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Sample records for antibody-based time-resolved fluorescence

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  2. Stationary and time-resolved fluorescence for humic substances characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kumke, Michael U.; Frimmel, Fritz Hartmann

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied to investigate the fluorescence properties of humic substances of different origins. Using standard 2D emission and total luminescence spectra, fluorescence maxima, the width of the fluorescence band and a relative fluorescence quantum efficiency were determined. Different trends for fulvic acids and humic acids were observed indicating differences in the heterogeneity of the sample fractions. The complexity of the fluorescence ...

  3. [Laser-time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in immunoassays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Du, J; Xie, W; Du, Q; Yun, Q

    2000-06-01

    This paper described a laser-excited time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay set. It made lanthanide ion to couple the anhydrde of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPAA) for labeling antibodies. The experiment used polystyrene tap coated with HCV antigen as the solid phase and a chelate of the rare earth metal europium as fluorescent label. A nitrogen laser beam was used to excite the Eu3- chelates and after 60 microseconds delay time, the emission fluorescence was measured. Background fluorescence of short lifetimes caused by serum components and Raman scattering can be eliminated by set the delay time. In the system condition, fluorescent spectra and fluorescent lifetimes of Eu3+ beta-naphthoyltrifluroacetone (NTA) chelates were measured. The fluorescent lifetime value is 650 microseconds. The maximum emission wavelength is 613 nm. The linear range of europium ion concentration is 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-11) g.mL-1 and the detection limit is 1 x 10(-13) g.mL-1. The relative standard deviation of determination (n = 12) for samples at 0.01 ng.mL-1 magnitude is 6.4%. Laser-TRFIA was also found to be suitable for diagnosis of HCV. The sensitivity and specificity were comparable to enzyme immunoassay. The result was obtained with laser-TRFIA for 29 human correlated well with enzyme immunoassay. PMID:12958930

  4. Diagnosis of meningioma by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Hever, Aviv; Yong, William H; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for the intraoperative rapid evaluation of tumor specimens and delineation of tumor from surrounding normal tissue. Tissue autofluorescence is induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the intensity decay profiles are recorded in the 370 to 500 nm spectral range with a fast digitizer (0.2 ns resolution). Experiments are conducted on excised specimens (meningioma, dura mater, cerebral cortex) from 26 patients (97 sites). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site are used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis algorithm is used for tissue classification. Our results reveal that meningioma is characterized by unique fluorescence characteristics that enable discrimination of tumor from normal tissue with high sensitivity (>89%) and specificity (100%). The accuracy of classification is found to increase (92.8% cases in the training set and 91.8% in the cross-validated set correctly classified) when parameters from both the spectral and the time domain are used for discrimination. Our findings establish the feasibility of using TR-LIFS as a tool for the identification of meningiomas and enables further development of real-time diagnostic tools for analyzing surgical tissue specimens of meningioma or other brain tumors. PMID:16409091

  5. Exploiting Molecular Biology by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Francis; Fattinger, Christof

    Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal fluorophore. With fluorescence lifetimes in the microsecond range and fluorescence quantum yield of 0.4 some water soluble complexes of Ruthenium like modified Ru(sulfobathophenanthroline) complexes fulfill these properties. They are outstanding fluorescent labels for ultrasensitive assays as illustrated in two examples, in drug discovery and in point of care testing.We discuss the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of the most sensitive time-gated fluorescence assays. We reflect on how the imaging devices currently employed for readout of these assays might evolve in the future. Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal

  6. Monitoring tissue metabolism via time-resolved laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Buchholz, Rainer; Emmrich, Frank; Fink, Frank; Geddes, Clive L.; Pfeifer, Lutz; Raabe, Ferdinand; Marx, Uwe

    1999-05-01

    Most assays for drug screening are monitoring the metabolism of cells by detecting the NADH content, which symbolize its metabolic activity, indirectly. Nowadays, the performance of a LASER enables us to monitor the metabolic state of mammalian cells directly and on-line by using time-resolved autofluorescence detection. Therefore, we developed in combination with tissue engineering, an assay for monitoring minor toxic effects of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are accused of inducing Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Furthermore, we used the Laserfluoroscope (LF) for pharmacological studies on human bone marrow in vitro with special interest in chemotherapy simulation. In cancer research and therapy, the effect of chemostatica in vitro in the so-called oncobiogram is being tested; up to now without great success. However, it showed among other things that tissue structure plays a vital role. Consequently, we succeeded in simulating a chemotherapy in vitro on human bone marrow. Furthermore, after tumor ektomy we were able to distinguish between tumoric and its surrounding healthy tissue by using the LF. With its sensitive detection of metabolic changes in tissues the LF enables a wide range of applications in biotechnology, e.g. for quality control in artificial organ engineering or biocompatability testing.

  7. Speciation of actinides in aqueous solution by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) as a sensitive and selective method has been applied to the speciation of actinides in aqueous solution. Studies on hydrolysis and carbonate complexation of U(VI) and on determination of hydration number of Cm(III) are reported. (author)

  8. Feasibility analysis of an epidermal glucose sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Katika, Kamal M; Pilon, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of using an embedded time-resolved fluorescence sensor for monitoring glucose concentration. Skin is modeled as a multilayer medium with each layer having its own optical properties and fluorophore absorption coefficients, lifetimes, and quantum yields obtained from the literature. It is assumed that the two main fluorophores contributing to the fluorescence at these excitation and emission wavelengths are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NA...

  9. Glucose Sensing by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Sol-Gel Immobilized Glucose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lepore; Raffaele Velotta; Carlo Altucci; Sergio De Nicola; Bartolomeo Della Ventura; Rosario Esposito; Damiano Gustavo Mita

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic silica gel matrix with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOD) was constructed as a bioactive element in an optical biosensor for glucose determination. Intrinsic fluorescence of free and immobilised GOD was investigated in the visible range in presence of different glucose concentrations by time-resolved spectroscopy with time-correlated single-photon counting detector. A three-exponential model was used for analysing the fluorescence transients. Fractional intensities and mean lifetime...

  10. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein. PMID:26132136

  11. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adília Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein.

  12. Fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity in aggregates of LHCII revealed by time-resolved microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzda, V; de Grauw, C J; Vroom, J; Kleima, F J; van Grondelle, R; van Amerongen, H; Gerritsen, H C

    2001-01-01

    Two-photon excitation, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in aggregates of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b pigment protein complexes of photosystem II from green plants (LHCII). Time-gated microscopy images show the presence of large heterogeneity in fluorescence lifetimes not only for different LHCII aggregates, but also within a single aggregate. Thus, the fluorescence decay traces obtained from macroscopic measurements reflect an average over a large distribution of local fluorescence kinetics. This opens the possibility to resolve spatially different structural/functional units in chloroplasts and other heterogeneous photosynthetic systems in vivo, and gives the opportunity to investigate individually the excited states dynamics of each unit. We show that the lifetime distribution is sensitive to the concentration of quenchers contained in the system. Triplets, which are generated at high pulse repetition rates of excitation (>1 MHz), preferentially quench domains with initially shorter fluorescence lifetimes. This proves our previous prediction from singlet-singlet annihilation investigations (Barzda, V., V. Gulbinas, R. Kananavicius, V. Cervinskas, H. van Amerongen, R. van Grondelle, and L. Valkunas. 2001. Biophys. J. 80:2409-2421) that shorter fluorescence lifetimes originate from larger domains in LHCII aggregates. We found that singlet-singlet annihilation has a strong effect in time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of connective systems and has to be taken into consideration. Despite that, clear differences in fluorescence decays can be detected that can also qualitatively be understood. PMID:11423435

  13. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of asbestos in visible region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on five types of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, and anthophyllite) using an ultraviolet laser pulse of 266 nm. Most of the fluorescence spectra had a broad wavelength band of 350-700 nm and a maximum at approximately 450 nm in the visible region. The spectra also varied in shape over time. Although all the spectra were similar in shape, a significant difference in the relative ratio of fluorescence intensity between the two different wavelength regions was identified. The lifetime and total fluorescence intensity were also investigated and differences were observed for the different types of asbestos. The observed fluorescence decay curves of the different types of asbestos were almost biexponential in form. The total fluorescence intensity for anthophyllite was the largest among the five types of asbestos. Several methods potentially useful for identifying asbestos from other materials on the basis of their fluorescence characteristics are discussed. (author)

  14. Optical characterization of Pseudomonas fluorescens on meat surfaces using time-resolved fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alain; Frechette, Julie; Vernon, Marcia L.; Cormier, Jean-François; Beaulieu, Rene M.; Vallée, Réal; Mafu, Akier A.

    2006-01-01

    A scanning optical system for the detection of bacteria on meat surfaces based on fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements is described. The system detects autofluorescent light emitted by naturally occurring fluorophores in bacteria. The technique only requires minimal sample preparation and handling, thus the chemical properties of the specimen are preserved. This work presents the preliminary results obtained from a time-resolved fluorescence imaging system for the characterization of a nonpathogenic gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Initial results indicate that the combination of fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements provides a means for characterizing biological media and for detecting microorganisms on surfaces.

  15. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art.

  16. Assembling Tunable Time-Resolved Fluorescence Layer onto Nano-Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The assembling of a coating of time-resolved fluorescent chelator BSPDA (abbreviated for 4,7-bis(sulfhydrylphenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) onto a nano-gold layer was demonstrated. First, BSPDA was synthesized by simple procedures, and then an approach was developed to immobilize BSPDA onto the nano-gold layer deposited on a silane modified glass substrate, whereby europium ion (Ⅲ, Eu3+) was captured and released owing to the interactive process of complexation and dissociation between BSPDA functionalized coating and Eu3+ solution. The fluorescence spectra and related lifetimes were determined. Also, the BSPDA functionalized coating's specific complexation with Eu3+ on the BSPDA assembly layer and the nonspecific adsorption of Eu3+ on the nano-gold layer were compared. These results allowed a selective complexation of Eu3+ by assembling a BSPDA chelating layer on the nano-gold layer;thus, a tunable time-resolved fluorescent layer was covalently attached. The results of the nanoparticle assembling and probing (or labeling) processes to specific bio-systems were very interesting and had significant implications to time-resolved-fluorescence-based detection on biosensor surfaces such as DNA chip and to arrayed light display devices.

  17. Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Lipid Bilayers: Selected Applications and Advantages over Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Mariana; Šachl, Radek; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Coutinho, Ana; Prieto, Manuel; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence methods are versatile tools for obtaining dynamic and topological information about biomembranes because the molecular interactions taking place in lipid membranes frequently occur on the same timescale as fluorescence emission. The fluorescence intensity decay, in particular, is a powerful reporter of the molecular environment of a fluorophore. The fluorescence lifetime can be sensitive to the local polarity, hydration, viscosity, and/or presence of fluorescence quenchers/energy acceptors within several nanometers of the vicinity of a fluorophore. Illustrative examples of how time-resolved fluorescence measurements can provide more valuable and detailed information about a system than the time-integrated (steady-state) approach will be presented in this review: 1), determination of membrane polarity and mobility using time-dependent spectral shifts; 2), identification of submicroscopic domains by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; 3), elucidation of membrane leakage mechanisms from dye self-quenching assays; and 4), evaluation of nanodomain sizes by time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. PMID:25517142

  18. Feasibility analysis of an epidermal glucose sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katika, Kamal M.; Pilon, Laurent

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of using an embedded time-resolved fluorescence sensor for monitoring glucose concentration. Skin is modeled as a multilayer medium with each layer having its own optical properties and fluorophore absorption coefficients, lifetimes, and quantum yields obtained from the literature. It is assumed that the two main fluorophores contributing to the fluorescence at these excitation and emission wavelengths are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)H and collagen. The intensity distributions of excitation and fluorescent light in skin are determined by solving the transient radiative transfer equation by using the modified method of characteristics. The fluorophore lifetimes are then recovered from the simulated fluorescence decays and compared with the actual lifetimes used in the simulations. Furthermore, the effect of adding Poissonian noise to the simulated decays on recovering the lifetimes was studied. For all cases, it was found that the fluorescence lifetime of NADH could not be recovered because of its negligible contribution to the overall fluorescence signal. The other lifetimes could be recovered to within 1.3% of input values. Finally, the glucose concentrations within the skin were recovered to within 13.5% of their actual values, indicating a possibility of measuring glucose concentrations by using a time-resolved fluorescence sensor.

  19. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, C.; Decambox, P.; Mauchien, P.; Petit, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. de Spectroscopie Laser Analytique

    1995-03-01

    Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) is a very sensitive and selective method that has been used for actinides and lanthanides analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle. This technique has been used in different fields such as in geology, in the Purex process, in the environment, in the medical and in waste storage assessment. Spectroscopic data, limits of detection and results obtained in previously quoted fields are presented. (author).

  20. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) is a very sensitive and selective method that has been used for actinides and lanthanides analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle. This technique has been used in different fields such as in geology, in the Purex process, in the environment, in the medical and in waste storage assessment. Spectroscopic data, limits of detection and results obtained in previously quoted fields are presented. (author)

  1. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein Using Colloidal Semiconducting Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Hänninen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis of the mobile flavin cofactor in -hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Petra A W Van Den Berg; Koert Grever; Arie Van Hoek; Willem J H Van Berkel; Antonie J W G Visser

    2007-03-01

    Conformational heterogeneity of the FAD cofactor in -hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) was investigated with time-resolved polarized flavin fluorescence. For binary enzyme/substrate (analogue) complexes of wild-type PHBH and Tyr222 mutants, crystallographic studies have revealed two distinct flavin conformations; the `in’ conformation with the isoalloxazine ring located in the active site, and the `out’ conformation with the isoalloxazine ring disposed towards the protein surface. Fluorescence-lifetime analysis of these complexes revealed similar lifetime distributions for the `in’ and `out’ conformations. The reason for this is twofold. First, the active site of PHBH contains various potential fluorescence-quenching sites close to the flavin. Fluorescence analysis of uncomplexed PHBH Y222V and Y222A showed that Tyr222 is responsible for picosecond fluorescence quenching free enzyme. In addition, other potential quenching sites, including a tryptophan and two tyrosines involved in substrate binding, are located nearby. Since the shortest distance between these quenching sites and the isoalloxazine ring differs only little on average, these aromatic residues are likely to contribute to fluorescence quenching. Second, the effect of flavin conformation on the fluorescence lifetime distribution is blurred by binding of the aromatic substrates: saturation with aromatic substrates induces highly efficient fluorescence quenching. The flavin conformation is therefore only reflected in the small relative contributions of the longer lifetimes.

  3. Efficient signal processing for time-resolved fluorescence detection of nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Hacquebard, L.; Childress, L.

    2016-03-01

    Room-temperature fluorescence detection of the nitrogen-vacancy center electronic spin typically has low signal to noise, requiring long experiments to reveal an averaged signal. Here, we present a simple approach to analysis of time-resolved fluorescence data that permits an improvement in measurement precision through signal processing alone. Applying our technique to experimental data reveals an improvement in signal to noise equivalent to a 14% increase in photon collection efficiency. We further explore the dependence of the signal to noise ratio on excitation power, and analyze our results using a rate equation model. Our results provide a rubric for optimizing fluorescence spin detection, which has direct implications for improving precision of nitrogen-vacancy-based sensors.

  4. Time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godik, V. I.; Blankenship, R. E.; Causgrove, T. P.; Woodbury, N.

    1993-01-01

    Tryptophan fluorescence of reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, both stationary and time-resolved, was studied. Fluorescence kinetics were found to fit best a sum of four discrete exponential components. Half of the initial amplitude was due to a component with a lifetime of congruent to 60 ps, belonging to Trp residues, capable of efficient transfer of excitation energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules of the reaction center. The three other components seem to be emitted by Trp ground-state conformers, unable to participate in such a transfer. Under the influence of intense actinic light, photooxidizing the reaction centers, the yield of stationary fluorescence diminished by congruent to 1.5 times, while the number of the kinetic components and their life times remained practically unchanged. Possible implications of the observed effects for the primary photosynthesis events are considered.

  5. Analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (HCFI) using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyjalgowski, Milosz A.; Ryder, Alan G.; Feely, Martin; Glynn, Thomas J.

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (HCFI) are microscopic cavities within rocks that are filled with petroleum oil, the composition of which may not have changed since the trapping event. Thus, the composition of that entrapped oil can provide information about the formation and evolution of the oil reservoir. This type of information is important to the petroleum production and exploration industries. Crude oil fluorescence originates from the presence of cyclic aromatic compounds and the nature of the emission is governed by the chemical composition of the oil. Fluorescence based methods are widely used for analysis of crude oil because they offer robust, non-contact and non-destructive measurement options. The goal of our group is the development of a non-destructive analytical method for HCFI using time-resolved fluorescence methods. In broad terms, crude oil fluorescence behavior is governed by the concentration of quenching species and the distribution of fluorophores. For the intensity averaged fluorescence lifetime, the best correlations have been found between polar or alkane concentrations, but these are not suitable for robust, quantitative analysis. We have recently started to investigate another approach for characterizing oils by looking at Time-resolved Emission Spectra (TRES). TRES are constructed from intensities sampled at discrete times during the fluorescence decay of the sample. In this study, TRES, from a series of 10 crude oils from the Middle East, have been measured at discrete time gates (0.5 ns, 1 ns, 2 ns, 4 ns) over the 450-700 nm wavelength range. The spectral changes in TRES, such as time gate dependent Stokes' shift and spectral broadening, are analyzed in the context of energy transfer rates. In this work, the efficacy of using TRES for fingerprinting individual oils and HCFI is also demonstrated.

  6. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  7. Development of a High-Speed Digitizer to Time Resolve Nanosecond Fluorescence Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moreno-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a high-speed digitizer system to measure time-domain voltage pulses in nanoseconds range is presented in this work. The digitizer design includes a high performance digital signal processor, a high-bandwidth analog-to-digital converter of flash-type, a set of delay lines, and a computer to achieve the time-domain measurements. A program running on the processor applies a time-equivalent sampling technique to acquire the input pulse. The processor communicates with the computer via a serial port RS-232 to receive commands and to transmit data. A control program written in LabVIEW 7.1 starts an acquisition routine in the processor. The program reads data from processor point by point in each occurrence of the signal, and plots each point to recover the time-resolved input pulse after n occurrences. The developed prototype is applied to measure fluorescence pulses from a homemade spectrometer. For this application, the LabVIEW program was improved to control the spectrometer, and to register and plot time-resolved fluorescence pulses produced by a substance. The developed digitizer has 750 MHz of analog input bandwidth, and it is able to resolve 2 ns rise-time pulses with 150 ps of resolution and a temporal error of 2.6 percent.

  8. Glucose Sensing by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Sol-Gel Immobilized Glucose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic silica gel matrix with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOD was constructed as a bioactive element in an optical biosensor for glucose determination. Intrinsic fluorescence of free and immobilised GOD was investigated in the visible range in presence of different glucose concentrations by time-resolved spectroscopy with time-correlated single-photon counting detector. A three-exponential model was used for analysing the fluorescence transients. Fractional intensities and mean lifetime were shown to be sensitive to the enzymatic reaction and were used for obtaining calibration curve for glucose concentration determination. The sensing system proposed achieved high resolution (up to 0:17 mM glucose determination with a detection range from 0:4 mM to 5 mM.

  9. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of UO22+ in nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between nitrogen and tripled Nd-YAG laser source for Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) of uranium in nitric acid solutions in the framework of on-line feasibility has been performed. Hence, for uranium on-line monitoring with fiber optics, nitrogen laser (337 nm), most usual source in TRLIF has several drawback; poor beam quality and non negligible nitric acid absorption at 337 nm. Tripled Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) despite lower uranium absorption coefficient has several advantages: no influence of nitric acid absorption, better beam quality, better fiber transmission and solid state technology. No significant difference for fluorescence spectra and lifetimes are observed for both lasers. Limit of detection for direct determination of uranium in nitric acid by TRLIF is in the μg/l (10-8 M) range for both lasers. (author)

  10. Energy dissipation in matrix-isolated silver atoms: A time-resolved fluorescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, H.; Schroeder, W.; Kolb, D. M.

    1988-03-01

    The fluorescence from optically excited Ag atoms in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices has been investigated in a time-resolved synchrotron-radiation study. A detailed energy dissipation model could be established from a systematic analysis of rise and decay times of all the observed fluorescence bands after pulsed excitation into the Ag (4d105p)2P1/2,3/2 levels, and by setting time windows between the excitation pulses in emission and emission-yield spectroscopy. Although the overall wavelength dependence of the decay time follows the λ3 law, the decay time is independent of λ within a given emission band. Finally, the role of energy transfer between Ag atoms and dimers for the evaluation of decay times is briefly addressed.

  11. Glucose sensing by time-resolved fluorescence of sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Rosario; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; De Nicola, Sergio; Altucci, Carlo; Velotta, Raffaele; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic silica gel matrix with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOD) was constructed as a bioactive element in an optical biosensor for glucose determination. Intrinsic fluorescence of free and immobilised GOD was investigated in the visible range in presence of different glucose concentrations by time-resolved spectroscopy with time-correlated single-photon counting detector. A three-exponential model was used for analysing the fluorescence transients. Fractional intensities and mean lifetime were shown to be sensitive to the enzymatic reaction and were used for obtaining calibration curve for glucose concentration determination. The sensing system proposed achieved high resolution (up to 0.17 mM) glucose determination with a detection range from 0.4 mM to 5 mM. PMID:22163807

  12. Multimodal imaging of vascular grafts using time-resolved fluorescence and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatakdawala, Hussain; Griffiths, Leigh G.; Wong, Maelene L.; Humphrey, Sterling; Marcu, Laura

    2015-02-01

    The translation of engineered tissues into clinic requires robust monitoring of tissue development, both in vitro and in vivo. Traditional methods for the same are destructive, inefficient in time and cost and do not allow time-lapse measurements from the same sample or animal. This study reports on the ability of time-resolved fluorescence and ultrasound measurements for non-destructive characterization of explanted tissue engineered vascular grafts. Results show that TRFS and FLIm are able to assess alterations in luminal composition namely elastin, collagen and cellular (hyperplasia) content via changes in fluorescence lifetime values between normal and grafted tissue. These observations are complemented by structural changes observed in UBM pertaining to graft integration and intimal thickness over the grafted region. These results encourage the future application of a catheter-based technique that combines these imaging modalities for non-destructive characterization of vascular grafts in vivo.

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for intraoperative assistance of thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, L.; Brandao, M. P.; Iwakura, R.; Basilio, F. S.; Haleplian, K.; Ito, A. S.; Conti de Freitas, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    Searching for new methods to provide information of biochemical composition and structure is critical to improve the prognosis of thyroid diseases. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help develop a portable, minimally invasive, and non-destructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This research looks for employ a fluorescence technique based on lifetime measurements to differentiate healthy and benign lesions from malignant thyroid tissue. We employ a wide range of excitation and chose a more appropriate region for this work: 298-300 nm; and the fluorescence decay was measured at 340-450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80+/-0.26 and 3.94+/-0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90+/-0.24 and 4.05+/-0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21+/-0.14 and 4.63+/-0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25+/-0.18 and 3.99+/-0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24+/-0.17 and 4.20+/-0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33+/-0.32 and 4.55+/-0.55 ns for malignant lesions. We successfully demonstrated that fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission can differentiate between thyroid malignant and healthy/benign tissues.

  14. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence measurements: Considerations when using Nd:YAG based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasovic, Maja S.; Sevic, Dragutin; Terzic, Mira; Marinkovic, Bratislav P.

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) and the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been shown to be methods which are fast and sensitive to provide information about the constituents in analyzed samples. TR-LIF and LIBS have similar hardware requirements. In this paper, we analyze some characteristics of TR-LIF/LIBS system implemented in our laboratory, considering the fact that the excitation part of the system is based on Nd:YAG laser and Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The laser is more than powerful enough (365 mJ at 1064 nm, variable OPO output >5 mJ) for LIBS, but somehow slow (the length of fundamental laser harmonic output pulse is about 5 ns) for fluorescence measurements in our present area of interest, namely plants and food products. Fortunately, the pulse length of tunable OPO output (320-475 nm) is less then 1 ns, so by means of a correct deconvolution procedure it is possible to measure the fluorescence lifetimes in the range as small as a few nanoseconds. The fluorescence detection part of our system is based on picosecond streak camera. Using the fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine B and Fluorescein) ethanol solutions we verified the analyzing capabilities of our TR-LIF system.

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy of visible and near infrared dyes in picosecond dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes absorb and emit light within the range from 700 to 900 nm have several benefits in biological studies for one- and/or two-photon excitation for deeper penetration of tissues. These molecules undergo vibrational and rotational motion in the relaxation of the excited electronic states, Due to the less than ideal anisotropy behavior of NIR dyes stemming from the fluorophores elongated structures and short fluorescence lifetime in picosecond range, no significant efforts have been made to recognize the theory of these dyes in time-resolved polarization dynamics. In this study, the depolarization of the fluorescence due to emission from rotational deactivation in solution will be measured with the excitation of a linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse and a streak camera. The theory, experiment and application of the ultrafast fluorescence polarization dynamics and anisotropy are illustrated with examples of two of the most important medical based dyes. One is NIR dye, namely Indocyanine Green (ICG) and is compared with Fluorescein which is in visible range with much longer lifetime. A set of first-order linear differential equations was developed to model fluorescence polarization dynamics of NIR dye in picosecond range. Using this model, the important parameters of ultrafast polarization spectroscopy were identified: risetime, initial time, fluorescence lifetime, and rotation times.

  16. A homogeneous single-label time-resolved fluorescence cAMP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikkala, Eija; Rozwandowicz-Jansen, Anita; Hänninen, Pekka; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla; Härmä, Harri

    2011-03-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important class of pharmaceutical drug targets. Functional high-throughput GPCR assays are needed to test an increasing number of synthesized novel drug compounds and their function in signal transduction processes. Measurement of changes in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration is a widely used method to verify GPCR activation in the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Here, a single-label time-resolved fluorescence and high-throughput screening (HTS)-feasible method was developed to measure changes in cAMP levels in HEK293(i) cells overexpressing either β(2)-adrenergic or δ-opioid receptors. In the quenching resonance energy transfer (QRET) technique, soluble quenchers reduce the signal of unbound europium(III)-labeled cAMP in solution, whereas the antibody-bound fraction is fluorescent. The feasibility of this homogeneous competitive assay was proven by agonist-mediated stimulation of receptors coupled to either the stimulatory G(s) or inhibitory G(i) proteins. The reproducibility of the assays was excellent, and Z' values exceeded 0.7. The dynamic range, signal-to-background ratio, and detection limit were compared with a commercial time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. In both homogeneous assays, similar assay parameters were obtained when adenylyl cyclase was stimulated directly by forskolin or via agonist-mediated activation of the G(s)-coupled β(2)AR. The advantage of using the single-label approach relates to the cost-effectiveness of the QRET system compared with the two-label TR-FRET assay as there is no need for labeling of two binding partners leading to reduced requirements for assay optimization. PMID:21343601

  17. A Vertically Integrated CMOS Microsystem for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Bruce R; Jingbin Yang; McKendry, Jonathan; Zheng Gong; Renshaw, David; Girkin, John M; Erdan Gu; Dawson, Martin D; Henderson, R K

    2010-12-01

    We describe a two-chip micro-scale time-resolved fluorescence analyzer integrating excitation, detection, and filtering. A new 8×8 array of drivers realized in standard low-voltage 0.35-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor is bump-bonded to AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs). The array is capable of producing sample excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM), enabling short lifetime fluorophores to be investigated. The fluorescence emission is detected by a second, vertically-opposed 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry. Captured chip data are transferred to a PC for further processing, including histogramming, lifetime extraction, calibration and background/noise compensation. This constitutes the smallest reported solid-state microsystem for fluorescence decay analysis, replacing lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics, and discrete electronics. The system is demonstrated with measurements of fluorescent colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples. PMID:23853381

  18. Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments under nitrogen depletion, studied by time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Aya; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria (including Anabaena) differentiate into heterocysts under nitrogen-depleted conditions. During differentiation, the phycobiliproteins and photosystem II in the heterocysts are gradually degraded. Nitrogen depletion induces changes in the pigment composition of both vegetative cells and heterocysts, which affect the excitation energy transfer processes. To investigate the changes in excitation energy transfer processes of Anabaena variabilis filaments grown in standard medium (BG11) and a nitrogen-free medium (BG110), we measured their steady-state absorption spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) at 77 K. TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. The pigment compositions of the filaments grown in BG110 changed throughout the growth period; the relative phycocyanin levels monotonically decreased, whereas the relative carotenoid (Car) levels decreased and then recovered to their initial value (at day 0), with formation of lower-energy Cars. Nitrogen starvation also altered the fluorescence kinetics of PSI; the fluorescence maximum of TRFS immediately after excitation occurred at 735, 740, and 730 nm after 4, 8, and 15 days growth in BG110, respectively. Based on these results, we discuss the excitation energy transfer dynamics of A. variabilis filaments under the nitrogen-depleted condition throughout the growth period. PMID:25596847

  19. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Depolarization Study Of Lamellar To Inverted Cylindrical Micellar Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwan H.

    1989-05-01

    The orientational order and rotational dynamics of 2-(3-(diphenyl-hexatrienyl) propanoy11-3-palmitoyl-L-a-phosphatidylcholine (DPH-PC) embedded in dioleoplphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) were studied by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization technique. Upon increasing the temperature, the wobbling diffusion constant D⊥ of DPH-PC was found to decrease at the lamellar (Lα) to inverted cylindrical (HII) phase transition (12°C). The calculated ratio of order parameter in the La phase to that in the HII phase was close to the theoretical value of 2.0 as predicted from the change in packing symmetry. The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene, cholesterol and phosphatidylchollne on this phase transition were also examined.

  20. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Bruce R; Muir, Keith R; Gong, Zheng; McKendry, Jonathan; Girkin, John M; Gu, Erdan; Renshaw, David; Dawson, Martin D; Henderson, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented. PMID:22291564

  1. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Dawson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM. This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented.

  2. Estimation of crude oil grade using time-resolved fluorescence spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazi, E.; Hamdan, A. [Laser Research Section, Center for Applied Physical Sciences Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-04-08

    Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) spectra of six crude oils from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia were excited using a pulsed laser radiation at 250 nm and measured at specific time gates (TG) within the leading and trailing edges of the laser temporal pulse. The spectra showed the presence of a shoulder near 380 nm that systematically decreased in intensity from high-grade to low-grade crudes, and also from earlier to later TGs. The intensities of these shoulders are shown to be useful in estimating the grades of crude oils, particularly when the TRF spectra are measured at TGs within the leading edge of the laser temporal pulse. Contour diagrams depicting the shapes of the TRF spectra as function of TG (within the leading and trailing edges) are also presented to serve as true fingerprints of the crudes.

  3. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen using a new europium fluorescent chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and stable fluorescent europium chelate Eu3+-BHHCT was used as a label to develop two time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays for HBsAg. One was Eu3+-BHHCT-HBsAb-TRFIA, another was Eu3+-BHHCT-BSA-SA-TRFIA. The detection limits of the two methods were 0.2ng/mL and 0.05ng/mL respectively. The standard curves for both methods were in the ranges of 0 - 100ng/mL and the within-run coefficient variations were less than 10%. The recovery rates of latter method were within 85% - 115%. 118 patient samples were totally detected by Eu3+-BHHCT-BSA-SA-TRFIA and compared with a conventional ELISA, the results showed that the former could detect more positive samples than the latter

  4. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Pramod V; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A; Yong, William H; Pikul, Brian K; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm; lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens. PMID:20459282

  5. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Pramod V.; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A.; Yong, William H.; Pikul, Brian K.; Black, Keith L.; Marcu, Laura

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens.

  6. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for phosphatidylserine exposure on apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jean-Philippe; Hehl, Michaela; Millward, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    A simple, "mix-and-measure" microplate assay for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of apoptotic cells is described. The assay exploits the fact that annexin V, a protein with high affinity and specificity for PtdSer, forms trimers and higher order oligomers on binding to membranes containing PtdSer. The transition from soluble monomer to cell-bound oligomer is detected using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer from europium chelate-labeled annexin V to Cy5-labeled annexin V. PtdSer detection is achieved by a single addition of a reagent mix containing labeled annexins and calcium ions directly to cell cultures in a 96-well plate, followed by a brief incubation before fluorescence measurement. The assay can be used to quantify PtdSer exposure on both suspension cells and adherent cells in situ. This method is simpler and faster than existing annexin V binding assays based on flow cytometry or microscopy, and it yields precise data with Z' values of 0.6-0.7. PMID:18835236

  7. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed. PMID:25577254

  8. Solvent sorting in (mixed solvent + electrolyte) systems: Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harun Al Rasidgazi; Hemant K Kashyap; Ranjit Biswas

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscriptwe explore electrolyte-induced modification of preferential solvation of a dipolar solute dissolved in a binary mixture of polar solvents. Composition dependence of solvation characteristics at a fixed electrolyte concentration has been followed. Binary mixtures of two different polarities have been employed to understand the competition between solute-ion and solute-solvent interactions. Time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy have been measured for coumarin 153 (C153) in moderately polar (ethyl acetate + 1-propanol) and strongly polar (acetonitrile + propylene carbonate) binary mixtures at various mixture compositions, and in the corresponding 1.0M solutions of LiClO4. Both the mixtures show red shifts in C153 absorption and fluorescence emission upon increase of mole fraction of the less polar solvent component in presence of the electrolyte. In addition, measured average solvation times become slower and rotation times faster for the above change in the mixture composition. A semi-molecular theory based on solution density fluctuations has been developed and found to successfully capture the essential features of the measured Stokes shift dynamics of these complex multi-component mixtures. Dynamic anisotropy results have been analyzed by using both Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) and Dote-Kivelson-Schwartz (DKS) theories. The importance of local solvent structure around the dissolved solute has been stressed.

  9. Photobleaching of arterial fluorescent compounds: characterization of elastin, collagen and cholesterol time-resolved spectra during prolonged ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, L; Grundfest, W S; Maarek, J M

    1999-06-01

    To study the photobleaching of the main fluorescent compounds of the arterial wall, we repeatedly measured the time-resolved fluorescence of elastin, collagen and cholesterol during 560 s of excitation with nitrogen laser pulses. Three fluence rate levels were used: 0.72, 7.25 and 21.75 microW/mm2. The irradiation-related changes of the fluorescence intensity and of the time-resolved fluorescence decay constants were characterized for the emission at 390, 430 and 470 nm. The fluorescence intensity at 390 nm decreased by 25-35% when the fluence delivered was 4 mJ/mm2, a common value in fluorescence studies of the arterial wall. Cholesterol fluorescence photobleached the most, and elastin fluorescence photobleached the least. Photobleaching was most intense at 390 nm and least intense at 470 nm such that the emission spectra of the three compounds were markedly distorted by photobleaching. The time-resolved decay constants and the fluorescence lifetime were not altered by irradiation when the fluence was below 4 mJ/mm2. The spectral distortions associated with photobleaching complicate the interpretation of arterial wall fluorescence in terms of tissue content in elastin, collagen and cholesterol. Use of the time-dependent features of the emission that are not altered by photobleaching should increase the accuracy of arterial wall analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:10378012

  10. CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a single chip approach to time resolved fluorescence measurements based on time correlated single photon counting. Using a single complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) chip, bump bonded to a 4 x 16 array of AlInGaN UV micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes, a prototype integrated microsystem has been built that demonstrates fluorescence excitation and detection on a nanosecond time scale. Demonstrator on-chip measurements of lifetimes of fluorescence colloidal quantum dot samples are presented

  11. Lasing dynamics study by femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dang; Qing, Liao; Peng-Cheng, Mao; Hong-Bing, Fu; Yu-Xiang, Weng

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy (FNOPAS) is a versatile technique with advantages of high sensitivity, broad detection bandwidth, and intrinsic spectrum correction function. These advantages should benefit the study of coherent emission, such as measurement of lasing dynamics. In this letter, the FNOPAS was used to trace the lasing process in Rhodamine 6G (R6G) solution and organic semiconductor nano-wires. High-quality transient emission spectra and lasing dynamic traces were acquired, which demonstrates the applicability of FNOPAS in the study of lasing dynamics. Our work extends the application scope of the FNOPAS technique. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20925313 and 21503066), the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJCX2-YW-W25), the Postdoctoral Project of Hebei University, China, and the Project of Science and Technology Bureau of Baoding City, China (Grant No. 15ZG029).

  12. Validation and evaluation of a novel time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durot, C. J.; Gallimore, A. D.; Smith, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel technique to measure time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence signals in plasma sources that have a relatively constant Fourier spectrum of oscillations in steady-state operation, but are not periodically pulsed, e.g., Hall thrusters. The technique uses laser modulation of the order of MHz and recovers signal via a combination of band-pass filtering, phase-sensitive detection, and averaging over estimated transfer functions calculated for many different cycles of the oscillation. Periodic discharge current oscillations were imposed on a hollow cathode. Measurements were validated by comparison with independent measurements from a lock-in amplifier and by comparing the results of the transfer function average to an independent analysis technique triggering averaging over many oscillation cycles in the time domain. The performance of the new technique is analyzed and compared to prior techniques, and it is shown that this new technique has a niche in measurements where the analog photomultiplier signal has a nonwhite noise spectral density and cycles of oscillation are not sufficiently repeatable to allow for reliable triggering or a meaningful average waveform in the time domain.

  13. A study of hydrolysis reaction of curium(III) by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrolysis reaction of Cm3+ has been investigated by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in 0.1 M NaClO4 at 25deg C under argon atmosphere. The experiment is carried out in the pH range from 6 to 10 for Cm(III) concentrations from 1.21 x 10-7 mol/l down to 3 x10-9 mol/l, which are substantially lower than solubility limits of the curium hydroxide each given pH. The primary and secondary hydrolysis constants determined are: logβ11 = 6.67 ± 0.18 for CmOH2+ and logβ12 = 12.06 ± 0.28 for Cm(OH)2+. These values are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding hydrolysis constants of Am3+ determined previously in our laboratory by the solubility experiment. However, the present values are one or many orders of magnitude smaller than the data known for Cm(III) in the literature. (orig.)

  14. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulders, Liesbet; Bunkens, Lieve; Vereycken, Inge; Van Acker, Koen; Holemans, Pascale; Gustin, Emmanuel; Van Loock, Marnix; Dams, Géry

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiates infection through sequential interactions with CD4 and chemokine coreceptors unmasking the gp41 subunit of the viral envelope protein. Consequently, the N-terminal heptad repeats of gp41 form a trimeric coiled-coil groove in which the C-terminal heptad repeats collapse, generating a stable six-helix bundle. This brings the viral and cell membrane in close proximity enabling fusion and the release of viral genome in the cytosol of the host cell. In this chapter, we describe a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion, based on the ability of soluble peptides, derived from the N- and C-terminal domains of gp41, to form a stable six-helix bundle in vitro. Labeling of the peptides with allophycocyanin and the lanthanide europium results in a Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal upon formation of the six-helix bundle. Compounds interfering with the six-helix bundle formation inhibit the HIV-1 fusion process and suppress the FRET signal. PMID:23821256

  15. Time-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy using a high repetition rate streak camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-xin; QU Ju-le; LIN Zi-yang; WANG Lei; FU Zhe; GUO Bao-ping; NIU Han-ben

    2007-01-01

    We present a time-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence spectroscopy and a simultaneous time- and spectrumresolved multifocal multiphoton microscopy system that is based on a high repetition rate picosecond streak camera for providing time- and spectrum- resolved measurement and imaging in biomedicine. The performance of the system is tested and characterized by the fluorescence spectrum and lifetime analysis of several standard fluorescent dyes and their mixtures.Spectrum-resolved fluorescence lifetime images of fluorescence beads are obtained. Potential applications of the system include clinical diagnostics and cell biology etc.

  16. Time-resolved detection of fluorescent light during inflow of ICG to the brain—a methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was reported that time-resolved reflectance measurements carried out during inflow and washout of an optical contrast agent may provide information on the blood supply to the brain cortex of human adults. It was also shown that a measurement of fluorescence excited in the dye circulating in the brain is feasible. Unfortunately, patterns of time-resolved fluorescence signals observed during in vivo measurements are difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of several factors on the fluorescence signals measured during in vivo experiments. A laboratory instrument for recording the distributions of arrival of fluorescence photons was constructed and optimized for measurements on humans. Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory measurements on liquid phantoms as well as in vivo measurements on healthy volunteers were carried out. An influence of source–detector separation, position of the source–detector pair on the head, as well as a dose of the injected indocyanine green (ICG) on the fluorescence signals were studied in detail. It was shown that even for a small dose of ICG (0.025 mg kg−1) the time-resolved signals can be successfully detected on the surface of the head. Strong influence of the studied factors on the fluorescence signals was observed. It was also noted that the changes in moments of distributions of arrival times of fluorescence photons depend on the anatomical structure of the tissues located between the source and the detector. (paper)

  17. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3–10.0 µg·kg−1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg−1 and recoveries of 87.2%–114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R2 > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg−1. The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis. PMID:27428975

  18. Determination of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenic patients by use of time-resolved fluorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říčný, Jan; Šimková, L.; Vincent, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2002), s. 549-554. ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF4646 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : nicotinic acetylcholine receptor * time-resolved fluorescence method * myasthenia gravis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.788, year: 2002

  19. Highly sensitive detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue F.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Wodnicki, Pawel; Siadat-Pajouh, M.; Herman, Brian

    1995-04-01

    We have been interested in the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and its diagnosis; to that end we have been developing microscopic imaging and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to genotype and quantitate the amount of HPV present at a single cell level in cervical PAP smears. However, we have found that low levels of HPV DNA are difficult to detect accurately because theoretically obtainable sensitivity is never achieved due to nonspecific autofluorescence, fixative induced fluorescence of cells and tissues, and autofluorescence of the optical components in the microscopic system. In addition, the absorption stains used for PAP smears are intensely autofluorescent. Autofluorescence is a rapidly decaying process with lifetimes in the range of 1-100 nsec, whereas phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence have lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) ec-10 msec. The ability to discriminate between specific fluorescence and autofluorescence in the time-domain has improved the sensitivity of diagnostic test such that they perform comparably to, or even more sensitive than radioisotopic assays. We have developed a novel time-resolved fluorescence microscope to improve the sensitivity of detection of specific molecules of interest in slide based specimens. This time-resolved fluorescence microscope is based on our recently developed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FILM) in conjunction with the use of long lifetime fluorescent labels. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the long lifetime probe (europium), we have demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of HPV DNA in cervicovaginal cells. Our results indicate that the use of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes increases the sensitivity of detection by removing autofluorescence and will thus lead to improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Since the highly sensitive detection of DNA in clinical samples using

  20. Complex formation of Cm(III) with formate studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cm(III) complexation with formate is investigated at T = 20–90 °C. • The impact of formate on Cm(III) speciation increases with increasing temperature. • The complexation reactions of Cm(III) with formate are endothermic/entropy-driven. - Abstract: Pore waters of natural clays, which are investigated as potential host rock formations for high-level nuclear waste, are known to contain large amounts of low-molecular weight organic compounds. These small organic ligands might impact the aqueous geochemistry of the stored radionuclides and, thus, their migration behavior. In the present work, the complexation of Cm(III) with formate in aqueous NaCl solution is investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) as a function of the ionic strength (0.5–3.0 mol/kg), the ligand concentration (0–0.2 mol/kg) and the temperature (20–90 °C). The Cm(III) speciation is determined by deconvolution of the emission spectra. The obtained distribution of Cm(III) species is used to calculate the conditional stability constants (log K′(T)) at a given temperature and ionic strength which are extrapolated to zero ionic strength by using the specific ion interaction theory (SIT). Thus, the thermodynamic log K0n(T) values for the formation of [Cm(Form)n](3−n)+ (n = 1, 2) and the ion interaction coefficients (ε(i,k)) for [Cm(Form)n](3−n)+ (n = 1, 2) with Cl− are obtained. The log K01(T) (2.11 (20 °C)–2.49 (90 °C)) and log K02(T) values (1.17 (30 °C–2.01 (90 °C)) increase continuously with increasing temperature. The log K0n(T) values are used to derive the standard reaction enthalpies and entropies (ΔrH0m, ΔrS0m) of the respective complexation reactions according to the Van’t Hoff equation. In all cases, positive ΔrH0m and ΔrS0m values are obtained. Thus, both complexation steps are endothermic and entropy-driven

  1. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasović et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470 nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  2. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasović, M. S.; Šević, D.; Terzić, M.; Marinković, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasović et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470 nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  3. A time-resolved fluorescence study of matrix-isolated Ag 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, T.; Kolb, D. M.; Rotermund, H. H.; Schriever, U.; Wiggenhauser, H.

