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Sample records for antibody screening test

  1. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  2. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  3. Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/redbloodcellantibodyscreen.html Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an RBC Antibody Screen? An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen ...

  4. RBC Antibody Screen

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    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  5. Screening test for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus, based on a flavivirus pseudotype.

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    Séverine Mercier-Delarue

    Full Text Available Given the possibility of yellow fever virus reintroduction in epidemiologically receptive geographic areas, the risk of vaccine supply disruption is a serious issue. New strategies to reduce the doses of injected vaccines should be evaluated very carefully in terms of immunogenicity. The plaque reduction test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT is particularly time-consuming and requires the use of a confinement laboratory. We have developed a new test based on the use of a non-infectious pseudovirus (WN/YF17D. The presence of a reporter gene allows sensitive determination of neutralizing antibodies by flow cytometry. This WN/YF17D test was as sensitive as PRNT for the follow-up of yellow fever vaccinees. Both tests lacked specificity with sera from patients hospitalized for acute Dengue virus infection. Conversely, both assays were strictly negative in adults never exposed to flavivirus infection or vaccination, and in patients sampled some time after acute Dengue infection. This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.

  6. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  7. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

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    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  8. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  9. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  10. Platelet antibodies blood test

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    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  11. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Wielders, C C H; Schimmer, B; Wegdam-Blans, M C A; Meekelenkamp, J; Zaaijer, H L; Schneeberger, P M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in a large group of individuals one year after acute Q fever. EIA is 100 % sensitive in detecting high (≥1:1,024) phase I IgG antibody titres. The cost of screening with EIA and confirming all EIA-positive results with IFA is much lower than screening all donations with IFA. This should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes.

  12. Anti-insulin antibody test

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    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  13. A Novel Tool for High-Throughput Screening of Granulocyte-Specific Antibodies Using the Automated Flow Cytometric Granulocyte Immunofluorescence Test (Flow-GIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Duc Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti—HNA 3a, n = 3; anti—HNA-1b, n = 1 and GAT (anti—HNA-2a, n = 1. The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of

  14. A novel tool for high-throughput screening of granulocyte-specific antibodies using the automated flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Duc; Dengler, Thomas; Schulz-Linkholt, Monika; Klüter, Harald

    2011-02-03

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT) has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT) were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti-HNA 3a, n = 3; anti-HNA-1b, n = 1) and GAT (anti-HNA-2a, n = 1). The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of blood products.

  15. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

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    ... as ratios. For example, the result 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of a diluting ... name "antinuclear". My doctor told me my ANA test is ... normal concentration of these antibodies. This is one of the tools in diagnosing lupus as well ...

  16. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out for sure? If antibody tests and/or symptoms suggest celiac disease, the physician needs to establish the diagnosis by ... who is still experiencing symptoms, to establish the diagnosis or to rule out celiac disease as a part of establishing another diagnosis. Find ...

  17. Antiparietal cell antibody test

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    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  18. HIV Antibody Test

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    ... 65 in the case of the USPSTF) and pregnant women be screened for HIV at least once. The CDC and American College ... to make sure she is not infected with HIV before getting pregnant may opt to get tested (see Pregnancy: HIV .) ...

  19. A comparison of the absorbed fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) test and other screening tests for treponemal disease in patients attending a venereal disease clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A E; Scrimgeour, G; Rodin, P

    1972-05-01

    Screening tests-absorbed fluorescent treponemal (FTA-ABS), the Reiter protein complement-fixation (RPCFT), VDRL slide test, automated reagin-and cardiolipin Wassermann reaction-were carried out on 1922 consecutive new patients attending the Whitechapel Clinic over a three-month period.Taking the FTA-ABS test results as an index, the most efficient combination of conventional tests was found to be the RPCFT and automated reagin test. The cardiolipin WR proved to be under-sensitive and of little value compared with the other tests.Forty-two per cent of the 107 sera reactive in the FTA-ABS test were not detected by the RPCFT or ART tests. An assessment based on the TPI test results and clinical findings in these patients is presented. The scope and limitations of the FTA-ABS test as a screening procedure are discussed.

  20. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute HIV infection. To evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection compared with pooled HIV RNA testing. Multisite, prospective, within-individual comparison study conducted between September 2011 and October 2013 in 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Participants were 12 years or older and seeking HIV testing, without known HIV infection. All participants with a negative rapid HIV test result were screened for acute HIV infection with an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay (index test) and pooled human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA testing. HIV RNA testing was the reference standard, with positive reference standard result defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA on an individual RNA test. Number and proportion with acute HIV infections detected. Among 86,836 participants with complete test results (median age, 29 years; 75.0% men; 51.8% men who have sex with men), established HIV infection was diagnosed in 1158 participants (1.33%) and acute HIV infection was diagnosed in 168 participants (0.19%). Acute HIV infection was detected in 134 participants with HIV Ag/Ab combination testing (0.15% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.18%]; sensitivity, 79.8% [95% CI, 72.9%-85.6%]; specificity, 99.9% [95% CI, 99.9%-99.9%]; positive predictive value, 59.0% [95% CI, 52.3%-65.5%]) and in 164 participants with pooled HIV RNA testing (0.19% [95% CI, 0.16%-0.22%]; sensitivity, 97.6% [95% CI, 94.0%-99.4%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]; positive predictive value, 96.5% [95% CI, 92.5%-98.7%]; sensitivity comparison, P testing detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing increased the relative HIV diagnostic yield (both

  1. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Wielders, C. C. H.; Schimmer, B.; Wegdam-Blans, M. C. A.; Meekelenkamp, J.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Schneeberger, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence

  2. HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER VIRUS-INFECTIONS IN AN ISOLATED RAIN-FOREST AREA OF CENTRAL LIBERIA - LIMITATIONS OF THE INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE SLIDE TEST FOR ANTIBODY SCREENING IN AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, F. W.; Pomeroy, K. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Asher, D. M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from 119 healthy individuals and 106 epilepsy patients inhabiting Grand Bassa County, Liberia, were tested for antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV) by indirect immunofluorescence. E6 Vero cells infected with Lassa fever virus (LAS), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), Congo

  3. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

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    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  4. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

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    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  5. Quality not quantity for transglutaminase antibody 2: the performance of an endomysial and tissue transglutaminase test in screening coeliac disease remains stable over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, K; Wild, G; Sargur, R; Sanders, D S; Aziz, I; Hopper, A D; Egner, W

    2013-01-01

    National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidance for the diagnosis of coeliac disease has been published. However, there is some controversy regarding the advice on the use of stratifying levels of immunoglobulin (IgA) tissue transglutaminase antibody (TG2) test positivity in the absence of test standardization and the vagueness of the indication to test equivocal samples. Using repeat service audit, we demonstrate that a combination of TG2 followed by IgA endomysial antibodies (EMA) is the best strategy for all degrees of mucosal abnormality using our test combination. Reliance upon immunoassay titre is not as effective, and cannot be applied consistently across populations in the absence of assay standardization. Guidelines advocating the use of tests should involve experts in laboratory diagnostics and external quality assurance to ensure that errors of generalization do not occur and that test performance is achievable in routine diagnostic use. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  7. [Construction of human phage antibody library and screening for human monoclonal antibodies of amylin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Li, Chang-ying; Chang, Ji-wu; Zhu, Tie-hong

    2012-06-01

    To screen monoclonal antibodies to amylin from a constructed human phage antibody library and identify their antigenic specificity and combining activities. The heavy chain Fd fragment and light chain of human immunoglobulin genes were amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using RT-PCR, and then inserted into phagemid pComb3XSS to generate a human phage antibody library. The insertion of light chain or heavy chain Fd genes were identified by PCR after the digestion of Sac I, Xba I, Xho Iand Spe I. One of positive clones was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The specific anti-amylin clones were screened from antibody library against human amylin antigens and then the positive clones were determined by Phage-ELISA analysis. A Fab phage antibody library with 0.8×10(8); members was constructed with the efficacy of about 70%. DNA sequence analysis indicated V(H); gene belonged to V(H);3 gene family and V(λ); gene belonged to the V(λ); gene family. Using human amylin as panning antigen, specific anti-amylin Fab antibodies were enriched by screening the library for three times. Phage-ELISA assay showed the positive clones had very good specificity to amylin antigen. The successful construction of a phage antibody library and the identification of anti-amylin Fab antibodies provide a basis for further study and preparation of human anti-amylin antibodies.

  8. Rapid screening of monoclonal antibodies: new 'microstick' radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinberg, D.A.; Strand, M.; Wilsnack, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new system for assaying monoclonal antibodies consisting of an 8 x 12 array of sticks which fits into a 96-well microtiter plate is described. Tests using virus specific monoclonal antibodies and virus proteins demonstrated sensitivity equivalent to the conventional microtiter plate assay. Antibody production, antigen specific antibody, and immunoglobulin isotypes could be measured under sterile conditions directly in the original fusion mixture wells and much greater rapidity than with the microtiter plate assay. (Auth.)

  9. Is a third-trimester antibody screen in Rh+ women necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, J M; Weirermiller, B; Dirig, K; Hurd, W W; Schilder, J; Golichowski, A

    1999-09-01

    To determine the need for routine third-trimester antibody screening in Rh+ women. An analytic case-control study. We identified Rh+ pregnant women who had received prenatal care and retrospectively analyzed their laboratory data. Patients were grouped into those with a positive third-trimester antibody screen (cases) and those with a negative third-trimester screen (controls). Because entry into a group was decided by the investigators, it could not be randomized. We reviewed the maternal medical records for antibody identification and final pregnancy outcome. We also reviewed the neonatal medical records for evidence of direct Coombs-positive cord blood, anemia, need for transfusion or phototherapy, other medical complications, and death. Using a computerized laboratory database from 2 teaching hospitals, we identified 10,581 obstetric patients who underwent routine first- and third-trimester antibody screening between 1988 and 1997. Of these, 1233 patients were Rh- and 9348 were Rh+. Among the Rh+ patients, 178 (1.9%) had 1 or more atypical antibodies at the first-trimester screen, and 53 (0.6%) had a positive third-trimester antibody screen despite a negative first-trimester screen. Although 6 of these 53 patients (0.06% of the study population) had clinically relevant antibodies for hemolytic disease of the new-born, no significant neonatal sequelae occurred among these 6 patients. Based on the patient and hospital records studied, a repeat third-trimester antibody screen for Rh+ patients is clinically and economically unjustified. Eliminating this laboratory test from clinical practice will not adversely affect pregnancy outcomes and will decrease the costs of prenatal care.

  10. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot CE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 1998 all Dutch women (± 200,000/y are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN. Evidence for benefits, consequences and costs of screening for non-RhD antibodies is still under discussion. The screening program was evaluated in a nation-wide study. As a part of this evaluation study we investigated, according to the sixth criterium of Wilson and Jüngner, the acceptance by pregnant women of the screening program for non-RhD antibodies. Methods Controlled longitudinal survey, including a prenatal and a postnatal measurement by structured questionnaires. Main outcome measures: information satisfaction, anxiety during the screening process (a.o. STAI state inventory and specific questionnaire modules, overall attitude on the screening program. Univariate analysis was followed by standard multivariate analysis to identify significant predictors of the outcome measures. Participants: 233 pregnant women, distributed over five groups, according to the screening result. Results Satisfaction about the provided information was moderate in all groups. All screen- positive groups desired more supportive information. Anxiety increased in screen- positives during the screening process, but decreased to basic levels postnatally. All groups showed a strongly positive balance between perceived utility and burden of the screening program, independent on test results or background characteristics. Conclusion Women highly accept the non-RhD antibody screening program. However, satisfaction about provided information is moderate. Oral and written information should be provided by obstetric care workers themselves, especially to screen-positive women.

  11. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  12. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  13. ELISA with double antigen sandwich for screening specific serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiqing; Shi Zhixu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To select a sensitive and specific laboratory examination suitable for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors. Methods: The serum anti-TP antibody in 11271 blood donors were detected using ELISA with double antigen sandwich and the outcomes were compared with those using RPR assay. The conflicting specimen were confirmed by repeating the test with TPHA assay. Results: The positive rates of serum anti-TP antibody by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR was 0.36% (41/11271) and 0.26% (29/11271), respectively. The coincidence of the detecting outcomes by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR with TPHA was 97.5% (40/41) and 63.41%(26/41) respectively. Conclusion: Compared with RPR assay, ELISA with double antigen sandwich has higher sensibility and specificity for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

  14. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera of...

  15. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that best fit your needs. What are the advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic tests compared with screening ... Us Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement RSS Advertising Opportunities Careers at ACOG Sitemap Website Feedback American ...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia antibody tests in subfertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddelers, A A A; Land, J A; Voss, G; Kessels, A G H; Severens, J L

    2005-02-01

    For the evaluation of tubal function, Chlamydia antibody testing (CAT) has been introduced as a screening test. We compared six CAT screening strategies (five CAT tests and one combination of tests), with respect to their cost-effectiveness, by using IVF pregnancy rate as outcome measure. A decision analytic model was developed based on a source population of 1715 subfertile women. The model incorporates hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy and IVF. To calculate IVF pregnancy rates, costs, effects, cost-effectiveness and incremental costs per effect of the six different CAT screening strategies were determined. pELISA Medac turned out to be the most cost-effective CAT screening strategy (15 075 per IVF pregnancy), followed by MIF Anilabsystems (15 108). A combination of tests (pELISA Medac and MIF Anilabsystems; 15 127) did not improve the cost-effectiveness of the single strategies. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results are robust for changes in the baseline values of the model parameters. Only small differences were found between the screening strategies regarding the cost-effectiveness, although pELISA Medac was the most cost-effective strategy. Before introducing a particular CAT test into clinical practice, one should consider the effects and consequences of the entire screening strategy, instead of only the diagnostic accuracy of the test used.

  17. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have enough biotinidase, an enzyme that recycles biotin (a B vitamin) in the body. Biotinidase ... about additional tests: Do you have a family history of an inherited disorder? Have you previously given ...

  18. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  19. Antibody screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using pooled soluble HLA in renal transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F; Metz, S; Scornik, J C

    1997-01-15

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using HLA class I molecules purified from pooled platelets has the potential to detect HLA antibodies with increased efficiency without sacrificing sensitivity or specificity. This test, which was originally developed in our institution, has been independently validated by recent studies and is now commercially available. We now present evidence of its usefulness as a routine HLA antibody screening test for renal transplant patients. A total of 515 patients were tested monthly by ELISA (13.9 tests/patient) and by antiglobulin-enhanced panel reactivity (6.3 tests/patient). In patients found to be unsensitized, the incidence of false-positive results was less for ELISA than for the panel studies. In patients who were highly sensitized, both tests performed equally well, whereas discordant results were registered mainly in cases of mild sensitization. Because 66% of our patients were not sensitized, the ELISA was effective in reducing the number of more involved tests aimed at characterizing the antibodies. These results provide a foundation to use the pooled platelet HLA ELISA on a routine basis for HLA antibody screening.

  20. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Screening for Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Adlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD is a common disorder which causes considerable morbidity in affected women. The availability of effective treatment for hypothyroid PPTD, the occurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies and the need to identify subjects who develop long term hypothyroidism, has prompted discussion about screening for this disorder. There is currently no consensus about screening as investigations hitherto have been variable in their design, definitions and assay frequency and methodology. There is also a lack of consensus about a suitable screening tool although thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb is a leading contender. We present data about the use of TPOAb in early pregnancy and its value as a screening tool. Although its positive predictive value is moderate, its sensitivity and specificity when used in early pregnancy are comparable or better compared to other times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Recent studies have also confirmed this strategy to be cost effective and to compare favourably with other screening strategies. We also explore the advantages of universal screening.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  2. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  3. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  4. Anti-Nuclear Antibody Screening Using HEp-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Carol; Bryant, Cassandra; Eslami, Anna; Lakos, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Rheumatology position statement on ANA testing stipulates the use of IIF as the gold standard method for ANA screening1. Although IIF is an excellent screening test in expert hands, the technical difficulties of processing and reading IIF slides – such as the labor intensive slide processing, manual reading, the need for experienced, trained technologists and the use of dark room – make the IIF method difficult to fit in the workflow of modern, automated laboratories.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear...

  6. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  7. [The comparison of two newborn cytomegalovirus IgG antibody screening ELISA kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xian; He, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2013-10-01

    This study compared two newborn Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody screening ELISA kits and evaluated the detection effectiveness of Abnova kit. CMV IgG antibodies were detected by both SeraQuest and Abnova kits from dried blood spot (DBS) samples of 488 newborn heel sticks. The detection abilities of these two kits were compared in different sample dilution concentrations. Relative detection effectiveness of the Abnova kit was defined by statistical method using the SeraQuest kit as a point of comparison. Compared to the SeraQuest screening test kit, the Abnova kit revealed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 78.6%, positive predictive value of 99.3%, negative predictive value of 68.8%, and the coincidence rate for these two screening test kits at 98.3%. The consistency check of both kits based on interpretation of the kappa statistic was relatively good. For the Abnova kit, the "area under the ROC curve" was 0.887, which indicates moderate accuracy. Abnova kit can be applied to newborn screening for congenital CMV infections. However, repeating the test for ambiguous results is suggested to increase the specificity and negative predictive value.

