A., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010). Fostering transfer of web searchers’ evaluation skills: A field test of two transfer theories. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 716-728.

  4. Calculating mass transfer from vertical wet fabrics using a free convection heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Ercan, E.; Pourdeyhimi, B. [North Carolina State University, Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, Raleigh, NC (United States)


    In this note, the evaporation rate from a vertical wet fabric sheet is calculated using a free convection heat transfer correlation. Chilton-Colburn analogy is used to derive a mass transfer correlation from a heat transfer correlation proposed by Churchill and Chu for free convection from a vertical isothermal plate. The mass transfer rate obtained from this expression has shown excellent agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  5. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review (United States)

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.


    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  6. Vibrational control of electron-transfer reactions: a feasibility study for the fast coherent transfer regime. (United States)

    Antoniou, P; Ma, Z; Zhang, P; Beratan, D N; Skourtis, S S


    Molecular vibrations and electron-vibrational interactions are central to the control of biomolecular electron and energy-transfer rates. The vibrational control of molecular electron-transfer reactions by infrared pulses may enable the precise probing of electronic-vibrational interactions and of their roles in determining electron-transfer mechanisms. This type of electron-transfer rate control is advantageous because it does not alter the electronic state of the molecular electron-transfer system or irreversibly change its molecular structure. For bridge-mediated electron-transfer reactions, infrared (vibrational) excitation of the bridge linking the electron donor to the electron acceptor was suggested as being capable of influencing the electron-transfer rate by modulating the bridge-mediated donor-to-acceptor electronic coupling. This kind of electron-transfer experiment has been realized, demonstrating that bridge-mediated electron-transfer rates can be changed by exciting vibrational modes of the bridge. Here, we use simple models and ab initio computations to explore the physical constraints on one's ability to vibrationally perturb electron-transfer rates using infrared excitation. These constraints stem from the nature of molecular vibrational spectra, the strengths of the electron-vibrational coupling, and the interaction between molecular vibrations and infrared radiation. With these constraints in mind, we suggest parameter regimes and molecular architectures that may enhance the vibrational control of electron transfer for fast coherent electron-transfer reactions.

  7. Transfer Innovations Fund Updating Project. BC Council on Admissions and Transfer. Tourism Management Articulation (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010


    In 2008, a number of changes were identified that expanded the scope of the updating required for Block Transfer for tourism management as follows: a new core curriculum for diploma programs; the need for expanded information on diploma to diploma transfer; and, a growing need for an expanded system of transfer identified in Campus 2020…

  8. One-way radiative transfer (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.


    We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.

  9. Radiative transfer in silylidene molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M.


    Full Text Available In order to search for silylidene (H2CSi in the interstellar medium, Izuha et al. (1996 recorded microwave spectrum of H2CSi in laboratory and made an unsuccessful attempt of its identification in IRC +10216, Ori KL, Sgr B2, through its 717-616 transition at 222.055 GHz. For finding out if there are other transitions of H2CSi which may help in its identification in the interstellar medium, we have considered 25 rotational levels of ortho-H2CSi connected by collisional transitions and 35 radiative transitions, and solved radiative transfer problem using the LVG approximation. We have found that the brightness temperatures of 919-818, 918-817, 101,10-919, 1019-918, 111,11-101,10, 111,10-1019 and 121,12-111,11 transition are larger than that of 717-616 transition. Thus, these transitions may help in detection of H2CSi in the interstellar medium.

  10. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrdad Massoudi


    fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a

  11. Momentum transfer by astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, L M; De Gouveia dal Pino, E M; Benz, W


    We have used 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations to study the basic properties of the outflow that is created by a protostellar jet in a dense molecular cloud. The dynamics of the jet/cloud interaction is strongly affected by the cooling in the shocked gas behind the bow shock at the head of the jet. We show that this cooling is very rapid, with the cooling distance of the gas much less than the jet radius. Thus, although ambient gas is initially driven away from the jet axis by the high thermal pressure odf the post-shock gas, rapid cooling reduces the pressure and the outflow subsequently evolves in a momentum-conserving snowplow fashion. The velocity of the ambient gas is high in the vicinity of the jet head, but decreases rapidly as more material is swept up. Thus, this type of outflow produces extremely high velocity clumps of post shock gas which resemble the features seen in outflows. We have investigated the transfer of momentum from the jet to the ambient medium as a function of the jet ...

  12. Successful Community College Transfer Students Speak Out (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.


    The community college as the entranceway into the baccalaureate degree is becoming a prevalent choice for students. This study was a qualitative approach to understanding attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge acquisition by successful community college transfer students. University students who transferred from a community college and were making…

  13. Conditional Cash Transfers and School Dropout Rates (United States)

    Dearden, Lorraine; Emmerson, Carl; Frayne, Christine; Meghir, Costas


    This paper evaluates a United Kingdom pilot study designed to test whether a means-tested conditional cash transfer paid to 16- to 18-year-olds for staying in full-time education is an effective way of reducing the proportion of school dropouts. The transfer's impact is substantial: In the first year, full-time education participation rates…

  14. Repatriates as Knowlege-transfer Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmergaard, Jeanette; Sanchez Vidal, Ma Eugenia

    Expatriates are increasingly recognized for their central role as knowledge-transfer agents. Traditionally expatriates were only sent out to control and coordinate activities, but in the knowledge economy international assignments are seen as a way of obtaining knowledge-transfer between organiza...