    1990-02-01

    The nanosecond lifetimes of the A, B and C states of Ag 2 in Ar, Kr and Xe matrices were determined by time-resolved emission spectroscopy. From an analysis of the rise and decay times after pulsed optical excitation, the non-radiative relaxation channel between the B and A states was quantitatively established.

  4. Far-field infrared super-resolution microscopy using picosecond time-resolved transient fluorescence detected IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Makoto; Kawashima, Yasutake; Takeda, Akihiro; Ohmori, Tsutomu; Fujii, Masaaki

    2007-05-01

    A new far-field infrared super-resolution microscopy combining laser fluorescence microscope and picosecond time-resolved transient fluorescence detected IR (TFD-IR) spectroscopy is proposed. TFD-IR spectroscopy is a kind of IR-visible/UV double resonance spectroscopy, and detects IR transitions by the transient fluorescence due to electronic transition originating from vibrationally excited level populated by IR light. IR images of rhodamine-6G solution and of fluorescent beads were clearly observed by monitoring the transient fluorescence. Super-resolution twice higher than the diffraction limit for IR light was achieved. The IR spectrum due to the transient fluorescence was also measured from spatial domains smaller than the diffraction limit.

  5. Uranium speciation studies in biological medium by capillary electrophoresis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium speciation studies in biological medium by capillary electrophoresis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The knowledge of the chemical state of uranium in biological medium requires more detailed investigations to understand the behaviour of uranium in the organism. The characterization of the different complexes of uranium can be improved by combining two techniques: time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE, indeed, using the isoelectric focusing mode (CIEF), allows for the separation of the different complexes as a function of their isoelectric points (pI) and TRLIF as a speciation method leads to the identification at very low level of different uranyl complexes by temporal resolution and spectral unfolding. Results obtained on various inorganic chemical systems (phosphate, bicarbonate) together with biological systems (citrate, transferrin) will be presented and discussed. The complexation between uranium and human transferrin has been pointed out through CIEF. (authors)

  6. Preclinical, fluorescence and diffuse optical tomography: non-contact instrumentation, modeling and time-resolved 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-DOT) is a new non-invasive imaging technique increasingly used in the clinical and preclinical fields. It yields optical absorption and scattering maps of the explored organs, and related physiological parameters. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-FDOT) is based on the detection of fluorescence photons. It provides spatio-temporal maps of fluorescent probe concentrations and life times, and allows access to metabolic and molecular imaging which is important for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, particularly in oncology. The main goal of this thesis was to reconstruct 3D TR-DOT/TR-FDOT images of small animals using time-resolved optical technology. Data were acquired using optical fibers fixed around the animal without contact with its surface. The work was achieved in four steps: 1)- Setting up an imaging device to record the 3D coordinates of an animal's surface; 2)- Modeling the no-contact approach to solve the forward problem; 3)- Processing of the measured signals taking into account the impulse response of the device; 4)- Implementation of a new image reconstruction method based on a selection of carefully chosen points. As a result, good-quality 3D optical images were obtained owing to reduced cross-talk between absorption and scattering. Moreover, the computation time was cut down, compared to full-time methods using whole temporal profiles. (author)

  7. Measurements of hydroxyl concentrations and lifetimes in laminar flames using picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, T A; Klassen, M S; King, G B; Laurendeau, N M

    1996-04-20

    Picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (PITLIF) can potentially be used to obtain measurements of minor species concentrations in rapidly fluctuating flames. Previous studies demonstrated this potential for atomic sodium by monitoring the temporal fluorescence signal with both an equivalent-time and a real-time sampling method. In this developmental study, PITLIF is used to determine hydroxyl concentrations in laminar CH(4)-O(2)-N(2) flames by the measurement of both the integrated fluorescence signal and the fluorescence lifetime. The quenching environment can be monitored with real-time sampling, and thus the necessary quenching rate coefficient is obtained in 348 us, which is fast enough for use in many turbulent flows. Fluorescence lifetimes of OH are also measured at different equivalence ratios in laminar flames by the use of the equivalent-time sampling technique. These results compare favorably with predicted lifetimes based on relevant quenching cross sections and calculated species concentrations. PMID:21085341

  8. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of matrix-isolated silver atoms after pulsed excitation of inner-shell transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, T.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Schriever, U.; Kolb, D. M.

    1990-02-01

    The energy dissipation in matrix-isolated silver atoms after pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation of 4d-5p transitions has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The decay behavior of the various fluorescence bands has been analyzed and a model for the relaxation process proposed within the framework of a two-dimensional configuration-coordinate diagram. If minute quantities of Ag2 are present in the matrix, the analysis requires consideration of energy transfer between silver atoms and dimers.

  9. Computational modeling of time-resolved fluorescence transport in turbid media for non-invasive clinical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging methods, including fluorescence lifetime sensing, are being developed for a variety of non-invasive clinical diagnostic procedures, including applications to early cancer diagnosis. Here, both the theoretical developments and experimental validations of a versatile, numerical Monte Carlo code that models photon migration in turbid media to include simulations of time-resolved fluorescence transport are presented. The developed numerical model was used to study, for the first time, the dependence of time-resolved fluorescence signals emanating from turbid media on the optical transport coefficients, fluorophore properties and source-detector configurations in single-layered turbid media as well as more complex multi-layered turbid media. The numerical codes presented here can be adapted to model a wide range of experimental techniques measuring the optical responses of biological tissues to laser irradiation and are demonstrated here for two specific applications (a) to model time-resolved fluorescence dynamics in human colon tissues and (b) to extract the frequency-dependent optical responses of a model adult human head to an incident laser-source whose intensity was harmonically modulated i.e. simulating frequency-domain measurements. Specifically, measurements of time-resolved fluorescence decays from a previous clinical study aimed toward detecting differences in tissue pathologies in patients undergoing gastro-intestinal endoscopy were simulated using the Monte Carlo model and results demonstrated that variations in tissue optical transport coefficients (absorption and scattering) alone could not account for the fluorescence decay differences detected between tissue pathologies in vivo. However, variations in fluorescence decay time as large as those detected clinically between normal and pre-malignant tissues (of 2 ns) could be accounted for by simulated variations in tissue morphology or biochemistry while intrinsic

  10. Monoclonal antibody-based time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays for daidzein, genistein and equol in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talbot, Duncan C.S.; Ogborne, Richard M.; Dadd, Tony; Adlercreutz, Herman; Barnard, Geoff; Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Kohen, Fortune; Marlin, Sandra; Piron, Jerry; Cassidy, Aedin; Powell, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    bioavailability of the isoflavone-rich foods; 33 of th 117 volunteers (28,2%) were classified as equol producers on the absis of their urinary equol concentration (>936 nmol/L),and significant differences in the numbers of equol producers were observed between Berling and the 3 other European cohorts studied...

  11. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of Rydberg states in Lu I and comparison with theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements have been performed for ten odd Rydberg states of neutral lutetium, belonging to the 6s2 (1S)np (n=8- 9) and 6s2 (1S)nf (n=5-8) series. For 6s2 (1S)8p and 6s2 (1S)7f, the experimental lifetimes corresponding to the two J values within the doublet differ substantially. Comparison with theoretical values, calculated with extensive configuration interaction and core-polarization effects included, shows that the experimental trends are adequately reproduced both for np (n=8- 9) and nf (n=5- 8) states

  12. Picosecond-nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence of weak EDA systems of TCNB-mesitylene (toluene) under restricted diffusion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of studies of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of a weak electron-donor-acceptor systems of tetracyanobenzene with mesitylene (and toluene) are presented. A strong dependence of observed spectra at room and low temperature (under restricted diffusion conditions) and the lack of interrelation between decay parameters determined for different spectral regions are discussed in terms of existence of this EDA systems in a number of different orientational isomers. The results of computations of potential energy surfaces of the ground and excited state for TCNB-mesitylene system are supporting this hypothesis

  13. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of Rydberg states in LuI and comparison with theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhenwen; Jiang, ZK; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Svanberg, Sune; Biemont, E.; Lefebvre, PH; Quinet, P.

    2003-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements have been performed for ten odd Rydberg states of neutral lutetium, belonging to the 6s(2)(S-1)np(n = 8-9) and 6 s(2)(S-1)nf (n = 5-8) series. For 6S(2)(S-1)8p and 6s(2)(S-1)7f, the experimental lifetimes corresponding to the two J values within the doublet differ substantially. Comparison with theoretical values, calculated with extensive configuration interaction and core-polarization effects included, shows that the experimental trends ...

  14. Plasmonic-based instrument response function for time-resolved fluorescence: toward proper lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we investigated the so-called plasmonic platforms prepared to target ultra-short fluorescence and accurate instrumental response function in a time-domain spectroscopy and microscopy. The interaction of metallic nanoparticles with nearby fluorophores results in the increase of the dye fluorescence quantum yield, photostability and decrease of the lifetime parameter. The mentioned properties of platforms were applied to achieve a picosecond fluorescence lifetime (21 ps) of erythrosin B, used later as a better choice for deconvolution of fluorescence decays measured with “color” sensitive photo-detectors. The ultra-short fluorescence standard based on combination of thin layers of silver film, silver colloidal nanoparticles (about 60 nm in diameter), and top layer of erythrosin B embedded in 0.2 % poly(vinyl) alcohol. The response functions were monitored on two photo-detectors; microchannel plate photomultiplier and single photon avalanche photodiode as a Rayleigh scattering and ultra-short fluorescence. We demonstrated that use of the plasmonic base fluorescence standard as an instrumental response function results in the absence of systematic error in lifetime measurements and analysis.

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of crude petroleum oils: influence of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-05-01

    The fluorescence of crude petroleum oils is sensitive to changes in chemical composition and many different fluorescence methods have been used to characterize crude oils. The use of fluorescence lifetimes to quantitatively characterize oil composition has practical advantages over steady-state measurements, but there have been comparatively few studies in which the lifetime behavior is correlated with gross chemical compositional data. In this study, the fluorescence lifetimes for a series of 23 crude petroleum oils with American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities of between 10 and 50 were measured at several emission wavelengths (450-785 nm) using a 380 nm light emitting diode (LED) excitation source. It was found that the intensity average fluorescence lifetime (tau) at any emission wave-length does not correlate well with either API gravity or aromatic concentration. However, it was found that tau is strongly negatively correlated with both the polar and sulfur concentrations and positively correlated with the corrected alkane concentration. This indicates that the fluorescence behavior of crude petroleum oils is governed primarily by the concentration of quenching species. All the strong lifetime-concentration correlations are nonlinear and show a high degree of scatter, especially for medium to light oils with API gravities of between 25 and 40. The degree of scatter is greatest for oils where the concentrations (wt %) of the polar fraction is approximately 10 +/- 4%, the asphaltene component is approximately 1 +/- 0.5%, and sulfur is 0.5 +/- 0.4%. This large degree of scatter precludes the use of average fluorescence lifetime data obtained with 380 nm excitation for the accurate prediction of the common chemical compositional parameters of crude petroleum oils. PMID:15165340

  16. Time-resolved excitation density dependent fluorescence of R-phycoerythrin single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Z.; Zheng, X. G.; Zhao, F. L.; Gao, Z. L.; Yu, Z. X.; Zhu, J. C.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhang, J. P.; Liang, D. C.

    1994-05-01

    The fluorescence kinetics of a new single crystal, R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), has been studied by picosecond laser spectroscopy. An excitonic band, which is much more narrow than that of the molecular fluorescnece, is observed. At high pump density, superradiance of excitons in the bulk pure single crystal is recorded. The experimental results of fluorescence kinetics and exciton superradiance of R-PE crystal demonstrate that exciton energy transfer is natural, effective and rapid. It is concluded that excitons play an important role in energy transfer in the antennae of photosynthetic systems.

  17. Interaction between certain porphyrins and CdS colloids: A steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhonsi, M. Asha; Kathiravan, A.; Renganathan, R.

    2008-12-01

    The interaction between porphyrins namely, meso-tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMeOPP), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and Zinc(II) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) with colloidal CdS has been studied by using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements. The porphyrins adsorbed on the surface of colloidal CdS due to electrostatic interaction. This adsorption leads to changes in the absorption spectra related to the complex formation. The apparent association constant ( Kapp) was in the order of 4.34-5.58 × 10 5 M -1 from the effect of colloidal CdS on the absorption spectra and 0.64-1.6 × 10 5 M -1 from fluorescence quenching data. Quenching is attributable mainly to static mechanism through ground state complex formation as confirmed by lifetime measurements.

  18. Time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI) for direct immunofluorescence of PSA and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in prostatic tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjartell, A; Siivola, P; Hulkko, S; Pettersson, K; Rundt, K; Lilja, H; Lövgren, T

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a direct immunofluorescence technique utilising chelates of the lanthanide ions europium and terbium conjugated to monoclonal IgGs (Mabs) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) for the detection and quantification on the same tissue section. Strong signals without disturbance from tissue autofluorescence were demonstrated in paraffin sections of ten benign and six malignant prostate tissue specimens. The signal intensity increased linearly with the amount of labelled Mab until epitope saturation began. The highest concentrations of bound IgG in tissue sections were 27.3 fmol/pixel for ACT and 7.2 for PSA. Time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI) offers an attractive method for histochemical studies based on specific and quantitative detection of fluorescent lanthanide chelates. PMID:12496823

  19. Applications of phasors to in vitro time-resolved fluorescence measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefl, Martin; James, N. G.; Jameson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 410, č. 1 (2011), s. 62-69. ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : phasor * fraquency domain * fluorescence lifetimes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  20. Time resolved fluorescence anisotropy of basic dyes bound to poly(methacrylic acid in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Hueder Paulo M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of atactic poly(methacrylic acid, PMAA, with molecular weights in the range of (1.6 to 3.4 x 10(5 g mol-1, and labeled with the fluorescent dyes 9-aminoacridine or Nile blue were studied by photophysical measurements as a function of solvent viscosity and polarity. The conformational behavior of the PMAA chain segments around the fluorescent probe was reported by the change in the rotational diffusion of the dyes. Ethylene glycol swells the polymer chain compared with the more contracted conformation of PMAA in 50% water/ethylene glycol. The change in the rotational relaxation time of the dye bound to PMAA with the decrease of water content in the solvent mixture indicates a progressive expansion of polymer chain to a more open coil form in solution.

  1. A new instrument for time-resolved reduction of scattered radiation in fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An opto-electronic cross-correlation system was employed to reduce the scattering influence in fluorescence measurements. A stable optical delay line incorporated into the instrument was positioned to yield detection at a fixed time after excitation; the optimal delay time was determined simply from the ratio of the fluorescence decay curve to a similar curve portraying scattering response. Signal-to-scattering background enhancements greater than two were measured for the very short-lived (tau = 0.7 ns) fluorophores whereas a six-fold increase was measured for fluorophores with longer lifetimes. The shortest lifetime which would benefit from time-resolution in this system is limited by the time-response of the photomultiplier tube (1.1 ns FWHM); the excitation pulses are on the order of 6 ps. (Auth.)

  2. Synthesis of Ag clusters in microemulsions: A time-resolved UV vis and fluorescence spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Ana; Martínez, F.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Rivas, J.

    2007-09-01

    The combined use of the microemulsion technique and the kinetic control allows the preparation of small silver clusters. By using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy the main stages by which the clusters grow, before the formation of nanoparticles, were elucidated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) were used to further characterize the samples. Two main stages were clearly identified, which are associated with: (1) the formation of Ag n clusters with n<10, which self-aggregate into one atom high 2D nanodiscs of 3.2 nm size and (2) Ag n clusters, which self-aggregate into 3D nanostructures of 1.5 nm in size. The fluorescence properties observed with both stages show that the formed clusters are small enough to display a molecule-like behaviour.

  3. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, M. Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well...

  4. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, L.; Mihailescu, I.; Radu, S.; Gazdaru, D.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m 2 was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  5. Homogeneous time-resolved G protein-coupled receptor-ligand binding assay based on fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Thomas; Ott, David; Ebell, Katharina; Hansen, Kerrin; Henry, Luc; Becker, Frank; Hannus, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many important physiological functions and are considered as one of the most successful therapeutic target classes for a wide spectrum of diseases. Drug discovery projects generally benefit from a broad range of experimental approaches for screening compound libraries and for the characterization of binding modes of drug candidates. Owing to the difficulties in solubilizing and purifying GPCRs, assay formats have been so far mainly limited to cell-based functional assays and radioligand binding assays. In this study, we used fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) to analyze the interaction of detergent-solubilized receptors to various types of GPCR ligands: endogenous peptides, small molecules, and a large surrogate antagonist represented by a blocking monoclonal antibody. Our work demonstrates the suitability of the homogeneous and time-resolved FCCS assay format for a robust, high-throughput determination of receptor-ligand binding affinities and kinetic rate constants for various therapeutically relevant GPCRs. PMID:26954998

  6. Uranium speciation in biological medium by means of capillary electrophoresis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the chemical behavior of uranium in biological medium is still of great interest. By the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF), it is possible to characterize the different complexes of uranium. Hence, CE, using the isoelectric focusing mode (CIEF), allows for the separation of the different complexes as a function of their isoelectric points (pI) and TRLIF as a speciation method leads to the identification at very low level of different uranyl complexes by temporal resolution and spectral deconvolution. Results obtained on various inorganic chemical systems (phosphate, bicarbonate) together with biological systems (citrate, transferrin) will be presented and discussed. The complexation between uranium and human transferrin has been pointed out through CIEF. (author)

  7. Separation of 248Cm (III) from 252Cf (III) and its use in time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic (TRFS) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report gives a description of the methodology for the separation of 248Cm(III) from decayed 252Cf (III) waste solution. The waste solution was first assayed for 252Cf content by neutron counting using a neutron well coincidence counter. The sample was subjected to the chemical separation of 248Cm (III) from 252Cf (III) following anion and cation exchange chromatography. The alpha spectrum of the separated curium fraction showed peaks due to 246Cm and 248Cm while the corresponding alpha spectrum of californium fraction showed 249,250,251,252Cf. The gamma ray abundances of 249Cf were determined with respect to its gamma rays of 387 keV and the data agreed well with that in literature. Separated Cm(III) was further characterized by recording its time resolved fluorescence spectrum (TRFS) in aqueous medium. (author)

  8. Global and Time-Resolved Monitoring of Crop Photosynthesis with Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.

  9. Temperature-dependent loop formation kinetics in flexible peptides studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harekrushna Sahoo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Looping rates in short polypeptides can be determined by intramolecular fluorescence quenching of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo by tryptophan. By this methodology, the looping rates in glycine-serine peptides with the structure Trp-(Gly-Sern-Dbo-NH2 of different lengths (n = 0–10 were determined in dependence on temperature in D2O and the activation parameters were derived. In general, the looping rate increases with decreasing peptide length, but the shortest peptide (n=0 shows exceptional behavior because its looping rate is slower than that for the next longer ones (n=1,2. The activation energies increase from 17.5 kJ mol−1 for the longest peptide (n=10 to 20.5 kJ mol−1 for the shortest one (n=0, while the pre-exponential factors (log⁡(A/s−1 range from 10.20 to 11.38. The data are interpreted in terms of an interplay between internal friction (stiffness of the biopolymer backbone and steric hindrance effects and solvent friction (viscosity-limited diffusion. For the longest peptides, the activation energies resemble more and more the value expected for solvent viscous flow. Internal friction is most important for the shortest peptides, causing a negative curvature and a smaller than ideal slope (ca. –1.1 of the double-logarithmic plots of the looping rates versus the number of peptide chain segments (N. Interestingly, the corresponding plot for the pre-exponential factors (logA versus logN shows the ideal slope (–1.5. While the looping rates can be used to assess the flexibility of peptides in a global way, it is suggested that the activation energies provide a measure of the “thermodynamic” flexibility of a peptide, while the pre-exponential factors reflect the “dynamic” flexibility.

  10. Development of a dual-modal tissue diagnostic system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Park, Jesung; Stephens, Douglas N; Jo, Javier A; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Saroufeem, Ramez M G; Shung, K Kirk; Marcu, Laura

    2009-06-01

    We report a tissue diagnostic system which combines two complementary techniques of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM). TR-LIFS evaluates the biochemical composition of tissue, while UBM provides tissue microanatomy and enables localization of the region of diagnostic interest. The TR-LIFS component consists of an optical fiber-based time-domain apparatus including a spectrometer, gated multichannel plate photomultiplier, and fast digitizer. It records the fluorescence with high sensitivity (nM concentration range) and time resolution as low as 300 ps. The UBM system consists of a transducer, pulser, receiving circuit, and positioning stage. The transducer used here is 45 MHz, unfocused, with axial and lateral resolutions 38 and 200 microm. Validation of the hybrid system and ultrasonic and spectroscopic data coregistration were conducted both in vitro (tissue phantom) and ex vivo (atherosclerotic tissue specimens of human aorta). Standard histopathological analysis of tissue samples was used to validate the UBM-TRLIFS data. Current results have demonstrated that spatially correlated UBM and TR-LIFS data provide complementary characterization of both morphology (necrotic core and calcium deposits) and biochemistry (collagen, elastin, and lipid features) of the atherosclerotic plaques at the same location. Thus, a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy with ultrasound imaging would allow for better identification of features associated with tissue pathologies. Current design and performance of the hybrid system suggests potential applications in clinical diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19566223

  11. Full genotyping of a highly polymorphic human gene trait by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Totè

    Full Text Available The ability of detecting the subtle variations occurring, among different individuals, within specific DNA sequences encompassed in highly polymorphic genes discloses new applications in genomics and diagnostics. DQB1 is a gene of the HLA-II DQ locus of the Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA system. The polymorphisms of the trait of the DQB1 gene including codons 52-57 modulate the susceptibility to a number of severe pathologies. Moreover, the donor-receiver tissue compatibility in bone marrow transplantations is routinely assessed through crossed genotyping of DQB and DQA. For the above reasons, the development of rapid, reliable and cost-effective typing technologies of DQB1 in general, and more specifically of the codons 52-57, is a relevant although challenging task. Quantitative assessment of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET efficiency between chromophores labelling the opposite ends of gene-specific oligonucleotide probes has proven to be a powerful tool to type DNA polymorphisms with single-nucleotide resolution. The FRET efficiency can be most conveniently quantified by applying a time-resolved fluorescence analysis methodology, i.e. time-correlated single-photon counting, which allows working on very diluted template specimens and in the presence of fluorescent contaminants. Here we present a full in-vitro characterization of the fluorescence responses of two probes when hybridized to oligonucleotide mixtures mimicking all the possible genotypes of the codons 52-57 trait of DQB1 (8 homozygous and 28 heterozygous. We show that each genotype can be effectively tagged by the combination of the fluorescence decay constants extrapolated from the data obtained with such probes.

  12. Studies on U(VI)-salicylate Charge Transfer Complex Formation by Using Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ligands, such as humic and fulvic acids, play important roles in dissolution and migration of actinide radionuclide species. They can form stable actinide complexes in the presence of inorganic ions like hydroxides and carbonates. Therefore, the structural mimics of such ligands containing carboxylic and phenolic functional groups have been targets of studies to understand their chemical behaviors migrating actinides under geological groundwater conditions. Among many carboxylic ligands salycylate (SA) is useful to examine the role of phenolic groups on humic substances. Salicylate ion can form ligand-to-metal chargetransfer (LMCT) complexes with various metal ions. It has been shown that the fluorescence of SA is suppressed in the presence of Cu(II) or Eu(III) at pH 4 by forming ground state complexes. While uranyl ions also can form complex with SA, the dominant species at pH 4-7 region is known to be an 1:1 complex. However, the chemical structures reported on this 1:1 species are different among [UO2SA]0, [UO2(OH)SAH]0 and [UO2(OH)SA]-. For α- hydroxycarboxylates cyclic chelate structures were suggested where both carboxylate and phenolate groups simultaneously bind to uranyl ion. In the present study we investigate aqueous U(VI)- SA complex systems by using UV-Vis absorbance measurement and highly sensitive time-resolved laserinduced fluorescence spectroscopic (TRLFS) technique. The U(VI)-SA complex shows two characteristic charge-transfer (CT) bands at higher pH (> 4), which we found useful to examine the complexation equilibrium. Further, the TRLFS method is used to study the fluorescence (FL) quenching of U(VI) species, particularly for hydroxouranyl species at pH 4.5 of which FL is significantly suppressed as SA concentration elevates in aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching mechanism in conjunction with the formation of U(VI)-SA CT complex is discussed

  13. Identifiability analysis of rotational diffusion tensor and electronic transition moments measured in time-resolved fluorescence depolarization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this paper is studies of the deterministic identifiability of molecular parameters, such as rotational diffusion tensor components and orientation of electronic transition moments, resulting from the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiment. In the most general case considered, a pair of perpendicularly polarized emissions enables the unique determination of all the rotational diffusion tensor's principal components. The influence of the tensor's symmetry and the associated degeneration of its eigenvalues on the identifiability of the electronic transitions moments is systematically investigated. The analysis reveals that independently of the rotational diffusion tensor's symmetry, the transition moments involved in photoselection and emission processes cannot be uniquely identified without a priori information about their mutual orientation or their orientation with respect to the principal axes of the tensor. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the symmetry of the rotational diffusion tensor deteriorates the degree of the transition moments identifiability. To obtain these results analytically, a novel approach to solve bilinear system of equations for Markov parameters is applied. The effect of the additional information, obtained from fluorescence measurements for different molecular mobilities, to improve the identifiability at various levels of analysis is shown. The effectiveness and reliability of the target analysis method for experimental determination of the molecular parameters is also discussed

  14. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy using an improved europium chelate BHHST for the in situ detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Russell; Veal, Duncan; Piper, James

    2004-07-01

    Fluorescent immunoconjugates prepared with the europium chelate BHHCT (4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl)-chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl) have previously been reported as suitable labels for time-resolved fluorescence applications. BHHCT is limited by a tendency to destabilize immunoglobulins when covalently bound to the protein at moderate to high fluorophore to protein ratios (F/P). We report a new derivative of BHHCT prepared by appending a short hydrophylic tether to the chlorosulfonate activating group on BHHCT. The new derivative, BHHST (4,4'-bis-(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl)sulfonylamino-propyl-ester-N-succinimide-ester-o-terphenyl), was activated to bind at the tether terminus with a succinimide leaving group that displayed less aggressive coupling activity and improved storage stability. BHHST has been used to prepare a stable and useful immunoconjugate with the anti-Cryptosporidium monoclonal antibody CRY104. The BHHST immunoconjugate provides more than a 10-fold enhancement in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of labeled oocyst fluorescence over background when observed using TRFM techniques. An immunoconjugate was also prepared with BHHST and (goat) anti-mouse that effectively labeled Giardia cysts in situ. Detection of cysts with the TRFM was achieved with an 11-fold increase in SNR when a gate-delay of 60 micros was employed. The storage half-life of both immunoconjugates is extended more than 20-fold when compared to immunoconjugates prepared with BHHCT. PMID:15481045

  15. Quantitative Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Androgen Receptor and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostate Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Lippolis, Giuseppe; Helczynski, Leszek; Anand, Aseem; Peltola, Mari; Pettersson, Kim; Lilja, Hans; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are expressed in the prostate and are involved in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to develop reliable protocols for reproducible quantification of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) imaging techniques. AR and PSA were detected with TRF in tissue microarrays from 91 PCa patients. p63/ alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) staining on consecutive sections was used to categorize tissue areas as benign or cancerous. Automated image analysis was used to quantify staining intensity. AR intensity was significantly higher in AMACR+ and lower in AMACR- cancer areas as compared with benign epithelium. The PSA intensity was significantly lower in cancer areas, particularly in AMACR- glands. The AR/PSA ratio varied significantly in the AMACR+ tumor cells as compared with benign glands. There was a trend of more rapid disease progression in patients with higher AR/PSA ratios in the AMACR- areas. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing reproducible protocols for TRF imaging and automated image analysis to study the expression of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate. It also highlighted the differences in AR and PSA protein expression within AMACR- and AMACR+ cancer regions. PMID:27026295

  16. Thin solid europium(III) dye layers as donors in time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide chelates and lanthanide nanoparticle labels are attractive donors for separation-free time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. In fully dyed nanoparticles, the inner volume of nanoparticle labels in TR-FRET assays are incapable of participating to energy transfer due to large distances to acceptors on the surface. Our interest was to study surface-based TR-FRET and, therefore, various europium(III) (Eu) chelate layers were investigated for TR-FRET efficiency. Eu(III) chelates incorporated in a siloxane layer, Eu(III) chelate covalently coupled on silanized surface and Eu(III) labeled protein surface were prepared and compared to nanoparticle-based TR-FRET. Energy transfer between the solid-phase donors and Cy5-labeled protein were obtained with signal-to-background ratios ranging from 1.2 to 9.9. In this study, a thin layer prepared using Eu(III)-labeled protein gave the most efficient TR-FRET. This thin donor layer was tested in a competitive separation-free immunoassay of human albumin (hAlb). hAlb was measured in a clinically relevant concentrations from 0.05 to 10 mg l-1 with the coefficient of variation ranging from 1.0% to 12.4%.

  17. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-01

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300-1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10-5M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process.

  18. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300–1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10−5M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process

  19. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang, E-mail: yxweng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300–1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10{sup −5}M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process.

  20. Quantitative determination of major capsaicinoids in serum by ELISA and time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingqing; Zhu, Jianguo; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-15

    To monitor capsaicinoids in serum on-site, three new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were firstly proposed using a conjugate of 4-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl) amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid as the immunogen. Among them, the YQQD8 mAb showed the highest sensitivity and cross-reactivity to major capsaicinoids, such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and N-vanillylnonanamide. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and a time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic assay (TRFICA) were established based on this mAb. The linear range was 1.1-27.0ngmL(-1) for icELISA and 1.9-62.5ngmL(-1) for TRFICA and the limit of detection (LOD) of TRFICA was 1.5ngmL(-1). To decrease the interference of sample components and increase accuracy, serum samples were diluted four times before assays. As a result, the linear range of serum samples was 4.6-107.9ngmL(-1) for icELISA and 7.6-250.0ngmL(-1) for TRFICA. Both icELISA and TRFICA showed good recoveries (91.0-112.8% for icELISA and 87.6-111.5% for TRFICA) and concordant results in spiked experiments. Overall, this is the first report of immunoassay based on the mAbs for quantitative determination of major capsaicinoids, and the results demonstrate that both methods can meet the demands of rapid on-site assay for capsaicinoids in serum samples. PMID:26954788

  1. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)μM (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)μM (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex. PMID:24857756

  2. NI-49SMART SUCKER: NEXT GENERATION SMART SURGICAL TOOL FOR INTRAOPERATIVE BRAIN TUMOR RESECTION USING TIME RESOLVED LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Kittle, David S.; Butte, Pramod V.; Vasefi, Fartash; Patil, Chirag G.; Black, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Primary brain tumors are highly lethal tumors where surgical resection is the primary treatment of choice. It has been shown that survival rate is directly related to the extent of tumor resection. In order to aid the surgeon in achieving near-complete resection, novel technologies are required. Time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS) promises to be one such technology, where the tissue is excited using an ultra-short laser and the corresponding fluorescence intensity d...

  3. Antibody-based fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh Nhat, Kim Phuong; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Yoshikoshi, Kensuke; Hohsaka, Takahiro

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescent indicators for protein phosphorylation are very important in not only fundamental biology but also biomedical applications. In this study, we developed novel fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) derivatives. A single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) against phosphotyrosine was fluorescent-labeled by incorporation of tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-linked nonnatural amino acid at the N- or C-terminus. The TAMRA-labeled scFv showed fluorescence enhancement upon addition of pTyr-containing peptides based on antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect on TAMRA. The TAMRA-labeled scFv was further fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to generate a double-labeled scFv for pTyr. In the absence of antigen, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred from EGFP to TAMRA but TAMRA was quenched. The antigen-binding removed the quenching of TAMRA while FRET occurred without altering its efficiency. As a result of the FRET and antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect, the double-labeled scFv exhibited fluorescence ratio enhancement upon the antigen-binding. The fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators obtained in this study will become a novel tool for analysis of protein phosphorylation. Moreover, this strategy utilizes antibody derivatives, and therefore, can be easily applied to other antigen-antibody pairs to generate fluorescent ratiometric indicators for various target molecules. PMID:26896314

  4. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the

  5. Equilibrium constants in aqueous lanthanide and actinide chemistry from time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy: The role of ground and excited state reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions between lanthanide or actinide ions and (in-) organic ligands contain important information for various radiochemical problems, such as nuclear reprocessing or the migration of radioelements in the geosphere. We study the conditions required to determine equilibrium constants by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. Based on a simulation study it is shown that the possibility to determine equilibrium constants depends upon the reaction rates in the photoexcited states of the lanthanide or actinide ions. (orig.)

  6. Distribution coefficients of UO2(NO3)2 . 2TBP in supercritical fluid CO2 as determined by on-line time resolved laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time resolved laser induced fluorescence has been used for on-line analysis of uranium extraction from acidic solutions with tributyl phosphate modified supercritical carbo dioxide. The in-situ measurement allows direct characterization of the supercritical fluid extraction. The extractions were found to be first order with respect to uranium and the distribution coefficient was observed to increase with temperature and tributyl phosphate concentration. (orig.)

  7. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector

    OpenAIRE

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C.; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is ...

  8. Complexation of Eu(III) dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA): a time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkyl derivatives of phosphoric acids such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and dinonyl-phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) have been extensively evaluated for the extraction/recovery of metal ions viz. uranium and rare earths from different acid solutions. In this context, time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) was carried out to investigate the speciation of Eu(III) extracted from nitric acid medium in DNPPA and D2EHPA dissolved in n-dodecane

  9. Excited state dynamics of 9,9'-bianthryl in room temperature ionic liquids as revealed by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Chandra Khara; Aniruddha Paul; Kotni Santhosh; Anunay Samanta

    2009-05-01

    Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been carried out on 9,9'-bianthryl in three imidazolium ionic liquids to probe the excited state dynamics. In the early time-scale, the fluorescence spectra of bianthryl have been found to consist of emission from both locally excited (LE) and charge transfer (CT) states. The LE → CT relaxation time, as estimated from the decay of the fluorescence intensity of the LE emission, is found to vary between 230 and 390 ps, while the average solvent relaxation time, as estimated from the analysis of time-dependent fluorescence Stokes shift, is found to vary between 620 ps and 1840 ps, depending on the viscosity of the ionic liquids. The results confirm that while in conventional less viscous solvents the CT formation kinetics of bianthryl occurs simultaneously with the solvation dynamics, in ionic liquids the two processes mostly occur in different time scales.

  10. A novel cell-based duplex high-throughput screening assay combining fluorescent Ca(2+) measurement with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, László; Cselenyák, Attila; Varga, Ágnes; Visegrády, András

    2016-08-15

    Cell-based assays for G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation applied in high-throughput screening (HTS) monitor various readouts for second messengers or intracellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of diverging signaling pathways downstream of receptor activation and the capability of small molecules to selectively modulate signaling routes has increased substantially, underlining the importance of selecting appropriate readouts in cellular functional screens. To minimize the rate of false negatives in large-scale screening campaigns, it is crucial to maximize the chance of a ligand being detected, and generally applicable methods for detecting multiple analytes from a single well might serve this purpose. The few assays developed so far based on multiplexed GPCR readouts are limited to only certain applications and usually rely on genetic manipulations hindering screening in native or native-like cellular systems. Here we describe a more generally applicable and HTS-compatible homogeneous assay based on the combination of fluorometric detection of [Ca(2+)] with subsequent homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) cAMP readout in the same well. Besides describing development and validation of the assay, using a cell line recombinantly expressing the human PTH1 receptor screening of a small library is also presented, demonstrating the robustness and HTS compatibility of the novel paradigm. PMID:27235172

  11. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies of azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in silica and PVA thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Shah, Sunil;

    2015-01-01

    A cationic azadioxatriangulenium dye was entrapped in silica thin films obtained by the sol-gel process and in poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) thin films. Azadioxatriangulenium is a red emitting fluorophore with a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The fluorescent properties of azadioxatriangulenium...

  12. Ultrasensitive time-resolved microplate fluorescence immunoassay for bisphenol A using a system composed on gold nanoparticles and a europium(III)-labeled streptavidin tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an ultrasensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for bisphenol A (BPA) where gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were modified with anti-BPA antibody and thiolated dsDNA-biotin acting as a signal amplifier. In a competitive reaction, the analyte (BPA) competes with immobilized BPA-ovalbumin conjugate on the surface of microtiter plates to bind to the anti-BPA antibodies on the surface of the Au-NPs. In the next step, a Eu(III)-labeled streptavidin is added to link to the SH-dsDNA-biotin as a tracer. Fluorescence is amplified via both the Au-NPs and the biotin-streptavidin systems, and its intensity is measured in a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. The linear range is from 1.0 fg∙mL−1 to 1.0 ng∙mL−1, and the detection limit is 0.3 fg mL−1, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of BPA in spiked water sample, with recoveries ranging from 90.2 to 106.4 %. (author)

  13. An integrated logic system for time-resolved fluorescent "turn-on" detection of cysteine and histidine base on terbium (III) coordination polymer-copper (II) ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Fan; Lu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Qi-Xian; Zhang, Shengqiang; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-09-01

    Cysteine (Cys) and histidine (His) both play indispensable roles in many important biological activities. An enhanced Cys level can result in Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Likewise, His plays a significant role in the growth and repair of tissues as well as in controlling the transmission of metal elements in biological bases. Therefore, it is meaningful to detect Cys and His simultaneously. In this work, a novel terbium (III) coordination polymer-Cu (II) ensemble (Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+)) was proposed. Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) can self-assemble with Tb(3+) to form a supramolecular Tb(3+) coordination polymer (Tb(3+)/GMP), which can be suited as a time-resolved probe. The fluorescence of Tb(3+)/GMP would be quenched upon the addition of Cu(2+), and then the fluorescence of the as-prepared Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+) ensemble would be restored again in the presence of Cys or His. By incorporating N-Ethylmaleimide and Ni(2+) as masking agents, Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+) was further exploited as an integrated logic system and a specific time-resolved fluorescent "turn-on" assay for simultaneously sensing His and Cys was designed. Meanwhile it can also be used in plasma samples, showing great potential to meet the need of practical application. PMID:27343597

  14. Steady State and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Dynamics of Triphenylamine Based Oligomers with Phenylene/Thiophene/Furan in Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qi; LIU Ying-Liang; MENG Kang; ZHAO Xiang-Jie; WANG Shu-Feng; GONG Qi-Huang

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the photo-physical properties of a series of triphenylamine-based oligomers by steady-state and picosecond transient fluorescence measurements in solvents. The oligomers are composed alternatively with triph-enylamine and phenylene/thiophene/furan group, bridged by vinyl group (PNB/PNT/PNF). Their fluorescence spectra show bathochromic phenomenon with solvent polarity and viscosity increasing. The fluorescence decays are bi-exponential for PNB and PNT, and tri-exponential for PNF in THF and aniline. The strong viscosity dependence suggests conformational relaxation along the PNF chain after photo excitation.

  15. Luminescence of the Cr3+ ion in sodium β- and β''-alumina: Site selection by time-resolved fluorescence line narrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F.; Mariotto, G.; Montagna, M.; Ferrari, M.

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence of Cr3+ ions in the two different octahedral sites of the spinel block of β- and β''-alumina have been measured by time-resolved fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy. For the excitation either a pulsed or a chopped cw-dye laser was used. Lifetimes and splittings of the ground state (4A2) and of the 2E state have been measured by tuning the excitation energy within the inhomogeneous profile of the R1 and R2 lines of the split 2E-4A2 transition. In sodium β''-alumina, we have isolated several inequivalent emitting centers, which are related to different configurations of the stabilizing Mg2+ ions.

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy combined with lifetime tuning: New perspectives in supported phospholipid bilayers´ research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Fagulová, Veronika; Deineka, Alexander; Enderlein, J.; Hof, Martin

    Berlin : Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 2006 - (Cardoso, M.). s. 46 [International Symposium Optical Analysis of Biomolecular Machines. 13.07.2006-16.07.2006, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy * phospholipid bilayers research * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Time-resolved Tryptophan Fluorescence of Fragment 1-86 of Factor X and the Influence of Membrane Binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Häfner, A.; Mérola, F.; Duportail, G.; Schneider, F. W.; Hof, Martin; Beneš, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2002), s. 1872-1882. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : protein fluorescence * factor Xa * Gla domain Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2002

  18. Local heterogeneity for a Eu3+-doped glass evidenced by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy coupled to scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) was applied to an aluminate glass sample doped with Eu3+ cation as a fluorescent probe of the chemical environment and local symmetry. Conventional far-field experiments revealed the presence of two different phases: an amorphous phase featured by a highly disordered environment surrounding the Eu3+ cation and a more ordered polycrystalline phase that exhibits a significant increase in the Eu3+ fluorescence decay time compared to that of the amorphous phase. Near-field fluorescence spectra and decay kinetics were recorded in the frontier region between the two phases using a home-built scanning near-field optical microscope. SNOM-TRFS experiments confirmed the presence of local heterogeneities in this part of the glass at a sub-micrometric spatial scale. Polycrystalline sites featured an important shear-force interaction with the probing fiber optic tip, a longer fluorescence decay time, and a higher Stark splitting of the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1-4) electronic transitions of the Eu3+ cations. (authors)

  19. Poly(acrylic acid) interpolymer complexation: use of a fluorescence time resolved anisotropy as a poly(acrylamide) probe

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, T.; Swanson, L; Rimmer, S.

    2014-01-01

    A low concentration poly(acrylamide) sensor has been developed which uses the segmental mobility of another polymer probe with a covalently attached fluorescent marker. Interpolymer complexation with poly(acrylic acid) leads to reduced segmental mobility which can be used to determine the concentration of polymer in solution. This technique could be useful in detecting the runoff of polymer dispersants and flocculants in fresh water supplies following water purification processes

  20. TCSPC Upgrate of a confocal FCS microscope and first useful applications of time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Kapusta, P.; Fagulová, Veronika; Hof, Martin

    Santarém : Sociedade Portuguesa de Química , 2005 - (Tavares, E.). s. 73 ISBN 972-99080-7-9. [MAF 9. International Conference on Methods and Applications of Fluorescence. Spectroscopy, Imaging and Probes /9./. 4.9. - 7.9. 2005, Lisbon] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TCSPC * TTTR * FCS microscope Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  1. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le, E-mail: yongle.pan.civ@mail.mil [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Redding, Brandon [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A dual wavelength UV-LIF spectra-rotating drum impactor (RDI) technique was developed. • The technique was demonstrated by direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles. • More than 2000 LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles collected over three weeks in Djibouti were obtained and assigned to various fluorescence clusters. • The LIF spectra showed size- and time-sensitivity behavior with a time resolution of 3.6 h. - Abstract: We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2 mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and

  2. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A dual wavelength UV-LIF spectra-rotating drum impactor (RDI) technique was developed. • The technique was demonstrated by direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles. • More than 2000 LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles collected over three weeks in Djibouti were obtained and assigned to various fluorescence clusters. • The LIF spectra showed size- and time-sensitivity behavior with a time resolution of 3.6 h. - Abstract: We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2 mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and

  3. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit@bose.res.in [Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata, West Bengal 700098 (India)

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}) and urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + (1 − f)NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α{sub 2}) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  4. Interaction of quinine sulfate with anionic micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate: A time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-09-01

    Photophysical behavior and rotational relaxation dynamics of quinine sulfate (QS) in anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH have been studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It has been observed that the cationic form of quinine sulfate (at pH 2) forms a fluorescent ion pair complex with the surfactant molecules at lower concentrations of surfactant. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, the probe molecules bind strongly with the micelles and reside at the water-micelle interface. At pH 7, QS is singly protonated in bulk aqueous solution. At lower concentrations of SDS aggregation between probe and surfactant molecules has been observed. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, an additional fluorescence peak corresponding to dicationic form of QS appears and this has been attributed to double protonation of the QS molecule in micellar solution. At pH 7, in the presence of SDS micelles, the photophysical properties of QS showed substantial changes compared to that in the bulk water solution. At pH 12, an increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime has been observed and this has been attributed to the increase in radiative rate due to the incorporation of QS at the micelle-water interface. The local pH at micellar surface has been found different from the pH of bulk solution.