  8. Severe hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn caused by red blood cell antibodies undetected at first-trimester screening (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajak, Slavica; Stefanović, Vedran; Capkun, Vesna

    2011-07-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of anti-D and non-D antibodies undetected at first-trimester screening for infant or fetus. This retrospective cohort study included all pregnant women with red blood cell (RBC) antibodies who were tested between 1993 and 2008. Data were obtained from the forms for tracking immunization at the transfusion department. Each form was analyzed for three data sets: the order of screening at which the antibodies were detected (initial or repeated screening), the order of pregnancy (first pregnancy or higher), and whether the antibodies caused severe hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). In D- women, anti-D was detected in 1.3% of cases. The anti-D was undetected in 72 (37%) cases on the first-trimester screening, of which eight cases were complicated by severe HDFN. In this group, three patients were primigravidae. An overall non-D incidence of 0.2% was observed. In 16 cases, non-D were undetected on the first-trimester screening (10 anti-c, two anti-E, two anti-C, one anti-S, and one case of anti-Rh17). Non-D antibodies undetected on initial screening caused 11 cases of severe HDFN (27% of all severe non-D HDFN). Ten of them were in multiparous women. Seven of 11 cases with severe HDFN that were missed were caused by anti-c. The third-trimester screening may detect RBC antibodies that were not present or detected on the first-trimester screening. Such screening may be especially relevant in D+ multiparous women due to the risk of HDFN. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Evaluation of ID-PaGIA syphilis antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaber, Paul; Makoid, Ene; Aus, Anneli; Loivukene, Krista; Poder, Airi

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis is usually accomplished by serology. There are currently a large number of different commercial treponemal tests available that vary in format, sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the ID-PaGIA Syphilis Antibody Test as an alternative to other specific treponemal tests for primary screening or confirmation of diagnosis. Serum samples from healthy adults (n = 100) were used for detection of specificity of ID-PaGIA. To evaluate sensitivity of ID-PaGIA serum samples (n = 101) from patients with confirmed or suspected syphilis were tested for syphilis antibodies with FTA-Abs IgM, ID-PaGIA, ELISA IgM and TPHA tests. No false-positive results were found with ID-PaGIA. Sensitivity of various treponemal tests was the following: FTA-Abs IgM: 95.5%, ID-PaGIA and ELISA IgM: 94%, and TPHA 75%. The positive and negative predictive values of ID-PaGIA were 100 and 89.5%, respectively. Compared with other treponemal tests ID-PaGIA has excellent sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Low hepatitis C antibody screening rates among an insured population of Tennessean Baby Boomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Carlucci

    Full Text Available Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is common and can cause liver disease and death. Persons born from 1945 through 1965 ("Baby Boomers" have relatively high prevalence of chronic HCV infection, prompting recommendations that all Baby Boomers be screened for HCV. If chronic HCV is confirmed, evaluation for antiviral treatment should be performed. Direct-acting antivirals can cure more than 90% of people with chronic HCV. This sequence of services can be referred to as the HCV "cascade of cure" (CoC. The Tennessee (TN Department of Health (TDH and a health insurer with presence in TN aimed to determine the proportion of Baby Boomers who access HCV screening services and appropriately navigate the HCV CoC in TN.TDH surveillance data and insurance claim records were queried to identify the cohort of Baby Boomers eligible for HCV testing. Billing codes and pharmacy records from 2013 through 2015 were used to determine whether HCV screening and other HCV-related services were provided. The proportion of individuals accessing HCV screening and other steps along the HCV CoC was determined. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HCV screening and treatment.Among 501,388 insured Tennessean Baby Boomers, 7% were screened for HCV. Of the 40,019 who received any HCV-related service, 86% were screened with an HCV antibody test, 20% had a confirmatory HCV PCR, 9% were evaluated for treatment, and 4% were prescribed antivirals. Hispanics were more likely to be screened and treated for HCV than non-Hispanic whites. HCV screening was more likely to occur in the Nashville-Davidson region than in other regions of TN, but there were regional variations in HCV treatment.Many insured Tennessean Baby Boomers do not access HCV screening services, despite national recommendations. Demographic and regional differences in uptake along the HCV CoC should inform public health interventions aimed at mitigating the effects of chronic

  11. Characterization of thyroid function and antithyroid antibody tests among Saudis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111

  12. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  13. A fully automated primary screening system for the discovery of therapeutic antibodies directly from B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Simon; Howells, Louise; O'Dowd, Victoria; Starkie, Dale; Whale, Kevin; Saunders, Mark; Lee, David; Lightwood, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    For a therapeutic antibody to succeed, it must meet a range of potency, stability, and specificity criteria. Many of these characteristics are conferred by the amino acid sequence of the heavy and light chain variable regions and, for this reason, can be screened for during antibody selection. However, it is important to consider that antibodies satisfying all these criteria may be of low frequency in an immunized animal; for this reason, it is essential to have a mechanism that allows for efficient sampling of the immune repertoire. UCB's core antibody discovery platform combines high-throughput B cell culture screening and the identification and isolation of single, antigen-specific IgG-secreting B cells through a proprietary technique called the "fluorescent foci" method. Using state-of-the-art automation to facilitate primary screening, extremely efficient interrogation of the natural antibody repertoire is made possible; more than 1 billion immune B cells can now be screened to provide a useful starting point from which to identify the rare therapeutic antibody. This article will describe the design, construction, and commissioning of a bespoke automated screening platform and two examples of how it was used to screen for antibodies against two targets. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Antibody screening & identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Rosamma, N L

    2014-09-01

    The development of alloantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy and results in difficulties in cross-matching of blood. Most literature on alloimmunization is limited to multitransfused individuals, with very few studies on the general hospital patients. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency and type of unexpected red cell antibodies in the general patient population at a multispecialty tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. The results of 49,077 antibody screening tests carried out on patients, from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. The clinical and transfusion records were reviewed. The data were compiled and statistically analysed. A total of 49,077 (29,917; 60.96% males and 19,160; 39.04% females) patient samples were screened for the presence of unexpected antibodies. Antibody screening was positive in 403 patients (0.82%). In the serum samples of 164 patients only autoantibodies were identified, 27 revealed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibodies, while 212 patients had only alloantibody/ies in their serum. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (64.1%), the most common alloantibody identified being anti E (37.2%), followed by anti D (19.2%). Since clinically significant antibodies are frequently detected in our patient population, antibody screening and if required, identification is the need of the hour. Since antibodies against the common Rh and Kell blood group antigens are the most frequent, provision of Rh and Kell matched red cells may be of protective value.

  15. Tumour auto-antibody screening: performance of protein microarrays using SEREX derived antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempfer, René; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Syed, Parvez; Vierlinger, Klemens; Pichler, Rudolf; Meese, Eckart; Leidinger, Petra; Ludwig, Nicole; Kriegner, Albert; Nöhammer, Christa

    2010-01-01

    The simplicity and potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients make auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in diagnostics of cancer and auto-immune disease. Although several methods exist for elucidating candidate-protein markers, immobilizing these onto membranes and generating so called macroarrays is of limited use for marker validation. Especially when several hundred samples have to be analysed, microarrays could serve as a good alternative since processing macro membranes is cumbersome and reproducibility of results is moderate. Candidate markers identified by SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) screenings of brain and lung tumour were used for macroarray and microarray production. For microarray production recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli by autoinduction and purified His-tag (histidine-tagged) proteins were then used for the production of protein microarrays. Protein arrays were hybridized with the serum samples from brain and lung tumour patients. Methods for the generation of microarrays were successfully established when using antigens derived from membrane-based selection. Signal patterns obtained by microarrays analysis of brain and lung tumour patients' sera were highly reproducible (R = 0.92-0.96). This provides the technical foundation for diagnostic applications on the basis of auto-antibody patterns. In this limited test set, the assay provided high reproducibility and a broad dynamic range to classify all brain and lung samples correctly. Protein microarray is an efficient means for auto-antibody-based detection when using SEREX-derived clones expressing antigenic proteins. Protein microarrays are preferred to macroarrays due to the easier handling and the high reproducibility of auto-antibody testing. Especially when using only a few microliters of patient samples protein microarrays are ideally suited for validation of auto-antibody

  16. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ECBC-TR-1395 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR... ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN MS2 SCFV ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY ILLUMINA Patricia E. Buckley Alena M. Calm Heather Welsh Roy...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv

  17. Screening of Pregnant Women for Anti-Toxoplasma Antibodies and their Newborn for Vertical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Yasmeen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a world-wide protozoan-zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii. Primary infections during pregnancy may result in miscarriages, still births, and congenital malformations in the new born. Studies on vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis from India are lacking. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii among pregnant women from the rural population of Kolar and to document vertical transmissions, if any. Materials and Methods: Anti-Toxoplasma IgG levels were estimated among 251 women admitted for labour at a tertiary care hospital in Kolar, Karnataka, between December 2014 and October 2016, by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Demographic, socio-economic, and obstetrical data along with exposure to risk factors among the participants were recorded. Two hundred and fifty one cord blood samples of the newborns of the above mothers were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies by µ capture ELISA. The validity of an IgM positive reaction was evaluated. The differences in proportions were analysed by the Chi-square test and the differences in means were analysed by the unpaired t-test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: IgG antibodies to T. gondii could be detected in 53 (21.1% of the mothers tested; the titres ranged between 35 IU/ml – 350 IU/ml. Mothers from lower socio-economic strata had significantly higher prevalence as compared to mothers from middle classes. The seropositivity was not significantly associated with gravid status, literacy, occupation, exposure to cats, consumption of raw meat, salad, or drinking untreated water, gestational age, previous history of abortion or the mode of delivery. Cord blood samples from 5 (2 % of the newborns gave positive IgM reactions, but they were interpreted as false positives as there was no evidence of infection in their respective mothers or the baby lacked antibodies on follow up. Conclusion: About one fifth of

  18. Anti-nuclear antibody screening using HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Carol; Bryant, Cassandra; Eslami, Anna; Lakos, Gabriella

    2014-06-23

    The American College of Rheumatology position statement on ANA testing stipulates the use of IIF as the gold standard method for ANA screening(1). Although IIF is an excellent screening test in expert hands, the technical difficulties of processing and reading IIF slides--such as the labor intensive slide processing, manual reading, the need for experienced, trained technologists and the use of dark room--make the IIF method difficult to fit in the workflow of modern, automated laboratories. The first and crucial step towards high quality ANA screening is careful slide processing. This procedure is labor intensive, and requires full understanding of the process, as well as attention to details and experience. Slide reading is performed by fluorescent microscopy in dark rooms, and is done by trained technologists who are familiar with the various patterns, in the context of cell cycle and the morphology of interphase and dividing cells. Provided that IIF is the first line screening tool for SARD, understanding the steps to correctly perform this technique is critical. Recently, digital imaging systems have been developed for the automated reading of IIF slides. These systems, such as the NOVA View Automated Fluorescent Microscope, are designed to streamline the routine IIF workflow. NOVA View acquires and stores high resolution digital images of the wells, thereby separating image acquisition from interpretation; images are viewed an interpreted on high resolution computer monitors. It stores images for future reference and supports the operator's interpretation by providing fluorescent light intensity data on the images. It also preliminarily categorizes results as positive or negative, and provides pattern recognition for positive samples. In summary, it eliminates the need for darkroom, and automates and streamlines the IIF reading/interpretation workflow. Most importantly, it increases consistency between readers and readings. Moreover, with the use of barcoded

  19. The early implementation of Trypanosoma cruzi antibody screening of donors and donations within England: preempting a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Alan D; Hewitt, Patricia E; Chiodini, Peter L

    2012-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic infection endemic in Central and Southern America, but is spreading into nonendemic countries with migration of infected individuals from endemic countries. The parasite is transmitted by transfusion or transplantation and donation screening is performed routinely in endemic countries to prevent transmission. In situations where migrants from endemic countries have settled in nonendemic countries and present as donors (blood or other cellular products), intervention is required to prevent transfusion or transplantation transmission. A screening program for T. cruzi was developed and has been used successfully for over 10 years that includes donor selection and donation screening. Donor selection criteria to identify specific risk of T. cruzi infection were developed together with laboratory screening of donations for T. cruzi antibodies and the subsequent confirmation of screen reactivity. Since the introduction of T. cruzi screening in England in 1998, a total of 38,585 donors and donations have been screened for T. cruzi antibodies, of which 223 were repeat reactive on screening and referred for confirmation: 206 confirmed negative, 14 inconclusive, and three positive. Since the move in 2005 from donor qualification to donation release testing, 15,536 donations were collected and screened, of which 15,499 (99.8%) were T. cruzi antibody negative and released to inventory. An effective program to minimize risk of the transmission of T. cruzi infection via donations has been developed and implemented. Not only does the program minimize risk of transmission, it also minimizes the cumulative, and needless, loss of donors and donations that would ensue if permanent donor deferral alone was adopted. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. [Screening serum response special antibodies of U251 cell line from surface display phage antibody library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Tan, De-Yong; Qian, Wei; Lai, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gui-Lin

    2004-05-01

    U251 cell is a sensitive cell line to serum, which stops at G0 phase of cell cycle in no-serum medium, and recovers growth when the serum is added into no-serum medium. The cell can express corresponding proteins in different phase of cell cycle. Therefore it is very signification for the study of cell cycle regulation mechanism that explores these proteins. In this paper, the mouse antibody phage display library was added into the bottle in which the serum starvation U251 cells had been cultured, and the special antibody phages were absorbed. Then the absorbed antibody phages were amplified by adding E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Amplified antibody phages were added into bottle in which the serum cultured cell after serum starvation (follow named as serum recovered cells) were incubated, so that the cell absorbed the no-special antibody phages for the serum starvation cell and the special antibody phages were in supernatant. The remaining no-special antibody phages in the supernatant were discarded by repeating above program 3-4 times. The pure special antibody phages were gotten, and amplified by adding the host cell E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Then the host bacterium infected special antibody phage was spread on the plate medium with ampicillin, and the monoclonal antibody phages were gotten. Using same as above program, the monoclonal antibody phages absorbed specially for serum recovered U251 cells were obtained when the serum recovered cells instead of serum starvation cells and serum starvation cells instead of serum recovered cells. In this study, ninety-six positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum starvation cells and eighty-two positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum recovered cells were obtained. By using cell immunochemistry assay, two special signification antibodies were obtained. one (No.11) was the strong response in serum starvation cells, the other (No.2) was the strong

  1. Protein crystallization with microseed matrix screening: application to human germline antibody Fabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas J.; Teplyakov, Alexey; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The power of microseed matrix screening is demonstrated in the crystallization of a panel of antibody Fab fragments. The crystallization of 16 human antibody Fab fragments constructed from all pairs of four different heavy chains and four different light chains was enabled by employing microseed matrix screening (MMS). In initial screening, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained for only three Fabs, while many Fabs produced hits that required optimization. Application of MMS, using the initial screens and/or refinement screens, resulted in diffraction-quality crystals of these Fabs. Five Fabs that failed to give hits in the initial screen were crystallized by cross-seeding MMS followed by MMS optimization. The crystallization protocols and strategies that resulted in structure determination of all 16 Fabs are presented. These results illustrate the power of MMS and provide a basis for developing future strategies for macromolecular crystallization

  2. Reiter haemagglutination test: a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qudah, A A; Mostratos, A

    1982-01-01

    Using an ultrasonicate of the Reiter treponeme as antigen the Reiter haemagglutination test (RHA) was evaluated as a serological test for syphilis. Comparison of the results of the cardiolipin Wassermann reaction, Reiter protein complement-fixation test, the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed (FTA-ABS) test, the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) (at dilutions of 1/16 and 1/80), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test with those of the RHA showed that the RHA was...

  3. Screening response to hepatitis c virus antibodies among diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2; hence, this study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of HCV antibodies among diabetic patients attending the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, north ...

  4. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  5. [Generalized neonatal screening based on laboratory tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaillou, Raymond; Le Gall, Jean-Yves

    2006-11-01

    Implementation of a generalized screening program for neonatal diseases must obey precise rules. The disease must be severe, recognizable at an early stage, amenable to an effective treatment, detectable with a non expensive and widely applicable test; it must also be a significant public health problem. Subjects with positive results must be offered immediate treatment or prevention. All screening programs must be regularly evaluated. In France, since 1978, a national screening program has been organized by a private association ("Association française pour le dépistage et la prévention des handicaps de l'enfant") and supervised by the "Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie" and "Direction Générale de la Sante". Five diseases are now included in the screening program: phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease (the latter only in at-risk newborns). Toxoplasmosis is a particular problem because only the children of mothers who were not tested during the pregnancy or who seroconverted are screened. Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria and hypothyrodism is unanimously recommended. Screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia is approved in most countries. Cases of sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are more complex because--not all children who carry the mutations develop severe forms;--there is no curative treatment;--parents may become anxious, even though the phenotype is sometimes mild or even asymptomatic. Supporters of screening stress the benefits of early diagnosis (which extends the life expectancy of these children, particularly in the case of sickle cell disease), the fact that it opens up the possibility of prenatal screening of future pregnancies, and the utility of informing heterozygous carriers identified by familial screening. Neonatal screening for other diseases is under discussion. Indeed, technical advances such as tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to detect about 50

  6. [Construction of a phage antibody library and screening of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III single chain antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-gang; Duan, Xiao-yi; Guo, You-min; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Quan-ying; Yang, Guang-xiao

    2010-01-01

    To obtain specific anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) single chain antibody (ScFv) by phage antibody library display system. The total RNA was extracted from the spleen B cells of BALB/c mice immunized with pep-3-OVA protein, and the first-strand cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription. Antibody VH and VL gene fragments were amplified and joined to a ScFv gene with the linker. The ScFv gene was ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB5E, which was transformed into competent E. coli TG1. The transformed cells were then infected with M13KO7 helper phage to yield the recombinant phage to construct the phage ScFv library. Pep-3-BSA protein was used to screen the phage antibody library and ELISA carried out to characterize the activity of the antibody. The VH and VL gene fragments of the antibody were about 350 bp and 320 bp in length as analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ScFv gene was 780 bp, consistent with the expected length. The recombinant phagemid with ScFv gene insert was rescued, and an immune phage ScFv library with the content of 5.0x10(6) was constructed. The recombinant ScFv phage had a titer of 3.0x10(4) cfu/ml, and the fourth phage harvest yielded 56 times as much as that of the first one. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a molecular mass of the soluble ScFv of about 28 kD. ELISA results indicated good specificity of the ScFv to bind EGFRvIII. An immune phage ScFv library is successfully constructed, and the ScFv antibody fragment is capable of specific binding to EGFRvIII.