  15. Retirement Migration and Interstate Income Transfers. (United States)

    Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Crown, William H.


    Examined transfer of income from state to state as result of elderly migration. Data from 1980 census microdata files revealed that billions of dollars are transferred between states each year. Used 1980-81 Consumer Expenditure Interview Survey to estimate consumption patterns of typical migrant household. Findings are discussed in context of…

  16. 7 CFR 932.54 - Transfers. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers. 932.54 Section 932.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 932.51(a)(3) may be transferred along with the olives, in which event the receiving handler...

  17. Trades to Academic Transfer. Special Report (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona


    In recent years, there has been increased interest within British Columbia in the issue of whether or how trades qualifications might transfer into academic post-secondary programs. Some BC institutions have already started, or will be starting, programs which incorporate this form of transfer credit. Colleagues at British Columbia Council on…

  18. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne


    was chosen. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion, containing data from 215,257 women. The total proportion of transfer from home to hospital varied from 9.9% to 31.9% across the studies. The most common indication for transfer was labour dystocia, occurring in 5.1% to 9.8% of all women...

  19. 48 CFR 45.106 - Transferring accountability. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transferring accountability. 45.106 Section 45.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 45.106 Transferring accountability. Government...

  20. A case of technology transfer in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacia Dabescki


    Full Text Available As a process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing and facilities among organizations, the transfer of technology is instrumental for boosting the economy through creation of competitive products, new jobs and a better quality of life. The stagnant environment for technology transfers in Macedonia in the post-privatisation era is a result of a combination of factors. Among them is the outdated educational system that does not boost entrepreneurial spirit and innovation thinking. Main purpose of this paper is to examine the current status, conditions, anomalies and challenges for technology transfer in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as the potential for development and possibilities for improvement of the process. Through a lens of the technology transfer paradigm, this exploratory study will present a case in which the Foundation Business Start-up Centre in Macedonia, as a technology transfer agent provided links and cooperative platform for creation of new technologies and innovations within the local SME ecosystem. The focus will be on a couple of initiatives for technology development and transfer in a domestic context. Results from the process of implementation of these initiatives will be discussed, along with their stimulating impact on the environment for technology transfer.

  1. Essentially Optimal Universally Composable Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio


    Oblivious transfer is one of the most important cryptographic primitives, both for theoretical and practical reasons and several protocols were proposed during the years. We provide the first oblivious transfer protocol which is simultaneously optimal on the following list of parameters: Security...

  2. Judging The International Transfer Of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.


    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology transfe

  3. Patterns of Admission for Transfer Students. (United States)

    Willingham, Warren W.; Findikyan, Nurhan

    Statistics show that the number of student transfers has now doubled the number of entering freshmen at 4-year institutions. To acquire representative national data on the kinds of students who transfer and what determines whether they are admitted or not, a survey was made of 146 selected colleges that closely represent 4-year accredited…

  4. 34 CFR 691.65 - Transfer student. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer student. 691.65 Section 691.65 Education... RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.65 Transfer student. (a) If a student who receives a grant under this part at one institution subsequently enrolls at a...

  5. Heat transfer in the Knudsen layer (United States)

    Sharipov, Felix


    A concept of the surface heat conductivity determining a heat transfer in the Knudsen layer was introduced. It has the same order with respect to the Knudsen number as the bulk heat transfer and must be taken into account in practical calculations. Using the Onsager principle the coefficient of the surface heat conductivity was related to the thermal slip coefficient.

  6. Nerve Transfers to Restore Elbow Function. (United States)

    Bulstra, Liselotte F; Shin, Alexander Y


    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the various nerve transfer options for restoration of elbow function. This article describes nerve transfer strategies for elbow flexion and extension including the indications, limitations, and expected outcomes based on current literature.

  7. Dynamic Heat Transfer Model of Refrigerated Foodstuff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus


    their temperature relation. This paper discusses the dynamic heat transfer model of foodstuff inside the display cabinet, one-dimensional dynamic model is developed, and the Explicit Finite Difference Method is applied, to handle the unsteady heat transfer problem with phase change, as well as time varying boundary...

  8. An integrated approach towards technology transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, L.F. van der; Eldering, C.J.J.; Putten, N.J. van


    In 2001 the European Space Agency (ESA), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation of applied scientific research TNO initiated the Dutch Technology Transfer Programme (DTTP). Since then, 'technology transfer' has been a relevant part of Dutch space policy. The DTTP aim

  9. 7 CFR 987.51 - Interhandler transfers. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interhandler transfers. 987.51 Section 987.51... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Qualifications to Regulation § 987.51..., and the name of the receiving handler. If such transfer is wholly within the area of production,...