  5. Identification of two quenching sites active in the regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting studied by time-resolved fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzwarth, Alfred R.; Miloslavina, Yuliya; Nilkens, Manuela; Jahns, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The regulation of light-harvesting (called non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) is an essential photoprotective mechanism active in plants. Total NPQ is dependent on PsbS, a pH-sensing protein, and on the action of the xanthophyll carotenoid zeaxanthin (Zx). Using ultrafast fluorescence on intact leaves we demonstrate two independent NPQ quenching sites in vivo which depend differently on the actions of PsbS and Zx. The first site is formed in the functionally detached major light-harvesting complex of PS II and depends strictly on PsbS. The second site is in the minor antennae of photosystem (PS) II and quenching depends on the presence of Zx.

  6. Time-resolved fluorescence sensing of pesticides chlorpyrifos, crotoxyphos and endosulfan by the luminescent Eu(III)-8-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the application of time resolved fluorescence in microtiter plates for investigating the interactions of europium-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin with pesticides chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and crotoxyphos. Stern-Volmer studies at different temperatures for chlorpyrifos and crotoxyphos shows dynamic and static quenching mechanisms respectively. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 6.53, 0.004, 3.72 μmol/L for chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and crotoxyphos, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ΔG. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, mineral, and waste water).

  7. In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Lam, Matthew; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Zhou, Feifei; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Dobbie, Allison; Tinling, Steven L.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Gregory Farwell, D.; Marcu, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Tissue diagnostic features generated by a bimodal technique integrating scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM) are investigated in an in vivo hamster oral carcinoma model. Tissue fluorescence is excited by a pulsed nitrogen laser and spectrally and temporally resolved using a set of filters/dichroic mirrors and a fast digitizer, respectively. A 41-MHz focused transducer (37-μm axial, 65-μm lateral resolution) is used for UBM scanning. Representative lesions of the different stages of carcinogenesis show that fluorescence characteristics complement ultrasonic features, and both correlate with histological findings. These results demonstrate that TRFS-UBM provide a wealth of co-registered, complementary data concerning tissue composition and structure as it relates to disease status. The direct co-registration of the TRFS data (sensitive to surface molecular changes) with the UBM data (sensitive to cross-sectional structural changes and depth of tumor invasion) is expected to play an important role in pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative determination of tumor margins.

  8. Steady-state and time-resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy: a versatile tool for probing cellular environment and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, the two-photon fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become an indispensable tool for the bioscientific and biomedical research. TPLSM techniques as well as their applications are currently experiencing a dramatic evolution and represent the focus of many biophysical research projects. In this work, we compare in detail two steady-state TPLSM techniques, i.e. single-beam scanning microscopy combined with point-detection (SB-PMT) and multi-beam scanning microscopy combined with synchronous detection (MB-CCD), as far as their technical characteristics relevant for the bioscientific research are concerned, i.e. optical performance and imaging speed. We demonstrate that the SB-PMT technique is more adequate for deep-tissue imaging (few 100 μm depth) than the MB-CCD technique, whereas only the MB-CCD technique enables high-speed imaging for characterizing the dynamics of fast biological phenomena. Novel applications of these techniques are additionally discussed. Moreover, we employ a time-resolved TPLSM technique, i.e. biexponential fluorescence lifetime imaging based on the cellular fluorescence of the nicotinamide pyridine dinucleotides NADH and NADPH, which allows us to probe for the first time the redox cellular metabolism of MIN6 cells (mutated insulin producing pancreatic β-cells) as well as to show the potential of this method for the specific and dynamic investigation of NADH- and NADPH-dependent cellular processes

  9. Steady-state and time-resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy: a versatile tool for probing cellular environment and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denicke, Stefan; Ehlers, Jan-Eric; Niesner, Raluca; Quentmeier, Stefan; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2007-09-01

    In the last decade, the two-photon fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become an indispensable tool for the bioscientific and biomedical research. TPLSM techniques as well as their applications are currently experiencing a dramatic evolution and represent the focus of many biophysical research projects. In this work, we compare in detail two steady-state TPLSM techniques, i.e. single-beam scanning microscopy combined with point-detection (SB-PMT) and multi-beam scanning microscopy combined with synchronous detection (MB-CCD), as far as their technical characteristics relevant for the bioscientific research are concerned, i.e. optical performance and imaging speed. We demonstrate that the SB-PMT technique is more adequate for deep-tissue imaging (few 100 μm depth) than the MB-CCD technique, whereas only the MB-CCD technique enables high-speed imaging for characterizing the dynamics of fast biological phenomena. Novel applications of these techniques are additionally discussed. Moreover, we employ a time-resolved TPLSM technique, i.e. biexponential fluorescence lifetime imaging based on the cellular fluorescence of the nicotinamide pyridine dinucleotides NADH and NADPH, which allows us to probe for the first time the redox cellular metabolism of MIN6 cells (mutated insulin producing pancreatic β-cells) as well as to show the potential of this method for the specific and dynamic investigation of NADH- and NADPH-dependent cellular processes.

  10. ESIPT and photodissociation of 3-hydroxychromone in solution: photoinduced processes studied by static and time-resolved UV/Vis, fluorescence, and IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Katharina; Grün, Anneken; Stamm, Anke; Schmitt, Yvonne; Gerhards, Markus; Diller, Rolf

    2013-11-01

    The spectral properties of fluorescence sensors such as 3-hydroxychromone (3-HC) and its derivatives are sensitive to interaction with the surrounding medium as well as to substitution. 3-HC is a prototype system for other derivatives because it is the basic unit of all flavonoides undergoing ESIPT and is not perturbed by a substituent. In this study, the elementary processes and intermediate states in the photocycle of 3-HC as well as its anion were identified and characterized by the use of static and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy in different solvents (methylcyclohexane, acetonitrile, ethanol, and water at different pH). Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra and lifetimes of the intermediate states were obtained for the normal, tautomer and anionic excited state, while mid-IR vibrational spectra yielded structural information on ground and excited states of 3-HC. A high sensitivity on hydrogen-bonding perturbations was observed, leading to photoinduced anion formation in water, while in organic solvents, different processes are suggested, including slow picosecond ESIPT and contribution of the trans-structure excited state or a different stable solvation state with different direction of OH. The formation of the latter could be favored by the lack of a substituent increasing contact points for specific solute-solvent interactions at the hydroxyl group compared to substituted derivatives. The effect of substituents has to be considered for the design of future fluorescence sensors based on 3-HC. PMID:24083478

  11. Development of a method for the in situ measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water on the basis of time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The detection of the sum of PAH in ground- and surfacewater is possible with high sensitivity and selectivity. The fluorescence of other substances like chlorophyll or dissolved organic matter is suppressed by a special choice of spectral and temporal windows. The method works without any sample preparation and gives the results in a very short time. On the basis of this method a first device was built with a sensitivity of 0,1 μg/1 PAH in water. The measuring time was less than one minute. The on site use of this prototype is possible because of the use of a battery driven nitrogen laser together with a notebook computer for system control The application of fiberoptic cables up to 30 meter length makes it possible to use the system for screening and monitoring of polluted areas both in existing wells and without any well by using geological probe techniques. (orig.)

  12. NI-49SMART SUCKER: NEXT GENERATION SMART SURGICAL TOOL FOR INTRAOPERATIVE BRAIN TUMOR RESECTION USING TIME RESOLVED LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, David S.; Butte, Pramod V.; Vasefi, Fartash; Patil, Chirag G.; Black, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Primary brain tumors are highly lethal tumors where surgical resection is the primary treatment of choice. It has been shown that survival rate is directly related to the extent of tumor resection. In order to aid the surgeon in achieving near-complete resection, novel technologies are required. Time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS) promises to be one such technology, where the tissue is excited using an ultra-short laser and the corresponding fluorescence intensity decay is captured. Based on the fluorescence spectrum and the decay characteristics at various color bands from TRLIFS, differentiation of tumor from the normal brain tissue is possible in real-time. We built a portable TRLIFS system using custom optics and hardware (laser excitation: 355nm, 400ps pulse width, 5 uJ/pulse; PMT detector: Photek, rise time 80 picoseconds; digitizer: 7 Giga-samples per second) which is capable of providing the results in real time (every 50 milliseconds). We have designed a custom probe which is attached to a Roton sucker "Smart sucker" to collect the data during surgical resection from patients at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. The histopathological diagnosis of the site under study with TRLIFS is confirmed with a biopsy and H-E staining. We will present our preliminary data from human brain tumor samples collected in-vivo. Our preliminary study shows that TRLIFS is capable of classifying low grade tumors with high sensitivity and specificity. This study will also demonstrate the potential of using the TRLIFS system to enhance the surgical instrumentation, aiding surgeons in near-complete excision of tumors and bringing these instruments into the next generation of smart tools.

  13. Study on the interaction of phthalate esters to human serum albumin by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoyun [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhaowei [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Ximin; Wang, Xiaoru [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. {center_dot} HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. {center_dot} Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. {center_dot} The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. {center_dot} The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 10{sup 3}, 3.97 x 10{sup 3}, 3.45 x 10{sup 3}, and 3.20 x 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) were measured, and they indicated the presences

  14. Study on the interaction of phthalate esters to human serum albumin by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. · HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. · Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. · The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. · The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 103, 3.97 x 103, 3.45 x 103, and 3.20 x 103 L mol-1 at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) were measured, and they indicated the presences of hydrophobic forces and hydrogen interactions in the PAEs-HSA interactions, which agreed well with the results

  15. Influence of pH and metal ion loading on the Cm(III) humate complexation. A time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of trivalent lanthanides and Cm(III) with humic acid (HA) (l0mg/L) is studied as a function of metal ion concentration (1 x 108 to 5 x 10-5 mol/L) and pH (2.5 to 7.0) in 0.01 mol/L NaClO4. Time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) reveals a slight blue-shift/broadening of the fluorescence peak position for the Cm(III)-HA complex combined with an enhanced contribution of a short-lived fluorescence component with increasing metal ion loading and decreasing pH. Fluorescence decay for Cm(III)-HA is non-monoexponential under all investigated conditions and lifetimes can be described by assuming a short lived (τ = 61 μs) and a longer lived contribution (τ = 142 μs). These findings are explained by the existence of a certain heterogeneity in binding sites inducing slightly variable ligand-field splitting in the Cm(III)-HA complex. Batch experiments with a Eu(III)-HA solution contacted with a chelating resin reveal a decrease of the solid/liquid distribution coefficient by decreasing the occupancy of HA ligand sites from 4% to 0.2%. This observation indicates that complexation constants for the Eu(III)-HA complex vary with metal loading. Differences in related constants are, however, smaller than one order of magnitude. Variations in fluorescence lifetimes are interpreted as a consequence of increasing HA agglomeration at increasing metal loading and decreasing pH, thus leading to an enhanced local density of chromophoric groups close to the Cm(III) ion favouring non-radiative energy transition. HA agglomeration at low pH and increasing metal ion loading is well known from previous studies using flow-field flow fractionation (FFF) coupled to ICP-mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Our experimental results demonstrate the dynamic properties of metal-HA complexes depending on chemical conditions. (orig.)

  16. A high-throughput screening-compatible homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay measuring the glycohydrolase activity of human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Alexandra I J; James, Dominic I; Waddell, Ian D; Bennett, Neil; Truman, Caroline; Hardern, Ian M; Ogilvie, Donald J

    2016-06-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers are transient post-translational modifications, and their formation is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes. A number of PARP inhibitors are in advanced clinical development for BRCA-mutated breast cancer, and olaparib has recently been approved for BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer; however, there has already been evidence of developed resistance mechanisms. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the endo- and exo-glycosidic bonds within the PAR polymers. As an alternative strategy, PARG is a potentially attractive therapeutic target. There is only one PARG gene, compared with 17 known PARP family members, and therefore a PARG inhibitor may have wider application with fewer compensatory mechanisms. Prior to the initiation of this project, there were no known existing cell-permeable small molecule PARG inhibitors for use as tool compounds to assess these hypotheses and no suitable high-throughput screening (HTS)-compatible biochemical assays available to identify start points for a drug discovery project. The development of this newly described high-throughput homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay has allowed HTS to proceed and, from this, the identification and advancement of multiple validated series of tool compounds for PARG inhibition. PMID:27036617

  17. Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence studies on excitation energy transfer in a histidine 117 mutant of the D2 protein of photosystem II in Synechocystis 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    2000-11-21

    The role of the peripheral reaction center chlorophyll a molecule associated with His117 of the D2 polypeptide in photosystem II was investigated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using a combination of steady state, pump-probe, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Data were obtained from intact cells and isolated thylakoid membranes of a control mutant and a D2-H117T mutant, both of which lacked photosystem I. Excitation energy transfer and trapping were investigated by analyzing the data with a kinetic model that used an exact numerical solution of the Pauli master equation, taking into account available photosystem II spectral and structural information. The results of our kinetic analysis revealed the observed difference in excited-state dynamics between the H117T mutant and the control to be consistent with a retardation of the rate of excitation energy transfer from the peripheral chlorophyll of D2 (Chl at His117) to the electron-transfer pigments and an increase of the rate constant for charge recombination in the H117T mutant. The kinetic model was able to account for the experimentally observed changes in absorption cross section and fluorescence decay kinetics between the control and mutant by invoking changes in only these two rate constants. The results rule out quenching of excitation by a chlorophyll cation radical as a mechanism responsible for the lower efficiency of excitation energy utilization in the H117T mutant. Our work also demonstrates the importance of the chlorophyll associated with His117 of the D2 protein for excitation energy transfer to the PSII electron-transfer pigments and for the effective stabilization of the primary radical pair. PMID:11087370

  18. A comparative batch sorption and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy study on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on synthetic and natural kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption onto synthetic and natural kaolinite (St. Austell, UK) were studied by batch sorption experiments and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). All investigations were performed under argon atmosphere (O2 4 and 0.25 g/l. kaolinite were used as electrolyte and solid concentrations, respectively, throughout the study. Batch sorption experiments were performed with Eu(III), a homologue to trivalent actinides at three different metal ion concentrations between 6.6 x 10-8 and 6.6 x 10-6 M. pH-dependent sorption was found to be congruent for the two lowest Eu(III) concentrations (6.6 x 10-8 and 6.6 x 10-7 M) while a shift of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, to higher pH values was observed for the highest metal ion concentration (6.6 x 10-6 M). Furthermore, the natural kaolinite showed higher uptake of Eu(III) for the lowest metal ion concentration at pH -7 M Cm(III) as a luminescent probe. Four single component spectra could be extracted from the recorded emission spectra for both the synthetic and the natural kaolinite, with peak positions in average at 598.8, 602.7, 607.4 and 611.0 nm. The three first emission peaks appearing between pH 5 and 13 were assigned to three inner-sphere Cm-complexes. The fourth emission peak appearing in the alkaline pH range (> 9) is assumed to be a result of Cm(III) incorporation by a surface precipitate of hitherto unknown composition. (orig.)

  19. A Model System for Concurrent Detection of Antigen and Antibody Based on Immunological Fluorescent Method

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a combined antigen/antibody immunoassay implemented in a 96-well plate using fluorescent spectroscopic method. First, goat anti-human IgG was used to capture human IgG (model antigen); goat anti-human IgG (Cy3 or FITC) was used to detect the model antigen; a saturating level of model antigen was then added followed by unlabelled goat anti-human IgG (model antibody); finally, Cy3 labelled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used to detect the model antibody. Two approaches were appli...

  20. A Model System for Concurrent Detection of Antigen and Antibody Based on Immunological Fluorescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Cheng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a combined antigen/antibody immunoassay implemented in a 96-well plate using fluorescent spectroscopic method. First, goat anti-human IgG was used to capture human IgG (model antigen; goat anti-human IgG (Cy3 or FITC was used to detect the model antigen; a saturating level of model antigen was then added followed by unlabelled goat anti-human IgG (model antibody; finally, Cy3 labelled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used to detect the model antibody. Two approaches were applied to the concomitant assay to analyze the feasibility. The first approach applied FITC and Cy3 when both targets were present at the same time, resulting in 50 ng/mL of the antibody detection limit and 10 ng/mL of antigen detection limit in the quantitative measurements of target concentration, taking the consideration of FRET efficiency of 68% between donor and acceptor. The sequential approach tended to lower the signal/noise (S/N ratio and the detection of the model antigen (lower than 1 ng/mL had better sensitivity than the model antibody (lower than 50 ng/mL. This combined antigen/antibody method might be useful for combined detection of antigens and antibodies. It will be helpful to screen for both antigen and antibody particularly in the situations of the multiserotype and high-frequency mutant virus infections.

  1. Sulfate complexation of trivalent lanthanides probed by nano-electro-spray mass spectrometry and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Sulfate complexation of lanthanides is of great interest to predict the speciation of radionuclides in natural environments. In the present work, the stability constants of sulfate complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions were investigated by two speciation techniques: nano-Electro-Spray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS) and Time-Resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). TRLFS was used to study the Eu(III) speciation in the ionic conditions 0.02-0.05 mol/l H+ (H2SO4 / HClO4) and 0.4-2.0 mol/l Na+ (Na2SO4 / NaClO4). The data were interpreted with the EuSO4+ and Eu(SO4)2- species. To calculate the effect of the ionic medium on the complexation constants, all the major ions were taken into account through several ion-pair parameters, ε, of the Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT). Several ε values were estimated by analogy using linear correlations, while ε(Eu3+, SO42-) was fitted to experimental data, since, to date, SIT coefficients between multicharged species are not reported. The formation constants proposed here confirm some of those previously measured for Ln(III) and An(III) by various experimental techniques. The TRLFS lifetimes measured for EuSO4+ and Eu(SO4)2- were found consistent with the replacement of one H2O molecule in the first coordination sphere of Eu3+ for each added SO42- ligand, suggesting monodentate SO42- coordination. Moreover, these results and equilibrium thermodynamics do not give credit that TRLFS and other spectroscopic techniques would provide stability constants of only inner sphere complexes while they are in equilibrium with possible outer sphere complexes. Besides, numerous La(III) species were observed in a gaseous phase by nano-ESI-MS from the analysis of HNO3 / H2SO4 aqueous solutions with low ionic strength. The mass spectra were interpreted according to the expected formation of LaSO4+(aq). Its formation constant was measured and compared well with the TRLFS results

  2. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  3. Time-resolved temperature measurement with laser-induced predissociation fluorescence in turbulent combustion; Ortsaufgeloeste Temperaturmessung mit laserinduzierter Praedissoziationsfluoreszenz in turbulenter Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chryssostomou, A.

    1995-12-31

    The dissertation investigates time-resolved temperature measurement in turbulent combustion. Contents: Theoretical fundamentals; Oil burners; Components of the measuring system; ZD-LI(P)F distributions from the atomizer flame; Calibration of OH density and temperature on the methane/air flame; Temperature and density measurements. (HW) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Dissertation wird ueber ortsaufgeloeste Temperaturmessung bei turbulenter Verbrennung berichtet. Inhalt: - Theoretische Grundlagen - Oelheizungsbrenner - Komponenten des Messsystems - 2D-LI(P)F - Verteilungen aus der Zerstaeuberflamme - Calibrierung von OH-Dichte und Temperatur an der CH{sub 4}/Luft-Flamme - OH-Temperatur und Dichtemessungen. (HW)

  4. Spectral characterization of crude oil using fluorescence (synchronous and time-resolved) and NIR (Near Infrared Spectroscopy); Caracterizacao espectral do petroleo utilizando fluorescencia (sincronizada e resolvida no tempo) e NIR (Near Infrared Spectroscopy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla Sotelo, F.; Araujo Pantoja, P.; Lopez-Gejo, J.; Le Roux, G.A.C.; Nascimento, C.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Simulacao e Controle de Processos; Quina, F.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Centro de Capacitacao e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente (CEPEMA)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of two spectroscopic techniques employed in the crude oil characterization: NIR spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (Synchronous fluorescence - SF and Time Resolved Fluorescence - TRF) for the development of correlation models between spectral profiles of crude oil samples and both physical properties (viscosity and API density) and physico-chemical properties (SARA analysis: Saturated, Aromatic, Resins and Asphaltenes). The better results for viscosity and density were obtained using NIR whose prediction capacity was good (1.5 cP and 0.5 deg API, respectively). For SARA analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed its potential in the model calibration showing good results (R2 coefficients greater than 0.85). TRF spectroscopy had better performance than SF spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Development of time-resolved laser fluorescence spectrometry for on-line uranium checking in solutions of the Purex reprocessing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Purex process and the fluorescence spectrometry are first recalled, then uranyl fluorescence is studied in a pure nitric medium without other elements to establish a theoretical model, allowing the description of uranium fluorescence signal with a general equation. The influence of different parameters (temperature, inhibitors, dynamic quenching of iron and cerium) is investigated to develop the model. A quantitative analysis method without addition of reagents is proposed to validate the model

  6. Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay for the detection of ricin using an aptamer immobilized on europium-doped KGdF4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide as a quencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an aptamer-based assay for the food toxin ricin. It is based on a competitive quenching strategy along with time-resolved fluorescence detection. The assay involves the following steps: (a) The aptamer is immobilized on the europium-doped KGdF4 nanoparticles (NPs); (b) these NPs are added to the sample where ricin binds to the aptamer; (c) graphene oxide (GO) is added and competitively binds to the aptamer on the NPs that are not blocked by ricin; this causes the quenching of the fluorescence of the NPs; (d) fluorescence is detected at 593 nm in a microplate reader in the time-resolved mode at an excitation wavelength of 273 nm, a delay time of 100 μs, and a gating time of 1 s. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot is linearly related to the concentration of ricin in the 50 pg·mL−1 to 50 ng·mL−1 range (R2 = 0.9975), and the limit of detection is 8 pg·mL−1. The method was compared to a standard ELISA, and correlation was excellent. The assay presented here provides a sensitive, dependable and convenient platform that is expected to have promising applications for the homogeneous assay of various other target analytes. (author)

  7. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  8. Revealing the radiative and non-radiative relaxation rates of the fluorescent dye Atto488 in a λ/2 Fabry-Pérot-resonator by spectral and time resolved measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Alexander; Metzger, Michael; Kern, Andreas M.; Brecht, Marc; Meixner, Alfred J.

    2016-07-01

    Using a Fabry-Pérot-microresonator with controllable cavity lengths in the λ/2-regime, we show the controlled modification of the vibronic relaxation dynamics of a fluorescent dye molecule in the spectral and time domain. By altering the photonic mode density around the fluorophores we are able to shape the fluorescence spectrum and enhance specifically the probability of the radiative transitions from the electronic excited state to distinct vibronic excited states of the electronic ground state. Analysis and correlation of the spectral and time resolved measurements by a theoretical model and a global fitting procedure allows us to reveal quantitatively the spectrally distributed radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics of the respective dye molecule under ambient conditions at the ensemble level.Using a Fabry-Pérot-microresonator with controllable cavity lengths in the λ/2-regime, we show the controlled modification of the vibronic relaxation dynamics of a fluorescent dye molecule in the spectral and time domain. By altering the photonic mode density around the fluorophores we are able to shape the fluorescence spectrum and enhance specifically the probability of the radiative transitions from the electronic excited state to distinct vibronic excited states of the electronic ground state. Analysis and correlation of the spectral and time resolved measurements by a theoretical model and a global fitting procedure allows us to reveal quantitatively the spectrally distributed radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics of the respective dye molecule under ambient conditions at the ensemble level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR02380K

  9. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy of Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane/Tolane-Based Molecular Rods Included in Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Cipolloni, M. (Marco); Kaleta, J.; Mašát, M. (Milan); Dron, P. I.; Y. Shen; Zhao, K.; Rogers, C.T.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Michl, J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the fluorescence anisotropy of rod-shaped guests held inside the channels of tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP) host nanocrystals, characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR spectroscopy. We address two issues: (i) are light polarization measurements on an aqueous colloidal solution of TPP nanocrystals meaningful, or is depolarization by scattering excessive? (ii) Can measurements of the rotational mobility of the included guests be performed at low ...

  10. Time-series measurements of CH concentration in turbulent CH(4) / air flames by use of picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, M W; Klassen, M S; King, G B; Laurendeau, N M

    1997-02-01

    We report a developing technique capable of making continuous time-series measurements of naturally occurring minor-species concentrations. The high repetition rate of the mode-locked laser used in this technique allows for the study of transient combustion events, such as turbulence, and their effect on minor-species concentrations. The technique is applied to make CH fluorescence time-series measurements and to calculate power spectral densities in a turbulent nonpremixed flame. To our knowledge, the reported time series represents the first such measurement for a naturally occurring minor species in a turbulent flame. PMID:18183140

  11. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  12. Dynamic Solvent Control of a Reaction in Ionic Deep Eutectic Solvents: Time-Resolved Fluorescence Measurements of Reactive and Nonreactive Dynamics in (Choline Chloride + Urea) Melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anuradha; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic fluorescence anisotropy and Stokes shift measurements of [f choline chloride + (1 - f) urea)] deep eutectic solvents at f = 0.33 and 0.40 have been carried out using a dipolar solute, coumarin 153 (C153), in the temperature range 298 ≤ T ≤ 333 K. Subsequently, measured time-dependent solvent response is utilized to investigate the dynamic solvent control on the measured rates of photoexcited intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reactions of two molecules, 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) and 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)benzonitrile (P5C), occurring in these media. Measured average reaction time scales (⟨τ(rxn)⟩) exhibit the following dependence on average solvation times scales (⟨τ(s)⟩): ⟨τ(rxn)⟩ ∝ ⟨τ(s)⟩(α) with α = 0.5 and 0.35 for P4C and P5C, respectively. Such a strong dynamic solvent control of ⟨τ(rxn)⟩, particularly for P4C, is different from earlier observations with these ICT molecules in conventional molecular solvents. Excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence emissions of C153 and trans-2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-benzothiazole (DMASBT), which differ widely in average fluorescence lifetimes (⟨τ(life)⟩), suggest the presence of substantial spatial heterogeneity in these systems. Dynamic heterogeneity is reflected via the following fractional viscosity (η) dependences of ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ (⟨τ(r)⟩ being solute's average rotation time): ⟨τx⟩ ∝ (η/T)(p) with 0.7 ≤ p ≤ 0.9. Different correlations between ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ emerge at different temperature regimes, indicating variable frictional coupling at low and high temperatures. Estimated dynamic Stokes shifts in these media vary between ∼1200 and ∼1600 cm(-1), more than 50% of which possess a time scale much faster than the temporal resolution (∼75 ps) employed in these measurements. Estimated activation energy for η is closer to that for ⟨τ(r)⟩ than that for ⟨τ(s)⟩, suggesting ⟨τ(s)⟩ being more decoupled

  13. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  14. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc;

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  15. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT (Conference Chair); Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  16. Sensing cell metabolism by time-resolved autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yicong; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2006-11-01

    We built a time-resolved confocal fluorescence spectroscopy system equipped with the multichannel time-correlated single-photon-counting technique. The instrument provides a unique approach to study the fluorescence sensing of cell metabolism via analysis of the wavelength- and time-resolved intracellular autofluorescence. The experiments on monolayered cell cultures show that with UV excitation at 365 nm the time-resolved autofluorescence decays, dominated by free-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide signals, are sensitive indicators for cell metabolism. However, the sensitivity decreases with the increase of excitation wavelength possibly due to the interference from free-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide fluorescence. The results demonstrate that time-resolved autofluorescence can be potentially used as an important contrast mechanism to detect epithelial precancer.

  17. Time-resolved molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junliang; Blaga, Cosmin I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved molecular imaging is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. In this article, we review present and future key spectroscopic and microscopic techniques for ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics and show their differences and connections. The advent of femtosecond lasers and free electron x-ray lasers bring us closer to this goal, which eventually will extend our knowledge about molecular dynamics to the attosecond time domain.

  18. Sensitive and specific time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay of rat C-peptide for measuring hormone secretory and storage capacity of β-cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Farah T; Gorus, Frans K; Pipeleers, Daniel G; van Schravendijk, Christiaan F H

    2013-05-01

    The limitations of current rat C-peptide assays led us to develop a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for measurements in plasma, incubation media, and tissue/cell extracts. The assay uses 2 monoclonal antibodies, binding to different parts of the C-peptide molecule, and allowing, respectively, capture of the peptide and its detection by europium-labeled streptavidin. It is performed on 25-μL samples for a dynamic range from 66pM up to 3900pM C-peptide and displays over 95% recovery of added peptide in the range of 111pM to 2786pM. Its inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variations are, respectively, lower than 7.6% and 4.8%. Cross-reactivities by rat insulin and by human and porcine C-peptide are negligible, and cross-reactivity by mouse C-peptide is 6% ± 2%. The assay has been validated for in vivo and in vitro measurements of C-peptide release and cellular content. Release patterns were similar to those for insulin and occurred in equimolar concentrations for both peptides. The molar C-peptide contents in purified β-cells and isolated islets were similar to the corresponding insulin contents. This was also the case for pancreatic extracts containing protease inhibitors. PMID:23525244

  19. Engineered tryptophan in the adenine-binding pocket of catalytic subunit A of A-ATP synthase demonstrates the importance of aromatic residues in adenine binding, forming a tool for steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallographic structures of the subunit B mutants F427W and F508W of the Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 of the A1AO ATP synthase reveal that the exact volume of the adenine ribose binding pocket is essential for ATP-/ADP-binding. A reporter tryptophan residue was individually introduced by site-directed mutagenesis into the adenine-binding pocket of the catalytic subunit A (F427W and F508W mutants) of the motor protein A1AO ATP synthase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. The crystal structures of the F427W and F508W mutant proteins were determined to 2.5 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. The tryptophan substitution caused the fluorescence signal to increase by 28% (F427W) and 33% (F508W), with a shift from 333 nm in the wild-type protein to 339 nm in the mutant proteins. Tryptophan emission spectra showed binding of Mg-ATP to the F427W mutant with a Kd of 8.5 µM. In contrast, no significant binding of nucleotide could be observed for the F508W mutant. A closer inspection of the crystal structure of the F427W mutant showed that the adenine-binding pocket had widened by 0.7 Å (to 8.70 Å) in comparison to the wild-type subunit A (8.07 Å) owing to tryptophan substitution, as a result of which it was able to bind ATP. In contrast, the adenine-binding pocket had narrowed in the F508W mutant. The two mutants presented demonstrate that the exact volume of the adenine ribose binding pocket is essential for nucleotide binding and even minor narrowing makes it unfit for nucleotide binding. In addition, structural and fluorescence data confirmed the viability of the fluorescently active mutant F427W, which had ideal tryptophan spectra for future structure-based time-resolved dynamic measurements of the catalytic subunit A of the ATP-synthesizing enzyme A-ATP synthase

  20. Probing Local Environments by Time-Resolved Stimulated Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved stimulated emission spectroscopy was employed to probe the local environment of DASPMI (4-(4-(dimethylaminostyryl-N-methyl-pyridinium iodide in binary solvents of different viscosity and in a sol-gel matrix. DASPMI is one of the molecules of choice to probe local environments, and the dependence of its fluorescence emission decay on viscosity has been previously used for this purpose in biological samples, solid matrices as well as in solution. The results presented in this paper show that time-resolved stimulated emission of DASPMI is a suitable means to probe the viscosity of local environments. Having the advantage of a higher time resolution, stimulated emission can provide information that is complementary to that obtained from fluorescence decay measurements, making it feasible to probe systems with lower viscosity.

  1. Probing Local Environments by Time-Resolved Stimulated Emission Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rei; Graham Hungerford; Michael Belsley; Ferreira, M. Isabel C.; Peter Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved stimulated emission spectroscopy was employed to probe the local environment of DASPMI (4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methyl-pyridinium iodide) in binary solvents of different viscosity and in a sol-gel matrix. DASPMI is one of the molecules of choice to probe local environments, and the dependence of its fluorescence emission decay on viscosity has been previously used for this purpose in biological samples, solid matrices as well as in solution. The results presented in this p...

  2. Study of the interaction of trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions with human serum transferrin by means of time-resolved laser-fluorescence spectroscopy; Untersuchung der Wechselwirkung trivalenter Actinid- und Lanthanidionen mit humanem Serumtransferrin mittels zeitaufgeloester Laserfluoreszenzspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nicole

    2015-04-27

    In the present work the complexation of Cm(III), Eu(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin is studied. The aim of this work was the identification and the spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of An(III) and Ln(III) transferrin complex species. Different speciation methods, such as time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), luminescence spectroscopy and EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectroscopy were applied. Using TRLFS two unambiguously different Cm(III) transferrin species were identified for the first time. In the pH range from 3.5 to 9.7 the Cm(III) transferrin species I is formed revealing complexation of the metal ion at a nonspecific site of the protein surface. In case of the Cm(III) transferrin species II Cm(III) is bound at the Fe(III) binding site of the protein resulting in a 4-fold coordination via amino acid groups of the protein (His, Asp, 2 x Tyr) and coordination of two water molecules and three additional ligands, e.g. OH{sup -} or CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Due to the kinetic and thermodynamic differences of the binding sites of the N- and C-lobe, the experimental conditions ensure exclusive coordination of Cm(III) at the C-terminal binding site. In addition to the complexation studies of Cm(III) with transferrin, the interaction with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin (hTf/2N) as a model component for the transferrin N-lobe was investigated. At pH≥7.4 a Cm(III) hTf/2N species with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site is formed which is comparable to the Cm(III) transferrin species II. An increase of the temperature from room temperature (T=296 K) to physiological temperature (T=310 K) favors the complexation of Cm(III) with both transferrin and hTf/2N. The complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin was investigated at three different carbonate concentrations (c(carbonate){sub tot}=0 mM, 0,23 mM und 25 mM (physiological carbonate concentration)). An increase of the total carbonate

  3. Steady-state and time-resolved Thioflavin-T fluorescence can report on morphological differences in amyloid fibrils formed by Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, David J. [Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Chemical Biology, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wranne, Moa S.; Gilbert Gatty, Mélina [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Physical Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Westerlund, Fredrik [Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Chemical Biology, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Esbjörner, Elin K., E-mail: eline@chalmers.se [Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Chemical Biology, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-03-06

    Thioflavin-T (ThT) is one of the most commonly used dyes for amyloid detection, but the origin of its fluorescence enhancement is not fully understood. Herein we have characterised the ThT fluorescence response upon binding to the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) variants of the Alzheimer's-related peptide amyloid-β, in order to explore how the photophysical properties of this dye relates to structural and morphological properties of two amyloid fibril types formed by peptides with a high degree of sequence homology. We show that the steady-state ThT fluorescence is 1.7 times more intense with Aβ(1-40) compared to Aβ(1-42) fibrils in concentration matched samples prepared under quiescent conditions. By measuring the excited state lifetime of bound ThT, we also demonstrate a distinct difference between the two fibril isoforms, with Aβ(1-42) fibrils producing a longer ThT fluorescence lifetime compared to Aβ(1-40). The substantial steady-state intensity difference is therefore not explained by differences in fluorescence quantum yield. Further, we find that the ThT fluorescence intensity, but not the fluorescence lifetime, is dependent on the fibril preparation method (quiescent versus agitated conditions). We therefore propose that the fluorescence lifetime is inherent to each isoform and sensitively reports on fibril microstructure in the protofilament whereas the total fluorescence intensity relates to the amount of exposed β-sheet in the mature Aβ fibrils and hence to differences in their morphology. Our results highlight the complexity of ThT fluorescence, and demonstrate its extended use in amyloid fibril characterisation. - Highlights: • ThT emission is more intense with Aβ(1-40) fibrils than with Aβ(1-42) fibrils. • Aβ(1-42) fibrils induce longer ThT fluorescence lifetimes and higher quantum yield. • ThT emission intensity in Aβ fibril samples reports on fibril morphology. • The ThT fluorescence lifetime is a characteristic feature of each A

  4. Steady-state and time-resolved Thioflavin-T fluorescence can report on morphological differences in amyloid fibrils formed by Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioflavin-T (ThT) is one of the most commonly used dyes for amyloid detection, but the origin of its fluorescence enhancement is not fully understood. Herein we have characterised the ThT fluorescence response upon binding to the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) variants of the Alzheimer's-related peptide amyloid-β, in order to explore how the photophysical properties of this dye relates to structural and morphological properties of two amyloid fibril types formed by peptides with a high degree of sequence homology. We show that the steady-state ThT fluorescence is 1.7 times more intense with Aβ(1-40) compared to Aβ(1-42) fibrils in concentration matched samples prepared under quiescent conditions. By measuring the excited state lifetime of bound ThT, we also demonstrate a distinct difference between the two fibril isoforms, with Aβ(1-42) fibrils producing a longer ThT fluorescence lifetime compared to Aβ(1-40). The substantial steady-state intensity difference is therefore not explained by differences in fluorescence quantum yield. Further, we find that the ThT fluorescence intensity, but not the fluorescence lifetime, is dependent on the fibril preparation method (quiescent versus agitated conditions). We therefore propose that the fluorescence lifetime is inherent to each isoform and sensitively reports on fibril microstructure in the protofilament whereas the total fluorescence intensity relates to the amount of exposed β-sheet in the mature Aβ fibrils and hence to differences in their morphology. Our results highlight the complexity of ThT fluorescence, and demonstrate its extended use in amyloid fibril characterisation. - Highlights: • ThT emission is more intense with Aβ(1-40) fibrils than with Aβ(1-42) fibrils. • Aβ(1-42) fibrils induce longer ThT fluorescence lifetimes and higher quantum yield. • ThT emission intensity in Aβ fibril samples reports on fibril morphology. • The ThT fluorescence lifetime is a characteristic feature of each A

  5. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  6. Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, M.P.

    1994-05-01

    We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

  7. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Fiutowski, Jacek;

    We study the optical properties of organic thin films and crystalline organic nanofibers as well as their interaction with plasmonic materials by means of laser-scanning fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TR-PLS). The aim of our......-carrier dynamics in such systems. In this contribution we will show how the interaction of organic nanofibers placed on top of regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a significantly enhanced second-harmonic response and, at the same time, an increased decay rate of the photoluminescence lifetime....

  8. Time-resolved photoemission using attosecond streaking

    CERN Document Server

    Nagele, Stefan; Wais, Michael; Wachter, Georg; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study time-resolved photoemission in atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We review recent advances in the study of the photoelectric effect in the time domain and show that the experimentally accessible time shifts can be decomposed into distinct contributions that stem from the field-free photoionization process itself and from probe-field induced corrections. We perform accurate quantum-mechanical as well as classical simulations of attosecond streaking for effective one-electron systems and determine all relevant contributions to the time delay with attosecond precision. In particular, we investigate the properties and limitations of attosecond streaking for the transition from short-ranged potentials (photodetachment) to long-ranged Coulomb potentials (photoionization). As an example for a more complex system, we study time-resolved photoionization for endohedral fullerenes $A$@$\\text{C}_{60}$ and discuss how streaking time shifts are modified due to the interaction of the $\\text{C}_...

  9. The differences in short- and long-term varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G levels following varicella vaccination of healthcare workers measured by VZV fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA), VZV time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay and a VZV purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, P A C; Haedicke, J; Quinlivan, M; Steinberg, S P; Gershon, A A; Brown, K E; Breuer, J

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting no history of varicella frequently receive varicella vaccination (vOka) if they test varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) negative. In this study, the utilities of VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV-TRFIA) and a commercial VZV-IgG purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) currently used in England for confirming VZV immunity have been compared to the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA). A total of 110 HCWs received two doses of vOka vaccine spaced 6 weeks apart and sera collected pre-vaccination (n = 100), at 6 weeks post-completion of vaccination (n = 86) and at 12-18 months follow-up (n = 73) were analysed. Pre-vaccination, by FAMA, 61·0% sera were VZV IgG negative, and compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 74·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57·9-87·0] and 46·2% (95% CI 30·1-62·8), respectively. Post-completion of vaccination the seroconversion rate by FAMA was 93·7% compared to rates of 95·8% and 70·8% determined by VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA, respectively. At 12-18 months follow-up seropositivity rates by FAMA, VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 78·1%, 74·0% and 47·9%, respectively. Compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA for measuring VZV IgG following vaccination were 96·4% (95% CI 91·7-98·8) and 74·6% (95% CI 66·5-81·6), respectively. Using both FAMA and VZV-TRFIA to identify healthy adult VZV susceptibles and measure seroconversion showed that vOka vaccination of HCWs is highly immunogenic. PMID:27018820

  10. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

  11. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  12. Intramolecular charge transfer of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile probed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption: No evidence for two ICT states and a πσ* reaction intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the double exponential fluorescence decays of the locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) in acetonitrile (MeCN) the same times τ1 and τ2 are observed. This means that the reversible LEICT reaction, starting from the initially excited LE state, can be adequately described by a two state mechanism. The most important factor responsible for the sometimes experimentally observed differences in the nanosecond decay time, with τ1(LE)1(ICT), is photoproduct formation. By employing a global analysis of the LE and ICT fluorescence response functions with a time resolution of 0.5 ps/channel in 1200 channels reliable kinetic and thermodynamic data can be obtained. The arguments presented in the literature in favor of a πσ* state with a bent CN group as an intermediate in the ICT reaction of DMABN are discussed. From the appearance of an excited state absorption (ESA) band in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm in MeCN for N,N-dimethylanilines with CN, Br, F, CF3, and C(=O)OC2H2 p-substituents, it is concluded that this ESA band cannot be attributed to a πσ* state, as only the C-C≡N group can undergo the required 120 deg. bending.

  13. Time resolved spectroscopic studies on some nanophosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish Chander; Santa Chawla

    2008-06-01

    Time resolved spectroscopy is an important tool for studying photophysical processes in phosphors. Present work investigates the steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic characteristics of ZnS, ZnO and (Zn, Mg)O nanophosphors both in powder as well as thin film form. Photoluminescence (PL) of ZnS nanophosphors typically exhibit a purple/blue emission peak termed as self activated (SA) luminescence and emission at different wavelengths arising due to dopant impurities e.g. green emission for ZnS : Cu, orange emission for ZnS : Mn and red emission for ZnS : Eu. The lifetimes obtained from decay curves range from ns to ms level and suggest the radiative recombination path involving donor–acceptor pair recombination or internal electronic transitions of the impurity atom. A series of ZnMgO nanophosphor thin films with varied Zn : Mg ratios were prepared by chemical bath deposition. Photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra exhibit variations with changing Mg ratio. Luminescence lifetime as short as 10-10 s was observed for ZnO and ZnMgO (100 : 10) nanophosphors. With increasing Mg ratio, PL decay shifts into microsecond range. ZnO and ZnMgO alloys up to 50% Mg were prepared as powder by solid state mixing and sintering at high temperature in reducing atmosphere. Time resolved decay of PL indicated lifetime in the microsecond time scale. The novelty of the work lies in clear experimental evidence of dopants (Cu, Mn, Eu and Mg) in the decay process and luminescence life times in II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals of ZnS and ZnO. For ZnS, blue self activated luminescence decays faster than Cu and Mn related emission. For undoped ZnO nanocrystals, PL decay is in the nanosecond range whereas with Mg doping the decay becomes much slower in the microsecond range.