  7. Reactor operator screening test experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, W.J.; Penkala, J.L.; Witzig, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    When it became apparent to Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that the throughput of their candidate selection-Phase I training-reactor operator certification sequence was something short of acceptable, the utility decided to ask consultants to make recommendations with respect to candidate selection procedures. The recommendation implemented was to create a Nuclear Training Test that would predict the success of a candidate in completing Phase I training and subsequently qualify for reactor operator certification. The mechanics involved in developing and calibrating the Nuclear Training Test are described. An arbitration decision that resulted when a number of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers union employees filed a grievance alleging that the selection examination was unfair, invalid, not job related, inappropriate, and discriminatorily evaluated is also discussed. The arbitration decision favored the use of the Nuclear Training Test

  8. Usefulness of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for screening of anti HIV antibodies in urinary specimens: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, A K; Nagendra, A; Roy, Partha; Patrikar, S

    2014-07-01

    Standard HIV testing is done using serum or plasma. FDA approved ELISA to screen urine for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in 1996. It is a simple, noninvasive test and is appropriate for developing countries where health care personnel may not be professionally trained or where clean needles for drawing blood may not always be available. 436 individuals with high-risk behavior and strong clinical suspicion of HIV infection were screened for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in urine by ELISA. Urine HIV testing was performed by enzyme immunoassay, at the ongoing Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing Center (VCCTC) at a large tertiary care microbiology lab. The individuals enrolled for the study had high-risk exposure to the virus and majorities were from a state with a high incidence of HIV infection. In all individuals, both serum and urine were tested for IgG antibodies to HIV-1. Overall, 135 individuals (30.96%) were HIV-positive, of whom 96 (71%) had never previously tested positive; 87% of those who tested positive received their results, and most were referred for medical care. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of HIV-1 urine ELISA test kit were determined. Sensitivity was found to be 89.6%; 95% CI [82.9-94.0], specificity 97.3%; 95% CI [94.6-98.8], positive predictive value 93.8%; 95% CI [87.8-97.1] and negative predictive value 95.4%; 95% CI [92.3-97.4]. Efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the urine-based screening for HIV-1 test kits were excellent as compared to the reference test.

  9. Perfusion of tumor-bearing kidneys as a model for scintigraphic screening of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dijk, J.; Oosterwijk, E.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Jonas, U.; Fleuren, G.J.; Pauwels, E.K.; Warnaar, S.O.

    1988-01-01

    Tumor-bearing human kidneys were used in an ex vivo perfusion model to screen monoclonal antibodies, recognizing renal cell carcinoma-associated antigens for diagnostic potential in vivo. Perfusion of tumor-bearing kidneys with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled G250 and RC38 antibody resulted in visualization of the tumor, whereas perfusion with two other monoclonal antibodies, RC2 and RC4, did not lead to tumor visualization. Uptake of radiolabel in normal kidney tissue was low for G250 and RC38 antibody. Tumor-to-kidney tissue ratios after perfusion with G250 and RC38 antibody were 2.7 and 2.2, respectively. After rinsing for 3 hr with unlabeled perfusion fluid the tumor-to-kidney tissue ratios increased to 8.6 for G250 antibody and to 2.7 for RC38 antibody. We conclude that perfusion of tumor-bearing human kidneys with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies is a relatively simple way to evaluate renal cell carcinoma associated monoclonal antibodies as diagnostic agents in vivo

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Seven Commercial Tests for Detection of Heterophile Antibody in Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Skulnick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of heterophile antibodies in infectious mononucleosis is the most rapid and cost-effective method for confirming the clinical diagnosis of the disease. This study compared seven commercial test kits (the Oxoid Infectious Mononucleosis Kit [Oxoid Ltd], Immunoscan Im-Latex [Baxter Travenol], Mono-Latex [Wampole Laboratories], Monospot and Im Screen Test [Ortho Diagnostics], Immunoscan Im-RBC Test [Baxter Travenol], and Infectious Mononucleosis Test [NCS Diagnostics] to the Davidsohn differential test. All of the kits were shown to be acceptable for use, with specificities and sensitivities greater than 96.5% and 95.5%, respectively.

  11. [An evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody test reagents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X W; Zhu, D

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody screening test reagents, including the IF and IE reagents prepared by the Institute of Virology, CAPM, the ELISA reagent prepared by the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products. Based on the results, the sensitivities of the IF and IE are from 91.2% to 96.9%; the specificities, from 94.6% to 97.3%. Due to the low HIV prevalence in China, the predictive values of negative of these reagents are up to 100%; but the predictive values of positive are very low. It is suggested that these reagents can be used for HIV antibody screen testing in China. The package of some reagents should be improved, the price of some reagents should be decreased.

  12. Cold Leak Tests of LHC Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Collomb-Patton, C; Jenninger, B; Kos, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to guide the high energy proton beams inside its two 27 km long vacuum rings, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, makes use of superconducting technology to create the required magnetic fields. More than 4000 beam screens, cooled at 7 20 K, are inserted inside the 1.9 K beam vacuum tubes to intercept beam induced heat loads and to provide dynamic vacuum stability. As extremely high helium leak tightness is required, all beam screens have been leak tested under cold conditions in a dedicated test stand prior to their installation. After describing the beam screen design and its functions, this report focuses on the cold leak test sequence and discusses the results.

  13. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Determination of Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody and Pepsinogen Concentrations: ABC Method for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Zhe; Huang, Cheng-Zhi; Hu, Wei-Xian; Liu, Ying; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-05-20

    Gastroscopy combined with gastric mucosa biopsies is currently regarded as a gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its application is restricted in clinical practice due to its invasive property. A new noninvasive population screening process combining the assay of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and serum pepsinogen (PG) (ABC method) is adopted to recognize the high-risk patients for further endoscopy examination, avoiding the unnecessary gastroscopy for most population and saving the cost consumption for mass screening annually. Nevertheless, controversies exist for the grouping of ABC method and the intervals of gastroscopy surveillance for each group. In this review, we summarized these popular concerned topics for providing useful references to the healthcare practitioner in clinical practice. The PubMed databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to November 22, 2017, using the keywords "Helicobacter pylori," "Pepsinogens," and "Stomach Neoplasms." Original articles and reviews on the topics were selected. Anti-H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration showed significant changes under the different status of H. pylori infection and the progression of atrophic gastritis, which can be used for risk stratification of gastric cancer in clinic. In addition, anti-H. pylori antibody titer can be used for further risk stratification of gastric cancer contributing to determine better endoscopy surveillance interval. The early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer benefit from the risk stratification, but the cutoff values for H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration require further modification.

  14. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhesusD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, Joke M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. E.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since July 1998 all Dutch women (+/- 200,000/y) are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD) in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Evidence for

  15. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Koelewijn; T.G.M. Vrijkotte (Tanja); M. de Haas; C.E. van der Schoot (Ellen); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since July 1998 all Dutch women (± 200,000/y) are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD) in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Evidence for

  16. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  17. Utility of HLA Antibody Testing in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinka, Ana

    2015-01-01

    HLA antigens are polymorphic proteins expressed on donor kidney allograft endothelium and are critical targets for recipient immune recognition. HLA antibodies are risk factors for acute and chronic rejection and allograft loss. Solid-phase immunoassays for HLA antibody detection represent a major advance in sensitivity and specificity over cell-based methods and are widely used in organ allocation and pretransplant risk assessment. Post-transplant, development of de novo donor–specific HLA antibodies and/or increase in donor-specific antibodies from pretransplant levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Although single antigen bead assays have allowed sensitive detection of recipient HLA antibodies and their specificities, a number of interpretive considerations must be appreciated to understand test results in clinical and research contexts. This review, which is especially relevant for clinicians caring for transplant patients, discusses the technical aspects of single antigen bead assays, emphasizes their quantitative limitations, and explores the utility of HLA antibody testing in identifying and managing important pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. PMID:25804279

  18. Assessment of pathogenesis of infective endocarditis by plasma IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoshima, Daichi; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Matsunaga, Kazuyuki; Shinobe, Michitaka; Nakanishi, Nagako; Nakanishi, Izumi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-10-01

    Oral bacteria cause infective endocarditis (IE), so severe periodontitis is thought to be high risk for IE. We suggest the identification of high-risk patients by an IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria might become common screening test.

  19. Antinuclear antibody testing in obstetric patients | Afman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess possible associations between the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and pregnancy outcome in order to determine the significance of this test in obstetric practice. Methods. A case-control study was performed on 408 patients admitted to an obstetric high care unit and on whom ANA testing ...

  20. Factors Associated with Participation in HIV Antibody Screening and Results Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Identified differences among 110 gay and bisexual men who decided whether to be tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, if so, whether to return for results. Fifty percent refused testing. Of those tested, only 35% returned to obtain test results. Education was significantly and inversely related to being tested and to…

  1. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  3. [Mass neonatal screening using biological testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaillou, R; Le Gall, J-Y

    2007-04-01

    Implementation of a generalized screening program for neonatal diseases obeys precise guidelines. The disease must be severe, recognizable at an early stage, accessible to an effective treatment, detected with a non expansive and widely applicable test and it must represent an important health problem. In case of positive results, treatment or prevention shall be offered immediately and any screening program has to be regularly evaluated. There is in France since 1978 a national screening program that depends on a private association ("Association française pour le dépistage et la prévention des handicaps de l'enfant") and is supervised by the "Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie" and the "Direction Générale de la Sante". Presently, five diseases are included in the screening program: phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, the latter only in at risk newborns. Toxoplasmosis represents a particular problem because screening takes place only in children of mothers that have not been controlled during their pregnancy or in case of seroconversion. Neonatal screening of phenylketonuria and hypothyrodism is unanimously recommended. That of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is approved in most countries. The cases of sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are more complex because: 1) all the children that carry the mutations are not affected with a severe disease; 2) there is no curative treatment; 3) parents given information are made anxious, sometimes wrongly if the disease is mild or asymptomatic. The supporters of the screening insist on the interest of an early diagnosis which makes longer the life time of these children, the possibility for the parents to utilize prenatal screening in case of a future pregnancy, and the information given to the heterozygous carriers following a familial screening. The question is raised of the extension of neonatal screening to other diseases. This is now

  4. Interference of daratumumab with pretransfusion testing, mimicking a high-titer, low avidity like antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hwa Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Daratumumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin against CD38 and has been approved for treating patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The presence of daratumumab in the sera can interfere with pretransfusion testing due to the weakly expression of CD38 on red cells. The reactivity could be mistaken as autoantibody (if autocontrol is positive or alloantibody (if autocontrol is negative. We present a case that demonstrates daratumumab could mimic a high titer low avidity (HTLA alloantibody. A 34-year-old male patient of refractory myeloma was recruited in phase three clinical trial involving daratumumab. Samples were sent to the blood bank for pretransfusion testing. Without knowledge of patient having used daratumumab, we mistook the reactivity in the patient's sera as an HTLA antibody due to the results of negative autocontrol and high titers of antibody activity. Antibody screen showed a panreactive pattern and the reactivity against screening cells was up to a titer of 1: 1240. The reactivity was weaker against cord cells than adult cells, became weaker against ZZAP-treated cells and became negative against DDT-treated cells. A discussion with attending physician finally revealed the reactivity was due to the interference caused by daratumumab. The case demonstrates good communication is essential in performing pretransfusion testing for patients receiving daratumumab and other new biological regimens that can interfere with compatibility test.

  5. EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTIONS – AVIDITY TEST FOR IgG ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Strašek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. We wish to introduce specific IgG avidity test as a supplementary assay in serological screening for Epstein-Barr virus infection if the status of patient cannot be resolved from a single serum sample with routine testing.Methods. Avidity of IgG antibodies was determined in sera of 57 patients with different stage of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Enzyme-immuno assay was used with a short incubation of 6-molar urea included in the procedure. Urea should remove low avidity antibodies. Avidity was expressed as the avidity index. Avidity testing with commercial kit was done as well.Results. Low avidity index was found for IgG antibodies of acute phase sera and high for those of past infection, recent infection and reactivation of endogenic virus.Conclusions. Avidity test for IgG antibodies might be supplementary assay to prove acute infection but also to resolve some other clinical states related to Epstein-Barr virus.

  6. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S; Nakayama, H; Sasaki, T; Watanabe, T; Aoki, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). 2. Dept. of Medicine; Saito, N [Sapporo Railway Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Medicine

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies.

  7. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Nakayama, H.; Sasaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Aoki, S.; Saito, N.

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies. (orig.) [de

  8. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... lactating cows is relatively easy, non-invasive and inexpensive and hence milk ELISA may be a better option for screening lactating cows. But, blood ELISA is an option for screening non-lactating cattle....

  9. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria...... before and after culture conversion was performed in case patients. Results: Out of 286 included subjects, six had clinical M. avium complex pulmonary disease at the time of sera sampling. These patients presented with higher antibody test values (P-value ... at ruling out pulmonary disease. Screening sera from patients with CF could guide clinicians to focus attention on patients at higher risk of M. avium complex pulmonary disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:34–40....

  10. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system is...

  11. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating the...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420... screening test for gonorrhea. (a) Identification. An oxidase screening test for gonorrhea is an in vitro... of gonorrhea. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval) (transitional device). (c) Date PMA...

  13. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  14. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  15. Cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer based on FIRE3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Tang, Ruilei; Chen, Hongdou; Zheng, Hanrui; Fu, Ping; Li, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The surprising results published by FIRE-3 revealed that the overall survival (OS) of RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with Cetuximab(Cmab) and FOLFIRI combination was prolonged to 33.1 months. The substantial increase in testing and treatment costs, however, impose a considerable health burden on patients and society. Hence the study was aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy based on FIRE-3 study. Four groups were analyzed: group 1, patients with KRAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 2, patients with RAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 3, patients with KRAS testing treated with bevacizumab(Bmab) and FOLFIRI; group 4, patients with RAS testing treated with Bmab and FOLFIRI. A Markov model comprising 3 health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease and death) was built. The costs were calculated from a Chinese payer perspective, and survival was reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Average total lifetime costs ranged from $104,682.44 (RAS-Bmab) to $136,867.44 (RAS-Cmab), while the survival gained varied from 16.88 QALMs in RAS-Bmab to 21.85 QALMs in RAS-Cmab. The cost per QALM was $6,263.86 for RAS-Cmab, $6,145.84 for KRAS-Bmab, $6,201.57 for RAS-Bmab and $6,960.70 for KRAS-Cmab respectively. The KRAS-Cmab strategy was dominated by the other 3 groups. The first-treatment cost of RAS-Cmab was the most influential one to the model. In all, the RAS screening prior to Cmab treatment in mCRC seems to be a cost-effective strategy in the time of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy with the most gained QALMs. PMID:26418570

  16. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  17. High throughput screening for antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity in early antibody discovery using homogeneous macroconfocal fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arnout F.; Bosch, Martijn; de Weers, Michel; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2010-01-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) represents an important Fc-mediated effector function of antibodies and is a quality often sought in candidates for therapeutic antibody development in cancer. Antibodies inducing potent CDC are relatively rare as the ability to induce CDC is strongly

  18. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Pote

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. Methodology: The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. Results: We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15 than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7% for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38% which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. Conclusion: IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  19. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Kiran; Narang, Rahul; Deshmukh, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15) than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7%) for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38%) which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  20. Radioimmunoassay test system for detection of anti-insulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudko, N.V.; Piven', N.V.; Ibragimova, G.V.; Kasatkin, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radiodiagnostic test system has been developed and commercial kit for radioimmunoassay of anti-insulin antibodies in human blood serum created. Clinical trials of the kit in patients (150 diabetics with types 1 and 2 condition) and normal subjects (n=100) demonstrated the possibility of using this kit for the detection of preclinical forms of diabetes and for distinguishing groups at risk of diabetes among children and adults, for the detection of insulin resistance, for the differential diagnosis of diabetes, and for monitoring the efficacy of insulin therapy. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Description of 15 DNA-positive and antibody-negative "window-period" blood donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Erin D; Tonnetti, Laura; Hewins, Mary Ellen; Berardi, Victor P; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L

    2017-07-01

    Blood donation screening detecting only antibodies fails to identify donors in the earliest stage of infection, before a detectable immunologic response, that is, the "window period" (WP). We present data on WP donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti, a transfusion-transmissible parasite of increasing concern in the United States. Blood donations collected in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arrayed fluorescence immunoassay (AFIA) to detect B. microti DNA and antibodies, respectively. Parasite loads were estimated using quantitative PCR. Red blood cell (RBC) samples were inoculated into hamsters to assess infectivity. Donors screening reactive were indefinitely deferred, tested by supplemental methods, and followed to assess DNA and antibody clearance. Demographic data from WP donors (i.e., those screening PCR positive and AFIA negative) were compared to data from other positive donors. Of 220,479 donations screened from June 2012 to August 2016, a total of 700 were positive, of which 15 (2% of positive donations or 1 per 14,699 screened donations) were confirmed WP donations. The median estimated parasite load in WP donations was 350 parasites/mL, no different than AFIA-positive and PCR-positive donors. Parasite loads in RBC samples from WP units ranged from 14 to 11,022 parasites/mL; RBC samples from three of 10 (30%) WP donations infected hamsters. The mean age of WP donors was 48 years (range, 17-75 years); three (20%) were female. WP donor demographics did not differ significantly from demographics of other donors. We report one per 15,000 B. microti WP infections in blood donors in endemic areas, demonstrating the importance of nucleic acid testing to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S

    2002-08-15

    To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic testing were tested for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and a western blot test. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and test for associations between positive results of a test for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot test results and T. gondii test results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii testing. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA test had lower specificity than western blot analysis.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  4. An ELISA-inhibition test using monoclonal antibody for the serology of leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; de Wit, M. Y.; Kolk, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In this study a mouse monoclonal antibody (47-9) is described, which recognized an epitope on the 36 kD protein antigen of M. leprae. The monoclonal antibody showed specificity for M. leprae. An ELISA-inhibition test based on the competitive inhibition by antibodies from human test sera of the

  5. An ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to Legionella pneumophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreghitt, T G; Nagington, J; Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test has been developed to detect antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. There is good correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and ELISA titres but ELISA is more sensitive.