  10. Reducing Income Transfers to Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Vejlin, Rune Majlund


    We estimate the effect of lowering income transfers to refugee immigrants in Denmark - labeled start-help - using a competing risk framework. Refugee immigrants obtaining residence permit before July 2002 received larger income transfers than those who obtained their residence permit later......, we find that those with the poorest labour market prospects are the least responsive to the improvement in economic incentiv...

  11. The Knowledge Dimension of Production Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov


    Empirical studies in three industrial companies have revealed that even companies with many years of experience in production transfer tend to focus attention on planning the physical transfer and on the explicit knowledge associated with normal production. They are uncertain about capturing, tra...

  12. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion. (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  13. How We Make Mass Transfer Seem Difficult. (United States)

    Cussler, E. L.


    Indicates that teaching of mass transfer can be improved by: (1) using a single, simple definition of mass transfer coefficients; (2) altering use of analogies; and (3) repeatedly stressing differences between mathematical models used for chemical reactions and the actual chemistry of these reactions. Examples for undergraduate/graduate courses…

  14. A Simple Experiment for Mass Transfer. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesus M.; Henriquez, Vicente; Macias-Machin, Agustin


    Presents an experiment in which students use laboratory data to calculate the interphase mass transfer coefficient for a fluid passed over a sphere and obtain correlations for solid-gas mass transfer. Students develop a realistic mathematical model to describe the sublimation process. (DDR)

  15. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process (United States)

    Beke, Tamas


    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  16. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.


    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  17. Transfer mechanism of temoporfin between liposomal membranes. (United States)

    Hefesha, Hossam; Loew, Stephan; Liu, Xiangli; May, Sylvio; Fahr, Alfred


    The transfer kinetics of temoporfin, a classic photosensitizer, was analyzed by investigating the influence of total lipid content, temperature, as well as charge, acyl chain length, and saturation of the lipids in donor vesicles using a mini ion exchange column technique. The obtained results are consistent with an apparent first order kinetics in which the transfer proceeds through both liposome collisions and through the aqueous phase. We present a corresponding theoretical model that accounts for the detailed distribution of drug molecules in donor and acceptor liposomes and predicts the transfer rates as a function of drug concentration and number of donor and acceptor liposomes. The experimentally observed transfer rates depended strongly on the temperature and comply with the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic calculations indicate the transfer process to be entropically controlled. In terms of the charge of donor liposomes, positively charged liposomes showed transfer rates faster than negatively charged liposomes whereas the maximum amount transferred was almost the same. A more rigid structure of the donor liposomes increases the transfer rate of temoporfin, which is caused by expelling the drug from the membrane interior, as proposed in former work. In summary, our combined theoretical/experimental approach offers a systematic way to study the mechanism of drug release from liposome-based delivery systems.

  18. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat


    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  19. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars


    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  20. Energy transfer phenomena in lead sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.


    It is shown that lead sulphate, PbSO4, shows Pb2+ emission with a large Stokes shift. Energy transfer has been observed from the Pb2+ ions to several luminescent centres, viz., tungstate, molybdate, vanadate and rare earths. No transfer occurs to the Pr3+ ion.

  1. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  2. 48 CFR 970.2770 - Technology Transfer. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology Transfer. 970.2770 Section 970.2770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2770 Technology Transfer....

  3. Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  4. Available Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  5. Radiative transfer and molecular data for astrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Floris van der


    The estimation of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds from spectroscopic observations requires radiative transfer calculations, which depend on basic molecular input data. This paper reviews recent developments in the fields of molecular data and radiative transfer. The first part is an over

  6. Abusive Transfer Pricing and Economic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    This paper investigates how concealment costs of transfer pricing and the probability of detection affect transfer pricing and firm behavior. We find that transfer pricing in intermediate production factors does not affect real activity of a multinational firm if the firm’s concealment effort...... as well as the probability of being audited by tax authorities are conditioned on the amount of shifted profits. If tax authorities rely on the standard OECD arm’s-length principle instead by reacting to a deviation of the transfer price from the market price, the multinational will for tax reasons adjust...... its production structure. A policy implication of the paper is that it should be preferable to condition audits on the amount of income shifted rather than on the distortion of the transfer price proper. Another policy finding is that improving the quality of tax law might be superior to higher...

  7. Fail-over file transfer process (United States)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  8. Hydrogen Bonds in Excited State Proton Transfer (United States)

    Horke, D. A.; Watts, H. M.; Smith, A. D.; Jager, E.; Springate, E.; Alexander, O.; Cacho, C.; Chapman, R. T.; Minns, R. S.