  14. Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout

  15. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; H. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore; J. Hogan; W.R. Wampler; the NSTX team

    2004-08-03

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} matched the mass of 13.5 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition.

  16. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  17. A field evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody-based broodstock screening test used to control the vertical transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarium in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Martin, S W; Evelyn, T P; Hicks, B; Dorward, W J; Ferguson, H W

    1989-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from erythromycin treated and untreated spawning three year old Chinook salmon were screened independently by two laboratories for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT). Agreement between the results of the two laboratories could be explained by chance when R. salmoninarum cell numbers as low as one per sample were considered sufficient to represent a positive result. If a positive result was considered to be the detection of larger numbers of R. salmoninarum cells (greater than 51 cells per sample), agreement increased and there was a statistically significant association between the results of the two laboratories. However, the level of agreement did not reach satisfactory levels for a population screening test. Furthermore, approximately 60% of the samples yielded false negative results when IFAT results were compared with positive culture results. These results led to the conclusion that the IFAT screening procedure, as carried out, was unsuitable for the purposes intended. Erythromycin injection of the spawning fish had no statistically significant effect on the results of the IFAT screening test. PMID:2686828

  18. Time-resolved local strain tracking microscopy for cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, O.; Aksoy, B.; Akalin, O. B.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    A uniaxial cell stretching technique to measure time-resolved local substrate strain while simultaneously imaging adherent cells is presented. The experimental setup comprises a uniaxial stretcher platform compatible with inverted microscopy and transparent elastomer samples with embedded fluorescent beads. This integration enables the acquisition of real-time spatiotemporal data, which is then processed using a single-particle tracking algorithm to track the positions of fluorescent beads for the subsequent computation of local strain. The present local strain tracking method is demonstrated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples of rectangular and dogbone geometries. The comparison of experimental results and finite element simulations for the two sample geometries illustrates the capability of the present system to accurately quantify local deformation even when the strain distribution is non-uniform over the sample. For a regular dogbone sample, the experimentally obtained value of local strain at the center of the sample is 77%, while the average strain calculated using the applied cross-head displacement is 48%. This observation indicates that considerable errors may arise when cross-head measurement is utilized to estimate strain in the case of non-uniform sample geometry. Finally, the compatibility of the proposed platform with biological samples is tested using a unibody PDMS sample with a well to contain cells and culture media. HeLa S3 cells are plated on collagen-coated samples and cell adhesion and proliferation are observed. Samples with adherent cells are then stretched to demonstrate simultaneous cell imaging and tracking of embedded fluorescent beads.

  19. Enzyme reactions and their time resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses experimental strategies in data collection with the Laue method and summarises recent results using synchrotron radiation. Then, an assessment is made of the progress towards time resolved studies with protein crystals and the problems that remain. The paper consists of three parts which respectively describe some aspects of Laue diffraction, recent examples of structural results from Laue diffraction, and kinetic Laue crystallography. In the first part, characteristics of Laue diffraction is discussed first, focusing on the harmonics problems, spatials problem, wavelength normalization, low resolution hole, data completeness, and uneven coverage of reciprocal space. Then, capture of the symmetry unique reflection set is discussed focusing on the effect of wavelength range on the number of reciprocal lattice points occupying diffracting positions, effect of crystal to film distance and the film area and shape on the number of reflections captured, and effect of crystal symmetry on the number of unique reflections within the number of reflections captured. The second part addresses the determination of the structure of turkey egg white lysozyme, and calcium binding in tomato bushy stunt virus. The third part describes the initiation of reactions in enzyme crystals, picosecond Laue diffraction at high energy storage rings, and detectors. (N.K.)

  20. Using Pyridinium Styryl Dyes as the Standards of Time-Resolved Instrument Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Chang, Mengfang; Yi, Hua; Jia, Menghui; Cao, Xiaodan; Zhou, Zhongneng; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Shih, Chun-Wei; Jimenez, Ralph; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two pyridinium styryl dyes, [2-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DASPMI), were synthesized and characterized by steady state fluorescence spectroscopy as well as picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Both dyes exhibit large Stokes shifts and fluorescence decays equivalent to the instrument response function (IRF) standards employed in time-correlated single-photon counting. Due to their styryl and pyridinium moieties, DASPMIs have higher peak fluorescence intensity and shorter excited-state lifetimes than iodide ion-quenched fluorophores. The fluorescence lifetimes of o-DASPMI and p-DASPMI were measured to be 6.6 ps and 12.4 ps, respectively. The fluorescence transients of these DASPMIs were used as the IRFs for iterative reconvolution fitting of the time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles of Rhodamine B (RhB), sulforhodamine B (SRB), and the SRB-SRB2m RNA aptamer complex. The quality of the fits employing the DASPMI-derived IRFs are consistently equivalent to those employing IRFs obtained from light scattering. These results indicate that DASPMI-derived IRFs may be suited for a broad range of applications in time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), especially in the visible emission range. PMID:27231333

  1. Homogeneous time resolved fluorescence assay to measure histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Emmanuel J; Ouled-Diaf, Josy; Seguin, Patrick

    2003-12-01

    Histamine is a biogenic amine synthesized by the enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. Implication of histamine in allergy is well described but histamine is also found in some specific neurones, functions as a neurotransmitter and regulates sleep/wake cycles, hormonal secretion, cardiovascular control and thermo-regulation. We have developed a TR-FRET histamine assay, based on the competition between sample histamine and allophycocyanine (XL665) labelled histamine for binding to a Europium cryptate (EuK) labelled antibody. As histamine is a small monoamine molecule, high affinity antibodies have been raised against carrier protein conjugated histamine. Therefore, sample histamine needs to be derivatized in the same way as the conjugated histamine, so that the antibody will have a similar affinity for both molecules. This acylation step is performed directly in wells and does not need to be done in separate vials, making handling easier for large numbers of samples. The incubation takes place at room temperature for 3 hours. The assay covers a measurement range of 1.56 to 400 nM and shows an analytical sensitivity of 1.3nM. We have shown that miniaturization of sample and reagents volumes down to 20 micro l does not alter these performances. This histamine release assay provides a particularly well adapted procedure for HTS and secondary screening compared to current heterogeneous methods. PMID:14683484

  2. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  3. Effects of ligand binding on the conformation and internal dynamics in specific regions of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 with tryptophan as a probe: a study combinging time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis (same as p. 628)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Oscar; Vincent, Michel; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Verheij, Bert; de Haas, Gerard; Gallay, Jacques

    1990-05-01

    Exploration of the effect of ligand-protein interactions on conformational substates and internal dynamics in different regions of phospholipase A2 from porcine pancreas (PLA2), was performed by combining site-directed mutagenesis and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The single tryptophan residue (Trp-3) in the wild type protein was replaced by a phenylalanine residue, whereafter Tip was substituted either for leucine-3 1 ,located in the calcium binding ioop, or for phenylalanine-94, located at the "back side" of the enzyme, in a-helix E (Dijkstra et al., J. Mol. Biol., 147, 97-123, 1981). Analyses by the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) of the total fluorescence intensity decays, provide in each case a distribution of separate lifetime classes, which can be interpreted as reflecting the existence of discrete conformational substates in slow exchange with respect to the time-scale of the decay kinetics. The fluorescence decay of the W94 mutant is. dominated by an extremely short excited state lifetime of ~60 ps, probably arising from the presence of two proximate disulfide bridges. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy studies show that the Trp residue near the NH2 terminus (Trp-3) undergoes a more limited rotational motion than the Trp-3 1 located in the calcium binding loop. The widest angular rotation is observed at position 94, in a-helix E. Calcium binding displays the strongest influence on the lifetime distribution of Trp-3 1: a major local conformation corresponding to a lifetime class with a barycenter value of -5.5 ns and contributing to ~50% of the decay is selected. The conformations giving rise to the short lifetimes (τ1 and τ2 lifetime classes) become less important. The contribution of the third lifetime class (c3) stays at a constant value of 30%. In the presence of calcium, the amplitude of motion is wider than without the ion. There is virtually no effect of calcium binding on the lifetime distribution of the Trp residue at the 3 or the 94

  4. Effects of ligand binding on the conformation and internal dynamics in specific regions of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 with tryptophan as a probe: a study combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis (same as p. 100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Oscar; Vincent, Michel; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Verheij, Bert; de Haas, Gerard; Gallay, Jacques

    1990-05-01

    Exploration of the effect of ligand-protein interactions on conformational substates and internal dynamics in different regions of phospholipase A2 from porcine pancreas (PLA2), was performed by combining site-directed mutagenesis and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The single tryptophan residue (Trp-3) in the wild type protein was replaced by a phenylalanine residue, whereafter Trp was substituted either for leucine-31 ,located in the calcium binding loop, or for phenylalanine-94, located at the "back side" of the enzyme, in a-helix E (Dijkstra et al., J. Mol. Biol., 147, 97-123, 1981). Analyses by the Maximum Entropy Method (MIEM) of the total fluorescence intensity decays, provide in each case a distribution of separate lifetime classes, which can be interpreted as reflecting the existence of discrete conformational substates in slow exchange with respect to the time-scale of the decay kinetics. The fluorescence decay of the W94 mutant is dominated by an extremely short excited state lifetime of ~60 ps, probably arising from the presence of two proximate disulfide bridges. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy studies show that the Trp residue near the NH2 terminus (Trp-3) undergoes a more limited rotational motion than the Trp-3 1 located in the calcium binding loop. The widest angular rotation is observed at position 94, in a-helix E. Calcium binding displays the strongest influence on the lifetime distribution of Trp-31: a major local conformation corresponding to a lifetime class with a barycenter value of ~5.5 ns and contributing to ~50% of the decay is selected. The conformations giving rise to the short lifetimes ((tau)1 and (tau)2 lifetime classes) become less important. The contribution of the third lifetime class (c3) stays at a constant value of 30%. In the presence of calcium, the amplitude of motion is wider than without the ion. There is virtually no effect of calcium binding on the lifetime distribution of the Trp residue at the 3 or the

  5. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe2 system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe2 lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B2Σ+) and XeF* (B2Σ+ and C2 Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF2. When the polarization of the CN* (B2Σ+) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems

  6. Laser-time resolved fluorimetric determination of trace of boron in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a laser-time resolved fluorimetric determinatin of trace of boron in U3O8 had been developed. The boron complex with dibenzoyl methane (DBM) in a suitable medium is excited by a small nitrogen laser and emits the delay fluorescence with lifetime of 2 ms which is much longer than that of the fluorescence of uranium. Since the fluorescence of uranium doesn't interfere with determination of boron in the time resolved fluorimetric method boron need not be separated from uranium in advance. Thus the determination is very rapid and simple. The limit of determination is 0.02 ngB/ml. When 10 mgU is taken, 0.01 ppm of boron in uranium can be determined. Several samples of U3O8 with boron content from 0.04 to 0.5 ppm have been determined by using this method. The results of determination have been accordant with other methods

  7. Time-resolved pulsed EPR: microwave and optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Smith, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Time-resolved pulsed EPR spectrometers are described. EPR spectra, kinetic profiles, and relaxation studies are used to illustrate some capabilities of the pulsed EPR experiment. Optical detection of time-resolved EPR spectra of radical ion pairs is used to study radical-ion recombination kinetics, recombination pathways, and the structure of radical anions and cations. 17 figures.

  8. Time-resolved pulsed EPR: microwave and optical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved pulsed EPR spectrometers are described. EPR spectra, kinetic profiles, and relaxation studies are used to illustrate some capabilities of the pulsed EPR experiment. Optical detection of time-resolved EPR spectra of radical ion pairs is used to study radical-ion recombination kinetics, recombination pathways, and the structure of radical anions and cations. 17 figures

  9. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  10. Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy for molecular science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and its application in molecular science are reviewed. STM can image individual atoms and molecules and thus is able to observe the results of molecular processes such as diffusion, desorption, configuration switching, bond-breaking and chemistry, on the atomic scale. This review will introduce time-resolved STM, its experimental limitations and implementations with particular emphasis on thermally activated and tunnelling current induced molecular processes. It will briefly examine the push towards ultrafast imaging. In general, results achieved by time-resolved STM demonstrate the necessity of both space and time resolution for fully characterizing molecular processes on the atomic scale.

  11. Simple setup for nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by a digital storage oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of a digital storage oscilloscope for nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopic measurements is demonstrated in the range from the single-photon region to the multi-photon region. In comparison to the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method, the measurement setup can be greatly simplified by averaging the signals measured by the oscilloscope. Moreover, the multi-photon events of the fluorescence emissions can be tracked by this simple setup although there still exist some disadvantages in the dynamic range of the signal due to radio frequency noise, and the temporal response of the photo-multiplier tube. This method can simplify time-resolved optical measurements in the nanosecond range, such as fluorescence decay and time-of-flight measurements of diffusing light. Thus, this simple method will be applicable in many clinical and industrial uses. (note)

  12. Time-Resolved Imaging Reveals Heterogeneous Landscapes of Nanomolar Ca(2+) in Neurons and Astroglia

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, K.; Bard, L.; Reynolds, J. P.; King, C; Jensen, T.P.; Gourine, A. V.; Rusakov, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining low intracellular calcium is essential to the functioning of brain cells, yet the phenomenology and mechanisms involved remain an enigma. We have advanced a two-photon excitation time-resolved imaging technique, which exploits high sensitivity of the OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime to nanomolar Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) and enables a high data acquisition rate in situ. The [Ca(2+)] readout is not affected by dye concentration, light scattering, photobleaching, micro-viscosity, t...

  13. A Time Resolved XANES Study of an Organo-Clay Redox System

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, W.; Hunter, D.; Nuessle, P.; Bertsch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In situ, time-resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic measurements of tetraphenylboron (TPB)-treated Fe-bearing clay minerals were conducted to investigate whether smectite structural Fe was reduced during surface-enhanced oxidative degradation of TPB. Reference samples were prepared by reducing varying amounts of structural Fe with Na-dithionite in an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Kα X-ray fluorescence near edge structure of reference and TPB-treated samples w...

  14. Optimization of experimental conditions in uranium trace determination using laser time-resolved fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present paper a new sample excitation geometry is presented for the uranium trace determination in aqueous solutions by the Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence. This new design introduces the laser radiation through the top side of the cell allowing the use of cells with two quartz sides, less expensive than commonly used at this experimental set. Optimization of the excitation conditions, temporal discrimination and spectral selection are presented

  15. Advances in Time-Resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis details advanced developments in 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) based on the tomographic PIV technique, with an emphasis on time-resolved experiments. Tomographic PIV is a technique introduced in 2006 to measure the flow velocity in a three-dimensional volume. When measurements are performed at a rate high enough to sample the dynamical evolution of the flow, the measurement is considered time-resolved. The present work begins with a description of developments in tomographi...

  16. Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H. [comps.

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.

  17. Time-resolved identification of single molecules in solution with a pulsed semiconductor diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Zander, C.; Sauer, M.; Deimel, M.; Ko, D.-S.; Siebert, S.; Arden-Jacob, J.; Deltau, G.; Marx, N. J.; Drexhage, K. H.; Wolfrum, J.

    1996-11-01

    We used a confocal microscope to study bursts of fluorescence photons from single dye molecules excited at 638 nm by a short-pulsed diode laser with a repetition rate of 17 MHz. Four newly synthesized dyes (JA 167, DR 333, cyanorhodamine B and MR 121) as well as two commercially available dyes (Cy5 and rhodamine 700) were used in ethylene glycol solution. Multichannel scaler traces and fluorescence decay times were measured simultaneously. The fluorescence decays were determined by the time-correlated single-photon counting technique. The time-resolved fluorescence signals of the dyes were analyzed and identified by a maximum likelihood estimator. It turned out that 40 photons per dye molecule are sufficient to distinguish two rhodamine derivatives with a misclassification of less than 1% via their characteristic fluorescence lifetimes of 3.61 ± 0.45 ns (JA167) and 1.41 ± 0.3 ns (cyanorhodamine B).

  18. Quantum-dot-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Meijun; Wu Yingsong; Lin Guanfeng; Hou Jingyuan; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Liu Tiancai, E-mail: liutc@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China)

    2012-09-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with QDs-doped microspheres and anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with LTCs and another anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess amounts of conjugates were used for detecting AFP without rinsing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wedding of QPs and LTCs was suitable for HTRFIA to detect AFP. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) with novel photoproperties are not widely used in clinic diagnosis, and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assays possess many advantages over current methods for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. A novel QD-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed and used for detection of AFP, a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. QD-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microparticles (QPs) were prepared by doping oil-soluble QDs possessing a 605 nm emission peak. The antibody conjugates (QPs-E014) were prepared from QPs and an anti-AFP monoclonal antibody, and luminescent terbium chelates (LTCs) were prepared and conjugated to a second anti-AFP monoclonal antibody (LTCs-E010). In a double-antibodies sandwich structure, QPs-E014 and LTCs-E010 were used for detection of AFP, serving as energy acceptor and donor, respectively, with an AFP bridge. The results demonstrated that the luminescence lifetime of these QPs was sufficiently long for use in a time-resolved fluoroassay, with the efficiency of time-resolved Foerster resonance transfer (TR-FRET) at 67.3% and the spatial distance of the donor to acceptor calculated to be 66.1 Angstrom-Sign . Signals from TR-FRET were found to be proportional to AFP concentrations. The resulting standard curve was log Y = 3.65786 + 0.43863{center_dot}log X (R = 0.996) with Y the QPs fluorescence intensity and X the AFP concentration; the calculated sensitivity was 0

  19. Quantum-dot-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► QDs-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect AFP. ► The conjugates were prepared with QDs-doped microspheres and anti-AFP McAb. ► The conjugates were prepared with LTCs and another anti-AFP McAb. ► Excess amounts of conjugates were used for detecting AFP without rinsing. ► The wedding of QPs and LTCs was suitable for HTRFIA to detect AFP. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) with novel photoproperties are not widely used in clinic diagnosis, and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assays possess many advantages over current methods for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. A novel QD-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed and used for detection of AFP, a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. QD-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microparticles (QPs) were prepared by doping oil-soluble QDs possessing a 605 nm emission peak. The antibody conjugates (QPs-E014) were prepared from QPs and an anti-AFP monoclonal antibody, and luminescent terbium chelates (LTCs) were prepared and conjugated to a second anti-AFP monoclonal antibody (LTCs-E010). In a double-antibodies sandwich structure, QPs-E014 and LTCs-E010 were used for detection of AFP, serving as energy acceptor and donor, respectively, with an AFP bridge. The results demonstrated that the luminescence lifetime of these QPs was sufficiently long for use in a time-resolved fluoroassay, with the efficiency of time-resolved Förster resonance transfer (TR-FRET) at 67.3% and the spatial distance of the donor to acceptor calculated to be 66.1 Å. Signals from TR-FRET were found to be proportional to AFP concentrations. The resulting standard curve was log Y = 3.65786 + 0.43863·log X (R = 0.996) with Y the QPs fluorescence intensity and X the AFP concentration; the calculated sensitivity was 0.4 ng mL−1. By assaying test samples against the standard curve, the coefficient of variations was <5%, indicating that QDs were suitable for

  20. EPICS oscilloscope for time-resolved data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sector 7 undulator beamline (7 ID) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray research . Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are used as the primary point detector for time-resolved Bragg diffraction experiments for their fast recovery time (5 photons/s) at the detector, however, deadtime corrections to the counting statistics become appreciable . Common practice has been to attenuate the monochromatic beam entering the experimental hutch to an appropriately low flux . For these high-flux experiments, an APD operated in proportional mode is a better detector choice due to a large dynamic range and linearity. With the ZT4212 ZTEC, EPICS based oscilloscope, the operating procedure to use an APD in proportional mode has been improved. This article shows the setup and operating procedure for this oscilloscope and demonstrates its application to measuring time-resolved rocking curves of laser excited semiconductors.

  1. Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.

  2. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental c...

  3. On the interpretation of time-resolved anisotropic diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing systematic treatments for the interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns from partially aligned symmetric top molecules. Such patterns arise in the context of time-resolved diffraction experiments. We calculate diffraction patterns for ground-state Na...

  4. Schemes for time-resolved experiments at the TTF FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brefeld, W.; Faatz, B.; Feldhaus, J.; Koerfer, M.; Moeller, T.; Pflueger, J.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Schreiber, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Krzywinski, J. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Yurkov, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2002-03-01

    The paper describes schemes of two-color time-resolved experiments that could be performed at the soft X-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL) at the TESLA test facility (TTF) at DESY and determines what additional FEL hardware and instrumentation developments will be required to bring these experiments to fruition. (orig.)

  5. An x-ray detector for time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of ultrahigh-brightness x-ray sources makes time-resolved x-ray studies more and more feasible. Improvements in x-ray optics components are also critical for obtaining the appropriate beam for a particular type of experiment. Moreover, fast parallel detectors will be essential in order to exploit the combination of high intensity x-ray sources and novel optics for time-resolved experiments. A CCD detector with a time resolution of microseconds has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This detector is fully programmable using CAMAC electronics and a Micro Vax computer. The techniques of time-resolved x-ray studies, which include scattering, microradiography, microtomography, stroboscopy, etc., can be applied to a range of phenomena (including rapid thermal annealing, surface ordering, crystallization, and the kinetics of phase transition) in order to understand these time-dependent microscopic processes. Some of these applications will be illustrated by recent results performed at synchrotrons. New powerful x-ray sources now under construction offer the opportunity to apply innovative approaches in time-resolved work

  6. Time-resolved luminescence from feldspars: New insight into fading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, S.; Denby, P.M.; Murray, A.S.;

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared optically stimulated luminescence (IR-OSL) signals of K- and Na-feldspar samples extracted from sediments were measured in UV, blue and red detection windows, using a fast photon counter and pulsed IR stimulation (lambda = 875 nm). We observe that the relative contribution...

  7. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd;

    2010-01-01

    The ultrafast photoconductivity dynamics of black silicon is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of an a-Si:H film. We show that the decay time of the photoconductivity depends on the annealing method and fluence used in the production...

  8. Time-Resolved 2PPE and Time-Resolved PEEM as a Probe of LSP's in Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bayer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The time-resolved two-photon photoemission technique (TR-2PPE has been applied to study static and dynamic properties of localized surface plasmons (LSP in silver nanoparticles. Laterally, integrated measurements show the difference between LSP excitation and nonresonant single electron-hole pair creation. Studies below the optical diffraction limit were performed with the detection method of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM. This microscopy technique with a resolution down to 40 nm enables a systematic study of retardation effects across single nanoparticles. In addition, as will be shown in this paper, it is a highly sensitive sensor for coupling effects between nanoparticles.

  9. Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects–mathematical and numerical–associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation

  10. New time-resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy of natural and synthetic analogue minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczer, G.; Ollier, N.; Champagnon, B.; Gaft, M.

    2003-04-01

    Minerals as well as geomaterials often present light emissions under UV or visible excitations. This property called photoluminescence is due to low concentration impurities such as the rare earths, the transition elements and the lanthanides. The induced color is used for ore prospection but only spectroscopic analyses indicate the nature of the emitted centers. However natural samples contained numerous luminescent centers simultaneously and with regular steady-state measurements (such as in cathodoluminescence) all the emissions are often over lapping. In order to record the contributions of each separate center, it is possible to use time-resolved measurements based on the decay time of the emissions and using pulsed laser excitation. Some characteristic examples will be presented on apatites, zircons as well as gemstones. Geomaterials present as well micro scale heterogeneities (growth zoning, inclusions, devitrification, microphases...). Precise identification and optical effects of such heterogeneities have to be taken into account. To reach the microscale using photo luminescence studies, a microscope has be modified to allowed pulsed laser injection (from UV to visible), beam focus with micro scale resolution on the sample (<10 μm), as well as time resolved collection of micro fluorescence. Such equipment allows now undertaking time-resolved measurements of microphases. Applications on geomaterials will be presented.

  11. Time-resolved FRET and PCT in cationic conjugated polymer/dye-labeled DNA complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhong; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Bumjin; Kang, Mijeong; Woo, Han Young; Kyhm, Kwangseuk

    2011-12-01

    The energy transfer mechanism between cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes and a single stranded DNA labeled with fluorescein was investigated in terms of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and photo-induced charge transfer (PCT) by time-resolved fluorescence. Both FRET and PCT rate efficiencies were obtained by phenomenological coupled rate equations, which are in excellent agreement with experiments. We found the total energy transfer in the complex is maximized as a consequence of FRET and PCT at an optimum distance 32.7Å.

  12. Time-resolved THz spectroscopy in a parallel plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy inside a novel parallel plate waveguide where one of the metallic plates is replaced by a transparent conducting oxide. Considerable improvements to the waveguide loss coefficient are shown, with a power absorption coefficient of 4cm-1 at 0.5 TH....... The time resolution of the technique is shown to be limited by the spatial excitation profile, which for sharply focused beams can approach ~1 ps time scales.......We demonstrate time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy inside a novel parallel plate waveguide where one of the metallic plates is replaced by a transparent conducting oxide. Considerable improvements to the waveguide loss coefficient are shown, with a power absorption coefficient of 4cm-1 at 0.5 THz...

  13. Time-Resolved Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in Hot Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2008-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultipler tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. Mean and rms velocity and temperature fluctuation measurements in both an electrically-heated jet facility with a 10-mm diameter nozzle and also in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented.

  14. Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Schweiger, Martin; Dehghani, Hamid; Schmidt, Florian E. W.; Delpy, David T.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2001-04-01

    A 32-channel time-resolved optical imaging instrument has been developed principally to study functional parameters of the new-born infant brain. As a prelude to studies on infants, the device and image reconstruction methodology have been evaluated on the adult human forearm. Cross-sectional images were generated using time-resolved measurements of transmitted light at two wavelengths. All data were acquired using a fully automated computer-controlled protocol. Images representing the internal scattering and absorbing properties of the arm are presented, as well as images that reveal physiological changes during a simple finger flexion exercise. The results presented in this paper represent the first simultaneous tomographic reconstruction of the internal scattering and absorbing properties of a clinical subject using purely temporal data, with additional co-registered difference images showing repeatable absorption changes at two wavelengths in response to exercise.

  15. Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-yun; ZHANG Wei-jun; WANG Zhen-ya; HAO Li-qing; HUANG Ming-qiang; ZHAO Wen-wu; LONG Bo; Zhao Wei

    2008-01-01

    We develop a system to measure the elemental composition of unprepared samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in our laboratory, which can be used for the determination of elements in solids, liquids and aerosols. A description of the instrumentation, including laser, sample chamber and detection, is followed by a brief discussion. The time-resolved LIBS of aluminum at atmospheric pressure is presented. At the end, the possibilities and later uses of this technique are briefly discussed.

  16. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to syst...

  17. Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy in Supercritical Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    George, Michael W.; Poliakoff, Martyn; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Grills, David C.

    1999-01-01

    We have used fast Time-resolved Infrared Spectroscopy (TRIR) to probe organometallic reactions in supercritical fluids on the nanosecond time-scale. This has allowed us to identify, for the first time in solution at room temperature, organometallic noble gas complexes which are formed following irradiation of metal carbonyls in supercritical noble gas solution. We have found that these complexes are surprisingly stable and have comparable reactivity to organometallic alkane complexes. We have...

  18. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.;

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...... coherent detection, respectively. We find that the measured frequency dependent conductivity can be well described by a Drude-Smith model, supplemented by a Lorentz model oscillating near 5 THz....

  19. Time-resolved study of microorganisms by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Hároniková, A.; Obruča, S.; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šiler, Martin; Mlynariková, K.; Zemánek, Pavel

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2015, 953703:1-5. ISBN 9781628417029. ISSN 1605-7422. [Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging /4./. Munich (DE), 22.06.2015-24.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : raman spectroscopy * time-resolved study * red yeast * Cupriavidus necator H16 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  20. Time-resolved diffraction experiments on piezoelectric actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Rödl, Florian

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important features of many common functional ceramics is piezoelectricity, a phenomenon which is not fully under-stood so far. Especially the time-dependent response and its role in the deterioration of properties due to fatigue has not been much investigated. The present work focuses especially on time-resolved X-ray-diffraction, but also uses static methods to improve the understanding of dynamic processes that occur during switching in piezoelectric actuators and how they c...

  1. Time resolved heat exchange in driven quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study time-dependent heat transport in systems composed of a resonant level periodically forced with an external power source and coupled to a fermionic continuum. This simple model contains the basic ingredients to understand time resolved energy exchange in quantum capacitors that behave as single particle emitters. We analyse the behaviour of the dynamic heat current for driving frequencies within the non-adiabatic regime, showing that it does not obey a Joule dissipation law

  2. Time-resolved MR angiography with limited projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuexi; Wright, Graham A

    2007-08-01

    A method for reconstruction of time-resolved MRI called highly-constrained backprojection (HYPR) has been developed. To evaluate the HYPR reconstruction in relation to data sparsity and temporal dynamics, computer simulations were performed, investigating signal modulations under different situations that reflect dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). In vivo studies were also performed with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for abdominal MRA in a canine model to demonstrate the application of HYPR for three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved MRA. When contrast dynamics vary over space, large vessels (e.g., veins) tend to introduce signal interference to small vessels (e.g., arteries) in HYPR, particularly when the vessels are in close proximity. The enhancement of background tissue signals may also alter the arterial and venous temporal profiles in HYPR. However, the artifacts are manifest as intensity modulation rather than structural interference, and therefore have little impact on structural diagnosis. Increasing the number of projections per time point increases temporal blur while reducing corruption of temporal behavior from adjacent tissues. Uniformly interleaved acquisition order, such as the bit-reversed order, is important to reduce artifacts. With high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and limited artifacts, HYPR reconstruction has potential to greatly improve time-resolved MRA in clinical practice. PMID:17654575

  3. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  4. Time-Resolved Study on Xanthene Dye-Sensitized Carbon Nitride Photocatalytic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyu; Li, Shuang; Lu, Rong; Yu, Anchi

    2015-10-01

    Dye sensitization is a promising strategy to extend the visible light absorption of carbon nitride (C3N4) and increase the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution efficiency of C3N4 under visible light irradiation. However, the interaction dynamics between C3N4 and a sensitized dye has not been reported in the literature. Herein, we selected four commonly used xanthene dyes such as fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, and erythrosine B and prepared their corresponding dye-sensitized-C3N4 composites. For the first time, we derived the electron transfer rate from the LUMO of each photoexcited xanthene dye to the conduction band of C3N4 using picoesecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements. We also obtained the reduction potentials of all selected xanthene dyes and C3N4 with cyclic voltammetry measurements. The cyclic voltammetry measurements gave a consistent result with the picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Besides, the possibility of the selected xanthene dye as an acceptor for the hole of the photoexcited C3N4 was also discussed. We believe this study is significant for the researcher to understanding the fundamental aspects in the xanthene dye-sensitized-C3N4 photocatalytic systems. PMID:26389679

  5. Femtosecond time-resolved MeV electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct visualization of fundamental dynamic processes in matter occurring on femtosecond time scales over sub-nanometer (even atomic) spatial dimensions has long been a goal in science. In this paper, the development of a femtosecond time-resolved relativistic transmission electron microscopy (FsTEM) based on a photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun is reported. The requirements and limitations of the beam parameters used in FsTEM are discussed. Finally, some demonstrations of relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction measurement using the RF gun are presented. (author)

  6. A 3-dimensional time-resolved photothermal deflection ``Mirage'' method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrath, N. G. C.; Malacarne, L. C.; Lukasievicz, G. V. B.; Bernabe, H. S.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Shen, J.; Bialkowski, S. E.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional time-resolved theory and experiment for photothermal deflection spectroscopy is developed. The heat conduction equations for two semi-infinite media consisting of an opaque sample and a fluid are solved considering temperature and energy flux balance conditions for a Gaussian heat source. The time dependent perpendicular deflection signal is calculated and compared to experimental measurements on glassy carbon and copper samples. Excellent agreement with literature values for thermal diffusivity of the samples is found. The transient behavior is analyzed for different coupling fluids.

  7. TIME-RESOLVED PHOTOLUMINESCENCE OF SINTERED ZnO CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN XIAO-MING(文小明); N.OHNO; ZHANG ZHONG-MING(张中明)

    2001-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) of sintered ZnO ceramics was measured at low temperatures. A broad luminescence band was observed in the visible region. The TRPL experiment shows that photolurninescence decay behaviour can be depicted as t-π(r). The decay rate n(r) and lifetime are wavelength dependent, and the former varies exponentially with wavelength. The power-lowering behaviour of the luminescence intensity indicates that the luminescence band originates from the recombination of donor-acceptor pairs.

  8. Sensitive, time-resolved, broadband spectroscopy of single transient processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Baev, Ivan; Hellmig, Ortwin; Sengstock, Klaus; Baev, Valery M.

    2015-09-01

    Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser is applied to time-resolved measurements of transient gain and absorption in electrically excited Xe and Kr plasmas. The achieved time resolution for broadband spectral recording of a single process is 25 µs. For pulsed-periodic processes, the time resolution is limited by the laser pulse duration, which is set here to 3 µs. This pulse duration also predefines the effective absorption path length, which amounts to 900 m. The presented technique can be applied to multicomponent analysis of single transient processes such as shock tube experiments, pulse detonation engines, or explosives.

  9. Femtosecond time-resolved electronic relaxation dynamics in tetrathiafulvalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staedter, D.; Polizzi, L. [Laboratoire de Collisions, Agrégats et Réactivité, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse-CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France); Thiré, N. [Laboratoire de Collisions, Agrégats et Réactivité, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse-CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France); INRS-EMT, Advanced Laser Light Source, 1650 Lionel-Boulet Blvd., Varennes, Quebec J3X1S2 (Canada); Mairesse, Y. [Centre des Laser Intenses et Applications, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS, 33405 Talence (France); Mayer, P. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Blanchet, V., E-mail: blanchet@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Laboratoire de Collisions, Agrégats et Réactivité, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse-CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France); Centre des Laser Intenses et Applications, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS, 33405 Talence (France)

    2015-05-21

    In the present paper, the ultrafast electronic relaxation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) initiated around 4 eV is studied by femtosecond time-resolved velocity-map imaging. The goal is to investigate the broad double structure observed in the absorption spectrum at this energy. By monitoring the transients of the parent cation and its fragments and by varying the pump and the probe wavelengths, two internal conversions and intramolecular vibrational relaxation are detected both on the order of a few hundred of femtoseconds. Photoelectron images permit the assignment of a dark electronic state involved in the relaxation. In addition, the formation of the dimer of TTF has been observed.

  10. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of lead halide perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Mopelola A.; Yau, Sung H.; Varnavski, Oleg; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Recently, lead halide perovskites which are organic-inorganic hybrid structures, have been discovered to be highly efficient as light absorbers. Herein, we show the investigation of the excited state dynamics and emission properties of non-stoichiometric precursor formed lead halide perovskites grown by interdiffusion method using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. The influence of the different ratios of the non-stoichiometric precursor solution was examined. The observed photoluminescence properties were correlated with the femtosecond transient absorption measurements.

  11. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik

    This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse and by...... measuring the transmission of a terahertz probe pulse, the photoconductivity of the excited sample can be obtained. By changing the relative arrival time at the sample between the pump and the probe pulse, the photoconductivity dynamics can be studied on a picosecond timescale. The rst studied semiconductor...

  12. Embedded remote control of time-resolved OTR measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-line measurement system based on OTR can be used to measure the parameters of the intense electron beam, such as beam energy, divergence and emittance, and it has characteristics of ultra-fast response and high special resolution. With the embedded remote controll system, the time-resolved OTR measurement has been implemented successfully. The computer controll system receives the photoelectric video frequency signal, transmits real time image, and gets the dynamic image. This work removes the difficulties of strong disturbance in the beam measurement of intense LIA. (authors)

  13. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern

  14. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy of an HPPMS coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the time resolved optical emission spectroscopy of a high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) physical vapour deposition coating process. With an industrial coating unit CC800/9 HPPMS (CemeCon AG, Wuerselen) a (Cr,Al,Si)N coating was deposited. During the coating process, an absolute calibrated Echelle spectrometer (ESA-3000) measured the intensities of the spectral lines of chromium (Cr), aluminium (Al) and molecular bands of nitrogen (N2). Time resolved measurements enable us to calculate different parameters such as the average velocity of sputtered Al and Cr atoms or the internal plasma parameters electron density ne and electron temperature kTe with a time resolution of 20 μs. With these parameters, we determine the ionization rates of Al, Cr, Ar and Kr atoms and the deposition densities of Al and Cr atoms. Thus simulated deposition densities of 1.75 x 1020 m-2 s-1 for chromium and 1.7 x 1022 m-2 s-1 for aluminium are reached.

  15. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Fuciman, Marcel; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Frank, Harry A; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-10-08

    The light-harvesting complex 2 from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption and fluorescence, sub-nanosecond-time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The measurements were performed at room temperature and at 10 K. The combination of both ultrafast and steady-state optical spectroscopy methods at ambient and cryogenic temperatures allowed the detailed study of carotenoid (Car)-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) as well BChl-to-BChl excitation energy transfer in the complex. The studies show that the dominant Cars rhodopin (N = 11) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13) do not play a significant role as supportive energy donors for BChl a. This is related with their photophysical properties regulated by long π-electron conjugation. On the other hand, such properties favor some of the Cars, particularly spirilloxanthin (N = 13) to play the role of the direct quencher of the excited singlet state of BChl.

  16. Radiative lifetime measurements for some levels in Mn I and Ni I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiative lifetimes for 32 excited levels of Mn I and for 17 excited levels of Ni I were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma. The energy regions are from 45,754.27 to 54,950.81 cm−1 for Mn I and from 28,578.018 to 50,851.199 cm−1 for Ni I. The uncertainties of all lifetime results are within 10%. To our best knowledge, 26 lifetime results of Mn I and 9 lifetime results of Ni I are reported for the first time. - Highlights: • The experimental lifetimes of some Mn I and Ni I levels were obtained by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence method. • Radiative lifetimes of 26 energy levels in Mn I were reported for the first time. • Radiative lifetimes of 9 energy levels in Ni I were reported for the first time

  17. Time-resolved tomographic images of a relativistic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, H.A.; Jacoby, B.A.; Nelson, M.

    1984-07-01

    We obtained a sequential series of time-resolved tomographic two-dimensional images of a 4.5-MeV, 6-kA, 30-ns electron beam. Three linear fiber-optic arrays of 30 or 60 fibers each were positioned around the beam axis at 0/sup 0/, 61/sup 0/, and 117/sup 0/. The beam interacting with nitrogen at 20 Torr emitted light that was focused onto the fiber arrays and transmitted to a streak camera where the data were recorded on film. The film was digitized, and two-dimensional images were reconstructed using the maximum-entropy tomographic technique. These images were then combined to produce an ultra-high-speed movie of the electron-beam pulse.

  18. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  19. Femtosecond Time-resolved MeV Electron Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Pengfei; Cao, J; Geck, J; Hidaka, Y; Kraus, R; Pjerov, S; Shen, Y; Tobey, R I; Zhu, Y; Hill, J P; Wang, X J

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of electron diffraction with 130 femtosecond time resolution using bench-top MeV electron beams. High-quality, single-shot electron diffraction patterns for both polycrystalline aluminium and single-crystal 1T-TaS_{2} are obtained utilizing a 5 femto-Coulomb (~3x10^{4} electrons) pulse of electrons at 2.8 MeV. The timing jitter between the pump laser and probe electron beam was found to be ~ 100 fs. The time resolution is demonstrated by observing the evolution of Bragg and superlattice peaks of 1T-TaS_{2} following an optical pump. Our experiemntal results demonstrate the feasibility of ultimately realizing 40 fs time-resolved electron diffraction.

  20. Time-resolved rotation projection MR phase contrast angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the advantages of time-resolved phase contrast angiography, the authors have investigated the additional advantage of incrementing projection angle during the cardiac cycle. An electrocardiographically triggered, multisection sequence was modified to produce bipolar gradient-reversal phase-contrast angiograms at 45-msec intervals. The projection angle for each angiogram was incremented by 5 degrees. Asymmetric echo acquisition was used to minimize TE. Velocity-compensated field-of-view select and readout gradients were used. Acceleration-compensated velocity encoding and velocity-compensated phase encoding gradients were investigated. A weak dephasing gradient was used in the projection direction. Images were acquired at 16 angles with four excitations per angle; acquisition time was approximately 8 minutes for each velocity component

  1. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of a molecular shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bodis, Pavol; Shaw, Danny J; Bakker, Bert H; Newton, Arthur C; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Woutersen, Sander

    2012-02-14

    Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the inter-component motion of an ultraviolet-triggered two-station molecular shuttle. The operation cycle of this molecular shuttle involves several intermediate species, which are observable in the amide I and amide II regions of the mid-IR spectrum. Using ab initio calculations on specific parts of the rotaxane, and by comparing the transient spectra of the normal rotaxane with that of the N-deuterated version, we can assign the observed vibrational modes of each species occurring during the shuttling cycle in an unambiguous way. The complete time- and frequency-dependent data set is analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). Using a kinetic model to describe the time-dependent concentrations of the transient species, we derive the absorption spectra associated with each stage in the operation cycle of the molecular shuttle, including the recombination of the charged species. PMID:22033540

  2. A prototype chopper for synchrotron time-resolved crystallographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanical x-ray chopper has been designed to perform microsecond time-resolved crystallographic studies at the DIAMOND synchrotron I19 beamline. It consists of two asymmetric absorbers rotating synchronously at frequencies from 0 to 50 Hz in the same direction around a rotation axis that is parallel to the x-ray beam. The duration of the x-ray pulses produced by the chopper is determined by the relative phase between the two blades, which can be adjusted. The chopper system presented in this paper offers a time resolution suitable for conducting in situ experiments that afford the crystal structure of materials while in their transient (>10 μs) photoactivated excited states.

  3. Fast time-resolved aerosol collector: proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles can be collected in the field on substrates for subsequent laboratory analysis via chemically sensitive single particle methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. With moving substrates time resolution of seconds to minutes can be achieved. In this paper, we demonstrate how to increase the time resolution when collecting particles on a substrate to a few milliseconds to provide real-time information. Our fast time-resolved aerosol collector ("Fast-TRAC" microscopically observes the particle collection on a substrate and records an on-line video. Particle arrivals are resolved to within a single frame (4–17 ms in this setup, and the spatial locations are matched to the subsequent single particle analysis. This approach also provides in-situ information on particle size and number concentration. Applications are expected in airborne studies of cloud microstructure, pollution plumes, and surface long-term monitoring.

  4. Fast time-resolved aerosol collector: proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles can be collected in the field on substrates for subsequent laboratory analysis via chemically sensitive single particle methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. With moving substrates time resolution of seconds to minutes can be achieved. In this paper, we demonstrate how to increase the time resolution when collecting particles on a substrate to a few milliseconds to provide real-time information. Our fast time-resolved aerosol collector ("Fast-TRAC" microscopically observes the particle collection on a substrate and records an on-line video. Particle arrivals are resolved to within a single frame (4–17 ms in this setup, and the spatial locations are matched to the subsequent single particle analysis. This approach also provides in-situ information on particle size and number concentration. Applications are expected in airborne studies of cloud microstructure, pollution plumes, and surface long-term monitoring.