  6. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...... population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined...

  7. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...

  8. Serum auto-antibody testing for early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is generate prototype-tests suitable for randomized prospective validation of auto-antibody based diagnostic testing using serum samples. Tumours can stimulate the production of auto-antibodies against autologous cellular proteins known as TAAs (tumour associated antigens). This discovery has lead to a possibility of using the auto-antibodies as serological tools for the early diagnosis and management of breast cancer. The recombinant proteins expressed by the SEREX clones, identified from screenings of brain and lung tumour, were used for the production of the protein microarrays and macroarrays. The protein microarrays showed better correlation between the replicates of the serum samples used. The optimized protocols were used for the subsequent experiments. A sizable panel of 642 clone-proteins was selected by marker-screening on protein macroarrays with 38000 clones. These 642 clone-proteins were used to generate protein microarrays that differentiated serum samples from breast cancer patients and controls. Antigenic peptide motifs were identified by in-silico analysis of 642 clone-proteins and peptide arrays were generated using synthetically generated peptides. Comparative studies between protein microarrays and peptide microarrays were done using breast cancer and healthy control samples. Simultaneously, SEREX strategy was used for the identification of the immunogenic TAAs. I identified 192 cDNA expression clones derived from breast cancer tissue samples and the selection was done using breast cancer sera. The genes corresponding to these clones were found over-represented for the pathways that are known to be associated with cancers. These genes showed typical features of TAAs, like over-expression, mutations and fusion genes. (author)

  9. Screening for single-chain variable fragment antibodies against multiple Cry1 toxins from an immunized mouse phage display antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Bo, Zongyi; Zhang, Cunzheng; Feng, Jianguo; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-04-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a kind of antibody that possess only one chain of the complete antibody while maintaining the antigen-specific binding abilities and can be expressed in prokaryotic system. In this study, scFvs against Cry1 toxins were screened out from an immunized mouse phage displayed antibody library, which was successfully constructed with capacity of 6.25 × 10 7  CFU/mL. Using the mixed and alternative antigen coating strategy and after four rounds of affinity screening, seven positive phage-scFvs against Cry1 toxins were selected and characterized. Among them, clone scFv-3H9 (MG214869) showing relative stable and high binding abilities to six Cry1 toxins was selected for expression and purification. SDS-PAGE indicated that the scFv-3H9 fragments approximately 27 kDa were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 strain. The purified scFv-3H9 was used to establish the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (DAS-ELISA) for detecting six Cry1 toxins, of which the lowest detectable limits (LOD) and the lowest quantitative limits (LOQ) were 3.14-11.07 and 8.22-39.44 ng mL -1 , respectively, with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.997. The average recoveries of Cry1 toxins from spiked rice leaf samples were ranged from 84 to 95%, with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 8.2%, showing good accuracy for the multi-residue determination of six Cry1 toxins in agricultural samples. This research suggested that the constructed phage display antibody library based on the animal which was immunized with the mixture of several antigens under the same category can be used for the quick and effective screening of generic antibodies.

  10. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Novel Chemiluminescence Assay Detecting Treponema Pallidum Antibody as a Syphilis Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixia; An, Jingna; Rao, Chenli; Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Feng, Shu; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a major concern to global public health with increasing incidence. So its screening test should have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay detection for syphilis screening and compared it with the InTec ELISA test kit for TP, which is widely used. Samples of several patient groups including 133 clinical and serologically characterized syphilitic sera, 175 samples containing potentially interfering agents, and 2290 unselected samples submitted for routine screening were detected by both the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP. Inconsistent samples were confirmed by RecomLine Treponema IgG, IgM immunoblot. Coefficient of variations of the Lumipulseo G TP-N assay at both levels were below 5% and of the InTec ELISA test kit for TP both over 5%. The sensitivity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP were 100% for all stages of syphilis. The two methods had consistent analytical specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.21 - 100.00), while the clinical specificity was 100% (95% CI: 99.79 - 100.00) and 99.82% (95% CI: 99.51 - 99.94), respectively. Between them, Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.455 and kappa value was 0.986. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was higher than the InTec ELISA test kit for TP (sensitivity: 100.0 versus 99.5, specificity: 100.0 versus 99.8). The automated Lumipulse G TP-N assay demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis. Thus, it can be an alternative to the treponemal screening test.

  13. [Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in sera of patients in the latex agglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volina, E G; Sarukhanova, L E; Iashina, N V; Prokopov, N I; Shkarlat, P E; Barysheva, I V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed diagnostic test based on the determination of genus-specific antibodies to leptospires in the latex agglutination test, are presented. This test makes it possible to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies of any serogroup. The advantages of the developed test have been determined.

  14. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  15. Multiplexed screening of natural humoral immunity identifies antibodies at fine specificity for complex and dynamic viral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Krista M; Gray, Julia; Chen, Natalie Y; Liu, Keyi; Park, Minha; Ellsworth, Stote; Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, S Mark; Johnson, Scott K; Samet, Shelly; Pereira, Lenore; Kauvar, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Viral entry targets with therapeutic neutralizing potential are subject to multiple escape mechanisms, including antigenic drift, immune dominance of functionally irrelevant epitopes, and subtle variations in host cell mechanisms. A surprising finding of recent years is that potent neutralizing antibodies to viral epitopes independent of strain exist, but are poorly represented across the diverse human population. Identifying these antibodies and understanding the biology mediating the specific immune response is thus difficult. An effective strategy for meeting this challenge is to incorporate multiplexed antigen screening into a high throughput survey of the memory B cell repertoire from immune individuals. We used this approach to discover suites of cross-clade antibodies directed to conformational epitopes in the stalk region of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) protein and to select high-affinity anti-peptide antibodies to the glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus. In each case, our screens revealed a restricted VH and VL germline usage, including published and previously unidentified gene families. The in vivo evolution of paratope specificity with optimal neutralizing activity was understandable after correlating biological activities with kinetic binding and epitope recognition. Iterative feedback between antigen probe design based on structure and function information with high throughput multiplexed screening demonstrated a generally applicable strategy for efficient identification of safe, native, finely tuned antibodies with the potential for high genetic barriers to viral escape.

  16. Improved Soluble ScFv ELISA Screening Approach for Antibody Discovery Using Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidkia, Mohammad R; Sepehri, Maryam; Khajeh, Shirin; Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-09-01

    Phage display technology (PDT) is a powerful tool for the isolation of recombinant antibody (Ab) fragments. Using PDT, target molecule-specific phage-Ab clones are enriched through the "biopanning" process. The individual specific binders are screened by the monoclonal scFv enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that may associate with inevitable false-negative results. Thus, in this study, three strategies were investigated for optimization of the scFvs screening using Tomlinson I and J libraries, including (1) optimizing the expression of functional scFvs, (2) improving the sensitivity of ELISA, and (3) preparing different samples containing scFvs. The expression of all scFv Abs was significantly enhanced when scFv clones were cultivated in the terrific broth (TB) medium at the optimum temperature of 30 °C. The protein A-conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found to be a well-suited reagent for the detection of Ag-bound scFvs in comparison with either anti-c-myc Ab or the mixing procedure. Based on our findings, it seems there is no universal media supplement for an improved expression of all scFvs derived from both Tomlinson I and J libraries. We thus propose that expression of scFv fragments in a microplate scale is largely dependent on a variety of parameters, in particular the scFv clones and relevant sequences.

  17. New antibody and immunoassay pretreatment strategy to screen polychlorinated biphenyls in Korean transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Shingo; Ohmura, Naoya; Park, Seok-Un; Lee, Seung-Min; Glass, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Development and modifications are described that expand the application of an immunoassay from the detection of Kanechlors (Japanese technical PCBs mixtures) to the detection of Aroclors (U. S. technical PCB mixtures, used in Korea) in contaminated Korean transformer oil. The first necessary modification was the development of a new antibody with a reactivity profile favorable for Aroclors. The second modification was the addition of a second column to the solid-phase extraction method to reduce assay interference caused by the Korean oil matrix. The matrix interference is suspected to be caused by the presence of synthetic oils (or similar materials) present as contaminants. The modified assay was validated by comparison to high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, and was shown to be tolerant of up to 10% of several common synthetic insulating oils. Finally the screening performance of the modified assay was evaluated using 500 used transformer oil samples of Korean origin, and was shown to have good performance in terms of false positive and false negative rates. This report provides evidence for the first establishment of immunoassay screening for Aroclor based PCB contamination in Korean transformer oil.

  18. Evaluation Of Algorithms Of Anti- HIV Antibody Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranjape R.S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Can alternate algorithms be used in place of conventional algorithm for epidemiological studies of HIV infection with less expenses? Objective: To compare the results of HIV sero- prevalence as determined by test algorithms combining three kits with conventional test algorithm. Study design: Cross â€" sectional. Participants: 282 truck drivers. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity and specificity analysis and predictive values. Results: Three different algorithms that do not include Western Blot (WB were compared with the conventional algorithm, in a truck driver population with 5.6% prevalence of HIV â€"I infection. Algorithms with one EIA (Genetic Systems or Biotest and a rapid test (immunocomb or with two EIAs showed 100% positive predictive value in relation to the conventional algorithm. Using an algorithm with EIA as screening test and a rapid test as a confirmatory test was 50 to 70% less expensive than the conventional algorithm per positive scrum sample. These algorithms obviate the interpretation of indeterminate results and also give differential diagnosis of HIV-2 infection. Alternate algorithms are ideally suited for community based control programme in developing countries. Application of these algorithms in population with low prevalence should also be studied in order to evaluate universal applicability.

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  20. Detection of antibody against antigen expressed by molecularly cloned hepatitis C virus cDNA: Application to diagnosis and blood screening for posttransfusion hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu (National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Katayama, Tohru (Tokyo National Chest Hospital (Japan)); Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira (Sendai National Hospital (Japan)); Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G. (Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented.

  1. Detection of antibody against antigen expressed by molecularly cloned hepatitis C virus cDNA: Application to diagnosis and blood screening for posttransfusion hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu; Katayama, Tohru; Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira; Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G.

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented

  2. Mechanized toxicological serum tests in screening hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbach, J; Guder, W G

    1991-09-01

    A spectrum of quantitative and qualitative methods was adapted to the RA-1000/RA-XT selective analyser for the purpose of excluding or detecting common types of intoxication in the emergency laboratory of our primary care community hospital. Ethanol and salicylates (measured photometrically) and acetaminophen (measured immunologically by EMIT tox) were quantitatively analysed in serum. immunological group tests (EMIT tox) for barbiturates, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and related compounds were used for qualitative analysis. Well established clinical chemical methods (aspartarte aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, pseudocholinesterase, glucose and lactate) were applied to the serum samples using the same selective analyser. Within and between run precision, accuracy, recovery and detection ranges (linearity) fulfilled the recommendations of forefield toxicological analysis for all methods. Ethanol (g/l), measured photometrically with the RA-1000 analyser, agreed with the reference method (headspace gas-chromatography) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 (y = 0.06 + 0.98x). Acetaminophen and salicylates showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.94 and greater than 0.99, when compared with manual colorimetric procedures (acetaminophen (mg/l): y = -3.22 + 0.896x; salicylates (mg/l): y = -2.1 + 1x). Qualitative group tests for barbiturates, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants measured with the RA-1000 analyser were in good agreement with the EMIT single test procedure. The ranges of the quantitative methods allowed quantification of analytes from therapeutic (non-toxic) to very high levels in undiluted samples (ethanol 0.05 up to 4 g/l; salicylates 32 up to 1200 mg/l and acetaminophen 1.9 up to 200 mg/l). The low detection limits of the qualitative tests allowed the recognition of compounds in plasma that were present in low concentrations and/or displayed only minor reactivity with the antibodies

  3. Detection of antibodies against H5 and H7 strains in birds: evaluation of influenza pseudovirus particle neutralization tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Wallerström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avian influenza viruses circulate in bird populations, and it is important to maintain and uphold our knowledge of the viral strains that are currently of interest in this context. Here, we describe the use of hemagglutinin-pseudotype retroviruses based on highly pathogenic influenza viruses for the screening of avian sera for influenza A antibodies. Our aim was also to determine whether the pseudovirus neutralization tests that we assessed were sensitive and simple to use compared to the traditional methods, including hemagglutination inhibition assays and microneutralization tests. Material and methods: H5 and H7 pseudovirus neutralization tests were evaluated by using serum from infected rabbits. Subsequently, the assays were further investigated using a panel of serum samples from avian species. The panel contained samples that were seropositive for five different hemagglutinin subtypes as well as influenza A seronegative samples. Results and discussion: The results suggest that the pseudovirus neutralization test is an alternative to hemagglutination inhibition assays, as we observed comparable titers to those of both standard microneutralizations assays as well as hemagglutinin inhibition assays. When evaluated by a panel of avian sera, the method also showed its capability to recognize antibodies directed toward low-pathogenic H5 and H7. Hence, we conclude that it is possible to use pseudoviruses based on highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to screen avian sera for antibodies directed against influenza A subtypes H5 and H7.

  4. Lymphocyte antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test for evaluation of clinical role of monoclonal anti-D-antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, N I; Belkina, E V; Nikolaeva, T L; Miterev, G Yu; Chertkov, I L

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to D antigen were studied in the reaction of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity for evaluation of the possibility of using these antibodies for preventing rhesus sensitization. High hemolytic activity of four anti-D-monoclonal antibodies in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test, mediated by their interaction with FcgammaRI, and the capacity to accelerate elimination of D+ erythrocytes from circulation did not provide the immunosuppressive effect. It was hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization should interact with FcgammaRIII on lymphocytes. These monoclonal antibodies are extremely rare: only 4 of 125 studied antibodies mediated hemolysis in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test with lymphocytes, while all polyclonal anti-D-preparations exhibited this activity.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. Evaluation of the Lumipulse G TP-N Chemiluminescent Immunoassay as a Syphilis Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel A; Loeffelholz, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A syphilis diagnosis is often aided by the detection of treponemal and nontreponemal antibodies. Automated treponemal antibody detection systems enable high-volume clinical laboratories to perform syphilis screening at a faster pace with lower labor costs. The Lumipulse G TP-N chemiluminescent immunoassay is an automated system that qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum antigens in human serum and plasma. To assess performance characteristics and workflow efficiency, the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was compared to the Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG multiplex flow immunoassay. Among the 4,134 routine and HIV samples tested by the two automated assays, the percentage of agreement was excellent at 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.6% to 99.2%; κ, 0.89), with the Lumipulse G TP-N having a shorter time to first and subsequent results. All specimens with reactive syphilis screening results were further tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP·PA) testing ( n = 231). The results from the RPR-reactive samples ( n = 82) showed complete concordance with the two automated assays, while the TP·PA assay displayed some discrepancies. The positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the TP·PA test and the Lumipulse G TP-N test were 98.9% and 77.3%, respectively. The Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG immunoassay displayed a similar PPA (100%) but a substantially lower NPA (15.9%). Patient chart reviews of discrepant results suggested that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay produced 27 fewer falsely reactive results and can reduce the amount of additional confirmatory RPR and TP·PA testing needed. The analogous performance characteristics of the two automated systems indicate that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay is suitable for high-throughput syphilis screening. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  8. Efficacy comparative of different laboratory test reagents for hepatitis C virus antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Feibo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of different laboratory test reagents for hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody through a comparative analysis. Methods A total of 207 samples which tested positive by four anti-HCV screening reagents commonly used in the laboratories in China (Kehua, Xinchuang, Wantai, and Abbott were included. HCV RNA nucleic acid amplification (NAT was performed, and if NAT results were negative, recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA was performed for further confirmation. The test results of these four screening reagents were compared, and their S/CO values and true positive rates were analyzed. Results Of all the 205 samples testing positive by any one reagent, 191 (93.2% tested positive by the four reagents, and 14 (6.8% were tested inconsistently by the four reagents. The positive predictive values of Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents were 88.2% (180/204, 93.8% (180/192, 91.4% (180/197, and 90.0% (180/200, respectively. The S/CO thresholds with a positive predictive value of ≥95% for Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents were 9.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0, respectively. Conclusion Xinchuang, Kehua, Wantai, and Abbott reagents have significantly different S/CO thresholds with a positive predictive value of ≥95%, which are significantly different from those in other domestic laboratories. Each laboratory should establish an applicable S/CO threshold with a positive predictive value of ≥95%, in order to reduce the sample size for confirmatory test.