    Hydrogen bonding interactions between biological chromophores and their surrounding protein and solvent environment significantly affect the photochemical pathways of the chromophore and its biological function. A common first step in the dynamics of these systems is excited state proton transfer between the noncovalently bound molecules, which stabilizes the system against dissociation and principally alters relaxation pathways. Despite such fundamental importance, studying excited state proton transfer across a hydrogen bond has proven difficult, leaving uncertainties about the mechanism. Through time-resolved photoelectron imaging measurements, we demonstrate how the addition of a single hydrogen bond and the opening of an excited state proton transfer channel dramatically changes the outcome of a photochemical reaction, from rapid dissociation in the isolated chromophore to efficient stabilization and ground state recovery in the hydrogen bonded case, and uncover the mechanism of excited state proton transfer at a hydrogen bond, which follows sequential hydrogen and charge transfer processes.

  9. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing. (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J


    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  10. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren


    Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...... of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water in all levels of the tank. The heat transfer analysis showed that the heat transfer near the mantle inlet port between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle is in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from...... the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis...

  11. A model for laboratory tech transfer investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otey, G.R.; Carson, C.C.; Bomber, T.M.; Rogers, J.D.


    A simple model has been developed to address a pragmatic question: What fraction of its research and development budget should a national laboratory devote to enhancing technology in the private sector? In dealing with lab-wide budgets in an aggregate sense, the model uses three parameters - fraction of lab R&D transferable to industry, transfer efficiency and payback to laboratory missions - to partition fixed R&D resources between technology transfer and core missions. It is a steady-state model in that the transfer process is assumed to work in equilibrium with technology generation. The results presented should be of use to those engaged in managing and overseeing federal laboratory technology transfer activities.

  12. Wireless Power Transfer in 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to develop a system of wireless power transfer in 3D space. This concept based on low frequency to high frequency conversion. High frequency power is transmit between air-core and inductor. This work presents an experiment for wireless energy transfer by using the Inductive resonant coupling (also known as resonant energy transfer phenomenon. The basic principles will be presented about this physical phenomenon, the experiment design, and the results obtained for the measurements performed on the system. The parameters measured were the efficiency of the power transfer, and the angle between emitter and receiver. We can achieve wireless power transfer up to 10watts in 3D space using high frequency through tuned circuit. The wireless power supply is motivated by simple and comfortable use of many small electric appliances with low power input.

  13. New course: "Introduction to knowledge transfer tools"

    CERN Multimedia


    The Knowledge Transfer group is now offering a half-day course that will give an introduction to intellectual property, contracts for knowledge transfer, and projects involving industry and other external partners.   The purpose of the course is to give the essential information about how one can secure ownership of inventions and to provide information on legal and contractual considerations when transferring knowledge and technology or when doing collaborative R&D. The course will also highlight some common pitfalls that should be avoided to increase the chances of successfully transferring knowledge and technology. In addition, the course will involve examples of real projects and challenges. The first session will take place the 19 May 2014. To enroll, please follow this link: “Introduction to knowledge transfer tools”.

  14. KIR/HLA interactions negatively affect rituximab- but not GA101 (obinutuzumab)-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Terszowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Christian; Stern, Martin


    Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells is regulated by inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with target cell HLA class I. We analyzed how KIR/HLA interactions influence ADCC induced by rituximab and by GA101, a novel type II CD20 Ab glycoengineered for increased FcgRIII binding and ADCC capacity. We found that KIR/HLA interactions strongly and selectively inhibit rituximab-induced in vitro ADCC toward target cells expressing cognate HLA KIR ligands. NK cells of donors carrying all three ligands to inhibitory KIR showed weak activation and target cell depletion capacity when incubated with rituximab and KIR-ligand matched target B cells. In contrast, NK cells from individuals missing one or more KIR ligands activated more strongly and depleted KIR ligand-matched target B cells more efficiently in the presence of rituximab. NK cells expressing a KIR for which the ligand was absent were the main effectors of ADCC in these donors. Notably, the influence of KIR/HLA interactions on NK cell activation was synergistic with the effect of the V158F FCGR3A single nucleotide polymorphism. In contrast, GA101 induced activation of NK cells irrespective of inhibitory KIR expression, and efficiency of target cell depletion was not negatively affected by KIR/HLA interactions. These data show that modification of the Fc fragment to enhance ADCC can be an effective strategy to augment the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs by recruiting NK cells irrespective of their inhibitory KIR expression.