  5. Time-resolved spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph R.

    This dissertation is a survey of ultrafast time-resolved optical measurements conducted on a variety of low-dimensional semiconductor systems to further the understanding of the dynamic behavior in the following systems: ZnMnTe/ZnSe quantum dots, ZnTe/ZnMnSe quantum dots, InGaAs quantum wells, CdMnSe colloidal quantum dots, multi-shell CdSe/CdMnS/CdS colloidal nanoplatelets, and graphene and graphene-related solutions and films. Using time-resolved photoluminescence to study epitaxially-grown ZnTe and ZnMnTe quantum dots in corresponding ZnMnSe and ZnSe matrices, the location dependence of manganese ions in respect to magnetic polaron formation is shown. The structure with manganese ions located in the matrix exhibited magnetic polaron behavior consistent with previous literature, whereas the structure with the magnetic ions located within the quantum dots exhibited unconventional magnetic polaron properties. These properties, including temperature and magnetic field insensitivity, were explained through the use of a model that predicted an increased internal magnetic field due to a decreased effective volume of the magnetic polaron and a higher effective temperature due to laser heating. Magneto-time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on a system of colloidal CdMnSe quantum dots show that the magnetic polaron properties differ significantly from the epitaxially grown quantum dots. First the timescales at which the magnetic polaron forms and the polarization saturates are different by more than an order of magnitude, and second, the magnetic polaron energy exhibited step-like behavior as the strength of the externally applied magnetic field is increased. The field dependent MP formation energy that is observed experimentally is explained as due to the breaking of the antiferromagnetic coupling of Mn dimers within the QDs. This model is further verified by the observation of quantized behavior in the Zeeman energy splitting. Through the use of magneto

  6. Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etesami, S. R.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J. [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2015-09-28

    Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) holds promise for new spintronic devices with low-energy consumption. The underlying physics, essential for a further progress, is yet to be fully clarified. This study of the time resolved longitudinal SSE in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet concludes that a substantial contribution to the spin current stems from small wave-vector subthermal exchange magnons. Our finding is in line with the recent experiment by S. R. Boona and J. P. Heremans [Phys. Rev. B 90, 064421 (2014)]. Technically, the spin-current dynamics is treated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation also including magnons back-action on thermal bath, while the formation of the time dependent thermal gradient is described self-consistently via the heat equation coupled to the magnetization dynamics.

  7. Time-resolved spectroscopy of solid-state materials using an x-ray laser (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray laser is a characteristic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source with short pulse duration of several pico-seconds, narrow spectral width, and high coherence. In particular, x-ray laser with the wavelength of around 13 nm is expected as a powerful tool of various research fields such as EUV lithography because the multilayer mirror with high reflectance is commercially prepared. However, spectroscopic studies of materials optically excited with x-ray laser are few while imaging and interference measurements are intensively studied. In this study, the beam divergence and spatial coherence of x-ray laser was improved and applied to the measurement of time resolved emission spectroscopy of a solid-state material. The beam divergence of the x-ray laser was improved by double target configuration using two gain media. The nickel-like silver x-ray laser at the wavelength of 13.9 nm was improved to be spatially fully coherent beam with the divergence of 0.20 mrad. The number of coherent photons of this beam was 108 per pulse. The narrow divergence allowed us the beam transported by use of a simple mirror system with a small diameter of 1 inch. As an application of the x-ray laser, the UV emission from the zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystal excited by the 13.9 nm x-ray laser was observed and evaluated for EUV scintillator. The time-resolved emission spectra were observed for 13.9 nm excitation and 351 nm excitation. In both the excitation conditions, a prominent fluorescence peak of the ZnO exciton transition was observed at around 380 nm. The time profile at the peak of the spectra could be expressed by a double exponential decay with time constants of 1 ns and 3 ns in the both cases. The lifetimes and intensity ratio of the two decay components in the both cases were almost similar in spite of the huge difference in the excitation photon energy. The response time is sufficiently short for characterizing EUV lithography light sources having several nanoseconds duration. It

  8. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and integrated over multiple cycles. A fast MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector was used to image the water distribution within a model steam engine operating at 10 Hz frequency. Within <10 minutes integration the amount of water was measured as a function of cycle time with a sub-mm spatial resolution, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of time-resolved neutron radiography for the future applications. The neutron spectrum of the ANTARES beamline as well as transmission spectra of a Fe sample were also measured with the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique in combination with a high resolution beam chopper. The energy resolution of our setup was found to be ∼ 0.8% at 5 meV and ∼ 1.7% at 25 meV. The background level (most likely gammas and epithermal/fast neutrons) of the ANTARES beamline was also measured in our experiments and found to be on the scale of 3% when no filters are installed in the beam. Online supplementary data available from stacks

  9. Time-resolved photoluminescence of SiOx encapsulated Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Seref; Hannas, Amal; Österman, Tomas; Sundström, Villy

    Silicon and its oxide SiOx offer a number of exciting electrical and optical properties originating from defects and size reduction enabling engineering new electronic devices including resistive switching memories. Here we present the results of photoluminescence dynamics relevant to defects and quantum confinement effects. Time-resolved luminescence at room temperature exhibits an ultrafast decay component of less than 10 ps at around 480 nm and a slower component of around 60 ps as measured by streak camera. Red shift at the initial stages of the blue luminescence decay confirms the presence of a charge transfer to long lived states. Time-correlated single photon counting measurements revealed a life-time of about 5 ns for these states. The same quantum structures emit in near infrared close to optical communication wavelengths. Nature of the emission is described and modeling is provided for the luminescence dynamics. The electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices were correlated with the optical and vibrational measurement results in order to have better insight into the switching mechanisms in such resistive devices as possible next generation RAM memory elements. ``This work was supported by ENIAC Joint Undertaking and Laser-Lab Europe''.

  10. A Clinical Tissue Oximeter Using NIR Time-Resolved Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaka, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kamada, Tsuyoshi; Kitazawa, Ken; Nishizawa, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    The tNIRS-1, a new clinical tissue oximeter using NIR time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), has been developed. The tNIRS-1 measures oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation in living tissues. Two-channel TRS measurements are obtained using pulsed laser diodes (LD) at three wavelengths, multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) for light detection, and time-to-digital converters (TDC) for time-of-flight photon measurements. Incorporating advanced semiconductor devices helped to make the design of this small-size, low-cost and low-power TRS instrument possible. In order to evaluate the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1, a study using blood phantoms and healthy volunteers was conducted to compare data obtained from a conventional SRS device and data from an earlier TRS system designed for research purposes. The results of the study confirmed the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1. Clinical evaluations conducted in several hospitals demonstrated a high level of usability in clinical situations and confirmed the efficacy of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1. PMID:26782242

  11. Time-resolved shadowgraphy of optical breakdown in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, K. A.; Grigorov, Y. V.; Nguyen, V. H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Le, N. T.; Janulewicz, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of a laser-induced optical breakdown in the bulk of fused silica initiated by a sub-nanosecond laser pulse of an energy fluence as high as 8.7 kJ/cm2 was investigated by using femtosecond time-resolved shadowgraphy. Plasma ignition, growth of the damaged region and accompanying hydrodynamic motion were recorded from the moment directly before the arrival of the driving laser pulse, in the time steps adapted to the rate of the occurring processes. The growth rate of the plasma channel, curvature radii and velocities of the wave fronts were extracted from the shadowgrams. It was found that the plasma channel develops with a supersonic velocity and the first observed shock front tends to transform itself from the initial bowl-like shape to the final spherical one characterising an acoustic wave. Appearance of multiple fronts accompanying the main shock front was registered and used in more detailed analysis of the optical breakdown dynamics in the transparent dielectrics.

  12. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular di-cations was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs. (authors)

  13. Time-resolved hard x-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kenneth; Cuneo, Michael; McKenna, Ian; Keenan, Thomas; Sanford, Thomas; Mock, Ray

    2006-08-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and axial (polar) views. UNSPEC 1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment.

  14. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  15. Space and time resolving spectrograph for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses construction of an EUV (60-350 angstrom) space and time resolving, grazing incidence spectrograph (STRS). The simultaneous spectral coverage of the instrument ranges from 20 to 60 angstrom, depending on the wavelength region. The spectral resolution is about 1 angstrom. The spectral resolution, accomplished by using the pinhole camera effect and the inherent astigmatism of a concave grating in grazing incidence, is about 2 m, with a total field of view of 60 cm at a distance of 2 cm from the plasma. The detector consists of a 75 mm MCP image intensifier optically coupled to three CCD area array detectors. Time resolution of up to 2 ms is achieved with high speed read-out electronics. A PDP 11.73 minicomputer controls the spectrograph and collects and reduces 3.0 MB of data per shot. The complete design of the STRS and the results of initial tests of the detector system, spectrograph, and data handling software are presented

  16. Application of microfluidic devices for time resolved FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis, micro fluidic mixers, operated in continuous flow mode, were used for time resolved FTIR studies of chemical reactions in aqueous solution. Any chemical reaction, that can be started upon mixing two reagents, can be examined with this technique. The mixing channel also serves as the observation window for the IR measurements. The actual measurements take place at well defined spots along this channel, corresponding to specific reaction times: moving the measurement spot (100 × 100 μm2) towards the entry yields shorter reaction times, moving it towards the channel's end gives longer reaction times. The temporal resolution of the experiment depends on the flow rate inside the mixing channel and the spacing between subsequent measurement points. Fast flow rates, limited by the back pressure of the mixer leading to leakages, allow time resolutions in the sub-millisecond time range using a standard FTIR microscope, whereas slow flow rates allow the measurement of reaction times up to 1000 ms. Evaluating the mixer using a fast chemical reaction resulted in mixing times of approximately 5 ms and a homogeneous distribution of the liquids across the width of the mixing channel. The mixer was then used for the measurement of the H/D exchange on carbohydrates, the complex formaldehyde sulfite clock reaction, and the folding of the protein ubiquitin from its native to the ''A'' state, induced by mixing it with an acidified methanol solution. For cleaning the mixer a software tool, called ATLAS, was developed in LabVIEW, which was used to automatize the necessary cleaning steps performed by a dedicated flow system. Additionally, the micro mixer technology was combined with the step scan measurement technique using a beam condenser focusing the IR beam of an FTIR spectrometer down to a spot size of 1 mm diameter and through the mixer. The laser light, initiating the chemical reaction inside the mixing channel, was coupled into the focusing unit using a

  17. Time-resolved microrheology of actively remodeling actomyosin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina Soares e.; Stuhrmann, Björn; Betz, Timo; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2014-07-01

    Living cells constitute an extraordinary state of matter since they are inherently out of thermal equilibrium due to internal metabolic processes. Indeed, measurements of particle motion in the cytoplasm of animal cells have revealed clear signatures of nonthermal fluctuations superposed on passive thermal motion. However, it has been difficult to pinpoint the exact molecular origin of this activity. Here, we employ time-resolved microrheology based on particle tracking to measure nonequilibrium fluctuations produced by myosin motor proteins in a minimal model system composed of purified actin filaments and myosin motors. We show that the motors generate spatially heterogeneous contractile fluctuations, which become less frequent with time as a consequence of motor-driven network remodeling. We analyze the particle tracking data on different length scales, combining particle image velocimetry, an ensemble analysis of the particle trajectories, and finally a kymograph analysis of individual particle trajectories to quantify the length and time scales associated with active particle displacements. All analyses show clear signatures of nonequilibrium activity: the particles exhibit random motion with an enhanced amplitude compared to passive samples, and they exhibit sporadic contractile fluctuations with ballistic motion over large (up to 30 μm) distances. This nonequilibrium activity diminishes with sample age, even though the adenosine triphosphate level is held constant. We propose that network coarsening concentrates motors in large clusters and depletes them from the network, thus reducing the occurrence of contractile fluctuations. Our data provide valuable insight into the physical processes underlying stress generation within motor-driven actin networks and the analysis framework may prove useful for future microrheology studies in cells and model organisms.

  18. Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Ryo

    The behavior of superconductors far from equilibrium has been intensively studied over decades. Goals of these studies are the elucidation of bosonic fluctuations essential for the pairing mechanisms, the manifestation of competing orders or hidden phases, and the optical manipulation of superconductivity. The study of collective modes is crucially important for these perspectives as it provides the information on the dynamics of order parameters in non-equilibirium states. Generally, collective modes in ordered phases associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking are classified into 1) gapless phase modes and 2) gapped amplitude modes. In superconductors, the phase mode is eaten by gauge field, according to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. The remaining amplitude mode is recently termed as Higgs mode from its analogy to the Higgs boson in particle physics. Despite its long history of investigation, unambiguous observation of Higgs mode has remained elusive. This is because the Higgs mode does not have a charge nor electric dipole and therefore it does not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. Here we report on our recent observation of Higgs mode in s-wave superconductors by using THz-pump and THz-probe spectroscopy technique. After nonadiabatic excitation near the superconducting gap energy with monocycle THz pulses, Higgs mode was observed as oscillations in the transmission of THz probe pulse. The resonant nonlinear coupling between the Higgs mode and coherent radiation field was also discovered, resulting in an efficient third order harmonic generation of the incident THz radiation. The extension of experiments to multiband superconductors and unconventional superconductors will be discussed. Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors.

  19. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Dangendorf, V.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schillinger, B.; Schulz, M.; Lerche, M.; Feller, W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and integrated over multiple cycles. A fast MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector was used to image the water distribution within a model steam engine operating at 10 Hz frequency. Within neutron radiography for the future applications. The neutron spectrum of the ANTARES beamline as well as transmission spectra of a Fe sample were also measured with the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique in combination with a high resolution beam chopper. The energy resolution of our setup was found to be ~ 0.8% at 5 meV and ~ 1.7% at 25 meV. The background level (most likely gammas and epithermal/fast neutrons) of the ANTARES beamline was also measured in our experiments and found to be on the scale of 3% when no filters are installed in the beam. Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/jinst/10/P07008/mmedia. The videos are given as supplementary material linked to the main article.

  20. Adaptive responses to antibody based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodems, Tamara S; Iida, Mari; Brand, Toni M; Pearson, Hannah E; Orbuch, Rachel A; Flanigan, Bailey G; Wheeler, Deric L

    2016-02-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) represent a large class of protein kinases that span the cellular membrane. There are 58 human RTKs identified which are grouped into 20 distinct families based upon their ligand binding, sequence homology and structure. They are controlled by ligand binding which activates intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity. This activity leads to the phosphorylation of distinct tyrosines on the cytoplasmic tail, leading to the activation of cell signaling cascades. These signaling cascades ultimately regulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, migration, survival and homeostasis of the cell. The vast majority of RTKs have been directly tied to the etiology and progression of cancer. Thus, using antibodies to target RTKs as a cancer therapeutic strategy has been intensely pursued. Although antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have shown promise in the clinical arena, the development of both intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibody-based therapies is now well appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the RTK family, the biology of EGFR and HER2, as well as an in-depth review of the adaptive responses undertaken by cells in response to antibody based therapies directed against these receptors. A greater understanding of these mechanisms and their relevance in human models will lead to molecular insights in overcoming and circumventing resistance to antibody based therapy. PMID:26808665

  1. Laser ablation of an indium target: time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectra of In I in the 700–7700 cm−1 range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Kubelík, Petr; Ferus, Martin; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.; Juha, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2014), s. 2275-2283. ISSN 0267-9477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14115; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : time-resolved fluorescence * Fourier transform infra reds * Laser -induced breakdown spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.466, year: 2014

  2. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to σ <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at least

  3. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-15

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to {sigma} <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at

  4. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  5. [Time-resolved optical studies of charge relaxation and charge transfer at electrode interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Key components were identified in a quantitative model of carrier relaxation in semiconductor electrodes: nonlinear aspects of nonradiative and radiative recombination, effect of space charge field on carrier dynamics, self-absorption effects in direct gas semiconductors, and influence of surface state population kinetics on charge carrier recombination. For CdSe, the first three are operative (no direct proof of the last one). A realistic kinetic model for carrier recombination in the bulk of CdSe was used which includes important nonlinear effects, both radiative and nonradiative. The change in interfacial recombination velocity with the chemical nature of the sinterface was studied (n-CdSe/silane interfaces). Temperature effect (278 to 328 K) on fluorescence decay of n-CdSe in contact with 0.5 M KOH was found to be weak. An analytical solution was obtained for time-resolved fluoresence from electrodes under potential bias, and is being tested. Fluorescence work on a different material, CdS, indicate different recombination kinetics; this material was used to directly pump an optical transition of a surface state.

  6. Femtosecond time-resolved energy transfer from CdSe nanoparticles to phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, S.; Królicki, R.; Lou, Y.; Qiu, X.; Berlin, J. C.; Kenney, M. E.; Burda, C.

    2006-07-01

    The first real-time observation of the early events during energy transfer from a photoexcited CdSe nanoparticle to an attached phthalocyanine molecule are presented in terms of a femtosecond spectroscopic pump-probe study of the energy transfer in conjugates of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) and silicon phthalocyanines (Pcs) with 120 fs time resolution. Four different silicon phthalocyanines have been conjugated to CdSe NPs. All of these have proven potential for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In such NP-Pc conjugates efficient energy transfer (ET) from CdSe NPs to Pcs occurs upon selective photoexcitation of the NP moiety. Spectral analysis as well as time-resolved fluorescence up-conversion measurements revealed the structure and dynamics of the investigated conjugates. Femtosecond transient differential absorption (TDA) spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the non-radiative carrier and ET dynamics. The formation of excitons, trapped carriers states, as well as stimulated emission was monitored in the TDA spectra and the corresponding lifetimes of these states were recorded. The time component for energy transfer was found to be between 15 and 35 ps. The ET efficiencies are found to be 20-70% for the four Pc conjugates, according to fluorescence quenching experiments. Moreover, as a result of the conjugation between NP and the Pcs the photoluminescence efficiency of the Pc moieties in the conjugates do not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines.

  7. Modified cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency assay by measuring released europium in a time resolved fluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, K; Truman, C; Dittmer, I; Laundy, G; Denning-Kendall, P; Hows, J; Feest, T; Bradley, B

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLpf) can be quantified by using the principle of limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Chromium 51 (51Cr) and europium (Eu) release assays are based on the measurement of marker release after lysis of targets by the effector cells. Although, 51Cr release has been widely used to quantify cell lysis since its introduction, it has several disadvantages such as handling and disposal of radioisotopes as well as health risk to personnel involved performing the assay. This situation has led us to adopt a non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. After 7 days culture the PHA-stimulated targets are labeled with europium DTPA chelate. Lysis of labeled targets by effectors releases the Eu-DTPA complex in culture medium--a highly fluorescent substance. The amount of fluorescence can be measured in a time resolved fluorometer. We describe here some modifications of the original protocol which include optimising IL-2 requirements, reduction of incubation times, addition of an extra spin before 37 degrees C incubation, readjustment of target cells per volume of labeling buffer and other crucial parameters increasing the specificity and sensitivity of CTLpf assay. We are in agreement with others that the Eu-release assay is specific and reproducible. It can be used for the CTLpf estimation as well as other T cell and non-T cell cytotoxicity assays. PMID:9090438

  8. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1Se was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S3/2-1S-e and 1P3/2-1Pe but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S3/2-1Se were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1Se and 1Pe. The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation of the 1S3/2-1Se and the 1P3/2-1Pe transition

  9. Standoff Time-Resolved Laser-Based Spectroscopy Tools for Sample Characterization and Biosignature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Misra, A. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Mars2020 rover will be searching for signs of past habitability and past life on Mars. Additionally, the rover mission will prepare a cache of highly significant samples for a future sample return mission. NASA requires these samples to be well characterized; the instruments on the rover must be capable of fine-scale in situ mineralogical or elemental analysis with emphasis on biosignature detection or characterization. We have been developing multiple standoff laser-based instruments at the University of Hawaii, Manoa that are capable of fine-scale in situ chemical analysis and biosignatures detection. By employing a time-resolved spectroscopy, we can perform elemental analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), mineral and organic analysis with Raman spectroscopy, and biosignature detection with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Each of these techniques share the same optics and detection equipment, allowing us to integrate them into a single, compact instrument. High time-resolution (~100 ns/pulse) is the key to this instrument; with it, the detector only records data when the signal is the brightest. Spectra can be taken during the day, LIBS can be measured without a plasma light background, and the Raman signal can be separated from the mineral fluorescence signal. Since bio-organics have very short fluorescence lifetimes, the new instrument can be used to unambiguously detect bio-organics. The prototype uses a low power (0.5 mJ/pulse) 532 nm laser with a detection limit of drill holes, or outcrops, and then allow the slower but more precise instruments on the rover to characterize the regions of interest. Either of these prototypes would be ideally suited for future NASA missions, including human exploration missions. The next iterations of the instruments will be designed specifically for future astronaut explorers.

  10. Time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of Gaq3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    was analyzed and presents one of the first time-resolved measurements at PETRA III. In addition to pump-probe XAFS spectroscopy, different phases of Gaq3 and Alq3 in form of powder, crystal, film and solution were analyzed by means of UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. Electronic and optical differences of the molecules related to the particular form could be revealed. Gaq3 in benzyl alcohol solution and Gaq3 in crystalline form exhibit very similar optical features, indicating similar structural properties. The various preparation techniques used to obtain the sample forms are presented in this thesis. Analyzing the differences among the diverse sample forms helps to answer the question on how the conclusions extracted from sample systems in liquid form can be transferred to the ones in crystal form or film form, the latter appearing in organic light emitting diodes. The future goal of this research project is the direct measurement of the excited state structure of Alq3 as well as Gaq3, and similar sample systems by time-resolved X-ray crystallography. The sample crystals have to fulfill specific requirements especially for the laser induced photoexcitation process. In this thesis a newly developed preparation method for low roughness singe crystal slices is presented. These crystal slices can be used for future perspective time-resolved X-ray crystallography experiments.

  11. Monitoring of singlet oxygen luminescence and mitochondrial autofluorescence after illumination of hypericin/mitochondria complex: a time-resolved study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of hypericin (Hyp) interaction with mitochondria isolated from U-87 MG glioma cells as well as the time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen (1O2) formation and annihilation after illumination of the Hyp/mitochondria complex is presented in this work. Interaction between Hyp and mitochondria was studied by steady-state and time-resolved UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A high concentration of Hyp leads to the aggregation of this compound inside the mitochondria and the relative population of the monomeric (biologically active) form of Hyp decreases concomitantly to approximately 10% at the highest used Hyp bulk concentration. Photosensitized production of 1O2 in mitochondria after illumination of the Hyp/mitochondria complex is characterized by a rise lifetime of ∼8 μs and shows saturation behaviour with respect to Hyp concentration. The lifetime of 1O2 depends on the composition of the medium where the mitochondria are suspended, ranging from about 3.0 μs in pure water to 26 μs in H2O–D2O (1:9) phosphate buffer. Our results confirm that only the monomeric form of Hyp is able to produce its excited triplet state, which consequently leads to 1O2 production. An influence of photoactivated Hyp on the mitochondria respiration chain was evaluated by the monitoring of time-resolved NAD(P)H fluorescence. We have demonstrated the rise of the NAD(P)H content after illumination of the Hyp/mitochondria complex. (letter)

  12. A multi-analytical investigation of semi-conductor pigments with time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, A.; Cesaratto, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Valentini, Gianluca; Comelli, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the non-invasive study of historical and modern Zn- and Cd-based pigments with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence multispectral imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Zinc oxide and Zinc sulphide are semiconductors which have been used as white pigments in paintings, and the luminescence of these pigments from trapped states is strongly dependent on the presence of impurities and crystal defects. Cadmium sulphoselenide pigments vary in hue from yellow to deep red based on their composition, and are another class of semiconductor pigments which emit both in the visible and the near infrared. The Fluorescence lifetime of historical and modern pigments has been measured using both an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) coupled with a Nd:YAG nslaser, and a streak camera coupled with a ps-laser for spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements. For Znbased pigments we have also employed Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) for the measurement of luminescence. A case study of FLIM applied to the analysis of the painting by Vincent Van Gogh on paper - "Les Bretonnes et le pardon de Pont-Aven" (1888) is presented. Through the integration of complementary, portable and non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, new insights into the optical properties of Zn- and Cd-based pigments have been gained which will inform future analysis of late 19th] and early 20th C. paintings.

  13. Photophysical and photochemical properties of 4-thiouracil: time-resolved IR spectroscopy and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoran; Dai, Xiaojuan; Liu, Kunhui; Zhao, Hongmei; Song, Di; Su, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Intensified research interests are posed with the thionucleobase 4-thiouracil (4-TU), due to its important biological function as site-specific photoprobe to detect RNA structures and nucleic acid-nucleic acid contacts. By means of time-resolved IR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) studies, we have examined the unique photophysical and photochemical properties of 4-TU. It is shown that 4-TU absorbs UVA light and results in the triplet formation with a high quantum yield (0.9). Under N2-saturated anaerobic conditions, the reactive triplet undergoes mainly cross-linking, leading to the (5-4)/(6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone product. In the presence of O2 under aerobic conditions, the triplet 4-TU acts as an energy donor to produce singlet oxygen (1)O2 by triplet-triplet energy transfer. The highly reactive oxygen species (1)O2 then reacts readily with 4-TU, leading to the products of uracil (U) with a yield of 0.2 and uracil-6-sulfonate (U(SO3)) that is fluorescent at ~390 nm. The product formation pathways and product distribution are well rationalized by the joint B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations. From dynamics and mechanistic point of views, these results enable a further understanding for 4-TU acting as reactive precursors for photochemical reactions relevant to (1)O2, which has profound implications for photo cross-linking, DNA photodamage, as well as photodynamic therapy studies. PMID:24820207

  14. An improved assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on time resolved fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A K; Boyd, P N

    1995-07-17

    A new and faster assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on release of europium from target cells is described. This has a number of important advantages over the traditional assays based on release of chromium-51 (51Cr). The new method involves labelling of Wein 133 target cells (B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells) which express the antigen, CDw52, with the chelate europium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (EuDTPA) according to the method of Blomberg et al. (1986). Labelled cells are sensitised (coated) with the anti-lymphocytic monoclonal antibody, Campath-1H. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are added to mediate lysis of EuDTPA labelled Wein 133 cells by ADCC. Release of EuDTPA from lysed cells is determined by mixing supernatants with enhancement solution containing 2-naphthoyl trifluoroacetone, 2-NTA, to form a highly fluorescent chelate which is measured using time resolved fluorometry. Results obtained with the new EuDPTA release assays were comparable to traditional assays based on the release of the radioisotope 51Cr. It is anticipated that this assay will have a widespread application among laboratories performing ADCC assays. The method is non-hazardous and has been used routinely for over 2 years to monitor production and purification of Campath-1H. PMID:7622867

  15. A time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for the quantitation of rabies virus nucleoprotein in the rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanfeng; Huang, Hong; Liu, Tiancai; He, Chunhui; Liu, Jianqing; Chen, Shaolang; Hou, Jingyuan; Ren, Zhiqi; Dong, Wenqi; Wu, Yingsong

    2014-09-01

    Sensitive, precise and rapid detection tests are needed in the quality control of rabies vaccine for rabies virus nucleoprotein. Previous studies for quantitation of rabies virus nucleoprotein focused on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A novel immunoassay for rapid determination of rabies virus nucleoprotein in rabies vaccine was first established by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA). Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one monoclonal antibody coating in the wells and "sandwiched" by another monoclonal antibody labeled with europium chelates. The immunocomplex was retained after washing, and then adopted treatment with enhancement solution; fluorescence was then measured according to the number of europiumions dissociated. Levels of the rabies virus nucleoprotein were measured in a linear range (5-2500 mEU/mL) with a lower limit of quantitation (0.95 mEU/mL) under optimal conditions. The repeatability, recovery, and linearity of the immunoassay were demonstrated to be acceptable. The correlation coefficient of nucleoprotein values obtained by novel TRFIA method and ELISA method was 0.981. These results showed good correlation and confirmed that this sensitive, precise and rapid TRFIA was feasible and could be more suitable for the quality control in the process of rabies vaccine production than ELISA. PMID:24928690

  16. Time-Resolved Luminescence Nanothermometry with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Hsu, Hsiang; Huang, Shaio-Chih; Chen, Jeson; Yee, Fu-Ghoul; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Chang, Ming-Shien

    2016-05-01

    Measuring thermal properties with nanoscale spatial resolution either at or far from equilibrium is gaining importance in many scientific and engineering applications. Although negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers in diamond have recently emerged as promising nanometric temperature sensors, most previous measurements were performed under steady state conditions. Here we employ a three-point sampling method which not only enables real-time detection of temperature changes over +/-100 K with a sensitivity of 2 K/(Hz)1/2, but also allows the study of nanometer scale heat transfer with a temporal resolution of better than 1 μs with the use of a pump-probe-type experiment. In addition to temperature sensing, we further show that nanodiamonds conjugated with gold nanorods, as optically-activated dual-functional nanoheaters and nanothermometers, are useful for highly localized hyperthermia treatment. We experimentally demonstrated time-resolved fluorescence nanothermometry, and the validity of the measurements was verified with finite-element numerical simulations. The approaches provided here will be useful for probing dynamical thermal properties on nanodevices in operation.

  17. Time-Resolved Imaging of Single HIV-1 Uncoating In Vitro and in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Ashwanth C; Marin, Mariana; Shi, Jiong; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2016-06-01

    Disassembly of the cone-shaped HIV-1 capsid in target cells is a prerequisite for establishing a life-long infection. This step in HIV-1 entry, referred to as uncoating, is critical yet poorly understood. Here we report a novel strategy to visualize HIV-1 uncoating using a fluorescently tagged oligomeric form of a capsid-binding host protein cyclophilin A (CypA-DsRed), which is specifically packaged into virions through the high-avidity binding to capsid (CA). Single virus imaging reveals that CypA-DsRed remains associated with cores after permeabilization/removal of the viral membrane and that CypA-DsRed and CA are lost concomitantly from the cores in vitro and in living cells. The rate of loss is modulated by the core stability and is accelerated upon the initiation of reverse transcription. We show that the majority of single cores lose CypA-DsRed shortly after viral fusion, while a small fraction remains intact for several hours. Single particle tracking at late times post-infection reveals a gradual loss of CypA-DsRed which is dependent on reverse transcription. Uncoating occurs both in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear membrane. Our novel imaging assay thus enables time-resolved visualization of single HIV-1 uncoating in living cells, and reveals the previously unappreciated spatio-temporal features of this incompletely understood process. PMID:27322072

  18. Assembly and application of an instrument for attosecond-time-resolved ionization chronoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of this thesis a new setup for attosecond time-resolved measurements has been built and observations of ionization dynamics in rare gas atoms have been made. This new technique is entitled Ionization Chronoscopy and gives further evidence that time-resolved experiments in the attosecond regime will become a powerful tool for investigations in atomic physics. (orig.)

  19. Development of Time Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Assay for FXR Antagonist Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng; Forman, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor, NRIH4), a nuclear receptor, plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. FXR ligands have been investigated in preclinical studies for targeted therapy against metabolic diseases, but have shown limitations. Therefore, there is a need for new agonist or antagonist ligands of FXR, both for potential clinical applications, as well as to further elucidate its biological functions. Here we describe the use of the X-ray crystal structure of FXR complexed ...

  20. Investigation of time-resolved fluorescence lifetime of perylene dye molecules embedded in silicon nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Sabriye

    2015-02-01

    The radiative decay rate of a perylene dye molecule attached to silicon nanopillar is investigated using a conventional time-correlated single photon counting technique. It is hard to produce a sustainable host with exactly the same dimensions all the time during fabrication to accommodate dye molecules for enhancement of spontaneous emission rate. The laser-induced electrochemical anodization method allows us to have a control over size and shape of the silicon nanostructures. The effect of the silicon nanopillar on the radiative decay rate of the dye molecules is described by the Klimov's prolate nanospheroid model. It is observed that the decay rate is significantly enhanced or inhibited due to plasmon resonance, depending on whether the dipole is embedded closely right at the tip or at equator of the prolate nanospheroid. Both inhibition and enhancement disappear when the distance between the dipole and prolate nanospheroid becomes large. Thus, the decay rate of the dye molecule approaches its natural value in the free space.

  1. Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Lipid Bilayers: Selected Applications and Advantages over Steady State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaro, Mariana; Šachl, Radek; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Coutinho, A.; Prieto, M.; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 12 (2014), s. 2751-2760. ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-03141J; GA MŠk LH13259 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * reactivity * energetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.972, year: 2014

  2. Probing functional (re)organisation in photosynthesis by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlü, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The possible mechanisms for reorganisation of outer LHCs of PSII (LHCII) upon state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been discussed for several decades [38, 43-54]. For a long time people adhered to the opinion that upon the transition from state 1 to state 2, 80% of LHCII detaches from PSII and attaches completely to PSI in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [38, 45]. This thesis provides new insights for the mechanism of state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the rem...

  3. Light harvesting, light adaptation and photoprotection in aquatic photosynthesis studies by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukhutsina, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aquatic photosynthetic organisms unavoidably experience light fluctuations that vary in amplitude, duration and origin, compromising their photosynthetic efficiency. Weather conditions and underwater flow cause continuous changes in irradiance to which the organisms have to

  4. In Situ Planetary Mineralogy Using Simultaneous Time Resolved Fluorescence and Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman , G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is one of the primary methods of mineralogical analysis in the laboratory, and more recently in the field. Because of its versatility and ability to interrogate rocks in their natural form it is one of the front runners for the next generation of in situ instruments designed to explore adverse set of solar system bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, the Moon, and other primitive bodies such as asteroids and the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos), as well as for pre-selection of rock and soil samples for potential cache and return missions.

  5. A small animal time-resolved optical tomography platform using wide-field excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vivek

    Small animal imaging plays a critical role in present day biomedical research by filling an important gap in the translation of research from the bench to the bedside. Optical techniques constitute an emerging imaging modality which have tremendous potential in preclinical applications. Optical imaging methods are capable of non-invasive assessment of the functional and molecular characteristics of biological tissue. The three-dimensional optical imaging technique, referred to as diffuse optical tomography, provides an approach for the whole-body imaging of small animal models and can provide volumetric maps of tissue functional parameters (e.g. blood volume, oxygen saturation etc.) and/or provide 3D localization and quantification of fluorescence-based molecular markers in vivo. However, the complex mathematical reconstruction problem associated with optical tomography and the cumbersome instrumental designs limits its adoption as a high-throughput quantitative whole-body imaging modality in current biomedical research. The development of new optical imaging paradigms is thus necessary for a wide-acceptance of this new technology. In this thesis, the design, development, characterization and optimization of a small animal optical tomography system is discussed. Specifically, the platform combines a highly sensitive time-resolved imaging paradigm with multi-spectral excitation capability and CCD-based detection to provide a system capable of generating spatially, spectrally and temporally dense measurement datasets. The acquisition of such data sets however can take long and translate to often unrealistic acquisition times when using the classical point source based excitation scheme. The novel approach in the design of this platform is the adoption of a wide-field excitation scheme which employs extended excitation sources and in the process allows an estimated ten-fold reduction in the acquisition time. The work described herein details the design of the imaging

  6. Time-resolved spin-dependent processes in magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the time-resolved magnetic field effects (MFEs) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the transient electroluminescence (EL) method. The values of magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) decrease with the time, and the decreasing slope is proportional to the driving voltage. Specifically, negative MELs are seen when the driving voltage is high enough (V > 11 V). We propose a model to elucidate the spin-dependent processes and theoretically simulate the time-resolved MELs. In particular, this dynamic analysis of time-resolved MELs reveals that the intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet electron-hole pairs and the triplet-triplet annihilation are responsible for the time-resolved MELs at the beginning and enduring periods of the pulse, respectively.

  7. Time-resolved techniques. Useful tools for fundamental investigations in radiation chemistry of derivatives of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved techniques such as pulse radiolysis with electron linear accelerator and flash photolysis with excimer laser have been utilized as useful tools for fundamental investigations in radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of derivatives of polysaccharides. (author)

  8. Wavelet-based fast time-resolved magnetic sensing with electronic spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nanyang; Jiang, Fengjian; Tian, Yu; Ye, Jianfeng; Shi, Fazhan; Lv, Haijiang; Wang, Ya; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved magnetic sensing is of great importance from fundamental studies to applications in physical and biological sciences. Recently, the nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond has been developed as a promising sensor of magnetic fields under ambient conditions. However, methods to reconstruct time-resolved magnetic fields with high sensitivity are not yet fully developed. Here, we propose and demonstrate a sensing method based on spin echo and Haar wavelet transformation. Our method is exponentially faster in reconstructing time-resolved magnetic fields with comparable sensitivity than existing methods. It is also easier to implement in experiments. Furthermore, the wavelet's unique features enable our method to extract information from the whole signal with only part of the measuring sequences. We then explore this feature for a fast detection of simulated nerve impulses. These results will be useful to time-resolved magnetic sensing with quantum probes at nanoscale.

  9. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning studies of hexamethylcyclopentadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Schalk, O.;

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning were applied to the ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of hexamethylcyclopentadiene. The high level of agreement between experiment and theory associates wavepacket motion with a distinct degree of freedom....

  10. Time-resolved temperature and O atom measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in combustible mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Suzanne; Bowman, Sherrie; Burnette, David; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents results of time-resolved rotational temperature measurements, by pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and absolute O atom number density measurements, by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The experiments were conducted in nanosecond pulse discharges in H2-O2-Ar and C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures, initially at room temperature, operated at a high pulse repetition rate of 40 kHz, in a plane-to-plane double dielectric barrier geometry at a pressure of 40 Torr. Intensified charge-coupled device images show that O2-Ar and H2-O2-Ar plasmas remain diffuse and volume-filling during the entire burst. Images taken in C2H4-O2-Ar plasma demonstrate significant discharge filamentation and constriction along the center plane and in the corners of the test section. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational psec CARS for thermometry measurements at low partial pressures of oxygen in nonequilibrium plasmas. The results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, using two different H2-O2 chemistry and C2H4-O2 chemistry mechanisms. In H2-O2-Ar mixtures, the kinetic modeling predictions are in fairly good agreement with the data, predicting temperature rise and O atom accumulation in long discharge bursts, up to 450 pulses. The results show that adding hydrogen to the mixture results in an additional temperature rise, due to its partial oxidation by radicals generated in the plasma, essentially without chain branching. In C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures, the model consistently underpredicts both temperature and O atom number density. The most likely reason for the difference between the experimental data and model predictions is discharge filamentation developing when ethylene is added to the O2-Ar mixture, at fairly low temperatures.

  11. Deflecting cavity dynamics for time-resolved machine studies of SXFEL user facility

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Minghao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency deflectors are widely used for time-resolved electron beam energy, emittance and radiation profile measurements in modern free electron laser facilities. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics aspects of the deflecting cavity of SXFEL user facility, which is located at the exit of the undulator. With a targeted time resolution around 10 fs, it is expected to be an important tool for time-resolved commissioning and machine studies for SXFEL user facility.

  12. Time-resolved diffused optical characterization of key tissue constituents of human bony prominence locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Farina, Andrea; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Negredo, Eugènia; Puig, Jordi; Escrig, Roser; Rosales, Quim; Lindner, Claus; Pagliazzi, Marco; Durduran, Turgut

    2015-07-01

    We report a broadband time-resolved characterization of selected bony prominence locations of the human body. A clinical study was performed at six different bony prominence locations of 53 subjects. A portable broadband time-resolved system equipped with pulse drift and distortion compensation strategy was used for absorption and scattering measurements. Key tissue constituents were quantified as a pilot step towards non-invasive optical assessment of bone pathologies.

  13. Time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with a scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, T.; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    1998-01-01

    We present the time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with an STM. The results indicate that the time resolved signal is due to rectification of coherently superimposed plasmon voltages. The comparison with differential reflectivity measurements shows that the tip itself influences...... the decay of the plasmon-field coherence. Generation of the measured signal at the tunneling junction offers the possibility to observe ultrafast effects with a spatial resolution determined by the tunneling junction...

  14. Time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, T.; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    We present the time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with an STM. The results indicate that the time resolved signal is due to rectification of coherently superimposed plasmon voltages. The comparison with differential reflectivity measurements shows that the tip itself influences the decay of the plasmon-field coherence. Generation of the measured signal at the tunneling junction offers the possibility to observe ultrafast effects with a spatial resolution determined by the t...

  15. Wavelet-based fast time-resolved magnetic sensing with electronic spins in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nanyang; Jiang, Fengjian; Tian, Yu(School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China); Ye, Jianfeng; Shi, Fazhan; Lv, Haijiang; Wang, Ya; Wrachtrup, Jorg; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved magnetic sensing is of great importance from fundamental studies to applications in physical and biological sciences. Recently the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond has been developed as a promising sensor of magnetic field under ambient conditions. However the methods to reconstruct time-resolved magnetic field with high sensitivity are not yet fully developed. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel sensing method based on spin echo, and Haar wavelet transform. O...

  16. Wide-field time-resolved luminescence imaging and spectroscopy to decipher obliterated documents in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mototsugu; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akao, Yoshinori; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We applied a wide-field time-resolved luminescence (TRL) method with a pulsed laser and a gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) for deciphering obliterated documents for use in forensic science. The TRL method can nondestructively measure the dynamics of luminescence, including fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes, which prove to be useful parameters for image detection. First, we measured the TRL spectra of four brands of black porous-tip pen inks on paper to estimate their luminescence lifetimes. Next, we acquired the TRL images of 12 obliterated documents at various delay times and gate times of the ICCD. The obliterated contents were revealed in the TRL images because of the difference in the luminescence lifetimes of the inks. This method requires no pretreatment, is nondestructive, and has the advantage of wide-field imaging, which makes it is easy to control the gate timing. This demonstration proves that TRL imaging and spectroscopy are powerful tools for forensic document examination.

  17. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these prote

  18. A New Approach of Oil Spill Detection Using Time-Resolved LIF Combined with Parallel Factors Analysis for Laser Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqing Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In hope of developing a method for oil spill detection in laser remote sensing, a series of refined and crude oil samples were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence in conjunction with parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC. The time resolved emission spectra of those investigated samples were taken by a laser remote sensing system on a laboratory basis with a detection distance of 5 m. Based on the intensity-normalized spectra, both refined and crude oil samples were well classified without overlapping, by the approach of PARAFAC with four parallel factors. Principle component analysis (PCA has also been operated as a comparison. It turned out that PCA operated well in classification of broad oil type categories, but with severe overlapping among the crude oil samples from different oil wells. Apart from the high correct identification rate, PARAFAC has also real-time capabilities, which is an obvious advantage especially in field applications. The obtained results suggested that the approach of time-resolved fluorescence combined with PARAFAC would be potentially applicable in oil spill field detection and identification.