  9. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  11. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  12. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  13. Testing the Untestable: A Vision Screening Program for Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne

    Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…

  14. Physician-patient discussions of controversial cancer screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A S; Shridharani, K V; Lou, W; Bernstein, J; Horowitz, C R

    2001-02-01

    Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians' likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians' belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians' intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians' intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians' beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer.

  15. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  16. Identification of tumor associated single-chain Fv by panning and screening antibody phage library using tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong-Zhan; He, Feng-Tian; Li, Zhi-Kui; Wu, Kai-Chun; Cao, Yun-Xin; Chen, Bao-Jun; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the feasibility of panning and screening phage-displaying recombinant single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies for fixed whole cells as the carriers of mAb-binding antigens. METHODS: The recombinant phage displaying libraries for anti-colorectal tumor mAb MC3Ab, MC5Ab and anti-gastric tumor mAb MGD1 was constructed. Panning and screening were carried out by means of modified fixation of colorectal and gastric tumor cells expressed the mAb-binding antigens. Concordance of binding specificity to tumor cells between phage clones and parent antibodies was analyzed. The phage of positive clones was identified with competitive ELISA, and infected by E. coli HB2151 to express soluble ScFv. RESULTS: The ratio of positive clones to MC3-ScF-MC5-ScFv and MGD1-ScFv were 60%, 24% and 30%. MC3-ScFv had Mr 32000 confirmed by Western blot. The specificity to antigen had no difference between 4 positive recombinant phage antibodies and MC3Ab. CONCLUSION: The modified process of fixing whole tumor cells is efficient, convenient and feasible to pan and screen the phage-displaying ScFv of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies. PMID:12174367

  17. Clinico-laboratory aspects of anti-nuclear and anti-native DNA antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J

    1978-01-01

    Available techniques for detection of anti-nuclear antibodies are here briefly reviewed. The relatively insensitive LE cell test has been largely supplanted by the indirect immunofluorescent ANA test which should be reported in terms of titre and pattern. Specific measurement of nDNA antibodies is now a regular technique in SLE diagnosis and management.

  18. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  19. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  20. Development and testing of monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Nair, G B; Garg, S; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Loomis, L; Bernstein, D; Colwell, R R

    1995-11-01

    We report on the development and testing of two monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits, BengalScreen, a coagglutination test, and Bengal DFA, a direct fluorescent-antibody test, for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in clinical and environmental specimens. The BengalScreen test requires less than 5 min to complete and can be used in the field. Bengal DFA, being more sensitive than BengalScreen, requires only one reagent and less than 20 min for detection and enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. In tests for specificity, all 40 strains of V. cholerae O139 reacted with both test kits, whereas 157 strains of heterologous species examined did not, yielding 100% specificity in this study. A field trial was conducted in with both BengalScreen and Bengal DFA, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional culture methods. BengalScreen demonstrated a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 94%. Results obtained by Bengal DFA, on the other hand, were 100% sensitive and 100% specific and yielded 100% positive and negative predictive values compared with culture methods. In a second evaluation, 93 stool specimens from Mexico that were negative for V. cholerae O139 by culture were also tested with both the BengalScreen and Bengal DFA kits. None of the 93 specimens were positive for V. cholerae O139 by both tests. A concentration method was optimized for screening of environmental water samples for V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal with rapid test kits. BengalScreen results were unequivocally positive when water samples contained at least 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/ml, whereas Bengal DFA demonstrated an unequivocally positive reaction when the water sample contained at least 1.5 x 10(2) CFU/ml. When Bengal DFA was compared with conventional culture methods for enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal organisms, no difference was observed.

  1. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Another milestone in the history of antibodies was the work of Porter and Edelman ... transgenic animals (Lonberg et al., 1994; Green et al.,. 1994) or .... create and to screen human recombinant antibodies libraries, that is ...

  2. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: Diabetes... receive the benefit: (1) Hypertension. (2) Dyslipidemia. (3) Obesity, defined as a body mass index greater...

  3. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  4. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  5. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Determination of Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody and Pepsinogen Concentrations: ABC Method for Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Zhe Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer benefit from the risk stratification, but the cutoff values for H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration require further modification.

  6. Hughes syndrome and epilepsy: when to test for antiphospholipid antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldine, M H A; Harifi, G; Berjawi, A; Haydar, A A; Nader, M; Elnawar, R; Sweid, A; Al Saleh, J; Khamashta, M A; Uthman, I

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy and seizures are reported among the neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) at a prevalence rate of approximately 8%, which is nearly 10 times the prevalence of epilepsy in the general population. The association of seizures with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is even more significant in the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this review, we discuss the epidemiological, pathophysiological, laboratory, clinical, and radiological aspects of this association, and derive suggestions on when to consider testing for aPL in epileptic patients and how to manage seizures secondary to APS based on literature data. Epilepsy due to APS should be considered in young patients presenting with seizures of unknown origin. Temporal lobe epilepsy seems to be particularly prevalent in APS patients. The pathogenesis is complex and may not only involve micro-thrombosis, but also a possible immune-mediated neuronal damage. Patients with seizures and positive aPL tend to develop thrombocytopenia and livedo racemosa more frequently compared with those without aPL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the imaging modality of choice in these patients. The presence of SLE and the presence of neurological symptoms significantly correlate with the presence of white matter changes on MRI. In contrast, the correlation between aPL positivity and the presence of white matter changes is very weak. Furthermore, MRI can be normal in more than 30-40% of neuropsychiatric lupus patients with or without aPL. aPL testing is recommended in young patients presenting with atypical seizures and multiple hyper-intensity lesions on brain MRI in the absence of other possible conditions. New MRI techniques can better understand the pathology of brain damage in neuro-APS. The therapeutic management of epileptic APS patients relies on anti-epileptic treatment and anticoagulant agents when there is evidence of a thrombotic event. In the absence of consensual

  7. The coeliac iceberg in Italy. A multicentre antigliadin antibodies screening for coeliac disease in school-age subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, C; Fabiani, E; Rätsch, I M; Coppa, G V; Giorgi, P L; Pierdomenico, R; Alessandrini, S; Iwanejko, G; Domenici, R; Mei, E; Miano, A; Marani, M; Bottaro, G; Spina, M; Dotti, M; Montanelli, A; Barbato, M; Viola, F; Lazzari, R; Vallini, M; Guariso, G; Plebani, M; Cataldo, F; Traverso, G; Ventura, A

    1996-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that coeliac disease (CD) is one of the commonest, life-long disorders in Italy. The aims of this multicentre work were: (a) to establish the prevalence of CD on a nationwide basis; and (b) to characterize the CD clinical spectrum in Italy. Fifteen centres screened 17,201 students aged 6-15 years (68.6% of the eligible population) by the combined determination of serum IgG- and IgA-antigliadin antibody (AGA) test; 1289 (7.5%) were IgG and/or IgA-AGA positive and were recalled for the second-level investigation; 111 of them met the criteria for the intestinal biopsy: IgA-AGA positivity and/or AEA positivity or IgG-AGA positivity plus serum IgA deficiency. Intestinal biopsy was performed on 98 of the 111 subjects. CD was diagnosed in 82 subjects (75 biopsy proven, 7 not biopsied but with associated AGA and AEA positivity). Most of the screening-detected coeliac patients showed low-grade intensity illness often associated with decreased psychophysical well-being. There were two AEA negative cases with associated CD and IgA deficiency. The prevalence of undiagnosed CD was 4.77 x 1000 (95% CI 3.79-5.91), 1 in 210 subjects. The overall prevalence of CD, including known CD cases, was 5.44 x 1000 (95% CI 4.57-6.44), 1 in 184 subjects. The ratio of known to undiagnosed CD cases was 1 in 7. These findings confirm that, in Italy, CD is one of the most common chronic disorders showing a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum. Most CD cases remain undiagnosed unless actively searched.

  8. The diagnosis of symptomatic acute antiretroviral syndrome during the window period with antigen/antibody testing and HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Griffin

    Full Text Available Despite much focus on moving toward a cure to end the epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic there are still thousands of new infections occurring every year in the United States. Although there is ongoing transmission of HIV in the United States and a growing population of people living with HIV, the acute presentation of HIV infection can be challenging to diagnose and is often not considered when patients present to healthcare providers. Although in certain states there are HIV testing laws that require that all persons between the ages of 13 and 64 be offered HIV testing in an opt-out approach, many patient presenting with an acute illness, that would warrant diagnostic testing for HIV, leave without having an HIV test performed for either diagnostic or screening purposes.We describe the case of a woman who presented to medical attention with symptoms later confirmed to be due to acute HIV infection. She was initially discharged from the hospital and only underwent HIV testing with confirmation of her diagnosis after readmission. We describe the algorithm where fourth generation testing combined with HIV viral load testing allowed for the diagnosis of acute HIV prior to the development of a specific immunoglobulin response. Consideration of this diagnosis, improved HIV screening, and understanding of the use of antigen/antibody screening tests, combined with Multispot and HIV viral RNA detection, when appropriate, can allow for early diagnosis of HIV before progression of disease and before undiagnosed patient spread the infection to new contacts.

  9. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  10. A radioimmunoassay to screen for antibodies to native conformational antigens and analyse ligand-induced structural states of antigenic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernotat-Danielowski, S.; Koepsell, H.

    1988-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described in which antigenic protein was immobilized by incubating nitrocellulose filters of defined diameter with antigen-containing solutions. Antigenic sites which are sensitive to protein denaturation by drying could be detected with the assay. The assay was also used to screen hybridoma supernatants for antibodies directed against Na + cotransport proteins from renal brush-border membranes. Monoclonal antibodies were selected which showed different binding charactertics depending on whether or not substrates of Na + cotransporters were present. One of the antibodies, which showed different antibody binding after addition of D-glucose or L-lactate, bound to a polypeptide component of the renal N + -D-glucose cotransporter and was able to inhibit Na + gradient-dependent. To investigate the effects of D-glucose and L-lactate on the binding of this antibody concentration dependence was measured. High and low affinity binding sites for D-glucose and L-lactate were characterized thereby demonstrating that the radioimmunoassay permits investigations of the properties of high and low affinity substrate binding sites. (author). refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  12. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  13. Clinical Utility of Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody Testing in Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Crandall E; De Lott, Lindsey B; Nagia, Lina; Lemos, Joao; Eggenberger, Eric R; Cornblath, Wayne T

    2015-10-01

    The sensitivity of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody testing is thought to be lower in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) compared with generalized disease, although estimates in small-scale studies vary. There is little information in the literature about the implications of AChR antibody levels and progression from OMG to generalized myasthenia gravis. To test the hypothesis that serum AChR antibody testing is more sensitive in OMG than previously reported and to examine the association between AChR antibody levels and progression from OMG to generalized myasthenia gravis. A retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted of 223 patients (mean [SD] age, 59.2 [16.4] years; 139 [62.3%] male) diagnosed with OMG between July 1, 1986, and May 31, 2013, at 2 large, academic medical centers. Baseline characteristics, OMG symptoms, results of AChR antibody testing, and progression time to generalized myasthenia gravis (if this occurred) were recorded for each patient. Multiple logistic regression was used to measure the association between all clinical variables and antibody result. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to examine time to generalization. Among the 223 participants, AChR antibody testing results were positive in 158 participants (70.9%). In an adjusted model, increased age at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = .007) and progression to generalized myasthenia gravis (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.18-7.26; P = .02) were significantly associated with positive antibody test results. Women were less likely to have a positive antibody test result (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19-0.68; P = .002). Patients who developed symptoms of generalized myasthenia gravis had a significantly higher mean (SD) antibody level than those who did not develop symptoms of generalized myasthenia gravis (12.7 [16.5] nmol/L vs 4.2 [7.9] nmol/L; P = .002). We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of AChR antibody testing than previously reported in the

  14. Fluctuations of epstein-barr virus serological antibodies and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective screening study with a 20-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mei Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibody titers before the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is still unclear. We analyzed the fluctuations of antibodies against EBV before histopathological diagnosis to assess the risk of NPC and aimed to provide a reliable basis for screening in high risk populations. METHODS: This study was based on a population-based screening program in Sihui County in Guangdong Province of China. A total of 18,986 subjects were recruited in 1987 and 1992, respectively. Baseline and repeated serological tests were performed for IgA antibodies against EBV capsid antigen (VCA/IgA and early antigen (EA/IgA. Follow-up until the end of 2007 was accomplished through linkage with population and health registers. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the relative risk of NPC in association with EBV antibodies. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was used to further evaluate the predictive ability. RESULTS: A total of 125 NPCs occurred during an average of 16.9 years of follow-up. Using baseline information alone or together with repeated measurements, serological levels of VCA/IgA and EA/IgA were significantly associated with increased risks for NPC, with a striking dose-response relationship and most prominent during the first 5 years of follow-up. Considering the fluctuant types of serological titers observed during the first three tests, relative risk was highest among participants with ascending titers of EBV VCA/IgA antibodies with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 21.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.1 to 64.1, and lowest for those with decreasing titers (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 11.4, during the first 5 years of follow-up. Time-dependent ROC analysis showed that VCA/IgA had better predictive performance for NPC incidence than EA/IgA. CONCLUSION: Our study documents that elevated EBV antibodies, particularly with ascending

  15. Evaluation of screening tests for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, R J

    1980-12-01

    The following guidelines are proposed for the asymptomatic patient representing for routine examination. Instruct the patient to eat All Bran cereal or a similar product for breakfast for three consecutive days prior to the day of appointment. At the time of appointment the stool obtained from rectal examination or from a spontaneous bowel movement is checked for occult blood using the guaiac method. If the findings are negative, no further tests are recommended. If positive, the patient is given complete dietary instructions in a non-meat, high-residue diet with avoidance of beets, horseradish, vitamins, or aspirin-containing compounds. The patient is then given six Hemoccult or Quikcult slides and is instructed to prepare two fecal slides from each stool specimen daily for three days. If these are all negative when tested, no further studies are necessary. If one or more are positive, however, sigmoidoscopic examination and colon and upper gastrointestinal radiography should be carried out in that order. Evidence that early lesions (Duke A or B) are detected and the cure rate improved with this procedure is quite convincing.

  16. The use of screening tests in aviation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruge, A.

    2000-01-01

    Pilots have to submit themselves in regular intervals to medical examinations in order to avoid a sudden incapacitation that could endanger flight safety. In Germany these examinations include screening tests to detect an illness in an early phase and to guide the pilot to keep up his/her health. European Joint Aviation Requirements have no provisions for screening tests. Under Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM flight crews in Germany will have to undergo special medical radiation protection examinations. The introduction of any screening tests that give information about individual reactions to cosmic radiation exposure are very unlikely if results are not kept confidential, as this would limit the choice of profession. Flight crews should be made aware of these tests. (orig.) [de

  17. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  18. Diagnostic value of serologic tests in celiac screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Saneian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: According to our study results, there is no correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting diarrhea, anorexia, bulimia, and failure to thrive (FFT with celiac. TTG was the best screening test method to diagnose celiac disease and other tests such as AGA and EMA do not have high diagnostic value.

  19. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  20. Detection of thrombocytic antibodies with the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test and the radioimmuno-Coombs test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettenboerger, D.; Vith, E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of application of the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test were studied in order to optimise the test parameters: The ultimate aim was to standardize the test method and compare its sensitivity in detecting various platelet antibodies with platelet indirect radioactive Coombs-test and the platelet immunofluorescence test. (orig.) [de

  1. Indirect micro-immunofluorescence test for detecting type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, T; Darougar, S

    1980-02-01

    A rapid indirect micro-immunofluorescence test capable of detecting and differentiating type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus is described. The test proved highly sensitive and, in 80 patients with active herpes ocular infection, antibody was detected in 94%. No anti-herpes antibody was detected in a control group of 20 patients with adenovirus infections. Testing of animal sera prepared against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and of human sera from cases of ocular and genital herpes infections showed that the test can differentiate antibodies to the infecting serotypes. Specimens of whole blood, taken by fingerprick, and eye secretions, both collected on cellulose sponges, could be tested by indirect micro-immunofluorescence. Anti-herpes IgG, IgM, and IgA can also be detected.

  2. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 Human IgG Antibody Produced by AnaptysBio, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Quality Testing MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...primarily relied on the performance of an antibody in an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with little regard for quantifying the full spectrum...Protection, and Multi-Year Stabilization, in High Concentration Protein Solutions, Using Ionic Liquids. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2007, 26, 2714–2716. 3. Bio

  3. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  4. Comparison of a new digital KM screen test with conventional Hess and Lees screen tests in the mapping of ocular deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Rannveig Linda; Sundgren, Johanna; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Hammar, Björn; Kjellström, Sten; Malmsjö, Malin

    2018-05-28

    To evaluate the digital KM screen computerized ocular motility test and to compare it with conventional nondigital techniques using the Hess and Lees screens. Patients with known ocular deviations and a visual acuity of at least 20/100 underwent testing using the digital KM screen and the Hess and Lees screen tests. The examination duration, the subjectively perceived difficulty, and the patient's method of choice were compared for the three tests. The accuracy of test results was compared using Bland-Altman plots between testing methods. A total of 19 patients were included. Examination with the digital KM screen test was less time-consuming than tests with the Hess and Lees screens (P digital KM screen). Patients found the test with the digital KM screen easier to perform than the Lees screen test (P = 0.009) but of similar difficulty to the Hess screen test (P = 0.203). The majority of the patients (83%) preferred the digital KM screen test to both of the other screen methods (P = 0.008). Bland-Altman plots showed that the results obtained with all three tests were similar. The digital KM screen is accurate and time saving and provides similar results to Lees and Hess screen testing. It also has the advantage of a digital data analysis and registration. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of screening for red cell antibodies, other than anti-D, to detect hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, J. M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Bonsel, G. J.; de Haas, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a severe disease, resulting from maternal red cell (RBC) alloantibodies directed against fetal RBCs. The effect of a first-trimester antibody screening program on the timely detection of HDFN caused by antibodies other than anti-D was

  6. Antibody levels after regular childhood vaccinations in the immunological screening of children with recurrent otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertsema, S.P.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Heerbeek, N. van; Hof, S. van den; Berbers, G.A.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Recurrent otitis media may be related to defects in specific antibody production, as suggested previously. This might be reflected in lower antibody responses to vaccinations administered in the context of the national childhood vaccination program in children suffering from recurrent otitis media.