  15. Evaluation of antibody-dependent cell-mediatedcytotoxicity activity and cetuximab response in KRAS wildtypemetastatic colorectal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM To investigate the prognostic role of invariantnatural killer T (iNKT) cells and antibody-dependentcell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in wild type KRASmetastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated withcetuximab.METHODS: Forty-one KRAS wt mCRC patients, treatedwith cetuximab and irinotecan-based chemotherapyin Ⅱ and Ⅲ lines were analyzed. Genotyping ofsingle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in the FCGR2A ,FCGR3A and in the 3' untranslated regions of KRAS andmutational analysis for KRAS , BRAF and NRAS genes wasdetermined either by sequencing or allelic discriminationassays. Enriched NK cells were obtained from lymphoprepperipheralblood mononuclear cell and iNKT cells weredefined by co-expression of CD3, TCRVα24, TCRVβ11.ADCC was evaluated as ex vivo NK-dependent activity,measuring lactate dehydrogenase release.RESULTS: At basal, mCRC patients performing ADCCactivity above the median level (71%) showed an improvedoverall survival (OS) compared to patients with ADCC below (median 16 vs 8 mo; P = 0.026). We did not findany significant correlation of iNKT cells with OS (P = 0.19),albeit we observed a trend to a longer survival after 10mo in patients with iNKT above median basal level (0.382cells/microliter). Correlation of OS and progression-freesurvival (PFS) with interesting SNPs involved in ADCC abilityrevealed not to be significant. Patients carrying alleles bothwith A in FCGR2A and TT in FCGR3A presented a trend oflonger PFS (median 9 vs 5 mo; P = 0.064). Chemotherapyimpacted both iNKT cells and ADCC activity. Their prognosticvalues get lost when we analysed them after 2 and 4 mo oftreatment.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a link between iNKTcells, basal ADCC activity, genotypes in FCGR2A andFCGR3A, and efficacy of cetuximab in KRAS wt mCRCpatients.

  16. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo


    cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory...

  17. Mosquito Saliva Increases Endothelial Permeability in the Skin, Immune Cell Migration, and Dengue Pathogenesis during Antibody-Dependent Enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schmid


    Full Text Available Dengue remains the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. While probing for blood vessels, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4 by injecting virus-containing saliva into the skin. Even though arthropod saliva is known to facilitate transmission and modulate host responses to other pathogens, the full impact of mosquito saliva on dengue pathogenesis is still not well understood. Inoculating mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor intradermally with DENV revealed that mosquito salivary gland extract (SGE exacerbates dengue pathogenesis specifically in the presence of enhancing serotype-cross-reactive antibodies-when individuals already carry an increased risk for severe disease. We further establish that SGE increases viral titers in the skin, boosts antibody-enhanced DENV infection of dendritic cells and macrophages in the dermis, and amplifies dendritic cell migration to skin-draining lymph nodes. We demonstrate that SGE directly disrupts endothelial barrier function in vitro and induces endothelial permeability in vivo in the skin. Finally, we show that surgically removing the site of DENV transmission in the skin after 4 hours rescued mice from disease in the absence of SGE, but no longer prevented lethal antibody-enhanced disease when SGE was present. These results indicate that SGE accelerates the dynamics of dengue pathogenesis after virus transmission in the skin and induces severe antibody-enhanced disease systemically. Our study reveals novel aspects of dengue pathogenesis and suggests that animal models of dengue and pre-clinical testing of dengue vaccines should consider mosquito-derived factors as well as enhancing antibodies.

  18. Summary Report: Workshop on the Potential Risks of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement in Human HIV Vaccine Trials (United States)


    of Medicine), Lynne Mofenson feline infectious peritonitis virus challenge due to recombinant (NICHD, NIH), David Monteftori (Vanderbilt University...mediated enhancement of burgh), Michael Murphey-Corb (Delta Regional Primate Re- disease in feline infectious peritonitis : comparisons with dengue...virus type I Monoclonal antibodies to the spike protein of feline infectious infection. Lancet 1988:1:790-794. peritonitis virus mediate antibody


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.


    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

  20. Charge transfer in multicomponent oxides (United States)

    Kohan, A. F.; Ceder, G.


    The transfer of charge between different ions in an oxide plays an essential role in the stability of these compounds. Since small variations in charge can introduce large changes in the total energy, a correct description of this phenomenon is critical. In this work, we show that the ionic charge in oxides can strongly depend on its atomic environment. A model to assign point charges to atoms as a function of their atomic environment has recently been proposed for binary alloys [C. Wolverton, A. Zunger, S. Froyen, and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 54, 7843 (1996)] and proven to be very successful in screened solids such as semiconductors and metals. Here, we extend this formalism to multicomponent oxides and we assess its applicability. The simple point-charge model predicts a linear relation between the charge on an atom and the number of unlike neighbors, and between the net value of the charge and the Coulomb field at a given site. The applicability of this approach is tested in a large-supercell self-consistent tight-binding calculation for a random Zr-Ca-O alloy. The observed fluctuations of the ionic charge about the average linear behavior (as a function of the number of unlike neighbors) was larger than 0.25 electrons even when many shells of atomic neighbors were considered in the fit. This variation is significant since it can introduce large errors in the electrostatic energy. On the other hand, for small absolute values of the charge, the ionic charge varied linearly with the Coulomb field, in agreement with previous findings. However, for large Coulomb fields, this function saturates at the formal chemical charge.

  1. Positive Transfer of Native Language in S econd Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language transfer can be divided into two types:positive transfer and negative transfer.Previous study always thinks that nega-tive transfer of native language should be taken seriously because it plays an important role in second language acquisition.However,as a matter of factor,positive transfer also has great influence on second language acquisition.This paper will give a detailed analysis of positive transfer from two aspects:syntactic transfer and phrase transfer.The paper also offers some methods in dealing with language transfer in second language acquisition.