  19. A New Approach of Oil Spill Detection Using Time-Resolved LIF Combined with Parallel Factors Analysis for Laser Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deqing; Luan, Xiaoning; Guo, Jinjia; Cui, Tingwei; An, Jubai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-01-01

    In hope of developing a method for oil spill detection in laser remote sensing, a series of refined and crude oil samples were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence in conjunction with parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC). The time resolved emission spectra of those investigated samples were taken by a laser remote sensing system on a laboratory basis with a detection distance of 5 m. Based on the intensity-normalized spectra, both refined and crude oil samples were well classified without overlapping, by the approach of PARAFAC with four parallel factors. Principle component analysis (PCA) has also been operated as a comparison. It turned out that PCA operated well in classification of broad oil type categories, but with severe overlapping among the crude oil samples from different oil wells. Apart from the high correct identification rate, PARAFAC has also real-time capabilities, which is an obvious advantage especially in field applications. The obtained results suggested that the approach of time-resolved fluorescence combined with PARAFAC would be potentially applicable in oil spill field detection and identification. PMID:27563899

  20. Capturing molecular structural dynamics by 100 ps time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental set-up for time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 100 ps time resolution at beamline NW14A at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring is presented. An experimental set-up for time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 100 ps time resolution at beamline NW14A at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring is presented. The X-ray positional active feedback to crystals in a monochromator combined with a figure-of-merit scan of the laser beam position has been utilized as an essential tool to stabilize the spatial overlap of the X-ray and laser beams at the sample position. As a typical example, a time-resolved XAFS measurement of a photo-induced spin crossover reaction of the tris(1,10-phenanthrorine)iron(II) complex in water is presented

  1. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  2. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Resonance-Enhanced CARS of Gaseous Iodine at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is applied to investigate molecular dynamics in gaseous iodine. 40 fs laser pulses are applied to create and monitor the high vibrational states of iodine at room temperature (corresponding to a vapor pressure as low as about 35 Pa) by femtosecond time-resolved CARS. Depending on the time delay between the probe pulse and the pump/Stokes pulse pairs, the high vibrational states both on the electronically ground states and the excited states can be detected as oscillations in the CARS transient signal. It is proved that the femtosecond time-resolved CARS technique is a promising candidate for investigating the molecular dynamics of a low concentration system and can be applied to environmental and atmospheric monitoring measurements. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Time-resolved temperature and O atom measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in combustible mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of time-resolved rotational temperature measurements, by pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and absolute O atom number density measurements, by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The experiments were conducted in nanosecond pulse discharges in H2–O2–Ar and C2H4–O2–Ar mixtures, initially at room temperature, operated at a high pulse repetition rate of 40 kHz, in a plane-to-plane double dielectric barrier geometry at a pressure of 40 Torr. Intensified charge-coupled device images show that O2–Ar and H2–O2–Ar plasmas remain diffuse and volume-filling during the entire burst. Images taken in C2H4–O2–Ar plasma demonstrate significant discharge filamentation and constriction along the center plane and in the corners of the test section. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational psec CARS for thermometry measurements at low partial pressures of oxygen in nonequilibrium plasmas. The results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, using two different H2–O2 chemistry and C2H4–O2 chemistry mechanisms. In H2–O2–Ar mixtures, the kinetic modeling predictions are in fairly good agreement with the data, predicting temperature rise and O atom accumulation in long discharge bursts, up to 450 pulses. The results show that adding hydrogen to the mixture results in an additional temperature rise, due to its partial oxidation by radicals generated in the plasma, essentially without chain branching. In C2H4–O2–Ar mixtures, the model consistently underpredicts both temperature and O atom number density. The most likely reason for the difference between the experimental data and model predictions is discharge filamentation developing when ethylene is added to the O2–Ar mixture, at fairly low temperatures. (paper)

  4. Time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced electron beam is constructed. A small portion of electron beam sampled at its axis is injected into a vacuum and the electrons passed through a negatively biased electrode are measured by a Faraday cup. The time-resolved energy spectrum is determined by analyzing the Faraday cup current waveforms measured at various bias voltages. The resultant spectrum reveals that the instantaneous beam energy is nearly monoenergetic. The energy is monotonically decreasing in time and resembles the anode-cathode voltage waveform. This suggests that electrons are accelerated by the full instantaneous anode-cathode voltage

  5. Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems; Zeitaufgeloester Elektronentransport in Quantendotsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croy, Alexander

    2010-06-30

    In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.

  6. TRIASSIC: the Time-Resolved Industrial Alpha-Source Scanning Induced Current microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur

    Time-resolved ion beam induced current (TRIBIC) microscopy yields useful information such as carrier mobility and lifetimes in semiconductors and defect locations in devices; however, traditional TRIBIC uses large, expensive particle accelerators that require specialized training to operate and maintain. The time-resolved industrial alpha-source scanning induced current (TRIASSIC) microscope transforms TRIBIC by replacing the particle accelerator facility with an affordable, tabletop instrument suitable for use in research and education at smaller colleges and universities. I will discuss the development of, successes with, setbacks to and future directions for TRIASSIC.

  7. Time-resolved photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dot superlattices of different microcrystal shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report time-resolved photoluminescence properties on semiconductor quantum dot (QD) superlattices (SLs) using PL lifetime imaging microscopy at a single particle level. PL lifetime imaging technique clearly reveals that different shaped QD SL microcrystals have different time-resolved PL characteristics. The faceted SL microcrystals consisted of well-organized QDs showed faster recombination rates than those of the spherical microparticles including randomly organized QDs, which can be explained by the different degree of energetic couplings among component QDs due to different packing fraction

  8. Time-resolved photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dot superlattices of different microcrystal shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Weon-Sik, E-mail: wschae@kbsi.re.kr; Choi, Eunjin; Ku Jung, Yun [Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin-Seung [Department of Chemistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Kyu [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14

    We report time-resolved photoluminescence properties on semiconductor quantum dot (QD) superlattices (SLs) using PL lifetime imaging microscopy at a single particle level. PL lifetime imaging technique clearly reveals that different shaped QD SL microcrystals have different time-resolved PL characteristics. The faceted SL microcrystals consisted of well-organized QDs showed faster recombination rates than those of the spherical microparticles including randomly organized QDs, which can be explained by the different degree of energetic couplings among component QDs due to different packing fraction.

  9. Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockett, Paul; Bisgaard, Christer Z.; Clarkin, Owen J.;

    2011-01-01

    such as electron(7-10) or X-ray diffraction(11) and X-ray absorption(12) yield complementary information about the atomic motions. Time-resolved methods that are directly sensitive to both valence-electron dynamics and atomic motions include photoelectron spectroscopy(13-15) and high-harmonic generation(16...

  10. Time-resolved transient optical absorption study of constitutional-dynamic conjugated polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfleger, Jiří; Rais, David; Vitvarová, T.; Vohlídal, J.; Svoboda, J.

    Pisa : European Polymer Federation, 2013. O7-3. [European Polymer Congress - EPF 2013. 16.06.2013-21.06.2013, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1143; GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : time-resolved optical spectroscopy * conjugated polymers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the chest: is it possible to probe the lung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, G.; Farina, A.; Pifferi, A.; Taroni, P.; Miniati, M.

    2013-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations and preliminary time-resolved spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the feasibility of the in vivo optical diagnostics of lung conditions and diseases. Absorption and reduced scattering properties of the chest, arising from in vivo spectral measurements on volunteers are presented.

  12. Phase separation during silica gel formation followed by time-resolved SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering data are collected during the formation of silica gels from the base catalyzed polymerization of tetraethoxysilane in ethanol with 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as additives. It is shown that a polymerization-induced spinodal demixing occurs during the gel formation

  13. Time resolved X-ray scattering of protein loaded lipid nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, A.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Drechsler, M.; Štěpánek, Petr; Lesieur, S.

    Sofia : Bulgarian Crystallographic Society, 2014. s. 27. [National Crystallographic Symposium /5./ - NCS2014. 25.09.2014-27.09.2014, Sofia] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : time resolved small angle X-ray scattering * protein * lipid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the numerical analysis of a time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy experiment using a modified finite-difference time-domain method. Using this method, we show that ultrafast carrier dynamics can be extracted with a time resolution smaller than the duration of the THz...

  15. Time-resolved diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to dynamic heterogeneity imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cheikh, M; Ettori, D; Tinet, E; Avrillier, S; Tualle, J M; Cheikh, Monia; Nghiem, Ha Lien; Ettori, Dominique; Tinet, Eric; Avrillier, Sigrid; Tualle, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    We report in this paper what is to our knowledge the first observation of a time-resolved diffusing wave spectroscopy signal recorded by transillumination through a thick turbid medium: the DWS signal is measured for a fixed photon transit time, which opens the possibility of improving the spatial resolution. This technique could find biomedical applications, especially in mammography.

  16. Observation of Time-resolved Gain Dynamics in a Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Markmann, S.; Nong, H.; Pal, S.; Hekmat, N; Mohandas, RA; Dean, P.; Li, L; Linfield, EH; Davies, AG; Wieck, AD; Jukam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic response of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is probed as a function of time. The gain of the THz QCL is saturated by injection seeding the laser with an initial THz seed pulse. The time-resolved gain of the injection seeded laser is then probed with a second THz pulse.

  17. Reduction of Guanosyl Radical by Cysteine and Cysteine-Glycine Studied by Time-Resolved CIDNP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozova, O.B.; Kaptein, R.; Yurkovskaya, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    As a model for chemical DNA repair, reduction of guanosyl radicals in the reaction with cysteine or the dipeptide cysteine-glycine has been studied by time-resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP). Radicals were generated photochemically by pulsed laser irradiation of a solut

  18. TIME-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE U121R BEAMLINE AT THE NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for performing time-resolved infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the NSLS, primarily at beamline U12IR. The pulsed IR light from the synchrotron is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy. The authors present here a description of the facility and results for the relaxation of photoexcitations in both a semiconductor and superconductor

  19. Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectra of Sr: h-, g-levels and oscillator strengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.; Juha, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 129, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 324-332. ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy * Strontium * Rydberg states Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2013

  20. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of conjugated polymer/CdSe nanorod composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Lek, Jun Y.; Krebs, Frederik C;

    2010-01-01

    report ultrafast carrier dynamics in hybrid CdSe nanorod / poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction films measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, and compare to the well studied P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. Both films show an improved peak...

  1. Hexamethylcyclopentadiene: time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Schalk, O.;

    2014-01-01

    comparing time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) with ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations on the MS-MR-CASPT2 level of theory. We disentangle the relationship between two phenomena that dominate the immediate molecular response upon light absorption: a spectrally dependent delay of the...

  2. Time-resolved thermography for prediction of localized anisotropy in earth materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, A. S.; Elliot, T. R.; Miller, S. P.; Heck, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    Investigation of earth materials in a non-destructive manner is gaining impetus in environmentally sensitive areas and novel techniques are required for large-scale applications that account for variability in local composition. One such method, utilized in industrial and built-environment analysis, is non-temporal thermal imaging for detection of deformation, insular weakness, or structural discrepancies. The primary characteristics that resolve thermal response of an earth material are thermal diffusivity (á), volumetric heat capacity (C), and distribution of various mineral phases that compose a sample. While a non-temporal thermal image is resultant from super-imposing spatial distribution of the á and C, a time-resolved thermal image depicts the distribution of mineral phases and the correlated á and C. Established time-resolved thermography is prevalent in industrial quality control and for isotropic analysis of homogeneous specially- manufactured materials. Technical investigation using time-resolved thermography has resulted in characterization of sub-surface structures in homogeneous materials. In order to adapt this technique for application in the earth material sciences, the anisotropy of á, C, and spatial distribution must be accounted for. The purpose of this study is to relate a novel time-resolved thermal tomography approach to intact sample micromorphology of a multi-mineral earth material sample. The primary objective is a correlated prediction of micromorphology at depth via time-domain thermography. Secondary objectives include a standard approach to thermal tomography for intact earth material analysis, as well as a comparison of local and effective thermal properties as a function of variability in composition. Three earth material samples (one cemented by gypsum crystal growth, one cemented by carbonate crystals, and one is a crystalline sandstone) were subjected to a step-heating protocol with a duration that ensured penetration of the

  3. Dynamics of electron transport at the PTCDA/Ag(111)-interface studied with time-resolved 2PPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, Christian; Marks, Manuel B.; Hoefer, Ulrich [Fachbereich Physik, Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Sachs, Soenke; Schoell, Achim [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Umbach, Eberhard [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) is able to provide very detailed information about the electronic structure and the dynamics of electron transfer processes of well-ordered interfaces between organic semiconductors and metals. As a model system we have investigated thin epitaxial PTCDA films on Ag(111). A dispersing unoccupied state with an effective electron mass of 0.39 m{sub e} at the anti {gamma}-point emerges 0.6 eV above the metallic Fermi level E{sub F}. Its short lifetime of 55 fs is a clear indication that this state has a strong overlap with the metal and essentially originates from an upshift of the Shockley surface state of the Ag substrate. In order to investigate the role of the interface state for charge carrier injection, we populate the LUMO of PTCDA in films of varying thickness and simultaneously record fluorescence and photoemission spectra. A long lived component observed in the 2PPE signal close to E{sub F} clearly correlates with film thickness and fluorescence lifetime.

  4. BRET and Time-resolved FRET strategy to study GPCR oligomerization: from cell lines toward native tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThierryDURROUX

    2012-07-01

    Demonstrating the direct interactions between two proteins is not trivial since few techniques present a spatial resolution allowing to conclude to close interactions. Resonance energy transfer (RET strategies are actually the most convenient ones. During the last two decades, two of them, the Bioluminescent Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET and Time-resolved Fluorescence Energy Transfer (TR-FRET have been widely used since they exhibit high signal-to-noise ratio. Most of the experiments based on GPCR labeling have been performed in cell lines and it has been shown that all GPCRs have the propensity to form homo- or hetero-oligomers. However, whether these data can be extrapolated to GPCRs expressed in native tissues and explain receptor functioning in real life, remains an open question. Native tissues impose different constraints since GPCR sequences cannot be modified. Recently a fluorescent ligand-based GPCR labeling strategy combined to TR-FRET approach has been successfully used to prove the existence of GPCR oligomerization in native tissues. Although the RET based strategies are generally quite simple to implement, precautions have to be taken before concluding to the absence or the existence of specific interactions between receptors. For example, one should exclude the possibility of collision of receptors diffusing throughout the membrane leading to a specific FRET signal. We will review the advantages and the limits of different approaches and discuss the consequent perspectives.

  5. Usefulness of time-resolved projection MRA on evaluation of hemodynamics in cerebral occlusive diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Nochide, Ichiro; Igase, Keiji; Harada, Hironobu; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko [Washokai Sadamoto Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan); Nagasawa, Kiyoshi

    2001-05-01

    The usefulness for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics using time-resolved projection MRA was studied in normal volunteers and patients of cerebrovascular diseases. Six normal volunteers and ten patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases including 6 of IC occlusion and 4 of post EC/IC bypass surgery underwent time-resolved projection MRA on a 1.5 T clinical MRI system. Projection angiograms are acquired with 2D-fast SPGR sequence with a time resolution of approximately one image per second, 40 images being acquired consecutively before and after bolus injection Gd-DTPA. And all images were calculated by complex subtraction from the background mask in a work station. In normal volunteers, the quality of images of time-resolved projection MRA was satisfactory. The arteries from internal carotid artery through M2 segment of middle cerebral artery and all major venous systems were well portrayed. In 4 cases of IC occlusion who were assessed the collateral flow through the anterior communicating artery and posterior communicating artery, there were delayed to demonstrate the ipsilateral MCA. However, in 2 cases of IC occlusion that were assessed the collateral flow through leptomeningeal anastomosis, ipsilateral MCA and collateral circulation were not demonstrated. In all patients of post EC/IC bypass surgery, the patency of EC/IC bypass could be evaluated as properly with time-resolved projection MRA as 3D-TOF MRA. Although the temporal and spatial resolutions are insufficient, time-resolved projection MRA was power-full non-invasive method to evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics vis the basal communicating arteries in IC occlusion and identify the patency of EC/IC bypass. (author)

  6. Usefulness of time-resolved projection MRA on evaluation of hemodynamics in cerebral occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics using time-resolved projection MRA was studied in normal volunteers and patients of cerebrovascular diseases. Six normal volunteers and ten patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases including 6 of IC occlusion and 4 of post EC/IC bypass surgery underwent time-resolved projection MRA on a 1.5 T clinical MRI system. Projection angiograms are acquired with 2D-fast SPGR sequence with a time resolution of approximately one image per second, 40 images being acquired consecutively before and after bolus injection Gd-DTPA. And all images were calculated by complex subtraction from the background mask in a work station. In normal volunteers, the quality of images of time-resolved projection MRA was satisfactory. The arteries from internal carotid artery through M2 segment of middle cerebral artery and all major venous systems were well portrayed. In 4 cases of IC occlusion who were assessed the collateral flow through the anterior communicating artery and posterior communicating artery, there were delayed to demonstrate the ipsilateral MCA. However, in 2 cases of IC occlusion that were assessed the collateral flow through leptomeningeal anastomosis, ipsilateral MCA and collateral circulation were not demonstrated. In all patients of post EC/IC bypass surgery, the patency of EC/IC bypass could be evaluated as properly with time-resolved projection MRA as 3D-TOF MRA. Although the temporal and spatial resolutions are insufficient, time-resolved projection MRA was power-full non-invasive method to evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics vis the basal communicating arteries in IC occlusion and identify the patency of EC/IC bypass. (author)

  7. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  8. Time resolving imaging spectroscopy applied to the analysis of plasmas generated by pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvira, F C; Bilmes, G M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC) CC 3, 1897, Gonnet, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponce, L; Arronte, M, E-mail: fcalvira@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Time resolved imaging spectroscopy were used to study the spatial and temporal evolution of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) plasmas generated in Cu substrates by laser pulses of different duration. Long laser pulses (microsecond) and short laser pulses (nanosecond) as well as multipulse emission were used for excitation. Analysis was made by using an imaging spectrometer with time resolved detection. Results show that the use of long laser excitation pulses produce emission spectra with the same signal to noise ratio, but with lower resolution than those produced with shorter ones. The different species generated in LIBS experiments as neutral or single ionized have a different spatial distribution inside the plasma. We demonstrated that using spatial discrimination procedures is possible to obtain spectra with the same signal to noise ratio than those obtained with a gating detector. In this case an appreciable advantage in cost reduction is obtained by replacing the gating detector by a cheap screen.

  9. Time resolving imaging spectroscopy applied to the analysis of plasmas generated by pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time resolved imaging spectroscopy were used to study the spatial and temporal evolution of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) plasmas generated in Cu substrates by laser pulses of different duration. Long laser pulses (microsecond) and short laser pulses (nanosecond) as well as multipulse emission were used for excitation. Analysis was made by using an imaging spectrometer with time resolved detection. Results show that the use of long laser excitation pulses produce emission spectra with the same signal to noise ratio, but with lower resolution than those produced with shorter ones. The different species generated in LIBS experiments as neutral or single ionized have a different spatial distribution inside the plasma. We demonstrated that using spatial discrimination procedures is possible to obtain spectra with the same signal to noise ratio than those obtained with a gating detector. In this case an appreciable advantage in cost reduction is obtained by replacing the gating detector by a cheap screen.

  10. Time-resolved measure technique for electron beam envelope basing on synchronous framing and streaking principle

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaoguo, Jiang; Zhiyong, Yang; Huang, Zhang; Yi, Wang; Tao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The time-resolved electron beam envelope parameters including sectional distribution and position are important and necessary for the study of beam transmission characteristics in the magnetic field and verifying the magnetic field setup rationality. One kind of high time-resolved beam envelope measurement system has developed recently. It is mainly constituted of high framing camera and streak camera. It can obtain 3 panoramic images of the beam and the time continuous information of the given beam cross section at one time. The recently obtained data has proved that several fast vibration of beam envelope along the diameter direction occur during the rising edge and the falling edge of the electron beam. The vibration period is about several nanoseconds. The effect of magnetic field on the electron beam is also observed and verified. The beam debug experiments have proved that the existing beam transmission design is reasonable and viable. The beam envelope measurement system will establish a good foundatio...

  11. Isotope identification capabilities using time resolved prompt gamma emission from epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a concept of integrated measurements for isotope identification which takes advantage of the time structure of spallation neutron sources for time resolved γ spectroscopy. Time resolved Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (T-PGAA) consists in the measurement of gamma energy spectrum induced by the radioactive capture as a function of incident neutron Time Of Flight (TOF), directly related with the energy of incident neutrons. The potential of the proposed concept was explored on INES (Italian Neutron Experimental Station) at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). Through this new technique we show an increase in the sensitivity to specific elements of archaeometric relevance, through incident neutron energy selection in prompt γ spectra for multicomponent samples. Results on a standard bronze sample are presented

  12. Time-resolved protein nano-crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photo-activated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nano-crystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 μs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. (authors)

  13. Time-resolved momentum and beam size diagnostics for bunch trains with very large momentum spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvegård, M., E-mail: maja.olvegard@physics.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Barnes, M.J.; Ducimetière, L. [CERN, European Organization of Nuclear Research, 1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Ziemann, V. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-10-11

    We propose a novel method to measure the time-resolved momentum distribution and size of beams with very large momentum spread. To demonstrate the principle we apply the method to the beam at the end of a Compact Linear Collider decelerator, where conventional diagnostic methods are hampered by the large energy spread of the drive beam after up to 90% of its kinetic energy is converted into microwave power. Our method is based on sweeping the beam in a circular pattern to determine the momentum distribution and recording the beam size on a screen using optical transition radiation. We present an algorithm to extract the time-resolved momentum distribution. Furthermore, the beam size along the bunch train can be extracted from the image left on a screen by sweeping the beam linearly. We introduce the analysis technique and show simulation results that allow us to estimate the applicability. In addition, we present a conceptual design of the technical realization.

  14. Following [FeFe] Hydrogenase Active Site Intermediates by Time-Resolved Mid-IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohades, Mohammad; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Lomoth, Reiner; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-08-18

    Time-resolved nanosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy is for the first time employed to study the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to investigate relevant intermediates of the enzyme active site. An actinic 355 nm, 10 ns laser flash triggered photodissociation of a carbonyl group from the CO-inhibited state Hox-CO to form the state Hox, which is an intermediate of the catalytic proton reduction cycle. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy allowed us to directly follow the subsequent rebinding of the carbonyl, re-forming Hox-CO, and determine the reaction half-life to be t1/2 ≈ 13 ± 5 ms at room temperature. This gives direct information on the dynamics of CO inhibition of the enzyme. PMID:27494400

  15. Time-Resolved SQUID Sensor with a Nyquist Frequency up to 25 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Wang, Y. H.; Kratz, P.; Rosenberg, A. J.; Watson, C. A.; Sochnikov, I.; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Gibson, G.; Kirtley, J. R.; Ketchen, M. B.; Moler, K. A.

    We demonstrate a time-resolved scanning Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) sensor with an expected maximum sampling rate of 50 GHz. The time-resolved SQUID sampler is operated by a pump-probe pulse sequence and will be particularly useful in studying high-frequency magnetic devices and the transient behavior of magnetic materials. The high sampling rate is achieved through a Josephson-interferometry technique developed at IBM. We tested our sampler with flux signals of order 10 mΦ0 (where Φ0 is the magnetic flux quantum), which corresponds to 25 million Bohr magnetons located 1 micron directly below the pickup loop. Operating in this regime, our sampler will have much higher sensitivity than bulk sensors like conventional SQUIDs and much larger spatial scanning range than single-spin sensors like NV centers. The SQUID sampler will thus be well-suited to characterize individual mesoscopic samples as well as bulk samples with mesoscopic features.

  16. Time-resolved x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for studying laser-produced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglio, N M; Kauffman, R L; Hawryluk, A M; Medecki, H

    1983-01-15

    The development of a new time-resolved x-ray spectrometer is reported in which a free-standing x-ray transmission grating is coupled to a soft x-ray streak camera. The instrument measures continuous x-ray spectra with 20-psec temporal resolution and moderate spectral resolution (deltalambda >/= 1 A) over a broad spectral range (0.1-5 keV) with high sensitivity and large information recording capacity. Its capabilities are well suited to investigation of laser-generated plasmas, and they nicely complement the characteristics of other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques presently in use. The transmission grating spectrometer has been used on a variety of laser-plasma experiments. We report the first measurements of the temporal variation of continuous low-energy x-ray spectra from laser-irradiated disk targets. PMID:18195786

  17. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell.

  18. Time-resolved momentum and beam size diagnostics for bunch trains with very large momentum spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel method to measure the time-resolved momentum distribution and size of beams with very large momentum spread. To demonstrate the principle we apply the method to the beam at the end of a Compact Linear Collider decelerator, where conventional diagnostic methods are hampered by the large energy spread of the drive beam after up to 90% of its kinetic energy is converted into microwave power. Our method is based on sweeping the beam in a circular pattern to determine the momentum distribution and recording the beam size on a screen using optical transition radiation. We present an algorithm to extract the time-resolved momentum distribution. Furthermore, the beam size along the bunch train can be extracted from the image left on a screen by sweeping the beam linearly. We introduce the analysis technique and show simulation results that allow us to estimate the applicability. In addition, we present a conceptual design of the technical realization

  19. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Doak, R. Bruce; Kirian, Richard A.; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Andreasson, Jakob; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Saša; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bottin, Hervé; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coppola, Nicola; Davidsson, Jan; DePonte, Daniel P.; Elser, Veit; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Graafsma, Heinz; Grotjohann, Ingo; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hömke, André; Johansson, Linda; Kimmel, Nils; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Krasniqi, Faton; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Liang, Mengning; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Neutze, Richard; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Shoeman, Robert L.; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wang, Xiaoyu; Williams, Garth J.; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. PMID:22330507

  20. Time-resolved LII signals from aggregates of soot particles levitated in room temperature air

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrani, James M

    2015-01-01

    We observed and modeled time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) signals from soot aggregates. Time-resolved LII signals were observed from research-grade soot particles, levitated in room temperature air. We were able to measure sizes and structural properties of our soot particles ex situ, and use those measurements as input parameters when modeling the observed LII signals. We showed that at low laser fluences, aggregation significantly influences LII signals by reducing conductive cooling to the ambient air. At moderate laser fluences, laser-induced disintegration of aggregates occurs, so the effects of aggregation on LII signals are negligible. These results can be applied to extend LII for monitoring formation of soot and nanoparticle aggregates.

  1. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crua, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...

  2. Entangling Color-Different Photons via Time-Resolved Measurement and Active Feed-Forward

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Tian-Ming; Yang, Jian; Sang, Zi-Ru; Jiang, Xiao; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Entangling independent photons is not only of fundamental interest but also of crucial importance for quantum information science. Two-photon interference is a major method to entangle independent identical photons. If two photons are color-different, perfect two-photon coalescence cannot happen anymore, which makes the entangling of color-different photons difficult to realize. In this letter by exploring and developing time-resolved measurement and active feed-forward, we have entangled two independent photons of different colors for the first time. We find that entanglement with a varying form can be identified for different two-photon temporal modes through time-resolved measurement. By using active feed-forward we are able to convert the varying entanglement into uniform. Adopting these measures, we have successfully entangled two photons with a frequency separation of 16 times larger than their linewidths. In addition to its fundamental interest, our work also provides an approach to solve the frequency...

  3. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  4. Simultaneous reference and differential waveform acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for data acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments. Our approach is based on simultaneous collection of reference and differential THz scans. Both the optical THz generation beam and the pump beam are modulated at two different frequencies that are not...... harmonic with respect to each other. Our method allows not only twice as fast data acquisition but also minimization of noise connected to slowly varying laser power fluctuations and timing instabilities. Our use of the nonlinear crystal N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) enables time-resolved THz...... spectroscopy to beyond 5 THz, thereby highlighting that the presented method is especially valuable at higher frequencies where phase errors in the data acquisition become increasingly important....

  5. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Fluorescence Lifetimes of Normal and Carcinomatous Human Nasopharyngeal Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Li, H.; Li, B.; Chen, R.; Zheng, G.; Song, C.

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of normal and carcinomatous in vitro human nasopharyngeal tissues are compared. By fitting the time-resolved emission with exponential decays, mean lifetimes were obtained. There were marked differences between the lifetimes of the carcinomatous and the normal tissues. Thus, early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is possible. In general, comprehensive information from human tissue autofluorescence can be acquired via both time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectra.

  7. Controlled Experimental Study Depicting Moving Objects in View-Shared Time-Resolved 3D MRA

    OpenAIRE

    Mostardi, Petrice M.; Haider, Clifton R.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Borisch, Eric A.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of ...

  8. Time-resolved Quantitative Proteome Analysis of In Vivo Intestinal Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Jenny; Panchaud, Alexandre; Favre, Laurent; Bosco, Nabil; Mansourian, Robert; Benyacoub, Jalil; Blum, Stephanie; Jensen, Ole N.; Kussmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Postnatal intestinal development is a very dynamic process characterized by substantial morphological changes that coincide with functional adaption to the nutritional change from a diet rich in fat (milk) to a diet rich in carbohydrates on from weaning. Time-resolved studies of intestinal development have so far been limited to investigation at the transcription level or to single or few proteins at a time. In the present study, we elucidate proteomic changes of primary intestinal epithelial...

  9. Noninvasive Measurement of Fecal Progesterone Concentration in Toy Poodles by Time Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Sugimura; Kaori Narita; Hideaki Yamashiro; Atsushi Sugawara; Katsuhiko Nishimori; Tsutomu Konno; Muneyoshi Yoshida; Eimei Sato

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone is an important reproductive hormone and measurement of its level by repeated blood samplings is beneficial to monitoring of estrus cycle. However, since toy poodles have a small body size and thin-walled blood vessels, repeated blood samplings cause stress and affect their preparation for mating or artificial insemination (AI). Therefore, a noninvasive method for monitoring progesterone concentration should be developed. Here, we show that time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TF-RIA...

  10. Time resolved quantum dynamics of double ionization in strong laser fields

    OpenAIRE

    Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Eckhardt, Bruno; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Quantum calculations of a 1+1-dimensional model for double ionization in strong laser fields are used to trace the time evolution from the ground state through ionization and rescattering to the two electron escape. The subspace of symmetric escape, a prime characteristic of nonsequential double ionization, remains accessible by a judicious choice of 1-d coordinates for the electrons. The time resolved ionization fluxes show the onset of single and double ionization, the sequence of events du...

  11. Time-resolved luminescence quenching in thin films of perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present luminescence quenching experiments and determine the exciton diffusion length in polycrystalline thin films of PTCDA (perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride). From an analysis of time-resolved experiments, we can distinguish between exciton transport during an ultra-fast initial relaxation phase and transport in the long-living emitting states. The temperature dependence of the exciton diffusion constant in the emitting states indicates thermally activated hopping

  12. SPACE-TIME RESOLVED DIAGNOSTICS OF RADIO FREQUENCY GLOW DISCHARGE KINETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gottscho, R.

    1987-01-01

    Three applications of space-time resolved spectroscopy to the study of plasma processes are reviewed briefly. Each application emphasizes a different aspect of plasma chemistry : heterogeneous reactions, homogeneous reactions, and charged-particle transport. Spatially-resolved concentration profiles of reactants near surfaces provides estimates for heterogeneous reaction rates. This is demonstrated using data for CF2 molecules near Si and O atoms near Al, graphite, and kapton. Space-time reso...

  13. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. PMID:23500651

  14. Coherent convergent-beam time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, John C. H.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Li, Chufeng

    2014-01-01

    The use of coherent X-ray lasers for structural biology allows the use of nanometre diameter X-ray beams with large beam divergence. Their application to the structure analysis of protein nanocrystals and single particles raises new challenges and opportunities. We discuss the form of these coherent convergent-beam (CCB) hard X-ray diffraction patterns and their potential use for time-resolved crystallography, normally achieved by Laue (polychromatic) diffraction, for which the monochromatic ...

  15. Implementation of a flash-photolysis system for time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Barnard, David; Meng, Xing; Wagenknecht, Terence

    2008-01-01

    We describe here the implementation of a flash-photolysis system for time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy. A previously designed computer-controlled cryo-plunging apparatus (White et al., 2003) was used as a hardware platform, onto which a xenon flash lamp and liquid light pipe were mounted. The irradiation initiates a reaction through cleavage of the photolabile blocking group from a biologically active compound. The timespan between flashing and freezing in cryogen is on the order of mill...

  16. Analytical theory for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect under circularly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Otobe, T

    2016-01-01

    We report here the analytical formula for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect (Tr-DFKE) under circularly polarized light. We assume the Houston function as the time-dependent wave function of the parabolic two-band system. Our formula shows that the sub-cycle change of the optical properties disappears, which is a significant feature of the Tr-DFKE under linear polarized light and is different from the static Franz-Keldysh effect.

  17. Femtosecond time-resolved molecular multiphoton ionization: the Na_2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Baumert, Thomas,; Grosser, M.; Thalweiser, Rainer; Gerber, Gustav

    1991-01-01

    We report here the first experimental study of femtosecond time-resolved molecular multiphoton ionization. Femtosecond pump-probe techniques are combined with time-of-flight spectroscopy to measure transient ionization spectra of Na_2 in a molecular-beam experiment. The wave-packet motions in different molecular potentials show that incoherent contributions from direct photoionization of a singly excited state and from excitation and autoionization of a bound doubly excited molecu...

  18. Echelle-MEPSICRON time-resolved spectroscopy of the dwarf nova SS Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the dwarf nova SS Cygni was obtained during two consecutive days at the end of an outburst. The emission lines present a double-peaked profile with a peak-to-peak separation of 526±14 km s-1. The lines have a complex structure which includes a narrow asymmetric component coming from a hot spot in the accretion disc or from the chromosphere of the red dwarf. (author)

  19. Echelle-MEPSICRON time-resolved spectroscopy of the dwarf nova SS Cygni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Tapia, M. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Baja California (Mexico). Inst. de Astronomia); Diego, F. (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Godalming (UK)); Costero, R.; Ruiz, E.; Salas, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Enriquez, R. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Astronomia)

    1989-10-15

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the dwarf nova SS Cygni was obtained during two consecutive days at the end of an outburst. The emission lines present a double-peaked profile with a peak-to-peak separation of 526{plus minus}14 km s{sup -1}. The lines have a complex structure which includes a narrow asymmetric component coming from a hot spot in the accretion disc or from the chromosphere of the red dwarf. (author).

  20. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy: A Novel Technique for Determination of Luminescence of Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhu-Hong; SHEN De-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measured by the gradually increasing start delay time is utilized as a tool for the determination of the luminescence of quantum dots (QDs). The luminescence evolution of self-assembled CdSe QDs during the luminescence decay is fully revealed in terms of the experiment technique.The characteristic narrow luminescence lines of self-assembled CdSe QDs are obtained with increasing start delay time.

  1. A Time-Resolved Luminescence Biosensor Assay for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Activity†

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel time-resolved luminescence biosensor assay for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was developed. We used a straightforward strategy to modify a known ALK substrate into a peptide biosensor that can accommodate terbium luminescence sensitization upon its phosphorylation by ALK. Since this strategy is generalizable, this high-throughput screening compatible assay serves as an example for development of other kinase assays that employ terbium luminescence as a read-out.

  2. A synchrotron radiation camera and data acquisition system for time resolved x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, time resolved measurements of x-ray scattering patterns have not been feasible because laboratory x-ray sources were too weak and detectors unavailable. Recent developments in both these fields have changed the situation, and it is now possible to follow changes in x-ray scattering patterns with a time resolution of a few ms. The apparatus used to achieve this is described and some examples from recent biological experiments are given. (author)

  3. Charge transport in nanostructured materials for solar energy conversion studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr; Sundström, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 215, 2-3 (2010), s. 123-139. ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P099; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy * ultrafast dynamics * bulk heterojunction * semiconductor nanostructures * transport * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2010

  4. Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 14 (2013), s. 2428-2430. ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk LD12002; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode lasers * plasma diagnostics * absorption spectroscopy * time resolved Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  5. A beamline for time-resolved extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Grilj, Jakob; Sistrunk, Emily; Koch, Markus; Gühr, Markus

    2013-01-01

    High harmonic generation is a convenient way to obtain extreme ultraviolet light from table-top laser systems and the experimental tools to exploit this simple and powerful light source for time-resolved spectroscopy are being developed by several groups. For these applications, brightness and stability of the high harmonic generation is a key feature. This article focuses on practical aspects in the generation of extreme ultraviolet pulses with ultrafast commercial lasers, namely generation ...

  6. Parameters Affecting Temporal Resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M B; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window correspondi...

  7. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits). PMID:27140147

  8. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, T., E-mail: thomas.werz@uni-ulm.de [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Baumann, M. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Wolfram, U. [Ulm University, Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 (Germany); Krill, C.E. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  9. Applications of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in ultrafast carrier dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingli Zhou; Xicheng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)[1-3]is a powerful and coherent free-space technique in which nearly single-cycle electromagnetic pulse is generated and detected using femtosecond optical pulses.THz-TDS has been utilized as one of the important methods for material characterization in the past two decades.Because transmission or reflection of THz waves is sensitive to carrier density and mobility,an ultrafast THz-TDS system is required to provide time-resolved capability of material characterization in the THz region[4-6].In the past decade,one of the widely used time-resolved THz spectroscopy methods is optical-pump/THz probe (O/T)spectroscopy[3].%Three time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy methods (optical-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy, THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy, and THz-pump/optical-probe spectroscopy) are reviewed. These are used to characterize ultrafast dynamics in photo- or THz-excited semiconductors, superconductors, nanomateri-als, and other materials. In particular, the optical-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy is utilized to investigate carrier dynamics and the related intervalley scattering phenomena in semiconductors. The recent development of intense pulsed THz sources is expected to affect the research in nonlinear THz responses of various materials.

  10. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction

  11. Watching proteins function with 150-ps time-resolved X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinrud, Philip

    2007-03-01

    We have used time-resolved Laue crystallography to characterize ligand migration pathways and dynamics in wild-type and several mutant forms of myoglobin (Mb), a ligand-binding heme protein found in muscle tissue. In these pump-probe experiments, which were conducted on the ID09B time-resolved beamline at the European Synchrotron and Radiation Facility, a laser pulse photodissociates CO from an MbCO crystal and a suitably delayed X-ray pulse probes its structure via Laue diffraction. Single-site mutations in the vicinity of the heme pocket docking site were found to have a dramatic effect on ligand migration. To visualize this process, time-resolved electron density maps were stitched together into movies that unveil with <2-å spatial resolution and 150-ps time-resolution the correlated protein motions that accompany and/or mediate ligand migration. These studies help to illustrate at an atomic level relationships between protein structure, dynamics, and function.

  12. Phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis and its application to time-resolved infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    A method of spectral analysis, phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis, is proposed. This method is based on global phase angle description of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shin-ichi Morita et al., and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D (PCMW2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shigeaki Morita et al. For a spectral data set collected under an external perturbation, such as time-resolved infrared spectra, this method provides only one phase angle spectrum. A phase angle of the Fourier frequency domain correlation between a spectral intensity (e.g., absorbance) variation and a perturbation variation (e.g., scores of the first principle component) as a function of spectral variable (e.g., wavenumber) is plotted. Therefore, a degree of time lag of each band variation with respect to the perturbation variation is directly visualized in the phase angle spectrum. This method is applied to time-resolved infrared spectra in the O-H stretching region of the water sorption process into a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) film. The time-resolved infrared (IR) spectra show three broad and overlapping bands in the region. Each band increases toward saturated water sorption with different relaxation times. In comparison to conventional methods of generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and global phase angle mapping, the method proposed in the present study enables the easier visualization of the sequence as a degree of phase angle in the spectrum. PMID:17716406

  13. Time-resolved luminescence studies of Eu3+ in soda-lime silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda-lime glasses doped with Eu3+ were synthesized using a variety of compositions, namely changing the fraction of CaO or Eu2O3. Those glasses were characterized with several techniques, including ellipsometry, UV–vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved luminescence. The compositions' effects on optical properties such as refraction indexes, Eu3+ oscillator strengths and luminescence lifetimes were accessed from the analysis of the experimental results. Judd–Ofelt theory was used to analyze all these aspects, which allow the detection of a mismatch of optical properties from absorption and emission spectroscopy. This mismatch was confirmed from the time-resolved data, showing the existence of two different spectroscopic Eu3+ species. From those results it is concluded that there is evidence for lanthanide aggregation, giving rise to self-quenching effects that may be described through resonance energy transfer mechanisms. The difference between luminescence lifetimes for isolated and aggregated Eu(III) is interpreted as due to different interactions with oxygen in the matrix, namely degree of covalency of the Eu–O bond and point group symmetry of the lanthanide. -- Highlights: • Time resolved luminescence studies of Eu(III) in soda-lime silicate glass show the existence of two different species. • Mismatch of Judd–Ofelt parameters are obtained from absorption and emission spectroscopy. • Eu(III) has less clustering tendency when Eu2O3 concentration decreases and when CaO concentration increases

  14. A versatile approach for ratiometric time-resolved read-out of colorimetric chemosensors using broadband phosphors as secondary emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A robust referencing schema for colorimetric indicators is proposed. •Time-resolved ratiometric read-out is realized. •(Photo)chemically stable inorganic phosphors are used. •The new method enables simple and low cost read-out set-up. •Application of the schema for sensing pH or carbon dioxide is demonstrated. -- Abstract: A new approach for referencing of colorimetric chemosensors is described. The sensing materials rely on combination of absorption-based indicators and inorganic phosphors. Chromium(III)-activated yttrium aluminum borate and gadolinium aluminum borate were chosen to illustrate the new sensing scheme due to their spectral properties and high chemical and photochemical stability. The ratiometric luminescence read-out becomes possible due to the overlap of at least one form of the indicator with broadband emission (650–900 nm) or excitation (400–700 nm) of the phosphor. Long luminescence decay time of the phosphors (80–150 μs) allows for complete elimination of background fluorescence originating from the media, optical components or the indicator. The versatile scheme enables robust read-out of numerous colorimetric chemosensors and probes. Examples of sensing pH (using a BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethene dye as an indicator) and carbon dioxide (a triphenylmethane dye as an indicator) are provided. It is also demonstrated that temperature can be accessed via luminescence decay time of the phosphor to enable compensation of the sensors for temperature effects

  15. Joining time-resolved thermometry and magnetic-induced heating in a single nanoparticle unveils intriguing thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, Rafael; Brites, Carlos D S; Bustamante, Rodney; Martínez, Abelardo; Silva, Nuno J O; Murillo, José L; Cases, Rafael; Carrey, Julian; Estepa, Carlos; Sosa, Cecilia; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D; Millán, Angel

    2015-03-24

    Whereas efficient and sensitive nanoheaters and nanothermometers are demanding tools in modern bio- and nanomedicine, joining both features in a single nanoparticle still remains a real challenge, despite the recent progress achieved, most of it within the last year. Here we demonstrate a successful realization of this challenge. The heating is magnetically induced, the temperature readout is optical, and the ratiometric thermometric probes are dual-emissive Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) lanthanide complexes. The low thermometer heat capacitance (0.021·K(-1)) and heater/thermometer resistance (1 K·W(-1)), the high temperature sensitivity (5.8%·K(-1) at 296 K) and uncertainty (0.5 K), the physiological working temperature range (295-315 K), the readout reproducibility (>99.5%), and the fast time response (0.250 s) make the heater/thermometer nanoplatform proposed here unique. Cells were incubated with the nanoparticles, and fluorescence microscopy permits the mapping of the intracellular local temperature using the pixel-by-pixel ratio of the Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) intensities. Time-resolved thermometry under an ac magnetic field evidences the failure of using macroscopic thermal parameters to describe heat diffusion at the nanoscale. PMID:25693033

  16. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, M; Albert, F; Palmer, N E; Lee, J J; Döppner, T; Divol, L; Dewald, E L; Bachmann, B; MacPhee, A G; LaCaille, G; Bradley, D K; Stoeckl, C

    2014-11-01

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostic-a multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20-500 keV range-has been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ∼300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U Kβ). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (∼90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests. PMID:25430175

  17. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, M., E-mail: mhoh@lle.rochester.edu; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Döppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J. [National Security Technologies LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostic–a multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20–500 keV range–has been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ∼300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub β}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (∼90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  18. Time-resolved FRET reports FGFR1 dimerization and formation of a complex with its effector PLCγ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdios, Louis; Bunney, Tom D; Warren, Sean C; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul M W; Tate, Edward W; Katan, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo imaging of protein tyrosine kinase activity requires minimally invasive, molecularly precise optical probes to provide spatiotemporal mechanistic information of dimerization and complex formation with downstream effectors. We present here a construct with genetically encoded, site-specifically incorporated, bioorthogonal reporter that can be selectively labelled with exogenous fluorogenic probes to monitor the structure and function of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). GyrB.FGFR1KD.TC contains a coumermycin-induced artificial dimerizer (GyrB), FGFR1 kinase domain (KD) and a tetracysteine (TC) motif that enables fluorescent labelling with biarsenical dyes FlAsH-EDT2 and ReAsH-EDT2. We generated bimolecular system for time-resolved FRET (TR-FRET) studies, which pairs FlAsH-tagged GyrB.FGFR1KD.TC and N-terminal Src homology 2 (nSH2) domain of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), a downstream effector of FGFR1, fused to mTurquoise fluorescent protein (mTFP). We demonstrated phosphorylation-dependent TR-FRET readout of complex formation between mTFP.nSH2 and GyrB.FGFR1KD.TC. By further application of TR-FRET, we also demonstrated formation of the GyrB.FGFR1KD.TC homodimer by coumermycin-induced dimerization. Herein, we present a spectroscopic FRET approach to facilitate and propagate studies that would provide structural and functional insights for FGFR and other tyrosine kinases. PMID:26482290

  19. Time-resolved beam symmetry measurement for VMAT commissioning and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    In volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment delivery perfect beam symmetry is assumed by the planning system. This study aims to test this assump-tion and present a method of measuring time-resolved beam symmetry measure-ment during a VMAT delivery that includes extreme variations of dose rate and gantry speed. The Sun Nuclear IC Profiler in gantry mount was used to measure time-resolved in-plane and cross-plane profiles during plan delivery from which symmetry could be determined. Time-resolved symmetry measurements were performed throughout static field exposures at cardinal gantry angles, conformal arcs with constant dose rate and gantry speed, and during a VMAT test plan with gantry speed and dose rate modulation. Measurements were performed for both clockwise and counterclockwise gantry rotation and across four Varian 21iX lin-acs. The symmetry was found to be generally constant throughout the static field exposures to within 0.3% with an exception on one linac of up to 0.7%. Agreement in symmetry between cardinal angles was always within 1.0% and typically within 0.6%. During conformal arcs the results for clockwise and counterclockwise rotation were in agreement to within 0.3%. Both clockwise and counterclockwise tended to vary in similar manner by up to 0.5% during arc consistent with the cardinal gantry angle static field results. During the VMAT test plan the symmetry generally was in agreement with the conformal arc results. Greater variation in symmetry was observed in the low-dose-rate regions by up to 1.75%. All results were within clinically acceptable levels using the tolerances of NCS Report 24 (2015). PMID:27074485

  20. Role of electron-electron interference in ultrafast time-resolved imaging of electronic wavepackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering is an emerging approach to image the dynamical evolution of the electronic charge distribution during complex chemical and biological processes in real-space and real-time. Recently, the differences between semiclassical and quantum-electrodynamical (QED) theory of light-matter interaction for scattering of ultrashort x-ray pulses from the electronic wavepacket were formally demonstrated and visually illustrated by scattering patterns calculated for an electronic wavepacket in atomic hydrogen [G. Dixit, O. Vendrell, and R. Santra, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 11636 (2012)]. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of time-resolved x-ray scattering from a sample containing a mixture of non-stationary and stationary electrons within both the theories. In a many-electron system, the role of scattering interference between a non-stationary and several stationary electrons to the total scattering signal is investigated. In general, QED and semiclassical theory provide different results for the contribution from the scattering interference, which depends on the energy resolution of the detector and the x-ray pulse duration. The present findings are demonstrated by means of a numerical example of x-ray time-resolved imaging for an electronic wavepacket in helium. It is shown that the time-dependent scattering interference vanishes within semiclassical theory and the corresponding patterns are dominated by the scattering contribution from the time-independent interference, whereas the time-dependent scattering interference contribution do not vanish in the QED theory and the patterns are dominated by the scattering contribution from the non-stationary electron scattering.