  7. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies as a routine test for celiac disease: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Umberto; Granito, Alessandro; Parisi, Claudia; Fabbri, Angela; Fiorini, Erica; Piscaglia, Maria; Tovoli, Francesco; Grasso, Valentina; Muratori, Paolo; Pappas, Georgios; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to establish whether deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP-AGA) could improve the serologic workup for celiac disease (CD). The best serologic approach for CD screening is currently based on the combined detection of tissue transglutaminase (tTGA), endomysial (EmA), and gliadin antibodies (AGA). One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with gastrointestinal and extraintestinal signs suggestive for CD were investigated using serologic tests, that is, IgG and IgA DGP-AGA, IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and duodenal biopsy. Forty-eight out of 144 patients (33%) had CD with different severity of villous atrophy. IgA tTGA showed 93.7% sensitivity compared with 91.6% for IgA EmA, 84.3% for IgA DGP-AGA, and 82.3% for IgG DGP-AGA. Of the 3 cases negative for IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and IgA DGP-AGA, 2 had total IgA deficiency, although both were positive for IgG DGP-AGA. IgG DGP-AGA showed a very high specificity for CD (98.9%), not only superior to IgA DGP-AGA (79.8%), but also to IgA tTGA (96.6%) and very close to IgA EmA (100%). Our prospective study shows that the combined search for IgA tTGA and IgG DGP-AGA provides the best diagnostic accuracy for CD, allowing the identification of all CD cases---except one---with a very high specificity. The serologic workup for CD screening could be significantly improved by the routine introduction of IgG DGP-AGA together with IgA tTGA, thus reducing the number of tests and with an obvious advantage in terms of cost-efficacy.

  9. Test plan for Tank 241-AW-101 solubility screening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW) has been identified as one of the early tanks to be for retrieved for low level waste pretreatment and immobilization and retrieval of the tank waste may require dilution. This test is to determine the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet. This test Plan is similar to tests on tanks 241-AN-102 (Person 1998a) and 241-AN-107 (Person 1998 b). The 101-AW tests will be done with composites of liquid and solids from grab samples that were taken in 1998 (Benar 1998). Future revisions of the Tank Sampling and Analysis Plan (Benar 1998) may change the details of the work performed under this test plan

  10. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  11. Antigen spot test (AST): a highly sensitive assay for the detection of antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrink, P; van Bussel, F J; Warnaar, S O [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1982-02-12

    A method is described for detection of antibodies by means of nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM) paper on which various antigens have been spotted. The sensitivity of this antigen spot test (AST) is comparable with that of RIA and ELISA. The method requires only nanogram amounts of antigen. Since a variety of antigens can be spotted on a single piece of nitrocellulose or DBM paper, this antigen spot test is especially useful for specificity controls on antibodies.

  12. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  13. Immunohistochemistry for PMS2 and MSH6 alone can replace a four antibody panel for mismatch repair deficiency screening in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey; Clarkson, Adele; Shi, Amanda; Langford, Eileen; Leung, Helen; Eckstein, Robert P; Gill, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Currently, testing for mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancers is initiated by performing immunohistochemistry with four antibodies (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6). If any one of these stains is negative the tumour is considered microsatellite unstable and, if clinical circumstances warrant it, the patient is offered genetic testing for Lynch's syndrome. Due to the binding properties of the mismatch repair heterodimer complexes, gene mutation and loss of MLH1 and MSH2 invariably result in the degradation of PMS2 and MSH6, respectively, but the converse is not true. We propose that staining for PMS2 and MSH6 alone will be sufficient to detect all cases of mismatch repair deficiency and should replace routine screening with all four antibodies. The electronic database of the department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia, was searched for all colorectal carcinomas on which a four panel immunohistochemical microsatellite instability screen was performed. An audit of the slides for concordant loss of MLH1-PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 was then undertaken. Unusual or discordant cases were reviewed and, in some cases, re-stained to confirm the staining pattern. Of 344 cases of colorectal cancer which underwent four antibody immunohistochemistry, 104 displayed loss of at least one mismatch repair protein. Of these, 100 showed concordant mismatch repair loss (i.e., loss of MLH1 and PMS2 or loss of MSH2 and MSH6). The four discordant cases comprised two single negative cases (1 MSH6 negative/MSH2 positive case, 1 PMS2 negative/MLH1 positive) and two triple negative (both MLH1/PMS2/MSH6 negative). The microsatellite instability (MSI) group showed a relatively high median age (69.3 years) due to the departmental policy of testing all cases with possible MSI morphology regardless of age. The sensitivity and specificity of a two panel test comprised of PMS2 and MSH6, compared to a four panel test, is 100%. No false negatives or positives were

  14. High-throughput oxidation screen of antibody-drug conjugates by analytical protein A chromatography following IdeS digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecheler, Jakob W; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of protein therapeutics is a major chemical degradation pathway which may impact bioactivity, serum half-life and stability. Therefore, oxidation is a relevant parameter which has to be monitored throughout formulation development. Methods such as HIC, RPLC and LC/MS achieve a separation of oxidized and non-oxidized species by differences in hydrophobicity. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) although are highly more complex due to the heterogeneity in linker, drug, drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) and conjugation site. The analytical protein A chromatography can provide a simple and fast alternative to these common methods. A miniature analytical protein A chromatography method in combination with an IdeS digest was developed to analyse ADCs. The IdeS digest efficiency of an IgG1 was monitored using SEC-HPLC and non-reducing SDS-PAGE. An antibody-fluorescent dye conjugate was conjugated at different dye-to-antibody ratios as model construct to mimic an ADC. With IdeS, an almost complete digest of a model IgG1 can be achieved (digested protein amount >98%). This enables subsequent analytical protein A chromatography, which consequently eliminates any interference of payload with the stationary phase. A novel high-throughput method for an interchain cysteine-linked ADC oxidation screens during formulation development was developed. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  16. Alkaline phosphatase as a screening test for osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Muhammad Amin; Javed, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Alamzeb; Sadruddin, Nooruddin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults in Pakistan despite adequate sunlight exposure. Diagnosis in adults is usually delayed and is made following pathological fractures that result in significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to see whether Serum Alkaline Phosphatase levels could be used as a screening test for osteomalacia. The Study was conducted at Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Gadap, Karachi, between July 2002 and June 2005. Serum calcium levels are commonly used to screen patients suspected of osteomalacia, and raised serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is considered a diagnostic finding. We used SALP to screen patients who presented with back or non-specific aches and pain of more than six months duration. Three hundred thirty-four (334) patients were screened of which 116 (35%) had raised SALP. Osteomalacia was diagnosed in 92 (79.3%) of these 116 either by plain radiographs, bone biopsy or isotope bone scan. Fifty-four (53.4%) of the 101 cases had a normal level of serum calcium. Osteomalacia is likely to be missed if only serum calcium is used to screen patients. Serum Alkaline Phosphate should be used as the preferred method for screening these patients.

  17. Effect of screening for red cell antibodies, other than anti-D, to detect hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a population study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, J M; Vrijkotte, T G M; van der Schoot, C E; Bonsel, G J; de Haas, M

    2008-05-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a severe disease, resulting from maternal red cell (RBC) alloantibodies directed against fetal RBCs. The effect of a first-trimester antibody screening program on the timely detection of HDFN caused by antibodies other than anti-D was evaluated. Nationwide, all women (1,002 in 305,000 consecutive pregnancies during 18 months) with alloantibodies other than anti-D, detected by a first-trimester antibody screen, were included in a prospective index-cohort study. In a parallel-coverage validation study, patients with HDFN caused by antibodies other than anti-D, that were missed by the screening program, were retrospectively identified. The prevalence of positive antibody screens at first-trimester screening was 1,232 in 100,000; the prevalence of alloantibodies other than anti-D was 328 in 100,000, of which 191 of 100,000 implied a risk for occurrence of HDFN because the father carried the antigen. Overall, severe HDFN, requiring intrauterine or postnatal (exchange) transfusions, occurred in 3.7 percent of fetuses at risk: for anti-K in 11.6 percent; anti-c in 8.5 percent; anti-E in 1.1 percent; Rh antibodies other than anti-c, anti-D, or anti-E in 3.8 percent; and for antibodies other than Rh antibodies or anti-K, in none of the fetuses at risk. All affected children, where antibodies were detected, were promptly treated and healthy at the age of 1 year. The coverage validation study showed a sensitivity of the screening program of 75 percent. Five of 8 missed cases were caused by anti-c, with delay-induced permanent damage in at least 1. First-trimester screening enables timely treatment of HDFN caused by antibodies other than anti-D, however, with a sensitivity of only 75 percent. A second screening at Week 30 of c- women will enhance the screening program. Severe HDFN, caused by antibodies other than anti-D, is associated with anti-K, anti-c, and to a lesser extent with other Rh-alloantibodies.

  18. Detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine by modified autoradiographic test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, J; Hampl, J; Franz, J; Mensik, P; Skrobak, F [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-08-01

    A modified method of autoradiographic determination of virus antibodies of gastroenteritis of swine was developed. It is based on the actual reaction between antigen bound in cells of the infected cell cultures and antibodies in tested sera, which is visualized by rabbit antibodies labelled with /sup 125/I (/sup 125/I RaSw IgG antibody) to porcine IgG, on a sensitive radiograph and evaluated by darkening at the point of positive immunological reaction. Specificity of the test and mutual comparability and reproducibility of the results were confirmed by examining the known positive and negative sera and by a comparison with the results of the virus-neutralization test. Of the 36 examined porcine blood sera, antibodies were only proved autoradiographically in the samples positive also by virus-neutralization. In experimentally infected pigs, the same dynamics of antibody production was recorded by the two tests. They were, however, demonstrated autoradiographically the eighth day after infection, while by virus neutralization test as late as 14th day. Their level increased gradually till 35th day after infection.

  19. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  20. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies in Canadian women screened for enrolment in a herpes simplex virus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfinkel, I S; Aoki, F; McNeil, S; Dionne, M; Shafran, S D; Zickler, P; Halperin, S; Langley, J; Bellamy, A; Schulte, J; Heineman, T; Belshe, R

    2013-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infections continue to be among the most common and unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in the world. Although treatable, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections remain incurable. Hence, there is interest in the development of a vaccine to prevent genital herpes. As part of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test such a vaccine, healthy women 18-30 years were enrolled as volunteers in several Canadian centres between 2005 and 2007. This study reports the seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies in this group. A total of 2694 adult female volunteers in Canada with no known history of herpes simplex were screened for HSV antibodies using Western blot assay (the gold standard for diagnosis of HSV) for potential participation in a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial of a herpes simplex vaccine. This trial provides a unique opportunity to examine the prevalence of antibodies to HSV-1 and of antibodies to HSV-2 in women with no known history of herpes simplex infection. The prevalence of antibodies to HSV-1 and to HSV-2 is compared with that found in previous Canadian studies that focused on a more general population. The overall seroprevalence of antibody to HSV-1 was 43%; that of HSV-2 was 2.5% and seropositivity to both was 2%. The prevalence of antibody to both HSV-1 and to HSV-2 increased with age. Seronegativity to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was 56% in participating centres with populations under 250,000 and 46% in participating centres with populations over 250,000. Significant racial differences in seropositivity to HSV-1 and to HSV-2 were noted. The likelihood of participants being seropositive to HSV-1 and to HSV-2 was found to increase with age and to positively correlate with the population of the city in which they resided. Hypotheses are proposed to account for differences in racial seropositivity to HSV-1 and to HSV-2.

  1. Embryotoxicity of Mirtazapine: a study using Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňáková, E.; Hubičková, L.; Košťálová, J.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : embryo toxicity * screening test * mirtazapine Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  2. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  3. Measurements for testing of fluoroscopic screens, including the photofluorographic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, R.

    1986-01-01

    Image quality control measurements for fluoroscopic screens and photofluorographs have shown that both types of equipment have a long operating life, so that constancy and technical performance tests are absolutely necessary. It is recommended to conclude in-service maintenance contracts with the manufacturers. (DG) [de

  4. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  5. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid test for HIV antibodies in saliva and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay, and to correlate the test strip results with blood specimen results obtained from routine diagnostic antiHIV assays. Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals ...

  7. An influenza A virus agglutination test using antibody-like polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjee, Wannisa; Thitithanyanont, Arunee; Wiboon-Ut, Suwimon; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Paul Gleeson, M; Navakul, Krongkaew; Sangma, Chak

    2017-10-01

    Antibodies are commonly used in diagnostic routines to identify pathogens. The testing protocols are relatively simple, requiring a certain amount of a specific antibody to detect its corresponding pathogen. Antibody functionality can be mimicked by synthesizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), i.e. polymers that can selectively recognize a given template structure. Thus, MIPs are sometimes termed 'plastic antibody (PA)'. In this study, we have synthesized new granular MIPs using influenza A virus templates by precipitation polymerization. The selective binding of influenza A to the MIP particles was assessed and subsequently contrasted with other viruses. The affinities of influenza A virus towards the MIP was estimated based on an agglutination test by measuring the amount of influenza subtypes absorbed onto the MIPs. The MIPs produced using the H1N1 template showed specific reactivity to H1N1 while those produced using H5N1 and H3N2 templates showed cross-reactivity.

  8. Validation of a telephone screening test for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Kochhann, Renata; Godinho, Claudia; Costa, Amanda; Chaves, Marcia L

    2011-03-01

    Financial constraints, mobility issues, medical conditions, crime in local areas can make cognitive assessment difficult for elders and telephone interviews can be a good alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability, validity and clinical utility of a Brazilian telephone version of the Mini Mental State Examination (Braztel-MMSE) in a community sample of healthy elderly participants and AD patients. The MMSE and the Braztel-MMSE were applied to 66 AD patients and 67 healthy elderly participants. The test-retest reliability was strong and significant (r = .92, p = .01), and the correlation between the Braztel-MMSE and the MMSE were significant (p = .01) and strong (r = .92). The general screening ability of the Braztel-MMSE was high (AUC = 0.982; CI95% = 0.964-1.001). This telephone version can therefore be used as a screening measure for dementia in older adults that need neuropsychological screening and cannot present for an evaluation.

  9. Tandem walking as a quick screening test for vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2017-12-11

    Although many screening tests of balance are available, few of them have been well validated for clinical or research uses. The goal of this study was to test an updated version of an old test, Tandem Walking, to determine how useful it is for screening patients with vestibular disorders. Case-control study. Subjects were 90 adult patients with vestibular disorders and 292 healthy adult controls. They were tested on the number of correct tandem steps they could perform with arms crossed and eyes closed in a series of 10 steps. Correct steps could be nonconsecutive. Subjects were given one practice trial with eyes open and three experimental trials with eyes closed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. ROC values, sensitivity, and specificity were, at best, only moderate, no matter how the age range was cut. Even for subjects in the age group with the highest ROC value (i.e., age less than 50 years), ROC = 0.8, sensitivity = 0.77, and specificity = 0.72. These results indicate that 23% of patients will not be identified. Therefore, we recommend that if this test is used for screening patients in the clinic or healthy volunteers, the result should be interpreted with care. 3b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Can a combined screening/treatment programme prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies: study protocol for the multicentre randomised controlled OuTSMART trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients. Methods/Design Recipients >1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes. Discussion We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to

  11. Bulk tank milk ELISA for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: Correlation between repeated tests and within-herd antibody-prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were...... Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were...... to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice....