  2. Excitation energy transfer in the photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Andrew N


    Photosystem I is a multimeric pigment protein complex in plants, green alage and cyanobacteria that functions in series with Photosystem II to use light energy to oxidize water and reduce carbon dioxide. The Photosystem I core complex contains 96 chlorophyll a molecules and 22 carotenoids that are involved in light harvesting and electron transfer. In eucaryotes, PSI also has a peripheral light harvesting complex I (LHCI). The role of specific chlorophylls in excitation and electron transfer are still unresolved. In particular, the role of so-called bridging chlorophylls, located between the bulk antenna and the core electron transfer chain, in the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center are unknown. During the past funding period, site directed mutagenesis has been used to create mutants that effect the physical properties of these key chlorophylls, and to explore how this alters the function of the photosystem. Studying these mutants using ultrafast absorption spectroscopy has led to a better understanding of the process by which excitation energy is transferred from the antenna chlorophylls to the electron transfer chain chlorophylls, and what the role of connecting chlorophylls and A_0 chlorophylls is in this process. We have also used these mutants to investigate whch of the central group of six chlorophylls are involved in the primary steps of charge separation and electron transfer.

  3. File Transfer Algorithm for Autonomous Decentralized System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Xun; TAN Yong-dong; Qian Qing-quan


    A file transfer algorithm based on ADP (autonomous decentralized protocol) was proposed to solve the problem that the ADS (autonomous decentralized system) middleware (NeXUS/Dlink) lacks of file transfer functions for Windows. The algorithm realizes the peer-to-peer file transfer, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution in the same data field based on communication patterns provided by the ADP. The peer-to-peer file transfer is implemented through a peer-to-peer communication path, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution are implemented through multicast commtmieation. In this algorithm, a file to be transferred is named with a GUID ( global unique identification), every data packet is marked with a sequence number, and file-receiving in parallel is implemented by caching DPOs (data processing objects) and multithread technologies. The algorithm is applied in a simulation system of the decentralized control platform, and the test results and long time stable mrming prove the feasibility of the algorithm.

  4. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  5. Nerve Transfers to Restore Shoulder Function. (United States)

    Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Malungpaishorpe, Kanchai; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Ng, Chye Yew; Witoonchart, Kiat


    The restoration of shoulder function after brachial plexus injury represents a significant challenge facing the peripheral nerve surgeons. This is owing to a combination of the complex biomechanics of the shoulder girdle, the multitude of muscles and nerves that could be potentially injured, and a limited number of donor options. In general, nerve transfer is favored over tendon transfer, because the biomechanics of the musculotendinous units are not altered. This article summarizes the surgical techniques and clinical results of nerve transfers for restoration of shoulder function.

  6. Tax Anti-avoidance Through Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.


    This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re...

  7. Corporate Production Transfers to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Wulff, Henrik


    Production transfer is defined by the set of activities attached to send off, receipt and running-in a production system in a new environment. The activities concern handling of physical elements as well as non-material, knowledge based issues like documentation, education/training and management....... From a technical point of view this paper analyses some experiences of Danish companies' production transfers to the south-east Asia region with a focus on technology, quality, organisational and management issues as well as location concerns. Keywords: Production transfer, international production......, location, technology adaptation....

  8. Backward Charge Transfer in Conjugated Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Meng-Xing; LI Guang-Qi; Thomas F. George; SUN Xin


    It has been known that the static polarizability of a polymer chain with a biexciton is negative. In order to understand this peculiar fact, this paper studies the dynamical process of the charge transfer in the polymer chain induced by an external electric field E during forming the biexciton. The time dependence of the charge distribution in the chain reveals that the charge transfer is backward: the positive charge shifts in the opposite direction of the external electric field. Such a backward charge transfer (BCT) produces an opposite dipole, which makes the polarization negative. The effect of electron interaction on the BCT is illustrated.

  9. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shijie; DU Weihua; LI Ning


    Somatic cloning has been succeeded in some species, but the cloning efficiency is very low, which limits the application of the technique in many areas of research and biotechnology. The cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) requires epigenetic reprogramming of the differentiated state of donor cell to a totipotent, embryonic ground state. Accumulating evidence indicates that incomplete or inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei is likely to be the primary cause of failures in nuclear transfer. This review summarizes the roles of various epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, telomere maintenance and expressions of development-related genes on somatic nuclear transfer.