  1. Characterization of hydroxyapatite by time-resolved luminescence and FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorjeva, L.; Millers, D.; Smits, K.; Jankovica, Dz; Pukina, L.

    2013-12-01

    Time-resolved luminescence and FTIR absorption spectra of undoped and Eu and Ce doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystalline powders prepared by sol-gel method were studied. The luminescence band at 350-400 nm was detected and two decay times (11 ns and 38 ns) was determinated for Ce doped samples. The luminescence spectra and decay kinetics were analized for Eu doped nanopowders. The Eu3+ ion was incorporated in different Ca sites. The process of energy transfer to Eu3+ excited state (5D0) was detected from luminescence decay kinetics.

  2. Characterization of hydroxyapatite by time-resolved luminescence and FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved luminescence and FTIR absorption spectra of undoped and Eu and Ce doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystalline powders prepared by sol-gel method were studied. The luminescence band at 350–400 nm was detected and two decay times (11 ns and 38 ns) was determinated for Ce doped samples. The luminescence spectra and decay kinetics were analized for Eu doped nanopowders. The Eu3+ ion was incorporated in different Ca sites. The process of energy transfer to Eu3+ excited state (5D0) was detected from luminescence decay kinetics

  3. Time-resolved observation of laser-excited C60 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for measuring the time-resolved delayed electrons and C+n ions from C60 excited by nanosecond or picosecond laser irradiation is presented. Ions produced well after the laser pulse (delayed ionization) are mainly C+60 with weak signals from large fragments such as C+58, C+56, C+50, and no low-mass ions are observed. A dominant slow electron (thermal with kT∼0.3 eV) distribution was observed for the excitation of C60 for wavelengths longer than ∼210 nm. These results are discussed in relation to a ''thermionic'' emission model

  4. Gridded Ionization Chambers for Time Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common parallel plate ionization chambers are bandwidth limited by the ion drift velocity. Therefore they can severely decrease the effective energy resolution of time resolved EXAFS or XANES spectra. We therefore developed gridded ionization chambers which suppress the ionic component of the ionization current, which results in a substantial improvement of its bandwidth of typically two orders of magnitude. The rise time of these chambers is measured to be less than 5.5 μs. We have investigated the step response of parallel plate and gridded ionization chambers and discuss their influence on QEXAFS spectra.

  5. Time-resolved internal-electron-scattering effect of H2 + in enhanced ionization regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhou, Yueming; He, Mingrui; Li, Min; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron interference dynamics of H2 + in an intense infrared laser field. At intermediate internuclear distances, an interference fringe appears in the electron momentum distribution. By tracing the time evolution of the electron density, we identify an internal scattering channel of the electrons. The observed fringe is attributed to the interference between the internal scattered and direct photoelectrons. Our results reveal that the electron behaviors inside a molecule can be mapped onto the experimentally accessible photoelectron momentum spectra, suggesting a time-resolved way of probing the complex laser-driven electron dynamics on an attosecond time scale.

  6. Time-resolved one-dimensional detection of x-ray scattering in pulsed magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Zahirul; Ross, Kate A; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Gaulin, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an application of a one-dimensional micro-strip detector for capturing x-ray diffraction data in pulsed magnetic fields. This detector consists of a large array of 50 \\mu m-wide Si strips with a full-frame read out at 20 kHz. Its use substantially improves data-collection efficiency and quality as compared to point detectors, because diffraction signals are recorded along an arc in reciprocal space in a time-resolved manner. By synchronizing with pulsed fields, the entire field dependence of a two-dimensional swath of reciprocal space may be determined using a small number of field pulses.

  7. Time-resolved one-dimensional detection of x-ray scattering in pulsed magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ross, Kate A.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an application of a one-dimensional micro-strip detector for capturing x-ray diffraction data in pulsed magnetic fields. This detector consists of a large array of 50 μm-wide Si strips with a full-frame read out at 20 kHz. Its use substantially improves data-collection efficiency and quality as compared to point detectors, because diffraction signals are recorded along an arc in reciprocal space in a time-resolved manner. By synchronizing with pulsed fields, the entire field dependence of a two-dimensional swath of reciprocal space may be determined using a small number of field pulses.

  8. Time-resolved spectroscopy of plasma resonances in highly excited silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the electron-hole plasma in silicon and germanium samples irradiated by 20 ps. 532 nm laser pulses has been investigated in the near infrared by the time-resolved picosecond optical spectroscopy. The experimental reflectivities and transmission are compared with the predictions of the thermal model for degenerate carrier distributions through the Drude formalism. Above a certain fluence, a significant deviation between measured and calculated values indicates a strong increase of the recombination rate as soon as the plasma resonances become comparable with the band gaps. These new plasmon-aided recombination channels are particularly pronounced in germanium. 15 refs., 8 figs

  9. Broadband THz waveguiding and high-precision broadband time-resolved spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    , particularly in spectroscopic applications where tight confinement of the THz field is required. We further demonstrate a new spectroscopic technique for ultrafast time-resolved THz time-domain spectroscopy which simultaneously acquires both reference and sample data. By using this scheme we show that the...... influence of fluctuations on the laser parameters during data acquisition can be minimized, and highly reproducible quantitative data can be recorded and extracted in a very efficient manner. This technique may become especially important in the high THz range, where phase noise becomes critical for the...

  10. Time-resolved quantitative-phase microscopy of laser-material interactions using a wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Monneret, Serge

    2016-07-15

    We report on a simple and efficient technique based on a wavefront sensor to obtain time-resolved amplitude and phase images of laser-material interactions. The main interest of the technique is to obtain quantitative self-calibrated phase measurements in one shot at the femtosecond time-scale, with high spatial resolution. The technique is used for direct observation and quantitative measurement of the Kerr effect in a fused silica substrate and free electron generation by photo-ionization processes in an optical coating. PMID:27420506

  11. Atomic motion of resonantly vibrating quartz crystal visualized by time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu, E-mail: aoyagi@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Information and Basic Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Osawa, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko [SPring-8/JASRI, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shoichi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-11-16

    Transient atomic displacements during a resonant thickness-shear vibration of AT-cut α-quartz are revealed by time-resolved X-ray diffraction under an alternating electric field. The lattice strain resonantly amplified by the alternating electric field is ∼10{sup 4} times larger than that induced by a static electric field. The resonantly amplified lattice strain is achieved by fast displacements of oxygen anions and collateral resilient deformation of Si−O−Si angles bridging rigid SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra, which efficiently transduce electric energy into elastic energy.

  12. Absorption spectroscopy of powdered materials using time-resolved diffuse optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A; Farina, Andrea; Taroni, Paola; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2012-11-10

    In this paper a novel method, based on time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy, is proposed to measure the absorption of small amounts of nanostructured powder materials independent of scattering. Experimental validation, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, has been carried out on India Inkparticles. The effectiveness of the technique to measure scattering-free absorption is demonstrated on carbon nanotubes. The comparison between the absorption spectra acquired by the proposed method and conventional measurements performed with a commercial spectrophotometer is discussed. PMID:23142900

  13. Time-resolved mass spectroscopic studies of an atmospheric-pressure helium microplasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Aranda-Gonzalvo, Yolanda; James W. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular beam mass spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements of the ionic species 12 in the plasma plume of an atmospheric-pressure helium microplasma jet have been made for 13 a range of excitation frequencies (5, 10 and 25 kHz) and source-instruments orifice distances 14 (1, 7 and 11 mm). Ionic species can only be observed in the visible plasma plume, with the 15 main positive species being N 2 + (65.26%) and O 2 + (21.11%), and few percentages of N +, O +, 16 NO + and He ...

  14. The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Christopher F.; Arms, Dohn; Dufresne, Eric M.; Gibson, Harold; Wang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray radiography has been used to probe the internal structure of dense sprays with microsecond time resolution and a spatial resolution of 15 µm even in high-pressure environments. Recently, the 7BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been commissioned to focus on the needs of X-ray spray radiography measurements. The spatial resolution and X-ray intensity at this beamline represent a significant improvement over previous time-resolved X-ray radiography measure...

  15. Time-resolved two-photon excitation of long-lifetime polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Gautham, Chitra; Snoke, David; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of two-photon excitation of exciton-polaritons in microcavities have considered the possibility of an allowed absorption process into the $2p$-state of the excitons which participate in the polariton effect. Here we report time-resolved measurements of two-photon excitation directly into the lower polariton states invoking the $1s$ state of the excitons. Although this process is forbidden by symmetry for light at normal incidence, it is allowed at non-zero angle of incidence due to state mixing.

  16. Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M, E-mail: jorge.miguel@fu-berlin.d [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-12-02

    We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.

  17. Time-resolved measurements of Cooper-pair radiative recombination in InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied InAs quantum dots (QDs) where electron Cooper pairs penetrate from an adjacent niobium (Nb) superconductor with the proximity effect. With time-resolved luminescence measurements at the wavelength around 1550 nm, we observed luminescence enhancement and reduction of luminescence decay time constants at temperature below the superconducting critical temperature (TC) of Nb. On the basis of these measurements, we propose a method to determine the contribution of Cooper-pair recombination in InAs QDs. We show that the luminescence enhancement measured below TC is well explained with our theory including Cooper-pair recombination

  18. Photoemission with high-order harmonics: A tool for time-resolved core-level spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Holl; Raarup, Merete Krog; Balling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A setup for femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of solid surfaces is presented. The photon energies for core-level spectroscopy experiments are created by high-order harmonic generation from infrared 120-femtosecond laser pulses focused in a Ne gas jet. The present experimental r...... from the sample are collected by a large-solid-angle time-of-flight electron spectrometer based on a parabolic-grid reflector. Results from experiments probing the Bi 5d core-levels are presented, and the results of preliminary pump-probe experiments are described....

  19. Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Dudžák, Roman; Chodukowski, T.; Dostál, Jan; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kalal, M.; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Borodziuk, S.; Krouský, Eduard; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2015), s. 102706-102706. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Grant ostatní: FP7(XE) 284464 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) * Laser System Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/10/10.1063/1.4933364

  20. Hole emission from Ge/Si quantum dots studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapteyn, C.M.A.; Lion, M.; Heitz, R.; Bimberg, D. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Miesner, C.; Asperger, T.; Brunner, K.; Abstreiter, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik

    2001-03-01

    Emission of holes from self-organized Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in Si Schottky diodes is studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS signal is rather broad and depends strongly on the filling and detection bias conditions. The observed dependence is interpreted in terms of carrier emission from many-hole states of the QDs. The activation energies obtained from the DLTS measurements are a function of the amount of stored charge and the position of the Fermi level in the QDs. (orig.)

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of Time-Resolved Emission from Shocked Explosive Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeffrey; Jilek, Brook; Wixom, Ryan; Knepper, Robert; Tappan, Alexander; Damm, David

    2015-06-01

    We report a series of time-resolved spectroscopic measurements that aim to characterize the reactions that occur during shock initiation of high explosives. The experiments employ time- and wavelength-resolved emission spectroscopy to analyze light emitted from shocked and detonating thin explosive films. In this talk we present analysis of optical emission spectra from hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB), hexanitrostilbene (HNS), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) samples. The emission features observed in the spectra are assigned to electronic transitions of molecular fragments, and the implications of these findings on our understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Ultrafast dynamics of o-fluorophenol studied with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of o-fluorophenol via the excited states has been studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging. The photoion and photoelectron spectra taken with a time delay between 267 nm pump laser and 800 nm probe laser provide a longer-lived S1 electronic state of about ns timescale. In comparison,the spectra obtained by exciting the S2 state with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and ionizing with pulses at 800 nm suggest that the S2 state has an ultrashort lifetime about 102 fs and reflects the internal conversion dynamics of the S2 state to the S1 state.

  3. Singlet Exciton Migration in a Conjugated Polymer by Picosecond Time-Resolved Photoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国宏; 钱士雄; 雷洪; 汪河洲; 王荣秋; 李永舫

    2001-01-01

    The transient photoluminescence (PL) of DO-PPV (poly-(2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene)) solution in chloroform was investigated by picosecond time-resolved PL spectroscopy. An ultrafast rise of PL and the following single exponential decay with a time constant of about 400ps were assigned to the formation of the intrachain exciton and its decay process, respectively. The redshift of the PL emission spectrum with time was caused by the subsequent exciton migration among the different conjugated segments in the DO-PPV polymer.

  4. Time-Resolved Measurements of Photocarrier Dynamics in TiS3 Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiannan; Lipatov, Alexey; Wilt, Jamie Samantha; Bellus, Matthew Z; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wu, Judy; Sinitskii, Alexander; Zhao, Hui

    2016-07-20

    We report synthesis and time-resolved transient absorption measurements of TiS3 nanoribbons. TiS3 nanoribbons were fabricated by direct reaction of titanium and sulfur. Dynamics of the photocarriers in these samples were studied by transient absorption measurements. It was found that following ultrafast injection of nonequilibrium and hot photocarriers, the thermalization, energy relaxation, and exciton formation all occur on a subpicosecond time scale. Several key parameters describing the dynamical properties of photocarriers, including their recombination lifetime, diffusion coefficient, mobility, and diffusion length, were deduced. PMID:27362332

  5. Time-resolved nonlinear polarization spectroscopy for measuring transient absorption and refraction in isotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, Victor B.; Bazhenov, Vladimir Y.; Kulikovskaya, Olga A.

    1995-11-01

    A novel time-resolved nonlinear spectroscopic technique is described, which is based on stroboscopic registration of optical polarization transformation taking place at a vector incoherent two-wave mixing interaction in a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. It allows an accurate measuring of the dynamics of excitation and relaxation for real and imaginary parts of complex nonlinearity tensor components. The technique is demonstrated for measuring the light-induced change of transient absorption (delta) (alpha) e(t), (delta) (alpha) o(t) and refraction (delta) ne(t), (delta) no(t) for bacteriorhodopsin- based film pumped by linearly polarized laser pulses.

  6. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of zearalenone in cereals with a europium chelate as label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智鸿; 黄飚; 张珏; 张艺; 朱岚; 屠蔷

    2009-01-01

    A competitive indirect time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay(TRFIA) was developed for detection of zearalenone(ZEN) in cereals,in which ZEN conjugated to bovine serum albumin(BSA) is used as solid-phase antigen.A competitive indirect TRFIA was conducted by simultaneously incubating ZEN in standard or extracted samples with anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody over ZEN-BSA coated plates,and then determining the bound ZEN monoclonal antibody with goat anti-mouse europium conjugate.Samples were extracted with methanol/water...

  7. Time-resolved measurements of the ionization front in transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the ionization front associated with thermal transport in laser-irradiated CH targets, as measured by x-ray emission from imbedded thin metallic layers, will be discussed. Observations of time-resolved filter spectrometry and time-integrated crystal spectroscopy of continuum and line emission from targets uniformly irradiated by the 24-beam 1053 nm and 6-beam 351 nm OMEGA laser will be compared, and contrasted with LTE calculations from the code LILAC; in particular, thin layer experiments suggest an observable competition between rates of ionization and hydrodynamic expansion

  8. The two-electron attosecond streak camera for time-resolving intra-atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilidou, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Staudte, A; Corkum, P B, E-mail: a.emmanouilidou@ucl.ac.u [Joint Laboratory for Attosecond Science, University of Ottawa and National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    We generalize the one-electron attosecond streak camera to time-resolve the correlated two-electron escape dynamics during a collision process involving a deep core electron. The collision process is triggered by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse (single-photon absorption) and probed by a weak infrared field. The principle of our two-electron streak camera is that by placing the maximum of the vector potential of the probing field at the time of collision, we get the maximum splitting of the inter-electronic angle of escape. We thereby determine the time of collision.

  9. Atomic motion of resonantly vibrating quartz crystal visualized by time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient atomic displacements during a resonant thickness-shear vibration of AT-cut α-quartz are revealed by time-resolved X-ray diffraction under an alternating electric field. The lattice strain resonantly amplified by the alternating electric field is ∼104 times larger than that induced by a static electric field. The resonantly amplified lattice strain is achieved by fast displacements of oxygen anions and collateral resilient deformation of Si−O−Si angles bridging rigid SiO4 tetrahedra, which efficiently transduce electric energy into elastic energy

  10. Time resolved quantum dynamics of double ionization in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Prauzner-Bechcicki, J S; Sacha, K; Zakrzewski, J; Eckhardt, Bruno; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Quantum calculations of a 1+1-dimensional model for double ionization in strong laser fields are used to trace the time evolution from the ground state through ionization and rescattering to the two electron escape. The subspace of symmetric escape, a prime characteristic of nonsequential double ionization, remains accessible by a judicious choice of 1-d coordinates for the electrons. The time resolved ionization fluxes show the onset of single and double ionization, the sequence of events during the pulse, and the influences of pulse duration, and reveal the relative importance of sequential and non-sequential double ionization, even when ionization takes place during the same field cycle.

  11. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Laubereau, Alfred; Mantel, Karl-Heinz; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The thirteenth meeting in a long-standing series of “Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy” (TRVS) conferences was held May 19th to 25th at the Kardinal Döpfner Haus in Freising, Germany, organized by the two Munich Universities - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Technische Universität München. This international conference continues the illustrious tradition of the original in 1982, which took place in Lake Placid, NY. The series of meetings was initiated by leading, world-renowned exp...

  12. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Ajayi, O A; Cotlet, M; Petrone, N; Gu, T; Wolcott, A; Gesuele, F; Hone, J; Owen, J S; Wong, C W

    2014-01-01

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 times reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  13. Atomic motion of resonantly vibrating quartz crystal visualized by time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Takeda, Shoichi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Transient atomic displacements during a resonant thickness-shear vibration of AT-cut α-quartz are revealed by time-resolved X-ray diffraction under an alternating electric field. The lattice strain resonantly amplified by the alternating electric field is ˜104 times larger than that induced by a static electric field. The resonantly amplified lattice strain is achieved by fast displacements of oxygen anions and collateral resilient deformation of Si-O-Si angles bridging rigid SiO4 tetrahedra, which efficiently transduce electric energy into elastic energy.

  14. Novel Antibody-Based Proteins for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenmayor, Jaheli; Montaño, Ramon F., E-mail: jfuenmay@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Patología Celular y Molecular, Centro de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas. Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-08-19

    The relative success of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy and the vast manipulation potential of recombinant antibody technology have encouraged the development of novel antibody-based antitumor proteins. Many insightful reagents have been produced, mainly guided by studies on the mechanisms of action associated with complete and durable remissions, results from experimental animal models, and our current knowledge of the human immune system. Strikingly, only a small percent of these new reagents has demonstrated clinical value. Tumor burden, immune evasion, physiological resemblance, and cell plasticity are among the challenges that cancer therapy faces, and a number of antibody-based proteins are already available to deal with many of them. Some of these novel reagents have been shown to specifically increase apoptosis/cell death of tumor cells, recruit and activate immune effectors, and reveal synergistic effects not previously envisioned. In this review, we look into different approaches that have been followed during the past few years to produce these biologics and analyze their relative success, mainly in terms of their clinical performance. The use of antibody-based antitumor proteins, in combination with standard or novel therapies, is showing significant improvements in objective responses, suggesting that these reagents will become important components of the antineoplastic protocols of the future.

  15. Novel Antibody-Based Proteins for Cancer Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative success of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy and the vast manipulation potential of recombinant antibody technology have encouraged the development of novel antibody-based antitumor proteins. Many insightful reagents have been produced, mainly guided by studies on the mechanisms of action associated with complete and durable remissions, results from experimental animal models, and our current knowledge of the human immune system. Strikingly, only a small percent of these new reagents has demonstrated clinical value. Tumor burden, immune evasion, physiological resemblance, and cell plasticity are among the challenges that cancer therapy faces, and a number of antibody-based proteins are already available to deal with many of them. Some of these novel reagents have been shown to specifically increase apoptosis/cell death of tumor cells, recruit and activate immune effectors, and reveal synergistic effects not previously envisioned. In this review, we look into different approaches that have been followed during the past few years to produce these biologics and analyze their relative success, mainly in terms of their clinical performance. The use of antibody-based antitumor proteins, in combination with standard or novel therapies, is showing significant improvements in objective responses, suggesting that these reagents will become important components of the antineoplastic protocols of the future

  16. Millifluidics for time-resolved mapping of the growth of gold nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Navin, Chelliah; Biswas, Sanchita; Singh, Varshni; Ham, Kyungmin; Bovencamp, L. S.; Theegala, Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey T; Spivey, James J.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-04-10

    Innovative in situ characterization tools are essential for understanding the reaction mechanisms leading to the growth of nanoscale materials. Though techniques, such as in situ transmission X-ray microscopy, fast single-particle spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, etc., are currently being developed, these tools are complex, not easily accessible, and do not necessarily provide the temporal resolution required to follow the formation of nanomaterials in real time. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the utility of a simple millifluidic chip for an in situ real time analysis of morphology and dimension-controlled growth of gold nano- and microstructures with a time resolution of 5 ms. The structures formed were characterized using synchrotron radiation-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 3-D X-ray tomography, and high-resolution electron microscopy. These gold nanostructures were found to be catalytically active for conversion of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, providing an example of the potential opportunities for time-resolved analysis of catalytic reactions. While the investigations reported here are focused on gold nanostructures, the technique can be applied to analyze the time-resolved growth of other types of nanostructured metals and metal oxides. With the ability to probe at least a 10-fold higher concentrations, in comparison with traditional microfluidics, the tool has potential to revolutionize a broad range of fields from catalysis, molecular analysis, biodefense, and molecular biology.

  17. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Tourret, Damien; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology in both research and industrial environments, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al-Cu and Al-Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid-liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. The observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid-liquid interface in the Al-4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.

  18. Space and time-resolved probing of heterogeneous catalysis reactions using lab-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Chelliah V.; Krishna, Katla Sai; Theegala, Chandra S.; Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Probing catalytic reactions on a catalyst surface in real time is a major challenge. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of a continuous flow millifluidic chip reactor coated with a nanostructured gold catalyst as an effective platform for in situ investigation of the kinetics of catalytic reactions by taking 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) conversion as a model reaction. The idea conceptualized in this paper can not only dramatically change the ability to probe the time-resolved kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis reactions but also used for investigating other chemical and biological catalytic processes, thereby making this a broad platform for probing reactions as they occur within continuous flow reactors.Probing catalytic reactions on a catalyst surface in real time is a major challenge. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of a continuous flow millifluidic chip reactor coated with a nanostructured gold catalyst as an effective platform for in situ investigation of the kinetics of catalytic reactions by taking 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) conversion as a model reaction. The idea conceptualized in this paper can not only dramatically change the ability to probe the time-resolved kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis reactions but also used for investigating other chemical and biological catalytic processes, thereby making this a broad platform for probing reactions as they occur within continuous flow reactors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06752a

  19. Molecular Tomography of the Quantum State by Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is described that can be used to reconstruct the quantum state of a molecular ensemble from time-dependent internuclear probability density functions determined by time-resolved electron diffraction. The procedure makes use of established techniques for evaluating the density matrix and the phase-space joint probability density, that is, the Wigner function. A novel expression for describing electron diffraction intensities in terms of the Wigner function is presented. An approximate variant of the method, neglecting the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix, was tested by analyzing gas electron diffraction data for N2 in a Boltzmann distribution and TRED data obtained from the 193 nm photodissociation of CS2 to carbon monosulfide, CS, at 20, 40, and 120 ns after irradiation. The coherent changes in the nuclear subsystem by time-resolved electron diffraction method determine the fundamental transition from the standard kinetics to the dynamics of the phase trajectory of the molecule and the tomography of molecular quantum state.

  20. Simulation of time resolved photoelectron spectra with Stieltjes imaging illustrated on ultrafast internal conversion in pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ute; Mitrić, Roland; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2010-05-01

    We present an approach for the simulation of time resolved photoelectron spectra based on the combination of the ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics "on the fly" with the Stieltjes imaging method utilizing discrete neutral states above the ionization limit for the approximate description of the ionization continuum. Our approach has been implemented in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory and has been applied to interrogate the ultrafast internal conversion between the S2 and S1 states in pyrazine. The simulations reveal that, parallel to the S2→S1 internal conversion, a change in the dominant ionization process (S2→D1 versus S1→D0) occurs on the time scale of 20 fs such that no significant change in the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution is observed. The presented results are in full agreement with the experimental results presented in the accompanying paper [Suzuki et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 174302 (2010)] and provide an insight into the interplay between the nonradiative relaxation and the photoionization process in pyrazine as reflected in the time resolved photoelectron spectrum. Our approach represents a general tool for the investigation of ultrafast photoionization processes in complex systems and thus can be used to investigate the ultrafast femtochemistry of complex molecular systems including all degrees of freedom.

  1. Time-resolved GISAXS and cryo-microscopy characterization of block copolymer membrane formation

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Debora S.

    2014-03-01

    Time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and cryo-microscopy were used for the first time to understand the pore evolution by copolymer assembly, leading to the formation of isoporous membranes with exceptional porosity and regularity. The formation of copolymer micelle strings in solution (in DMF/DOX/THF and DMF/DOX) was confirmed by cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo-FESEM) with a distance of 72 nm between centers of micelles placed in different strings. SAXS measurement of block copolymer solutions in DMF/DOX indicated hexagonal assembly with micelle-to-micelle distance of 84-87 nm for 14-20 wt% copolymer solutions. GISAXS in-plane peaks were detected, revealing order close to hexagonal. The d-spacing corresponding to the first peak in this case was 100-130 nm (lattice constant 115-150 nm) for 17 wt% copolymer solutions evaporating up to 100 s. Time-resolved cryo-FESEM showed the formation of incipient pores on the film surface after 4 s copolymer solution casting with distances between void centers of 125 nm. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microcontroller based resonance tracking unit for time resolved continuous wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Ondrej; Mašát, Milan; Parker, Alexander E.; Jain, Chaithania; Fittschen, Christa

    2012-04-01

    We present in this work a new tracking servoloop electronics for continuous wave cavity-ringdown absorption spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and its application to time resolved cw-CRDS measurements by coupling the system with a pulsed laser photolysis set-up. The tracking unit significantly increases the repetition rate of the CRDS events and thus improves effective time resolution (and/or the signal-to-noise ratio) in kinetics studies with cw-CRDS in given data acquisition time. The tracking servoloop uses novel strategy to track the cavity resonances that result in a fast relocking (few ms) after the loss of tracking due to an external disturbance. The microcontroller based design is highly flexible and thus advanced tracking strategies are easy to implement by the firmware modification without the need to modify the hardware. We believe that the performance of many existing cw-CRDS experiments, not only time-resolved, can be improved with such tracking unit without any additional modification to the experiment.

  3. Time-resolved luminescence studies of Eu3+ in soda-lime silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Andreia; Muralha, Vânia S. F.; Águas, Hugo; de Matos, António Pires; Laia, César A. T.

    2014-02-01

    Soda-lime glasses doped with Eu3+ were synthesized using a variety of compositions, namely changing the fraction of CaO or Eu2O3. Those glasses were characterized with several techniques, including ellipsometry, UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved luminescence. The compositions' effects on optical properties such as refraction indexes, Eu3+ oscillator strengths and luminescence lifetimes were accessed from the analysis of the experimental results. Judd-Ofelt theory was used to analyze all these aspects, which allow the detection of a mismatch of optical properties from absorption and emission spectroscopy. This mismatch was confirmed from the time-resolved data, showing the existence of two different spectroscopic Eu3+ species. From those results it is concluded that there is evidence for lanthanide aggregation, giving rise to self-quenching effects that may be described through resonance energy transfer mechanisms. The difference between luminescence lifetimes for isolated and aggregated Eu(III) is interpreted as due to different interactions with oxygen in the matrix, namely degree of covalency of the Eu-O bond and point group symmetry of the lanthanide.

  4. Time resolved dosimetry of human brain exposed to low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Lucano, Elena; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2016-06-01

    An accurate dosimetry is a key issue to understanding brain stimulation and related interaction mechanisms with neuronal tissues at the basis of the increasing amount of literature revealing the effects on human brain induced by low-level, low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs). Most literature on brain dosimetry estimates the maximum E field value reached inside the tissue without considering its time pattern or tissue dispersivity. Nevertheless a time-resolved dosimetry, accounting for dispersive tissues behavior, becomes necessary considering that the threshold for an effect onset may vary depending on the pulse waveform and that tissues may filter the applied stimulatory fields altering the predicted stimulatory waveform’s size and shape. In this paper a time-resolved dosimetry has been applied on a realistic brain model exposed to the signal presented in Capone et al (2009 J. Neural Transm. 116 257–65), accounting for the broadband dispersivity of brain tissues up to several kHz, to accurately reconstruct electric field and current density waveforms inside different brain tissues. The results obtained by exposing the Duke’s brain model to this PMF signal show that the E peak in the brain is considerably underestimated if a simple monochromatic dosimetry is carried out at the pulse repetition frequency of 75 Hz.

  5. Time resolved images from the center of the Galaxy appear to counter General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdye, E. H., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Intense observations of the galactic center since 1992 have revealed the presence of a supermassive object located there, some 26 000 light years from Earth. The mass of the galactic center was determined using time resolved astrometry over a time span of 13 years, from 1992 to present. The observations clearly show that the stars in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive galactic center, denoted as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), move along purely Keplerian orbits around Str A*. Observation of the rapidly moving stars permitted astrophysicists to determine a mass for the galactic center of around 3.6 million solar masses. Time resolved images of the Keplerian motions of these stars has exhibited to date no evidence of distortions in the images due to gravitational light bending effects, as predicted by General Relativity. In this paper, a well known tool commonly used by astrophysicists for estimating the effect of gravitation on light rays was examined. The results reveal flaws in the understanding of fundamental principles in mathematical physics applied to gravitational effects on rays of light, as predicted by General Relativity, at the site of a point-like gravitating masses such as the galactic center mass. Application of the Gauss Law to point-like gravitating masses shows that a requirement for the colinear alignment of the light source, the lensing and the observer is not necessary for an observation of gravitational lensing as predicted by General Relativity.

  6. Time-resolved photoelectric spectroscopy of photorefractive CdTe:V crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnatenko, Yu P [Institute of Physics of NASU, 46 Prospekt Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piryatinski, Yu P [Institute of Physics of NASU, 46 Prospekt Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Bukivskij, P M [Institute of Physics of NASU, 46 Prospekt Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kolendryckyj, D D [Institute of Physics of NASU, 46 Prospekt Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Shigiltchoff, O A [Institute of Physics of NASU, 46 Prospekt Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gamernyk, R V [Lviv National University, 8 Kyrylo and Mefodiy Street, 29005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2006-10-25

    The time-resolved photoelectric spectroscopy technique was used for the characterization of semi-insulating CdTe:V crystals using a short light pulse with 9 ns duration from a nitrogen laser (337.1 nm). The stationary monochromatic illumination of crystals let us measure the time-resolved photocurrent caused by the detrapping of the electrons photogenerated by the pulse laser excitation. The dependence of the intensity of pulse photocurrent on the energy of additional monochromatic illumination in the photorefractive CdTe:V crystals with the delay time t{sub d} = 5 ns, which corresponds to its maximum value, was investigated. The spectral dependence of pulse photocurrent produced by the detrapping process of electrons in CdTe:V crystals was measured under different intensities of the applied electric field. It is shown that the additional illumination at h-bar{omega}

  7. Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of both malignant and benign lesions in the female breast is presented as the result of a clinical study that involved more than 190 subjects in the framework of the OPTIMAMM European project. All the subjects underwent optical mammography, by means of a multi-wavelength time-resolved mammograph, in the range 637-985 nm. Optical images were processed by applying a perturbation model, relying on a nonlinear approximation of time-resolved transmittance curves in the presence of an inclusion, with the aim of estimating the major tissue constituents (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid and water) and structural parameters (linked to dimension and density of the scatterer centres) for both the lesion area and the surrounding tissue. The critical factors for the application of the perturbation model on in vivo data are also discussed. Forty-six malignant and 68 benign lesions were analysed. A subset of 32 cancers, 40 cysts and 14 fibroadenomas were found reliable for the perturbation analysis. For cancers, we show a higher blood content with respect to the surrounding tissue, while cysts are characterized by a lower concentration of scattering centres with respect to the surrounding tissue. For fibroadenomas, the low number of cases does not allow any definite conclusions

  8. Time-resolved HAXPES at SACLA: probe and pump pulse-induced space-charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (trHAXPES) is established using the x-ray free-electron laser SACLA. The technique extends time-resolved photoemission into the hard x-ray regime and, as a core-level spectroscopy, combines element and atomic-site specificity and sensitivity to the chemical environment with femtosecond time resolution and bulk (sub-surface) sensitivity. The viability of trHAXPES using 8 keV x-ray free-electron-laser radiation is demonstrated by a systematic investigation of probe and pump pulse-induced vacuum space-charge effects on the V 1s emission of VO2 and the Ti 1s emission of SrTiO3. The time and excitation energy dependencies of the measured spectral shifts and broadenings are compared to the results of N-body numerical simulations and simple analytic (mean-field) models. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated results is obtained. In particular, the characteristic temporal evolution of the pump pulse-induced spectral shift is shown to provide an effective means to determine the temporal overlap of pump and probe pulses. trHAXPES opens a new avenue in the study of ultrafast atomic-site specific electron and chemical dynamics in materials and at buried interfaces. (paper)

  9. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Takayuki, E-mail: kumada.takayuki@jaea.go.jp; Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump} = 3.3–14.9 J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63 ± 2 ps for a wavelength λ = 795 nm. The period was reduced by half for λ = 398 nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  10. A hyperspectral time resolved DOT system to monitor physiological changes of the human brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, F.; Peyrin, F.; Montcel, B.

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a growing area of research in the field of biomedical optics and neurosciences. Over the past 20 years, technical development allowed a more and more accurate detection of the brain activation, both spatially and in the calculation of the variations of chromophores's concentrations such as Hemoglobin, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. In particular, time resolved systems are able to distinguish between superficial layers (skin, skull) and deep layers (brain) allowing the differentiation between the systemic response and the response of the brain. In order to increase the accuracy of the brain's activation detection, we have developed a Hyperspectral Time Resolved DOT system. It is composed of a compact supercontinuum laser within the picosecond range for the source part and of an ICCD camera coupled with an imaging spectrometer for the detection part. This allows a simultaneous detection of the spatial and spectral dimension, as well as the time of flight of photons. Through the information acquired by our system, we've been able to retrieve, to our knowledge, the first spectrum of the physiology of the human brain activity as function as depth. Here we present the instrument and show our first in-vivo results that are demonstrating its capabilities to distinguish between the skin's response and the brain's responses during a cognitive task. We are also focused on the detection of the Fast Optical Signal.

  11. Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet pulses (266 nm) delivered by a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser were used to analyze organic samples with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We present characteristics of the spectra obtained from organic samples with special attentions on the emissions of organic elements, O and N, and molecular bonds CN. The choice of these atomic or molecular species is justified on one hand, by the importance of these species to specify organic or biological materials; and on the other hand by the possible interferences with ambient air when laser ablation takes place in the atmosphere. Time-resolved LIBS was used to determine the time-evolution of line intensity emitted from these species. We demonstrate different kinetic behaviors corresponding to different origins of emitters: native atomic or molecular species directly vaporized from the sample or those generated through dissociation or recombination due to interaction between laser-induced plasma and air molecules. Our results show the ability of time-resolved UV-LIBS for detection and identification of native atomic or molecular species from an organic sample

  12. Time resolved dosimetry of human brain exposed to low frequency pulsed magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Lucano, Elena; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2016-06-21

    An accurate dosimetry is a key issue to understanding brain stimulation and related interaction mechanisms with neuronal tissues at the basis of the increasing amount of literature revealing the effects on human brain induced by low-level, low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs). Most literature on brain dosimetry estimates the maximum E field value reached inside the tissue without considering its time pattern or tissue dispersivity. Nevertheless a time-resolved dosimetry, accounting for dispersive tissues behavior, becomes necessary considering that the threshold for an effect onset may vary depending on the pulse waveform and that tissues may filter the applied stimulatory fields altering the predicted stimulatory waveform's size and shape. In this paper a time-resolved dosimetry has been applied on a realistic brain model exposed to the signal presented in Capone et al (2009 J. Neural Transm. 116 257-65), accounting for the broadband dispersivity of brain tissues up to several kHz, to accurately reconstruct electric field and current density waveforms inside different brain tissues. The results obtained by exposing the Duke's brain model to this PMF signal show that the E peak in the brain is considerably underestimated if a simple monochromatic dosimetry is carried out at the pulse repetition frequency of 75 Hz. PMID:27223143

  13. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grills, David C., E-mail: dcgrills@bnl.gov; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Bernstein, Herbert J. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Dowling College, 1300 William Floyd Parkway, Shirley, New York 11967 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup −1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ∼40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ∼100 μOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  14. Role of electron-electron interference in ultrafast time-resolved imaging of electronic wavepackets

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering is an emerging approach to image the dynamical evolution of the electronic charge distribution during complex chemical and biological processes in real-space and real-time. Recently, the differences between semiclassical and quantum-electrodynamical (QED) theory of light-matter interaction for scattering of ultrashort x-ray pulses from the electronic wavepacket were formally demonstrated and visually illustrated by scattering patterns calculated for an electronic wavepacket in atomic hydrogen [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., {\\bf 109}, 11636 (2012)]. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of time-resolved x-ray scattering from a sample containing a mixture of non-stationary and stationary electrons within both the theories. In a many-electron system, the role of scattering interference between a non-stationary and several stationary electrons to the total scattering signal is investigated. In general, QED and semiclassical theory provide different results for the ...

  15. High Time-Resolved Imaging of Targets in Turbid Media Using Ultrafast Optical Kerr Gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jun-Yi; TAN Wen-Jiang; SI Jin-Hai; CHEN Feng; YI Wen-Hui; HOU Xun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the ultrafast imaging of a submillimeter bar chart that is either hidden behind glass diffusers or inside a solution of polystyrene spheres, using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate (OKG). The results show that the time-resolved imaging of the target in the turbid media with an optical depth of 11.4 is achieved using the OKG with a 1.6ps opening time. The image contrast is improved by about 70% compared with the shadowgraph imaging.%We demonstrate the ultrafast imaging of a submillimeter bar chart that is either hidden behind glass diffusers or inside a solution of polystyrene spheres,using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate (OKG).The results show that the time-resolved imaging of the target in the turbid media with an optical depth of 11.4 is achieved using the OKG with a 1.6 ps opening time.The image contrast is improved by about 70% compared with the shadowgraph imaging.

  16. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  17. Performance of a micro-TPC for a time-resolved neutron PSD

    CERN Document Server

    Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Orito, R; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Orito, Reiko; Takada, Atsushi; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Ueno, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We report on the performance of a micro-TPC with a micro pixel chamber($\\mu$-PIC) readout for a time-resolved neutron position-sensitive detector(PSD). Three-dimensional tracks and the Bragg curves of protons with energies of around 1 MeV were clearly detected by the micro-TPC. More than 95% of gamma-rays of 511 keV were found to be discriminated by simple analysis. Simulation studies showed that the total track length of proton and triton emitted from the $\\rm {}^{3}He$(n,p(573 keV))$\\rm {}^{3}H(191 keV)$ reaction is about 1.2 cm, and that both particles have large energy losses ($\\rm > 200 keV/cm$) in 1 atm Ar+$\\rm C_{2}H_{6}(10%)$+${}^{3}$He($< 1%$). These values suit the current performance of the micro-TPC, and we conclude that a time-resolved neutron PSD with spatial resolution of sub-millimeters shall be developed as an application of the micro-TPC.

  18. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  19. Multi-Channel Amplifier-Discriminator for Highly Time-Resolved Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Lapington, J; Jarron, P

    2011-01-01

    A low-power multi-channel amplifier-discriminator was developed for application in highly time-resolved detection systems. The proposed circuit architecture, so-called Nino, is based on a time-over-threshold approach and shows a high potential for time-resolved readout of solid-state photo-detectors and of detectors based on vacuum technologies. The Irpics circuit was designed in a 250 nm CMOS technology, implementing 32 channels of a Nino version optimized to achieve high-time resolution on the output low-voltage differential signals (LVDS) while keeping a low power consumption of 10 mW per channel. Electrical characterizations of the circuit demonstrate a very low intrinsic time jitter on the output pulse leading edge, measured below 10 ps rms for each channel for high input signal charges (100 fC) and below 25 ps rms for low input signal charges (20-100 fC). The read-out architecture moreover permits to retrieve the input signal charge from the timing measurements, while a calibration procedure was develop...

  20. Direct observation of ultrafast atomic motion using time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the atomic motion in laser irradiated solids on a picosecond to subpicosecond time-scale using the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique. In the second chapter, the laser system, the laser-plasma based X-ray source and the experimental setup for optical pump / X-ray probe measurements were presented. Chapter 3 is devoted to the characterization and comparison of different types of X-ray optics. Chapter 4 presented the time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments performed for this thesis. The first two sections of this chapter discuss the measurements of initially unexpected strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity of the X-ray probe beam. The elimination of the strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity represented an important prerequisite to perform the study of lattice heating in Germanium after femtosecond optical excitation by measuring the transient Debye-Waller effect. The third section describes the investigations of acoustic waves upon ultrafast optical excitation and discusses the two different pressure contributions driving them: the thermal and the electronic ones. (orig.)