  12. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  13. Is there a role for antibody testing in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindós, Guillermo; Moragues, María Dolores; Pontón, José

    2004-03-01

    During the last decades, the use of antibody tests for the diagnosis of invasive mycoses has declined as a consequence of the general belief that they are insensitive and non-specific. However, there is a clear evidence that antibodies can be detected in highly immunodeficient patients (such as bone marrow transplant recipients), and that those antibodies are useful for the diagnosis. Antibody tests are currently in use as diagnostic tools for some primary mycoses, such as the endemic mycoses, aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis and sporothrichosis. For invasive candidiasis, diagnostic methods must differentiate Candida colonization of mucous membranes or superficial infection from tissue invasion by this microorganism. Substantial progress has been made in diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with the development of a variety of methods for the detection of antibodies and antigens. However, no single test has found widespread clinical use and there is a consensus that diagnosis based on a single specimen lacks sensitivity. It is necessary to test sequential samples taken while the patient is at greatest risk for developing invasive candidiasis to optimize the diagnosis. Results obtained from a panel of diagnostic tests in association with clinical aspects will likely be the most useful strategy for early diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Thyroglobulin recovery test of sera containing elevated levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, I.; Gonzalez-Cabezas, P.; Flores, D.; Perez-Pastor, J.L.; Bello, P.; Rivas, A.; Alonso, J.; Olivas, C.; Mateo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macro-molecule synthesized exclusively in the thyroid gland for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In differentiated thyroid carcinoma, after radical thyroidectomy, the discovering of measurable quantities of Tg can be indicator of relapse y/or spread of disease but Thyroglobulin antibodies can alter the determination of Tg. The aim of this study is to assess and measure the interference of Tg antibodies on the Tg determination. Methods: We have selected 50 consecutive serum whose Tg-antibodies levels were higher than the normality values (0-100 UI/mL). Tg-antibodies were measured using a 'sandwich' radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. We have performed a recovery test on these sera. This test consists on adding a known quantity (50 UI) of Tg on that sera and then measure the Tg values to find out the percentage of Tg that is recuperated. Tg was measured using a radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. Results: Sera were divided in two groups: A.- 15 sera with Tg-antibodies levels between 100-250 UI/mL: 85% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than 90% (Tg-antibodies did not interfere on Tg values due to Tg was recovered almost in its totality). B.- 53 sera with Tg-antibodies levels higher than 250 UI/mL: Only 10% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than >90% . (90% of sera interfered on Tg values). 70% of that sera presented percentages under 50%. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between Tg-antibodies and Tg recovery percentage was -0.34. Conclusions: The majority (90%)of sera with Tg-antibodies higher than 250 UI/mL presented an high interference on Tg determination. However the majority of sera with Tg-antibodies between 100-250 did not show any interference on Tg determination. There are not linear correlation between highest values and lowest percentages of Tg recovered. We recommend the realization of Tg recovery test on sera with elevated Tg antibodies specially when are higher than 250 UI/mL

  17. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler CE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Christine E Kistler,1–3 Thomas M Hess,4 Kirsten Howard,5,6 Michael P Pignone,2,3,7 Trisha M Crutchfield,2,3,8 Sarah T Hawley,9 Alison T Brenner,2 Kimberly T Ward,2 Carmen L Lewis10 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, 2Cecil G Sheps Center for Health Services Research, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, 4Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 5Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 7Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, 8Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 9Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 10Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults.Materials and methods: To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE, a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE

  18. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  19. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  20. evaluation of a rapid test for hiv antibodies in saliva and blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies. (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay ... Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and ... defined by the underlying illness or condition is illustrated in.

  1. The meningococcal antibody test: how useful in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, N; Berthelsen, L; Wachmann, H

    2005-01-01

    Based on 9257 [correction] blood samples received from 7365 patients with a request for a meningococcal antibody test (MAT) during a 10-year period (1986-1995), the usefulness of the test in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease was assessed. Of 635 patients with culture-confirmed meningococcal ...

  2. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...

  3. Comparative efficacy of antigen and antibody detection tests for human trichinellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanoska, D.; Cuperlovic, K.; Gamble, H.R.; Murrell, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation

  4. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT and Milk Ring Test (MRT in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 % of cow milk and 6 samples (12 % of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 % positive, 3 (6 % suspicious and 43 (86 % negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 % positive, 2 (4 % suspicious and 45 (90 % negative samples were determined according to antibodies titre of serum agglutination test (Whey-AT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 196-203

  5. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  6. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  7. Validation of the Cross-Cultural Alcoholism Screening Test (CCAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenc, K D; Peredo, S; Pacurucu, S; Llanos, R; Vincente, B; López, R; Abreu, L F; Paez, E

    1999-01-01

    When screening instruments that are used in the assessment and diagnosis of alcoholism of individuals from different ethnicities, some cultural variables based on norms and societal acceptance of drinking behavior can play an important role in determining the outcome. The accepted diagnostic criteria of current market testing are based on Western standards. In this study, the Munich Alcoholism Test (31 items) was the base instrument applied to subjects from several Hispanic-American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru). After the sample was submitted to several statistical procedures, these 31 items were reduced to a culture-free, 31-item test named the Cross-Cultural Alcohol Screening Test (CCAST). The results of this Hispanic-American sample (n = 2,107) empirically demonstrated that CCAST measures alcoholism with an adequate degree of accuracy when compared to other available cross-cultural tests. CCAST is useful in the diagnosis of alcoholism in Spanish-speaking immigrants living in countries where English is spoken. CCAST can be used in general hospitals, psychiatric wards, emergency services and police stations. The test can be useful for other professionals, such as psychological consultants, researchers, and those conducting expertise appraisal.

  8. Comparisons of Venezuelan encephalitis virus strains by hemagglutination-inhibition tests with chicken antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Pancake, B A

    1977-01-01

    Twenty strains of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus inoculated intravenously in large doses into roosters produced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies detectable in plasmas within 7 to 10 days. No signs of illness occurred, and there was no evidence of viral growth in tissues since blood concentrations of infectious virus steadily decreased after inoculation. HI antibodies in early plasmas were specific for VE virus and did not cross-react significantly with two other North American alphaviruses, eastern and western encephalitis viruses. VE virus strains could be distinquished by virus-dilution, short-incubation HI, but not by plasma-dilution neutralization tests, by using early rooster antibodies. The distinctions by HI test were similar with some strains to, but different with other strains from, those described by Young and Johnson with the spiny rat antisera used to establish their subtype classifications of VE virus (14, 28). Nevertheless, results of HI tests with rooster antibodies correlated with equine virulence, as did results with spiny rat antibodies, and distinguished the new strains of virus that appeared in Middle America during the VE outbreak of 1969 from preexisting strains. PMID:591629

  9. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  10. Anti-enrofloxacin antibody production by using enrofloxacin-screened HSA as an immunogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chune; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin; Jiang, Jie

    2005-07-01

    A two-step zero-length cross-linking procedure using active esters was successfully adopted for conjugating enrofloxacin (EF) to human serum albumin (HSA). The derived conjugate was characterized by UV spectrum and then used for immunization of BALB/C mice. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, the derived antiserum exhibited high antibody titer (greater than 1:250 000) as well as varied cross-reactivity (from 97.8% to 161.7%) to three analogs of EF belonging to fluoroquinolones family. But over the concentration range studied, no significant cross-reactivity was observed to other group of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, sulphamethoxazole and nysfungin). It was confirmed that the synthesized immunogen was highly antigenic and elicited specific antibody responses in BALB/C mice against EF.

  11. Accuracy of diagnostic antibody tests for coeliac disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giersiepen, Klaus; Lelgemann, Monika; Stuhldreher, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence from 2004 to September 2009 on the performance of laboratory-based serological and point of care (POC) tests for diagnosing coeliac disease (CD) in children using histology as reference standard....

  12. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  14. Who accepts a rapid HIV antibody test? The role of race/ethnicity and HIV risk behavior among community adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Hadley, Wendy S; Houck, Christopher D; Dance, S Kwame; Brown, Larry K

    2011-05-01

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in health care settings for all individuals aged 13-64 years; however, overall testing rates among adolescents still continue to remain low. This study examined factors related to the acceptance of HIV testing among an at-risk sample of ethnically/racially diverse community adolescents. Adolescents aged 15-21 (N = 81) years were recruited from community-based youth organizations to complete HIV risk assessment surveys. After the completion of the survey, participants were offered a free OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test. More than half (53.1%) of the participants accepted the test, with the black population being more likely to accept testing as compared to Latinos (75% vs. 39%). After controlling for race/ethnicity, significant predictors of test acceptance included history of sexual intercourse (OR = 5.43), having only one sexual partner in the past 3 months (OR = 4.88), not always using a condom with a serious partner (OR = 3.94), and not using a condom during last sexual encounter (OR = 4.75). Given that many adolescents are willing to know their HIV status, policies that support free or low-cost routine testing may lead to higher rates of case identification among youth. However, approaches must be developed to increase test acceptance among Latino adolescents and teenagers with multiple sexual partners. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Co-Testing of Cervical Screening Tests in Detection of High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Co-testing performance for detection of high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN has not been adequately addressed from Low Resource Countries (LRCs. Where isolated tests do not have adequate performance, further explorations are recommended. Aim: To evaluate the co-testing of conventional cervical screening tests such as Papanicolaou (Pap and Visual Inspection Cervix with Acetic Acid (VIA, with care HPV on Cervical Samples (CHPV or on Vaginal Samples (VHPV in the detection of high grade CIN. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on ever married women of age 30 to 59 years in a rural community of Dadri. Women were screened by CHPV, VHPV, and Pap and VIA methods. Confirmation of screen positives was done by histology. Sensitivity, Specificity and likelihood ratios of different combinations of test determined to evaluate the performance. Results: Total eligible women, 66.2% (5032/7604 responded for screening. Analysis was performed on 4658, after excluding those who did not complete all screenings. Co-testing of CHPV (OR=246 or VHPV (OR=278 with Pap had highest association. Positive likelihood ratios of CHPV and VHPV with Pap in CIN II+ detection rates were 13.0 and 11.8 and in CIN III+ the detection rates were 18.0 and 16.0 respectively. Higher sensitivities and specificities were observed in co-testing for CIN III+ detection as against CIN II+ lesions. Conclusion: Choice of co-testing in a pair of tests for detection of high grade CIN is likely to depend on whether screening is targeted for developed or low resource country. VIA in isolation might not yield optimal results for LRCs.

  17. Human anti-HIV IgM detection by the OraQuick ADVANCE® Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Geraldine; Yearwood, Graham; Snipes, Casey; Boschi, Daniel; Reed, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many public health jurisdictions continue to advocate for the most sensitive rapid HIV test that is available. Currently, the recommendation is to utilize tests that can detect HIV infection biomarkers within 30 days of infection, when initial immune responses are mounted. The infected patient's IgM response is often used to detect acute infection within a 20-25 days window after infection. This requirement applies to lab-based testing with automated analyzers and rapid, point of care (POC) testing used for screening in a non-clinical setting. A recent study has demonstrated that POC tests using a Protein A-based detection system can detect samples with predominantly HIV-1 IgM reactivity (Moshgabadi et al., 2015). The OraQuick ADVANCE ® Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (OraQuick ADVANCE ®) also uses Protein A as the detection protein in the antibody-binding colloidal gold conjugate, so it is expected that the OraQuick ADVANCE ® Test will also detect samples with predominantly IgM reactivity. This report definitively demonstrates that the OraQuick ADVANCE ® Test can detect IgM antibodies during an acute infection window period of approximately 20-25 days after infection, and is therefore suitable for use in testing environments requiring adherence to current CDC recommendations.

  18. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  19. [Construction and screening of phage antibody libraries against epidermal growth factor receptor and soluble expression of single chain Fv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wei-Jin; Miao, Qing-Fang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important target for cancer therapy. The present study prepared single chain Fv (scFv) directed against EGFR. Balb/c mice were immunized by human carcinoma A431 cells, and total RNA of the splenic cells was extracted. VH and VL gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and further joined into scFv gene with a linker, then scFv gene fragments were ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB 5E. The phagemid containing scFv were transformed into electro-competent E. coli TG1 cells. The recombinant phage antibody library was constructed through rescuing the transformed cells with help phage M13K07. The specified recombinant phages were enriched through 5 rounds of affinity panning and the anti-EGFR phage scFv clones were screened and identified with ELISA. A total of 48 clones from the library were selected randomly and 45 clones were identified positive. After infecting E. coli HB2151 cells with one positive clone, soluble recombinant antibodies about 27 kD were produced and located in the periplasm and the supernatant. The result of sequencing showed that the scFv gene was 768 bp, which encoded 256 amino acid residues. VH and VL including 3 CDRs and 4 FRs, respectively, were all homologous to mouse Ig. The soluble scFv showed the specific binding activity to purified EGFR and EGFR located in carcinoma cell membrane. The successful preparation of anti-EGFR scFv will provide an EGFR targeted molecule for the development of antibody-based drugs and biological therapy of cancer.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect Hepatitis C antibody: a meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Chen, Wen; Amini, Ali; Boeras, Debi; Falconer, Jane; Kelly, Helen; Peeling, Rosanna; Varsaneux, Olivia; Tucker, Joseph D; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    Although direct-acting antivirals can achieve sustained virological response rates greater than 90% in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected persons, at present the majority of HCV-infected individuals remain undiagnosed and therefore untreated. While there are a wide range of HCV serological tests available, there is a lack of formal assessment of their diagnostic performance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate he diagnostic accuracy of available rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and laboratory based EIA assays in detecting antibodies to HCV. We used the PRISMA checklist and Cochrane guidance to develop our search protocol. The search strategy was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42015023567). The search focused on hepatitis C, diagnostic tests, and diagnostic accuracy within eight databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, SCOPUS, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde and WHO Global Index Medicus. Studies were included if they evaluated an assay to determine the sensitivity and specificity of HCV antibody (HCV Ab) in humans. Two reviewers independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of the studies using the QUADAS tool. We pooled test estimates using the DerSimonian-Laird method, by using the software R and RevMan. 5.3. A total of 52 studies were identified that included 52,673 unique test measurements. Based on five studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of HCV Ab rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were 98% (95% CI 98-100%) and 100% (95% CI 100-100%) compared to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) reference standard. High HCV Ab RDTs sensitivity and specificity were observed across screening populations (general population, high risk populations, and hospital patients) using different reference standards (EIA, nucleic acid testing, immunoblot). There were insufficient studies to undertake

  1. Conversion of a Capture ELISA to a Luminex xMAP Assay using a Multiplex Antibody Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harold N.; Murphy, Robin; Lopez, Erica; Garcia, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    consumables necessary for coupling beads to the capture antibody of interest. (See Materials section for a detailed list of kit contents.) In this experiment, we convert a pre-optimized ELISA assay for TNF-alpha cytokine to the xMAP platform and compare the performance of the two methods 7-11. TNF-alpha is a biomarker used in the measurement of inflammatory responses in patients with autoimmune disorders. We begin by coupling four candidate capture antibodies to four different microsphere sets or regions. When mixed together, these four sets allow for the simultaneous testing of all four candidates with four separate detection antibodies to determine the best antibody pair, saving reagents, sample and time. Two xMAP assays are then constructed with the two most optimal antibody pairs and their performance is compared to that of the original ELISA assay in regards to signal strength, dynamic range, and sensitivity. PMID:22806215

  2. Inadequacy of IgM antibody tests for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Jennifer H; Wiedeman, Caleb; Singleton, Joseph; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Mosites, Emily; Chung, Ida; Kato, Cecilia; Morris, Kevin; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Porter, Susan; Dunn, John

    2014-10-01

    Among 13 suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) cases identified through an enhanced surveillance program in Tennessee, antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii were detected in 10 (77%) patients using a standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were observed for 6 of 13 patients (46%) without a corresponding development of IgG, and for 3 of 10 patients (30%) at least 1 year post-onset. However, recent infection with a spotted fever group rickettsiae could not be confirmed for any patient, based on a lack of rising antibody titers in properly timed acute and convalescent serologic specimens, and negative findings by polymerase chain reaction testing. Case definitions used in national surveillance programs lack specificity and may capture cases that do not represent current rickettsial infections. Use of IgM antibodies should be reconsidered as a basis for diagnosis and public health reporting of RMSF and other spotted fever group rickettsiae in the United States. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  4. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  5. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  6. DNA-linked Inhibitor Antibody Assay (DIANA) for sensitive and selective enzyme detection and inhibitor screening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Václav; Schimer, Jiří; Tykvart, Jan; Knedlík, Tomáš; Vik, V.; Majer, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Šácha, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2017), č. článku e10. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : quantitative PCR * enzyme detection * inhibitor screening Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016 https:// academic .oup.com/nar/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/nar/gkw853

  7. Optimization of Diagnostic Elisa - Based Tests for the Detection of Auto-Antibodies Against Tumor Antigens in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Štefatić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide and it continues to be a serious public health problem. Early detection and diagnosis are of great importance in cancer management. At present, diagnostic blood tests are based on the detection of tumor-associated markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, the cancer antigen CA19-9 for gastrointestinal cancer, CA15-3 for breast cancer or CA125 for ovarian cancer. The lack of sensitivity and specificity of these markers prevents their general use in cancer screening of an average risk population. Therefore, new cancer biomarkers or better screening methods are necessary to improve the diagnostics of the disease. This study was directed to the optimization of a diagnostic, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based test to identify and validate new serum markers, such as extracellular Protein Kinase A (ecPKA and Nicotinamide A-Meth- yltransferase (NNMT. In this type of assay, the cancer antigens are quantified indirectly - by detecting the presence of auto-antibodies against tumor proteins in human serum. The result of the optimization and validation process was in the case of ecPKA a reproducible and stable assay. In case of NNMT the assay was probably not sensitive enough.

  8. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  10. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  11. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  12. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  13. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders

  14. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  15. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  16. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  18. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  19. Anxiety in voluntary HIV-antibody testing in pregnancy and its implications for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldspang, A; Hedegaard, M

    1991-06-01

    During a three-month period in 1989, 820 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered a HIV-antibody test and asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about attitudes to HIV-antibody testing; 779 (95.0%) agreed to do so. One hundred and fifty-six women (20.0% of the participants) had been tested on a previous occasion, and 629 (80.7%) accepted the present offer to be tested. The most prevalent reasons to decline testing were indifference to the epidemic (45.3% of those declining), refusal of (further) blood testing (34.7%) and fear of being infected (16.7%). Women who consented to be tested most often expressed fear of being infected (21.8%). Fear of registration worried less than 5% of study group members; only 1% declined to be tested because of such worry. The pattern of worries expressed by the pregnant women is interpreted as one of anxiety and, in part at least, perplexity as concerns how to take rational consequences of public messages about the HIV epidemic. It is suggested that future surveillance be based primarily on voluntary testing and, whenever needed and possible, supplied with anonymous unlinked testing of existing blood samples from groups and persons declining to be tested. Such surveillance strategies should be supported in individual patient contacts and public health educational campaigns underscoring the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV and the need for repeated HIV-antibody testing of selected groups and individuals.