  10. Gene transfer strategies for augmenting cardiac function. (United States)

    Peppel, K; Koch, W J; Lefkowitz, R J


    Recent transgenic as well as gene-targeted animal models have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of normal and compromised heart function. These studies have raised the possibility of using somatic gene transfer as a means for improving cardiac function. DNA transfer to a significant portion of the myocardium has thus far been difficult to accomplish. This review describes current efforts to achieve myocardial gene transfer in several model systems, with particular emphasis placed on adenovirus-mediated gene delivery, its possibilities, and current limitations. (Trend Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:145-150). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  12. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R., E-mail: [Laser Spectroscopy Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003 (India)


    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  13. Radiative heat transfer between metallic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Volz, Sebastian; Greffet, Jean-Jacques


    In this letter, we study the radiative heat transfer between two nanoparticles in the near field and in the far field. We find that the heat transfer is dominated by the electric dipole-dipole interaction for dielectric particles and by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction for metallic nanoparticles. We introduce polarizabilities formulas valid for arbitrary values of the skin depth. While the heat transfer mechanism is different for metallic and dielectric nanoparticles, we show that the distance dependence is the same. However, the dependence of the heat flux on the particle radius is different.

  14. Mass transfer cycles in cataclysmic variables (United States)

    King, A. R.; Frank, J.; Kolb, U.; Ritter, H.


    It is well known that in cataclysmic variables the mass transfer rate must fluctuate about the evolutionary mean on timescales too long to be directly observable. We show that limit-cycle behavior can occur if the radius change of the secondary star is sensitive to the instantaneous mass transfer rate. The only reasonable way in which such a dependence can arise is through irradiation of this star by the accreting component. The system oscillates between high states, in which irradiation causes slow expansion of the secondary and drives an elevated transfer rate, and low states, in which this star contracts.

  15. Transfer reactions as a doorway to fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Maciel, A.M.M.; Anjos, R.M.; Moraes, S.B.; Liguori Neto, R.; Cabezas, R.; Muri, C.; Santos, G.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, 24210-340 (Brazil); Liang, J.F. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    This paper discusses the role played by transfer reactions on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement. A semiclassical formalism is used to derive the transfer form factors, that are used in coupled-channel calculations. It is shown that transfer reactions that take place at small distances may be an important doorway to fusion. The relation between this formalism and the long-range absorptive fusion potential is also discussed. Results of calculations for the {sup 16}O+{sup A}Sm, {sup 32}S+{sup 100}Mo and {sup 16}O+{sup 59}Co systems are presented. (author)

  16. Study on three level system population transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Yang(杨山); Ye Kuang(旷冶)


    Stimulated-Raman-adiabatic-passage (STIRAP) process provides an effective technique to transfer electronpopulation from an initial state (e.g. ground state) to excited final state for both atoms and molecules. Inthis paper, we present the results of the study on electron population transfer in three level system. Wehave analyzed the effects of various conditions on the transfer process, such as the time delay of the twolaser beams, two-photon off-resonance, one-photon off-resonance and the change of relative laser intensity.The numerical result is compared with experiment, and the reasons for the effects are also given.

  17. Interactive Joint Transfer of Energy and Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Fouladgar, A. M.; Simeone, Osvaldo


    In some communication networks, such as passive RFID systems, the energy used to transfer information between a sender and a recipient can be reused for successive communication tasks. In fact, from known results in physics, any system that exchanges information via the transfer of given physical...... key design insights. Index Terms— Two-way channel, interactive communication, energy transfer, energy harvesting....... resources, such as radio waves, particles and qubits, can conceivably reuse, at least part, of the received resources. This paper aims at illustrating some of the new challenges that arise in the design of communication networks in which the signals exchanged by the nodes carry both information and energy...

  18. Transferable Tight-Binding Potential for Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Wang, Yang


    A transferable tight-binding potential has been constructed for heteroatomic systems containing carbon and hydrogen. The electronic degree of freedom is treated explicitly in this potential using a small set of transferable parameters which has been fitted to small hydrocarbons and radicals. Transferability to other higher hydrocarbons were tested by comparison with ab initio calculations and experimental data. The potential can correctly reproduce changes in the electronic configuration as a function of the local bonding geometry around each carbon atom. This type of potential is well suited for computer simulations of covalently bonded systems in both gas-phase and condensed-phase systems.

  19. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda


    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  20. Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influence on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas


    This longitudinal study examined the multidimensionality of motivation to transfer training. Based on self-determination theory, expectancy theory, and the theory of planned behaviour, motivation to transfer was conceptualized in three dimensions: autonomous motivation to transfer, controlled motivation to transfer, and intention to transfer.…

  1. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mathiesen, Line;


    determined after placental transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion system. Similar dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood (37 versus 33pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids, P>0.05) was detected and it demonstrates transplacental transfer. Increased...... dioxin-like activity in the perfused placenta tissue after ex vivo TCDD perfusions (from 17 to 280pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids) suggest that accumulation in the placenta prevents immediate transplacental transfer of TCDD. Androgenic activity were also similar in the paired mother-newborns (0.10 versus...

  2. China’s Transfer Pricing Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Earlier this year, the State Administrationof Taxation promulgated the much-antic-ipated transfer pricing measures detailingthe administrative rules for all special taxadjustments. These special tax adjustments,including cost sharing, thin capitalization,

  3. Coordinating knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry


    Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time-place ma...