  1. Estimating wide-angle, spatially varying reflectance using time-resolved inversion of backscattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Nikhil; Barsi, Christopher; Velten, Andreas; Raskar, Ramesh

    2014-05-01

    Imaging through complex media is a well-known challenge, as scattering distorts a signal and invalidates imaging equations. For coherent imaging, the input field can be reconstructed using phase conjugation or knowledge of the complex transmission matrix. However, for incoherent light, wave interference methods are limited to small viewing angles. On the other hand, time-resolved methods do not rely on signal or object phase correlations, making them suitable for reconstructing wide-angle, larger-scale objects. Previously, a time-resolved technique was demonstrated for uniformly reflecting objects. Here, we generalize the technique to reconstruct the spatially varying reflectance of shapes hidden by angle-dependent diffuse layers. The technique is a noninvasive method of imaging three-dimensional objects without relying on coherence. For a given diffuser, ultrafast measurements are used in a convex optimization program to reconstruct a wide-angle, three-dimensional reflectance function. The method has potential use for biological imaging and material characterization. PMID:24979627

  2. Controlled experimental study depicting moving objects in view-shared time-resolved 3D MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, Petrice M; Haider, Clifton R; Rossman, Phillip J; Borisch, Eric A; Riederer, Stephen J

    2009-07-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested using view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  3. Controlled Experimental Study Depicting Moving Objects in View-Shared Time-Resolved 3D MRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, Petrice M.; Haider, Clifton R.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Borisch, Eric A.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of 3D time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested, which use view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  4. Vortex identification methods based on temporal signal-processing of time-resolved PIV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vétel, Jérôme; Garon, André; Pelletier, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a universally accepted mathematical definition of a vortex structure has led to a considerable number of Eulerian criteria to identify coherent structures. Most are derived from the instantaneous local velocity gradient tensor and its derivatives and require appropriate thresholds to extract the boundaries of the structures. Notwithstanding their great potential for studying coherent structures, most criteria are not frame-independent and they lack a clear physical meaning. The Lyapunov exponent, a popular tool in dynamical system theory, appears as a promising alternative. This Lagrangian criterion does not suffer from the drawbacks of the Eulerian criteria and is constructed on a simple physical interpretation that includes information on the history of the flow. However, since the computation of the Lyapunov exponent involves the knowledge of fluid particle trajectories, experimental applications are currently restricted to laminar flows and two-dimensional turbulence, provided that velocity fields are time-resolved. In this work, we explore temporal post-treatment methods to extract vortical structures developing in a flow through a smooth axisymmetric constriction. Data from planar time-resolved Particle image velocimetry, measuring two or three components of the velocity vectors, are transformed via the Taylor hypothesis to quasi-instantaneous three-dimensional velocity field and are interpreted in terms of the discrete wavelet decomposition, the finite-time Lyapunov exponent, and the linear stochastic estimation. It appears that these methods can concurrently provide very rich and complementary scalar fields representing the effects of the vortical structures and their interactions in the flow.

  5. Mechanical properties of single cells by high-frequency time-resolved acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eike C; Anastasiadis, Pavlos; Pilarczyk, Götz; Lemor, Robert M; Zinin, Pavel V

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a new, high-frequency, time-resolved scanning acoustic microscope developed for studying dynamical processes in biological cells. The new acoustic microscope operates in a time-resolved mode. The center frequency is 0.86 GHz, and the pulse duration is 5 ns. With such a short pulse, layers thicker than 3 microm can be resolved. For a cell thicker than 3 microm, the front echo and the echo from the substrate can be distinguished in the signal. Positions of the first and second pulses are used to determine the local impedance of the cell modeled as a thin liquid layer that has spatial variations in its elastic properties. The low signal-to-noise ratio in the acoustical images is increased for image generation by averaging the detected radio frequency signal over 10 measurements at each scanning point. In conducting quantitative measurements of the acoustic parameters of cells, the signal can be averaged over 2000 measurements. This approach enables us to measure acoustical properties of a single HeLa cell in vivo and to derive elastic parameters of subcellular structures. The value of the sound velocity inside the cell (1534.5 +/- 33.6 m/s) appears to be only slightly higher than that of the cell medium (1501 m/s). PMID:18051160

  6. Direct observation of ultrafast atomic motion using time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shymanovich, U.

    2007-11-13

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the atomic motion in laser irradiated solids on a picosecond to subpicosecond time-scale using the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique. In the second chapter, the laser system, the laser-plasma based X-ray source and the experimental setup for optical pump / X-ray probe measurements were presented. Chapter 3 is devoted to the characterization and comparison of different types of X-ray optics. Chapter 4 presented the time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments performed for this thesis. The first two sections of this chapter discuss the measurements of initially unexpected strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity of the X-ray probe beam. The elimination of the strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity represented an important prerequisite to perform the study of lattice heating in Germanium after femtosecond optical excitation by measuring the transient Debye-Waller effect. The third section describes the investigations of acoustic waves upon ultrafast optical excitation and discusses the two different pressure contributions driving them: the thermal and the electronic ones. (orig.)

  7. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Near Infrared Imaging for Prostate Cancer Detection: Receptor-targeted and Native Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang

    Optical spectroscopy and imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light provides powerful tools for non-invasive detection of cancer in tissue. Optical techniques are capable of quantitative reconstructions maps of tissue absorption and scattering properties, thus can map in vivo the differences in the content of certain marker chromophores and/or fluorophores in normal and cancerous tissues (for example: water, tryptophan, collagen and NADH contents). Potential clinical applications of optical spectroscopy and imaging include functional tumor detection and photothermal therapeutics. Optical spectroscopy and imaging apply contrasts from intrinsic tissue chromophores such as water, collagen and NADH, and extrinsic optical contrast agents such as Indocyanine Green (ICG) to distinguish disease tissue from the normal one. Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging also gives high sensitivity and specificity for biomedical diagnosis. Recent developments on specific-targeting fluorophores such as small receptor-targeted dye-peptide conjugate contrast agent offer high contrast between normal and cancerous tissues hence provide promising future for early tumour detection. This thesis focus on a study to distinguish the cancerous prostate tissue from the normal prostate tissues with enhancement of specific receptor-targeted prostate cancer contrast agents using optical spectroscopy and imaging techniques. The scattering and absorption coefficients, and anisotropy factor of cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated first as the basis for the biomedical diagnostic and optical imaging. Understanding the receptors over-expressed prostate cancer cells and molecular target mechanism of ligand, two small ICG-derivative dye-peptides, namely Cypate-Bombesin Peptide Analogue Conjugate (Cybesin) and Cypate-Octreotate Peptide Conjugate (Cytate), were applied to study their clinical potential for human prostate cancer detection. In this work, the steady-state and time-resolved

  8. Surface loss rates of H and Cl radicals in an inductively coupled plasma etcher derived from time-resolved electron density and optical emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is undertaken of the loss kinetics of H and Cl atoms in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor used for the etching of III-V semiconductor materials. A time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy technique, also referred to as pulsed induced fluorescence (PIF), has been combined with time-resolved microwave hairpin probe measurements of the electron density in a pulsed Cl2/H2-based discharge for this purpose. The surface loss rate of H, kwH, was measured in H2 plasma and was found to lie in the 125-500 s-1 range (γH surface recombination coefficient of ∼0.006-0.023), depending on the reactor walls conditioning. The PIF technique was then evaluated for the derivation of kwCl, and γCl in Cl2-based plasmas. In contrast to H2 plasma, significant variations in the electron density may occur over the millisecond time scale corresponding to Cl2 dissociation at the rising edge of the plasma pulse. By comparing the temporal evolution of the electron density and the Ar-line intensity curves with 10% of Ar added in the discharge, the authors show that a time-resolved actinometry procedure using Ar as an actinometer is valid at low to moderate ICP powers to estimate the Cl loss rate. They measured a Cl loss rate of ∼125-200 s-1 (0.03≤γCl≤0.06) at 150 W ICP power for a reactor state close to etching conditions. The Cl surface loss rate was also estimated for high ICP power (800 W) following the same procedure, giving a value of ∼130-150 s-1 (γCl∼0.04), which is close to that measured at 150 W ICP power.

  9. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz and feldspar are widely used in accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. In order to improve already existing methods or to develop new methods towards extending the current limits of the technique, it is important to understand the charge movement within these materials. Earlier studies have primarily focussed on examination of the trap behaviour; however, this only tells half of the story as OSL is a combination of charge stimulation and recombination. By using time-resolved OSL (TR-OSL), one can directly examine the recombination route(s), and thus obtain insight into the other half of the process involved in luminescence emission. This thesis studies the TR-OSL and optically stimulated phosphorescence signals from quartz and feldspars spanning several orders of magnitude in time (few ns to the seconds time scale) in order to identify various charge transport mechanisms in the different time regimes. The techniques employed are time-resolved OSL, continuous-wave OSL, TL, optically stimulated exo-electron (OSE) emission and time-resolved OSE. These different techniques are used in combination with variable thermal or optical stimulation energy. The thesis first delves into three main methodological developments, namely (i) research and development of the equipment for TR-OSL measurements, (ii) finding the best method for multiple-exponential analysis of a TR-OSL curve, and (iii) optimisation of the pulsing configuration for the best separation of quartz OSL from a mixed quarts-feldspar sample. It then proceeds to study the different charge transport mechanisms subsequent to an optical stimulation pulse in quartz and feldspars. The results obtained for quartz conclude that the main lifetime component in quartz represents an excited state lifetime of the recombination centre, and the more slowly decaying components on the millisecond to seconds time scale arise from charge recycling

  10. An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gilio, A. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gennaro, G. de, E-mail: gianluigi.degennaro@uniba.it [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dambruoso, P. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ventrella, G. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM{sub 2.5} and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive

  11. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankjaergaard, C.

    2010-02-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz and feldspar are widely used in accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. In order to improve already existing methods or to develop new methods towards extending the current limits of the technique, it is important to understand the charge movement within these materials. Earlier studies have primarily focussed on examination of the trap behaviour; however, this only tells half of the story as OSL is a combination of charge stimulation and recombination. By using time-resolved OSL (TR-OSL), one can directly examine the recombination route(s), and thus obtain insight into the other half of the process involved in luminescence emission. This thesis studies the TR-OSL and optically stimulated phosphorescence signals from quartz and feldspars spanning several orders of magnitude in time (few ns to the seconds time scale) in order to identify various charge transport mechanisms in the different time regimes. The techniques employed are time-resolved OSL, continuous-wave OSL, TL, optically stimulated exo-electron (OSE) emission and time-resolved OSE. These different techniques are used in combination with variable thermal or optical stimulation energy. The thesis first delves into three main methodological developments, namely (i) research and development of the equipment for TR-OSL measurements, (ii) finding the best method for multiple-exponential analysis of a TR-OSL curve, and (iii) optimisation of the pulsing configuration for the best separation of quartz OSL from a mixed quarts-feldspar sample. It then proceeds to study the different charge transport mechanisms subsequent to an optical stimulation pulse in quartz and feldspars. The results obtained for quartz conclude that the main lifetime component in quartz represents an excited state lifetime of the recombination centre, and the more slowly decaying components on the millisecond to seconds time scale arise from charge recycling

  12. An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM2.5 and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive framework

  13. Time-resolved linewidth measurements of a wavelength switched SG-DBR laser for optical packet switched networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, A. K.; Ellis, A.D.; Barry, Liam P.; Farrell, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We report time-resolved linewidth measurements of different sizes of optical packets under wavelength-switching for the first time and show that laser linewidth is significantly broadened during switching transition requiring ~3 mus to attain its minimum value.

  14. Single-Cell, Time-Resolved Antimicrobial Effects of a Highly Cationic, Random Nylon-3 Copolymer on Live Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H; Weisshaar, James C

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic random copolymers based on the nylon-3 (β-peptide) backbone show promise as inexpensive antimicrobial agents resistant to proteolysis. We present a time-resolved observational study of the attack of a particular copolymer MM63:CHx37 on single, live Escherichia coli cells. The composition and chain length of MM63:CHx37 (63% cationic subunits, 37% hydrophobic subunits, 35-subunit average length) were optimized to enhance antibacterial activity while minimizing lysis of human red blood cells. For E. coli cells that export GFP to the periplasm, we obtain alternating phase-contrast and green fluorescence images with a time resolution of 12 s over 60 min following initiation of copolymer flow. Within seconds, cells shrink and exhibit the same plasmolysis spaces that occur following abrupt external osmotic upshift. The osmoprotection machinery attempts to replenish cytoplasmic water, but recovery is interrupted by permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) to GFP. Evidently, the highly cationic copolymer and its counterions rapidly translocate across the outer membrane without permeabilizing it to GFP. The CM permeabilization event is spatially localized. Cells whose CM has been permeabilized never recover growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for cells lacking the osmolyte importer ProP is 4-fold smaller than for normal cells, suggesting that osmoprotection is an important survival strategy. In addition, at the time of CM permeabilization, we observe evidence of oxidative stress. The MIC under anaerobic conditions is at least 8-fold larger than under aerobic conditions, further implicating oxidative damage as an important bacteriostatic effect. Once the copolymer reaches the periplasm, multiple growth-halting mechanisms proceed in parallel. PMID:26493221

  15. Time-resolved and doppler-reduced laser spectroscopy on atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes have been studied in neutral boron, carbon, silicon and strontium, in singly ionized gadolinium and tantalum and in molecular carbon monoxide and C2. The time-resolved techniques were based either on pulsed lasers or pulse-modulated CW lasers. Several techniques have been utilized for the production of free atoms and ions such as evaporation into an atomic beam, sputtering in hollow cathodes and laser-produced plasmas. Hyperfine interactions in boron, copper and strontium have been examined using quantum beat spectroscopy, saturation spectroscopy and collimated atomic beam spectroscopy. Measurement techniques based on effusive hollow cathodes as well as laser produced plasmas in atomic physics have been developed. Investigations on laser produced plasmas using two colour beam deflection tomography for determination of electron densities have been performed. Finally, new possibilities for view-time-expansion in light-in-flight holography using mode-locked CW lasers have been demonstrated. (au)

  16. X-ray analog pixel array detector for single synchrotron bunch time-resolved imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Koerner, Lucas J

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic x-ray studies may reach temporal resolutions limited by only the x-ray pulse duration if the detector is fast enough to segregate synchrotron pulses. An analog integrating pixel array detector with in-pixel storage and temporal resolution of around 150 ns, sufficient to isolate pulses, is presented. Analog integration minimizes count-rate limitations and in-pixel storage captures successive pulses. Fundamental tests of noise and linearity as well as high-speed laser measurements are shown. The detector resolved individual bunch trains at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) at levels of up to 3.7x10^3 x-rays/pixel/train. When applied to turn-by-turn x-ray beam characterization single-shot intensity measurements were made with a repeatability of 0.4% and horizontal oscillations of the positron cloud were detected. This device is appropriate for time-resolved Bragg spot single crystal experiments.

  17. Ultrafast structural dynamics studied by kilohertz time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 江舟亚; 陈龙; 陈黎明; 辛建国; 陈洁

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort multi-keV x-ray pulses are generated by electron plasma produced by the irradiation of femtosecond pulses on metals. These sub-picosecond x-ray pulses have extended the field of x-ray spectroscopy into the femtosecond time domain. However, pulse-to-pulse instability and long data acquisition time restrict the application of ultrashort x-ray systems operating at low repetition rates. Here we report on the performance of a femtosecond laser plasma-induced hard x-ray source that operates at 1-kHz repetition rate, and provides a flux of 2.0 × 1010 photons/s of Cu Kα radiation. Using this system for time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we record in real time, the transient processes and structural changes induced by the interaction of 400-nm femtosecond pulse with the surface of a 200-nm thick Au (111) single crystal.

  18. Shock-induced solid-state chemical reactivity studies using time-resolved radiation pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved radiation pyrometry has been used to study materials which undergo solid-state chemical reactions due to shock loading. Shock-induced chemical reactivity in solids is fundamentally different than that in high explosives and other energetic materials because, if no volatiles are present, the reaction products end up in the condensed, rather than the vapor, state. Bulk property changes accompanying the solid-state reactions may therefore be too small to be observable with wave profile or shock-velocity measurements. However, some solid-state reactions, such as that between metallic nickel and aluminum, are exothermic enough to give rise to a measurable increase in temperature, so pyrometry can be used to detect the reactions. Unfortunately, these measurements are complicated by the large temperature increases generated by other sources. Possible mechanisms for generation of these high temperatures, and their effect on the chemical reaction, are suggested

  19. Time-resolved mirage method: A three-dimensional theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrath, N. G. C.; Malacarne, L. C.; Bernabe, H. S.; Baesso, M. L.; Jacinto, C.

    2012-05-01

    A general time-resolved three-dimensional theory of the photothermal beam deflection for the measurement of thermal properties of opaque materials is presented. We derive the analytical solutions for the laser induced temperature profiles in the sample and in the fluid above the sample assuming flux discontinuity at the interface sample/fluid. We compare the analytical solutions with all numerical modeling using finite element analysis. The photothermal deflection signal is calculated and an expression is provided for the transverse photothermal signal at a position-sensing detector. We use the model and the experimental method to investigate opaque plastic and metals, and the results for the thermal properties of the samples are in an excellent agreement in the literature values.

  20. Time-resolved stereoscopic PIV study of flashback in swirl flames at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Ebi, Dominik; Clemens, Noel

    2015-11-01

    Boundary layer flashback of turbulent premixed swirl flames can pose a major challenge to the operation of stationary gas turbines, especially with hydrogen-rich fuels. To improve our understanding of the physics behind this phenomenon at gas turbine relevant conditions, it is essential to investigate flashback at elevated pressures. With this purpose in mind, flashback experiments with hydrogen/methane-air premixtures are conducted in a model swirl combustor installed in an optically accessible high-pressure combustion facility. We have employed stereoscopic PIV in conjunction with high speed chemiluminiscence imaging to study the upstream propagation of the flame in the premix tube during flashback. Experiments are run at pressures ranging from 1 atm to 5 atm. These time-resolved measurements provide valuable insight into the flame-flow interaction during flashback at elevated pressures.

  1. Identifying Coherent Structures in a 3-Stream Supersonic Jet Flow using Time-Resolved Schlieren Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Andrew; Coleman, Thomas; Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andy; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Shock cells and large scale structures present in a three-stream non-axisymmetric jet are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Large Eddy Simulation is utilized first to gain an understanding of the underlying physics of the flow and direct the focus of the physical experiment. The flow in the experiment is visualized using long exposure Schlieren photography, with time resolved Schlieren photography also a possibility. Velocity derivative diagnostics are calculated from the grey-scale Schlieren images are analyzed using continuous wavelet transforms. Pressure signals are also captured in the near-field of the jet to correlate with the velocity derivative diagnostics and assist in unraveling this complex flow. We acknowledge the support of AFRL through an SBIR grant.

  2. Time-resolved, optically detected NMR of fluids at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliero, Daniela; Dong, Wei; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the use of optical Faraday rotation to monitor the nuclear-spin signal in a set of model F19- and H1-rich fluids. Our approach integrates optical detection with high-field, pulsed NMR so as to record the time-resolved evolution of nuclear-spins after rf excitation. Comparison of chemical-shift-resolved resonances allows us to set order-of-magnitude constrains on the relative amplitudes of hyperfine coupling constants for different bonding geometries. When evaluated against coil induction, the present detection modality suffers from poorer sensitivity, but improvement could be attained via multipass schemes. Because illumination is off-resonant i.e., the medium is optically transparent, this methodology could find extensions in a broad class of fluids and soft condensed matter systems.

  3. Time-resolved measurements with intense ultrashort laser pulses: a 'molecular movie' in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the high-resolution multidimensional real-time mapping of H2+ and D2+ nuclear wave packets performed employing time-resolved three-dimensional Coulomb explosion imaging with intense laser pulses. Exploiting a combination of a 'reaction microscope' spectrometer and a pump-probe setup with two intense 6-7 fs laser pulses, we simultaneously visualize both vibrational and rotational motion of the molecule, and obtain a sequence of snapshots of the squared ro-vibrational wave function with time-step resolution of ∼ 0.3 fs, allowing us to reconstruct a real-time movie of the ultrafast molecular motion. We observe fast dephasing, or 'collapse' of the vibrational wave packet and its subsequent revival, as well as signatures of rotational excitation. For D2+ we resolve also the fractional revivals resulting from the interference between the counter-propagating parts of the wave packet

  4. Time-resolved FTIR [Fourier transform infrared] emission studies of laser photofragmentation and chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress is described resulting from the past three years of DOE support for studies of combustion-related photofragmentation dynamics, energy transfer, and reaction processes using a time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) emission technique. The FTIR is coupled to a high repetition rate excimer laser which produces radicals by photolysis to obtain novel, high resolution measurements on vibrational and rotational state dynamics. The results are important for the study of numerous radical species relevant to combustion processes. The method has been applied to the detailed study of photofragmentation dynamics in systems such as acetylene, which produces C2H; chlorofluoroethylene to study the HF product channel; vinyl chloride and dichloroethylene, which produce HCl; acetone, which produces CO and CH3; and ammonia, which produces NH2. In addition, we have recently demonstrated use of the FTIR technique for preliminary studies of energy transfer events under near single collision conditions, radical-radical reactions, and laser-initiated chain reaction processes

  5. A versatile and reconfigurable setup for all-terahertz time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezzabi, A. Y.; Maraghechi, P.

    2012-05-01

    A versatile optical setup for all-terahertz (THz) time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy was designed and tested. By utilizing a dual THz pulse generator emitter module, independent and synchronized THz radiation pump and probe pulses were produced, thus eliminating the need for THz beam splitters and the limitations associated with their implementation. The current THz setup allows for precise control of the electric fields splitting ratio between the THz radiation pump and probe pulses, as well as in-phase, out-of-phase, and polarization dependent pump-probe spectroscopy. Since the present THz pump-probe setup does not require specialized THz radiation optical components, such as phase shifters, polarization rotators, or wide bandwidth beam splitters, it can be easily implemented with minimal alterations to a conventional THz time domain spectroscopy system. The present setup is valuable for studying the time dynamics of THz coherent phenomena in solid-state, chemical, and biological systems.

  6. Noninvasive Measurement of Fecal Progesterone Concentration in Toy Poodles by Time Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sugimura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone is an important reproductive hormone and measurement of its level by repeated blood samplings is beneficial to monitoring of estrus cycle. However, since toy poodles have a small body size and thin-walled blood vessels, repeated blood samplings cause stress and affect their preparation for mating or artificial insemination (AI. Therefore, a noninvasive method for monitoring progesterone concentration should be developed. Here, we show that time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TF-RIA is a useful noninvasive method for determining the progesterone concentration in serum and fecal samples obtained from toy poodles. Present results demonstrate that progesterone concentrations in the fecal correlated with the serum collected in same time and the sequential changes in progesterone concentrations in the feces are paralleled in the serum. Therefore, this technique may be suitable for monitoring the estrus cycle in toy poodles.

  7. Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-resolved optical tomography system has been used to generate cross-sectional images of the human breast. Images are reconstructed using an iterative, nonlinear algorithm and measurements of mean photon flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom. Thirty-eight studies have been performed on three healthy volunteers and 21 patients with a variety of breast lesions including cancer. We have successfully detected 17 out of 19 lesions, and shown that optical images of the healthy breast of the same volunteer display a heterogeneity which is repeatable over a period of months. However, results also indicate that the lack of accurate quantitation of optical parameters and limited morphological information limits the ability to characterize different types of lesions and distinguish benign from malignant tissues. Drawbacks of our current methodology and plans for overcoming them are discussed

  8. Parameters Affecting Temporal Resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    CERN Document Server

    Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Brandis, M; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation. This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  9. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  10. Space- and time-resolved observation of extreme laser frequency upshifting during ultrafast-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-fs, 800-nm, 2-TW laser pulse propagating through a nitrogen gas jet has been experimentally studied by 90° Thomson scattering. Time-integrated spectra of scattered light show unprecedented broadening towards the blue which exceeds 300 nm. Images of the scattering region provide for the first time a space- and time-resolved description of the process leading quite regularly to such a large upshift. The mean shifting rate was as high as δλ/δt ≈ 3 Å/fs, never observed before. Interferometry shows that it occurs after partial laser defocusing. Numerical simulations prove that such an upshift is consistent with a laser-gas late interaction, when laser intensity has decreased well below relativistic values (a0≪ 1) and ionization process involves most of the laser pulse. This kind of interaction makes spectral tuning of ultrashort intense laser pulses possible in a large spectral range

  11. Few-femtosecond sensitivity of ultrafast molecular dynamics with time-resolved photoelectron spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champenois, Elio G.; Cryan, James P.; Larsen, Kirk; Shivaram, Niranjan H.; Belkacem, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We explore ultrafast dynamics involving non-adiabatic couplings following valence electronic excitation of small molecular systems. By measuring the time-resolved photoelectron spectra (TRPES) resulting from ionization with ultraviolet light, the excited wave packet can be tracked with state specificity. If the nuclear motion is dominated by a limited number of degrees of freedom, the TRPES also yields information about the molecular geometry. Even with limited temporal resolution, the onset times of the signal at different photoelectron energies can lead to few-femtosecond sensitivity. Applying this technique to ethylene (C2 H4) excited to the ππ* state, ultrafast motion along the twist coordinate is observed along with transient population to the π 3 s state through non-adiabatic coupling. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Divison under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Time-resolved spectra of polar-polarizable chromophores in solution

    CERN Document Server

    Terenziani, F; Terenziani, Francesca; Painelli, Anna

    2003-01-01

    A recently proposed model for steady-state spectra of polar-polarizable chromophores is extended to describe time-resolved spectra. The model, based on a two-state picture for the solute and on a continuum overdamped description for the (polar) solvent, grasps the essential physics of solvation dynamics, as demonstrated by the comparison with experimental spectra. The solute (hyper)polarizability is responsible for spectroscopic features that cannot be rationalized within the standard picture based on a linear perturbative treatment of the solute-solvent interaction. In particular, the temporal evolution of band-shapes and the appearance of temporary isosbestic points, two common puzzling features of observed spectra, are natural consequences of the molecular hyperpolarizability and of the consequent coupling between solvation and vibrational degrees of freedom.

  13. Time-resolved x-ray emission spectra from optically ionized helium and neon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of high-power, subpicosecond laser pulses with gas targets is expected to produce highly nonequilibrium plasmas whose parameters are controlled by the laser wavelength and polarization. We investigate such plasmas by measuring time-resolved x-ray-emission spectra in highly ionized helium and neon plasmas produced by high-power optical ionization. Electron temperatures are observed to increase with increasing laser wavelength and with variation of the laser polarization from linear to circular. These results are in qualitative agreement with current models for production of tunnel-ionized laser plasmas. Limited quantitative agreement, however, reflects the complexity of the optical ionization process and suggests the important role rapid cooling processes can play in these plasmas. Emission spectra are combined with time-dependent kinetic simulations to assess prospects for x-ray lasers pumped by rapid electron-ion recombination. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Time-resolved and time-scale adaptive measures of spike train synchrony

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuz, Thomas; Greschner, Martin; Andrzejak, Ralph G

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of approaches to estimate the degree of synchrony between two or more spike trains have been proposed. One of the most recent methods is the ISI-distance which extracts information from the interspike intervals (ISIs) by evaluating the ratio of the instantaneous firing rates. In contrast to most previously proposed measures it is parameter free and time-scale independent. However, it is not well suited to track changes in synchrony that are based on spike coincidences. Here we propose the SPIKE-distance, a complementary measure which is sensitive to spike coincidences but still shares the fundamental advantages of the ISI-distance. In particular, it is easy to visualize in a time-resolved manner and can be extended to a method that is also applicable to larger sets of spike trains. We show the merit of the SPIKE-distance using both simulated and real data.

  15. Time-resolved Spectral Study Of Fermi GRBs Having Single Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal

    2014-01-01

    We analyze gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by \\textit{Fermi}/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and having single pulse. We fit the light curves with a model having exponential rise and decay parts. We perform a detailed time-resolved spectroscopy using four models: Band, blackbody with a power-law (BBPL), multicolour blackbody with a power-law (mBBPL) and two blackbodies with a power-law (2BBPL). We find that models other than the BBPL give better $\\chi_{red}^2$ for the "hard-to-soft" (HTS) pulses, while for the "intensity tracking" (IT) pulses, the BBPL model is statistically as good as the other models. Interestingly, the energy at the peak of the spectrum resulting from the BBPL model ($\\sim3kT$), is always lower than that of the $\

  16. Time-resolved beam-profile measurements on the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples are given of time-resolved beam profiles measured on ETA using several techniques. One method uses a Faraday cup that is remotely movable in two-transverse dimensions (x, y). In another method a small diameter wire or pellet target is moved across the beam and the bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity is plotted. Data for these methods are recorded using a Tektronix 7912 digitizer at 16 equally spaced times during 50 ns. Three other methods use a time gated (4 ns) microchannel plate television camera to record a two-dimensional image of the beam intensity on a single pulse. The light sources used for imaging are: Cherenkov light from a Kapton foil, prompt visible light from a titanium foil and radiated light from gas molecules excited by the beam. We are also testing an x-ray pinhole camera using K/sub α/ x-rays from tungsten

  17. Design considerations for a time-resolved tomographic diagnostic at DARHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument has been developed to acquire time-resolved tomographic data from the electron beam at the DARHT [Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument contains four optical lines of sight that view a single tilted object. The lens design optically integrates along one optical axis for each line of sight. These images are relayed via fiber optic arrays to streak cameras, and the recorded streaks are used to reconstruct the original two-dimensional data. Installation of this instrument into the facility requires automation of both the optomechanical adjustments and calibration of the instrument in a constrained space. Additional design considerations include compound tilts on the object and image planes

  18. Time-resolved Measurement of Quadrupole Wake?elds in Corrugated Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Shi, Libin; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhen; Xiang, Dao

    2016-01-01

    Corrugated structures have recently been widely used for manipulating electron beam longitudinal phase space and for producing THz radiation. Here we report on time-resolved measurements of the quadrupole wake?elds in planar corrugated structures. It is shown that while the time- dependent quadrupole wake?eld produced by a planar corrugated structure causes signi?cant growth in beam transverse emittance, it can be e?ectively canceled with a second corrugated structure with orthogonal orientation. The strengths of the time-dependent quadrupole wake?elds for various corrugated structure gaps are also measured and found to be in good agreement with theories. Our work should forward the applications of corrugated structures in many accelerator based scienti?c facilities.

  19. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. - Highlights: ► The water drainage process in porous asphalt was studied using neutron radiography. ► Despite similar mix designs, different processes of water transport were established. ► Water transport within porous asphalt showed filled dead end pores and water islands

  20. Label-Free Toxin Detection by Means of Time-Resolved Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Takhistov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time detection of trace concentrations of biological toxins requires significant improvement of the detection methods from those reported in the literature. To develop a highly sensitive and selective detection device it is necessary to determine the optimal measuring conditions for the electrochemical sensor in three domains: time, frequency and polarization potential. In this work we utilized a time-resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of trace concentrations of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB. An anti-SEB antibody has been attached to the nano-porous aluminum surface using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde coupling system. This immobilization method allows fabrication of a highly reproducible and stable sensing device. Using developed immobilization procedure and optimized detection regime, it is possible to determine the presence of SEB at the levels as low as 10 pg/mL in 15 minutes.

  1. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the b...

  2. Time-Resolved Measurement of Radiatively Heated Iron 2p-3d Transmission Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yang; SHANG Wan-Li; XIONG Gang; JIN Feng-Tao; HU Zhi-Min; WEI Min-Xi; YANG Guo-Hong; ZHANG Ji-Yan; YANG Jia-Min

    2010-01-01

    @@ An experimental measurement of radiatively heated iron plasma transmission spectra was performed on Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility.In the measurement,the self-emission spectrum,the backlighting spectrum,and the absorption spectrum were imaged with a fiat filed grating and recorded on a gated micro channel plate detector to obtain the time-resolved transmission spectra in the range 10-20 A (approximately 0.6-1.3 keV).Experimental results are compared with the calculation results of an unsolved transition array (UTA) code.The time-dependent relative shift in the positions of the 2p-3d transmission array is interpreted in terms of the plasma temperature variations.

  3. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transient reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.

  4. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described

  5. The time resolved measurement of ultrashort terahertz-band electric fields without an ultrashort probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D. A., E-mail: david.walsh@stfc.ac.uk; Snedden, E. W. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, STFC Daresbury National Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jamison, S. P. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, STFC Daresbury National Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-04

    The time-resolved detection of ultrashort pulsed THz-band electric field temporal profiles without an ultrashort laser probe is demonstrated. A non-linear interaction between a narrow-bandwidth optical probe and the THz pulse transposes the THz spectral intensity and phase information to the optical region, thereby generating an optical pulse whose temporal electric field envelope replicates the temporal profile of the real THz electric field. This optical envelope is characterised via an autocorrelation based FROG (frequency resolved optical gating) measurement, hence revealing the THz temporal profile. The combination of a narrow-bandwidth, long duration, optical probe, and self-referenced FROG makes the technique inherently immune to timing jitter between the optical probe and THz pulse and may find particular application where the THz field is not initially generated via ultrashort laser methods, such as the measurement of longitudinal electron bunch profiles in particle accelerators.

  6. The time resolved measurement of ultrashort THz-band electric fields without an ultrashort probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, David A; Jamison, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    The time-resolved detection of ultrashort pulsed THz-band electric field temporal profiles without an ultrashort laser probe is demonstrated. A non-linear interaction between a narrow-bandwidth optical probe and the THz pulse transposes the THz spectral intensity and phase information to the optical region, thereby generating an optical pulse whose temporal electric field envelope replicates the temporal profile of the real THz electric field. This optical envelope is characterised via an autocorrelation based FROG measurement, hence revealing the THz temporal profile. The combination of a narrow-bandwidth, long duration, optical probe and self-referenced FROG makes the technique inherently immune to timing jitter between the optical probe and THz pulse, and may find particular application where the THz field is not initially generated via ultrashort laser methods, such as the measurement of longitudinal electron bunch profiles in particle accelerators.

  7. Microbeam Studies of Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection from Stripe-Like Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design more radiation tolerant Integrated Circuits (ICs), it is essential to create and test accurate models of ionizing radiation induced charge collection dynamics within microcircuits. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (DTRIBICC), is proposed to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge at the junction. Specially designed stripe-like junctions were experimentally studied using a 12 MeV carbon microbeam with a spot size of 1 microm. The relative arrival time of ion-generated charge is measured along with the charge collection using a multiple parameter data acquisition system. The results show the importance of the diffused charge collection by junctions, which is especially significant in accounting for Multiple Bit Upset (MBUs) in digital devices

  8. Structure-activity relationships of heterogeneous catalysts from time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowing the composition and the evolution of the bulk structure of a heterogeneous catalyst under working conditions (in situ) is a pre-requisite for understanding structure-activity relationships. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be employed to study a catalytically active material in situ. In addition to steady-state investigations, the technique permits experiments with a time-resolution in the sub-second range to elucidate the solid-state kinetics of the reactions involved. Combined with mass spectrometry, the evolution of the short-range order structure of a heterogeneous catalyst, the average valence of the constituent metals, and the phase composition can be obtained. Here we present results obtained from time-resolved studies on the reduction of MoO3 in propene and in propene and oxygen

  9. The MRSt for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.

    2015-11-01

    Information about the time evolution of inertial-confinement-fusion fuel assembly and hot-spot formation can be obtained with the next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometers for ICF applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and ρR -Ti trajectory during burn. As the peak burn generally occurs before and after peak compression in failed and ignited implosions, respectively, an MRSt measurement of the relative timing of these events will be critical for assessing implosion dynamics. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  10. User-based representation of time-resolved multimodal public transportation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandretti, Laura; Gauvin, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal transportation systems can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated to distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geolocalised transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data. Here, our aim is to provide a novel user-based methodological framework to represent public transportation systems considering the total travel time, its variability across the schedule, and taking into account the number of transfers necessary. Using this framework we analyse public transportation systems in several French municipal areas. We incorporate travel routes and times over multiple transportation modes to identify efficient transportation connections and non-trivial connectivity patterns. The proposed method ...

  11. Head and neck vascular malformations: time-resolved MR projection angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyeh, S.; Schumacher, M.; Hochmuth, A.; Klisch, J. [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg (Germany); Strecker, R. [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, University of Freiburg (Germany); Roessler, J. [Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Extracranial vascular anomalies can be divided into haemangiomas and vascular malformations. The latter can be subdivided on the basis of the predominant type of vascular channels. Separation of high- and low-flow vascular malformations is of clinical importance. We report preliminary observations on time-resolved magnetic resonance projection angiography (MRPA) of vascular malformations of the head and neck. We examined eight patients with vascular anomalies of the head and neck. On MRPA the time between the early arterial phase and enhancement of the malformation could be used to distinguish high- and low-flow lesions. High-flow arteriovenous malformations showed early, intense enhancement. Venous malformations were either not visible on MRPA or showed late enhancement of veins. One patient was examined after embolisation of an arteriovenous fistula of the mandible. Normal MRPA was taken to indicate absence of a residual lesion. (orig.)

  12. Automatic Weissenberg data collection system for time-resolved protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Sakabe, N; Higashi, T; Igarashi, N; Suzuki, M; Watanabe, N; Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    A totally new type of fully automatic Weissenberg data-collection system called 'Galaxy' was developed and was installed at the Photon Factory. This automatic data collection system consists of a rotated-inclined focusing monochromator, a screenless Weissenberg type camera, an image reader, an eraser, a cassette transportation mechanism, a control console and a safety and high-speed computer network system linking a control console, data processing computers and data servers. The special characteristics of this system are a Weissenberg camera with a fully cylindrical cassette which can be rotated to exchange a frame, a maximum number of 36 images to be recorded in an IP cassette, and a very high speed IP reader with five reading heads. Since the frame exchange time is only a few seconds, this system is applicable for time-resolved protein crystallography at seconds or minutes of time-scale.

  13. Time-resolved optical characterization of proximized nano-bilayers for ultrafast photodetector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlato, L; Pepe, G P; Lisio, C De; Pagliarulo, V; Cosentino, A; Marrocco, N; Dalena, D; Peluso, G; Barone, A [CNR-INFM Coherentia and Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dip. Scienze Fisiche, c/o Fac. Ingegneria, Piazzale Tecchio 80 - 80125 Napoli (Italy); Pan, D; Sobolewski, R [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0231 (United States)], E-mail: parlato@na.infn.it

    2008-02-15

    Time-resolved transient pump-probe spectroscopy measurements on proximized ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures are presented. We focused our attention on both low and high critical temperature superconductors such as Nb and YBCO, while for F the weak-ferromagnetic alloy Ni{sub 0.48}Cu{sub 0.52} has been used. Dynamics of the electron-phonon relaxation process has been investigated as a function of both the temperature and the F-film thickness. In the case of NiCu/Nb bilayers the presence of a thin F overlayer reduces the slow bolometric component of the photoresponse, while in YBCO-based structures faster relaxation times were measured. F/S nanobilayers are very attractive toward the development of novel hybrid superconducting photodetectors.

  14. A time-resolved study of ionization, electron attachment and positive-ion drift in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed Townsend swarm technique has been used to study electron-ionization and electron-attachment processes in methane over the density-normalized electrical field strength, E/N, in the range 1.2-30 fV cm2 (120-3000 Td). The time-resolved ionic avalanches were obtained under conditions such that the occurrence of electron-attachment processes was detected unambiguously. The analysis of these avalanche pulses resulted in values of the effective ionization coefficients and positive-ion mobilities over the above E/N range. To the best of our knowledge, no values of positive-ion mobilities had been published before for E/N>560 Td. The electron-attachment effects were observed up to E/N=320 Td. (author)

  15. Time-Resolved FTIR Study on the Reaction of CHCl2 with NO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunhui Liu; Chunfan Yang; Huan Wang; Weiqiang Wu; Hongmei Su

    2009-01-01

    The environmentally important free radical reaction of chlorinated methyl CHCl2 with NO2 was investigated by step-scan time-resolved FTIR (TR-FTIR) emission spectroscopy. Vibrationally excited products of CHClO, NO, CO, and HCl are observed in the high-resolution IR emission spectra and three possible reaction channels are therefore elucidated. In particular,the product CO is newly detected and the product HCl is identified explicitly as a yield from the CHCl2+NO2 reaction, taking advantage of the sensitive detection of HCl and CO with TR-FTIR. These results are of particular interests to understand the related realistic chemical processes including atmospheric photochemistry, biofuel combustion, waste destruction,and smoking fire.

  16. Equilibrium exchange kinetics in PEP-PEO block copolymer micelles. A time resolved SANS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chain exchange kinetics in polymeric micelles has been studied by a novel time resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS) technique. The system investigated was the amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) in water/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures as selective solvent for PEO. The TR-SANS technique exploits the large difference in scattering length density of deuterated and protonated species allowing for a detailed study of chain exchange kinetics with virtually no perturbation from equilibrium. The measured relaxation curves show a fast initial decay which gradually slows down at longer times. This extremely broad and heterogeneous decay drastically deviates from single exponential predicted by the scaling theory of Halperin and Alexander. Instead, the data appear to follow a logarithmic time dependence. This behavior most likely stems from a heterogeneous release of core chains caused by strong topological correlations inside the small micellar cores

  17. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Quantum Cascade Lasers operated in Pulsed Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Time-resolved spectroscopy with pump-probe technique is a good instrument for analyzing physical processes and material properties in quantum cascade lasers. This method was used for the characterization of lasers in continuous wave. Whereas pulsed operated laser are subject to permanent changes in their working point and thus their optical properties. In our work we present an adapted version of this measurement technique capable to study pulsed operated lasers. By synchronizing pump current and sampling we can acquire the pump pulses in narrow time slots (∼20 ns) where we assume constant working conditions. This novel measurement technique gives us the possibility to gather more accurate data including gain, phase, refractive index and calculate the temperature behaviour of quantum cascade lasers. (author)

  18. Studying electron distributions using the time-resolved free-bound spectra from coronal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of laser light in a plasma by inverse bremsstrahlung, I.B., can lead to a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution provided the electron-elecron collision frequency is too low to equilibrate the velocity distribution in the coronal plasma region of a laser heated aluminum disk by measuring the radiation recombination continuum. The experiments are performed using lambda/sub L/ = 0.532 μm laser light at intensities of approx. 1016 W/cm2. Such parameters are predicted to produce conditions suitable for a non-thermal electron distribution. The shape of the K-shell recombination radiation has been measured using a time-resolved x-ray spectrograph. The electron distribution can be determined from deconvolution of the recombination continuum shape

  19. Bayesian Comparison of Fit Parameters: An Application to Time-Resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, V.

    Analysis of X-ray data of the stars AD Leo and Wolf 630, obtained with ROSAT provide important clues to the structure of the coronae on these low-mass, main-sequence stars. In particular, time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of these stars allow us to derive estimates for the low- and high-temperature components of the plasma emission measures. Using Bayes' theorem, we show that the high-temperature components are correlated with the X-ray light-curves of the stars, while the low-temperature components are steady. Thus we are able to model the low-temperature emission as relatively compact, quiescent, static coronal loops, and the high-temperature emission as unstable flaring components.

  20. Time-resolved Chemical Imaging of Molecules by High-order Harmonics and Ultrashort Rescattering Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chii Dong [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Directly monitoring atomic motion during a molecular transformation with atomic-scale spatio-temporal resolution is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. Here we provide the foundation for a new imaging method, fixed-angle broadband laser-induced electron scattering, based on structural retrieval by direct one-dimensional Fourier transform of a photoelectron energy distribution observed along the polarization direction of an intense ultrafast light pulse. The approach exploits the scattering of a broadband wave packet created by strong-field tunnel ionization to self-interrogate the molecular structure with picometre spatial resolution and bond specificity. With its inherent femtosecond resolution, combining our technique with molecular alignment can, in principle, provide the basis for time-resolved tomography for multi-dimensional transient structural determination.