  4. Partial Transfer Entropy on Rank Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kugiumtzis, Dimitris


    For the evaluation of information flow in bivariate time series, information measures have been employed, such as the transfer entropy (TE), the symbolic transfer entropy (STE), defined similarly to TE but on the ranks of the components of the reconstructed vectors, and the transfer entropy on rank vectors (TERV), similar to STE but forming the ranks for the future samples of the response system with regard to the current reconstructed vector. Here we extend TERV for multivariate time series, and account for the presence of confounding variables, called partial transfer entropy on ranks (PTERV). We investigate the asymptotic properties of PTERV, and also partial STE (PSTE), construct parametric significance tests under approximations with Gaussian and gamma null distributions, and show that the parametric tests cannot achieve the power of the randomization test using time-shifted surrogates. Using simulations on known coupled dynamical systems and applying parametric and randomization significance tests, we s...

  5. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W


    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  6. Heat-transfer data for hydrogen (United States)

    Mc Carthy, J. R.; Miller, W. S.; Okuda, A. S.; Seader, J. D.


    Information is given regarding experimental heat-transfer data compiled for the turbulent flow of hydrogen within straight, electrically heated, round cross section tubes. Tube materials, test conditions, parameters studied, and generalized conclusions are presented.

  7. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen


    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  8. Direct memory access transfer completion notification (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.


    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

  9. Heat Transfer Phenomena of Supercritical Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krau, Carmen Isabella; Kuhn, Dietmar; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    In concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors, the reactor core is cooled and moderated by water at supercritical pressures. The significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water requires an exact knowledge of the heat transfer mechanism to avoid fuel pin damages. Near the pseudo-critical point a deterioration of heat transfer might happen. Processes, that take place in this case, are not fully understood and are due to be examined systematically. In this paper a general overview on the properties of supercritical water is given, experimental observations of different authors will be reviewed in order to identify heat transfer phenomena and onset of occurrence. The conceptional design of a test rig to investigate heat transfer in the boundary layer will be discussed. Both, water and carbon dioxide, may serve as operating fluids. The loop, including instrumentation and safety devices, is shown and suitable measuring methods are described. (authors)

  10. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  11. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul


    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  12. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul


    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  13. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces (United States)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.


    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  14. 7 CFR 3565.504 - Transfers. (United States)


    ... GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Agency Guaranteed Loans That Back Ginnie Mae Guaranteed Securities § 3565.504 Transfers. (a) Loans and/or mortgage servicing on loans backing Ginnie Mae...

  15. Transfer color to night vision images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Liu; Zhenhua Li


    @@ Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  16. The Application of Rewriting in Cultural Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the context of globalization, cultural exchange is frequently conducted between countries in translating activities. Comparing with linguistic transfer, cultural transfer is frequented applied as to achieve communicative equivalence. Studies of rewriting applied as a method of cultural translation from Chinese to English are still relatively weak in the field of translation in China. Exclusive research on the methods for cultural translation is still uncompleted. In the last decade, when comes to cultural elements in translation, methods as restoring sounds, adding extra explanation, or detecting equivalent concepts have been most-ly discussed, but rewriting is rarely involved in it. This thesis reviews previous definitions for rewriting or adaptation;analyses the difference between linguistic transfer and cultural transfer, and why rewriting is adopted as an effective method for cultural translation;the application of rewriting will break up the dominance of occidental culture in the world while make oriental cul-ture become influential in the western world.

  17. Forced convective heat transfer in curved diffusers (United States)

    Rojas, J.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.


    Measurements of the velocity characteristics of the flows in two curved diffusers of rectangular cross section with C and S-shaped centerlines are presented and related to measurements of wall heat transfer coefficients along the heated flat walls of the ducts. The velocity results were obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry in a water tunnel and the heat transfer results by liquid crystal thermography in a wind tunnel. The thermographic technique allowed the rapid and inexpensive measurement of wall heat transfer coefficients along flat walls of arbitrary boundary shapes with an accuracy of about 5 percent. The results show that an increase in secondary flow velocities near the heated wall causes an increase in the local wall heat transfer coefficient, and quantify the variation for maximum secondary-flow velocities in a range from 1.5 to 17 percent of the bulk flow velocity.

  18. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul


    the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  19. Oxygen transfer in human carotid artery bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.G.Zhang; Y.B.Fan; X.Y.Deng


    Arterial bifurcations are places where blood flow may be disturbed and slow recirculation flow may occur.To reveal the correlation between local oxygen transfer and atherogenesis, a finite element method was employed to simulate the blood flow and the oxygen transfer in the human carotid artery bifurcation. Under steady-state flow conditions, the numerical simulation demonstrated a variation in local oxygen transfer at the bifurcation, showing that the convective condition in the disturbed flow region may produce uneven local oxygen transfer at the blood/wall interface.The disturbed blood flow with formation of slow eddies in the carotid sinus resulted in a depression in oxygen supply to the arterial wall at the entry of the sinus, which in turn may lead to an atherogenic response of the arterial wall, and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic stenosis there.

  20. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price


    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.