  20. Mumps prophylaxis in the light of a new test for antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, P P

    1978-01-01

    A radial haemolysis test was used to investigate immunity to mumps. Antibody was found in 92 (42%) out of 220 children aged up to 5 years, 124 (78%) out of 159 children aged 6--10 years, 192 (86%) out of 222 children aged 11 years, 138 (92%) out of 150 children aged 15 years, and 280 (95%) out of 296 women attending an antenatal clinic. A group of 307 cadets aged 16--18 years were also tested and interviewed: 133 (95%) out of 140 who said that they had had mumps and 108 (87%) out of 124 who said that they had not had mumps were found to have antibody. The results suggest that tests for immunity to mumps by radial haemolysis would permit more rational use of mumps-specific immunoglobulin and attenuated mumps vaccine. PMID:365288

  1. The fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E F

    1975-01-01

    The FTA test was developed at a time when immunofluorescence procedures were not well-defined. Through technique control and research, a modification of the FTA test, the FTA-ABS, has attained a position as one of the leading treponemal tests to confirm the reagin tests for syphilis. In this review of the FTA-ABS test, attention has been focused on reagent development, with the anticipation that reagent standardization may soon become a reality. The T. pallidum antigen obtained by extracting infected rabbit testicular tissue has evolved from a preparation in which the treponemes remained in the initial extracting fluid to a reagent that can be free of rabbit tissue and globulin. These washed antigen preparations improve visibility of the treponemes on the microscope slide, reduce background fluorescence, and reduce or prevent from occurring nonspecific reactions that are a result of tissue and globulin components. Both washed and nonwashed antigens are available commercially, and, to date, little differentiation has appeared on the product label. The predominant immunoglobulin that reacts with T. pallidum in the indirect fluorescent antibody tests appears to be IgG. This is the major immunoglobulin detected in the FTA-ABS test. IgM, although increased in early syphilis, is also increased in other clinical conditions. Several reports suggest that adult IgM detection in the present FTA-ABS test would be nonspecific. Until specific IgM antibody in adult syphilis can be detected without a risk to test specificity, the conjugate for the FTA-ABS test should continue to be an anti-IgG reagent. Class-specific, anti-IgG reagents are more expensive than other reagents; however, their use may eliminate the problem of nonspecificity resulting from IgM detection. Additionally, micromethods can be used to reduce cost, and this possibility should be investigated. The sorbent that contains an antigen to the Reiter treponeme may or may not specifically absorb the reactivity that

  2. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and antibody in first-time, lapsed, and repeat blood donations across five international regions and relative efficacy of alternative screening scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Roberta; Lelie, Nico; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael; Kleinman, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-one blood organizations from five geographical regions provided HIV individual donation (ID)-NAT and serology data on 11,787,610 donations. Infections were classified as anti-HIV-/RNA+ window period (WP), anti-HIV+/RNA+ concordant positive (CP) or anti-HIV+/RNA- elite controller (EC). Residual risk and efficacy of several screening scenarios were estimated for first time, lapsed and repeat donations. WP residual risk estimates assumed a 50% infectious dose of 3.16 virions and a 50% detection limit of 2.7 HIV RNA copies/mL for ID-NAT and 10,000 copies/mL for p24Ag. Infectivity for CP (100%) and EC (2.2%) donations was estimated based on viral load distributions and 100-fold reduced infectivity by antibody neutralization as reported elsewhere. Efficacy was calculated as proportion of transmission risk removed from baseline (i.e. in absence of any screening). There was no significant difference in transmission risk between lapsed and repeat donations in any region. Risk was 3.8-fold higher in first time than combined lapsed/repeat donations in South Africa but not in other regions. Screening strategies were most efficacious at interdicting infectious transfusions in first time (98.7-99.8%) followed by lapsed (97.6-99.7%) and repeat (86.8-97.7%) donations in all regions combined. In each donor category the efficacy of ID-NAT alone (97.7-99.8%) was superior to that of minipool (MP)-NAT/anti-HIV (95.0-99.6%) and p24 Ag/anti-HIV (89.8-99.1%). Efficacy patterns were similar by donor/donation status in each region despite large differences in HIV prevalence and transmission risk. As similar data become available for HBV and HCV, this modeling may be useful in cost effectiveness analyses of alternative testing scenarios. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  4. New tests to detect antiphospholipid antibodies: antiprothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2014-05-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies have been proposed as potential new biomarkers for thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the setting of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Antiprothrombin antibodies are commonly detected by ELISA, using prothrombin coated onto irradiated plates (aPT), or prothrombin in complex with phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT), as antigen. Although these antibodies can co-exist in the same patient, aPT and aPS/PT seem to belong to different populations of autoantibodies. Early research explored the role of antibodies to prothrombin as potential antigenic targets for the lupus anticoagulant (LA). To date their clinical significance is being investigated and their potential role in identifying patients at higher risk of developing thrombotic events or pregnancy morbidity is being probed.

  5. Testing the tests--an empirical evaluation of screening tests for the detection of cognitive impairment in aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, A F; Banich, M T; Elledge, V C

    1991-08-01

    The FAA has expressed concern that flight safety could be compromised by undetected cognitive impairment in pilots due to conditions such as substance abuse, mental illness, and neuropsychological problems. Interest has been shown in the possibility of adding a brief "mini-mental exam," or a simple automated test-battery to the standard flight medical to screen for such conditions. The research reported here involved the empirical evaluation of two "mini-mental exams," two paper-and-pencil test batteries, and a prototype version of an automated screening battery. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for each sub-task in a discriminant study of 54 pilots and 62 individuals from a heterogeneous clinical population. Results suggest that the "mini-mental exams" are poor candidates for a screening test. The automated battery showed the best discrimination performance, in part because of the incorporation of dual-task tests of divided attention performance. These tests appear to be particularly sensitive to otherwise difficult-to-detect cognitive impairments of a mild or subtle nature. The use of an automated battery of tests as a screening instrument does appear to be feasible in principle, but the practical success of a screening program is heavily dependent upon the actual prevalence of cognitive impairment in the medical applicant population.

  6. A multilaboratory peer assessment quality assurance program-based evaluation of anticardiolipin antibody, and beta2-glycoprotein I antibody testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W; Silvestrini, Roger; McEvoy, Robert; Jovanovich, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter

    2005-02-01

    We evaluated the performance of anticardiolipin (aCL) and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) antibody assays through a large external quality assurance program. Data from the 2002 cycle of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were analyzed for variation in reported numerical values and semiquantitative results or interpretations according to method type or group and in conjunction with available clinical data. High interlaboratory variation in numerical results and notable method-based variation, combined with a general lack of consensus in semiquantitative reporting, continues to be observed. Numerical results from cross-laboratory testing of 12 serum samples (for immunoglobulin G [IgG]-aCL, IgM-aCL, and IgG-beta2-GPI) yielded interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) that were higher than 50% in six of 12 (50%) specimens for IgG-aCL, and 12 of 12 (100%) specimens for IgM-aCL and IgG-beta2-GPI. Semiquantitative reporting also varied considerably, with total (100%) consensus occurring in only four of 36 (11%) occasions. General consensus (where > 90% of participating laboratories agreed that a given serum sample gave a result of either negative or positive) was only obtained on 13 of 36 (36%) occasions. Variation in results between different method types or groups were also present, resulting in potential biasing of the RCPA QAP-defined target results by the large number of laboratories using the dominant aCL assays. Finally, laboratory findings frequently did not agree with the available clinical information. In conclusion, in a large proportion of specimens from the 2002 RCPA QAP cycle, laboratories could not agree on whether a serum sample tested was aCL-positive or aCL-negative, or beta2-GPI-positive or beta2-GPI-negative. Despite prior attempts to improve the standardization of testing and reporting practices, laboratory testing for aCL and anti-beta2-GPI still demonstrates significant interlaboratory and

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woodhall

    Full Text Available Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody.Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16-44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men. Seroprevalence trends among 16-24 year-old women (n = 3,361 were investigated over ten time points from 1994-2012.In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16-44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0-27.1 in women and 13.9% (11.8-16.2 in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5-40.2] in 30-34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4-25.6] in 35-39 year-old men; years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16-24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16-24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008-2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84-1.05].Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes.

  8. Antibody-based screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma compared with microsatellite analysis and sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mariann; Katballe, Niels; Wikman, Friedrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, MSH2, MLH1, and others are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Due to the high costs of sequencing, cheaper screening methods are needed to identify HNPCC cases. Ideally, these methods should have a high...... carcinoma of whom 11 met the Amsterdam criteria and 31 were suspected to belong to HNPCC families. Thirty-five patients were examined by microsatellite analysis, 40 by immunohistochemical staining, and in 31 patients both the MLH1 and MSH2 genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of patients...... the three methods was found in 74 % of the tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest that immunohistochemistry should be used in combination with microsatellite analysis to prescreen suspected HNPCC patients for the selection of cases where sequencing of the MLH1 and MSH2 mismatch repair genes is indicated....

  9. Development of a virus neutralisation test to detect antibodies against Schmallenberg virus and serological results in suspect and infected herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeffen Willie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the end of 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, tentatively named Schmallenberg virus (SBV, was discovered in Germany. This virus has since been associated with clinical signs of decreased milk production, watery diarrhoea and fever in dairy cows, and subsequently also with congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids. In affected countries, initial surveillance for the infection was based on examination of malformed progeny. These suspicions were followed up by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on brain tissue. For epidemiological purposes, a serological assay was, however, needed. Results A virus neutralisation test (VNT was developed and optimized, and subsequently evaluated. This VNT has a specificity of >99% and the sensitivity is likely also very close to 100%. The assay is highly repeatable and reproducible. The final assay was used to test for antibodies in cows, ewes and does from herds known to be infected or suspected to be so. Targets for sampling in these herds were the mothers of malformed offspring. In herds with an RT-PCR confirmed SBV infection, more than 94% (190 out of 201 of the ewes and 99% (145 out of 146 of the cows were seropositive. In herds with suspicion of SBV infection based on birth of malformed offspring only (no or negative RT-PCR, more than 90% (231 out of 255 of the ewes and 95% (795 out of 834 of the cows were seropositive. In goats, on the other hand, only a low number of seropositives was found: overall 36.4%, being 16 out of 44 goats tested. Conclusions Given the characteristics of this VNT, it can be used at a relative high throughput for testing of animals for export, surveillance, screening and research purposes, but can also be used as a confirmation test for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA’s and for (relative quantification of antibodies. Suspicions of SBV infections that were confirmed by RT-PCR were almost

  10. Optimization and testing of dried antibody tube: The EuroFlow LST and PIDOT tubes as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); M. Perez-Andres; M. Martin-Ayuso (M.); Crespo, O. (Oliver); Blanco, E. (Elena); T. Kalina (Tomas); J. Philippé (Jan); Bonroy, C. (Carolien); M. de Bie (Maaike); J.G. te Marvelde (Jeroen); C. Teodosio (Cristina); Corral Mateos, A. (Alba); V. Kanderová (V.); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); Van Hoof, D. (Dennis); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWithin EuroFlow, we recently developed screening tubes for hematological malignancies and immune deficiencies. Pipetting of antibodies for such 8-color 12-marker tubes however is time-consuming and prone to operational mistakes. We therefore evaluated dried formats of the lymphocytosis

  11. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  12. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  13. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash

    2008-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall...... investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls...

  14. A Novel Affinity Tag, ABTAG, and Its Application to the Affinity Screening of Single-Domain Antibodies Selected by Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Hussack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABTAG is a camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb that binds to bovine serum albumin (BSA with low picomolar affinity. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses using BSA surfaces, bound ABTAG can be completely dissociated from the BSA surfaces at low pH, over multiple cycles, without any reduction in the capacity of the BSA surfaces to bind ABTAG. A moderate throughput, SPR-based, antibody screening assay exploiting the unique features of ABTAG is described. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 sdAbs were isolated from a phage-displayed sdAb library derived from the heavy chain antibody repertoire of a llama immunized with CEACAM6. Following one or two rounds of panning, enriched clones were expressed as ABTAG fusions in microtiter plate cultures. The sdAb-ABTAG fusions from culture supernatants were captured on BSA surfaces and CEACAM6 antigen was then bound to the captured molecules. The SPR screening method gives a read-out of relative expression levels of the fusion proteins and kinetic and affinity constants for CEACAM6 binding by the captured molecules. The library was also panned and screened by conventional methods and positive clones were subcloned and expressed for SPR analysis. Compared to conventional panning and screening, the SPR-based ABTAG method yielded a considerably higher diversity of binders, some with affinities that were three orders of magnitude higher affinity than those identified by conventional panning.

  15. Evaluation of the Acridine Orange Fluorescence Technique and the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody as Diagnostic Tests for Tropical Theileriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the use of acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides as a rapid diagnostic test for tropical theileriosis in comparison with the Giemsa-stained thin blood film technique. Also the indirect fluorescent antibody test has been employed for the serodiagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The study was carried out on 62 young and 48 adult Friesian cattle suffering from clinical tropical theileriosis in Qassim Region, Central Saudi Arabia, during the period from August 2006 to July 2008. For control, blood samples were also obtained from 25 young and 25 adult, clinically healthy, Friesian cattle, selected at random from different dairy farms in Qassim Region. Thin blood films were fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa and acridine orange and were examined by two independent microbiologists. There was 100% correlation in the interpretation of slides stained with Giemsa and acridine orange both with respect to positivity and negativity, between the two microbiologists. It is concluded that if facilities are available acridine orange is a valuable alternative for screening tropical theileriosis. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever, and also other Theileria species. Results of the present study also showed that IFA test was not found sufficiently sensitive and specific as has been reported earlier. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 341-344

  16. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  17. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  18. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  19. Should we systematically test patients with clinically isolated syndrome for auto-antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrotto, Laura; Tur, Carmen; Tintoré, Mar; Arrambide, Georgina; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Río, Jordi; Comabella, Manuel; Nos, Carlos; Galán, Ingrid; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Simon, Eva; Castilló, Joaquín; Palavra, Filipe; Mitjana, Raquel; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Àlex; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Several autoimmune diseases (ADs) can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, testing for auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) is often included in the diagnostic work-up of patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The purpose was to study how useful it was to systematically determine antinuclear-antibodies, anti-SSA and anti-SSB in a non-selected cohort of CIS patients, regarding the identification of other ADs that could represent an alternative diagnosis. From a prospective CIS cohort, we selected 772 patients in which auto-Ab levels were tested within the first year from CIS. Baseline characteristics of auto-Ab positive and negative patients were compared. A retrospective revision of clinical records was then performed in the auto-Ab positive patients to identify those who developed ADs during follow-up. One or more auto-Ab were present in 29.4% of patients. Only 1.8% of patients developed other ADs during a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. In none of these cases the concurrent AD was considered the cause of the CIS. In all cases the diagnosis of the AD resulted from the development of signs and/or symptoms suggestive of each disease. Antinuclear-antibodies, anti-SSA and anti-SSB should not be routinely determined in CIS patients but only in those presenting symptoms suggestive of other ADs. © The Author(s), 2015.

  20. Detection of anti neutrophil antibodies by radio-iodinated protein A binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartron, J.; Muller, J.Y.; Tchernia, G.; Paule, B.; Varet, B.

    1983-01-01

    The granulocyte associated IgG in normal and neutropenic subjects has been determined by a direct quantitative assay using radiolabeled staphylococcal protein A. This assay allows to postulate an immunological mechanism to explain the neutropenia in 19 cases of neutropenias associated with malfunctions of the immune system and in 4 cases of idiopathic neutropenias. Discussed in this report is the possible interaction of immune complexes bound in vivo to the granulocytes. By an immunofluorescence test, it has been possible to detect IgG or IgM antibodies in only 52% of patients with a positive direct assay. The determination of granulocyte-associated IgG is therefore a better indicator for defining an auto-immune neutropenia than the detection of free antibodies in the sera [fr

  1. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  2. Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2010-06-01

    To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test. Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia. The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores. In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The

  3. The attitudes of Dutch fertility specialists towards the addition of genetic testing in screening of tubal factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogajski, Jelena; Jansen, Marleen E; Ouburg, Sander; Ambrosino, Elena; Terwee, Caroline B; Morré, Servaas A

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to identify elements perceived by Dutch fertility specialists as barriers and facilitators for the introduction of genetic testing, and their attitudes towards the use of genetic information. The genetic test would be implemented in routine screening for tubal pathology and identifies SNPs relevant for the immune response causing tubal pathology. Experienced reproductive specialists working in Dutch Academic Hospitals were interviewed. Based on the results of four interviews a questionnaire was developed and used to survey medical doctors in six out of eight Dutch Academic hospitals. 60.4% (n=91) stated that the addition of genetic markers to the Chlamydia trachomatis antibody test (CAT) in screening for tubal pathology would increase screening accuracy. 68.2% (n=90) agreed they would require additional training on clinical genetics. Clinical utility (91.2%, n=91) and cost-effectiveness (95.6%, n=91) were recognized by the respondents as important factors in gaining support for the new screening strategy. In summary, respondents showed a positive attitude towards the implementation of a genetic test combined with CAT for tubal factor infertility (TFI) screening. To gain their support the majority of respondents agreed that clinical utility, specifically cost-effectiveness, is an important factor. Comprehensive research about economic implications and utility regarding the introduction of genomic markers should be the next step in the implementation strategy. Furthermore, education and training would need to be developed and offered to fertility care professionals about genetic markers, their interpretation, and implications for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  6. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  7. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  8. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  9. Evaluation of a Community's Risk for Canine Parvovirus and Distemper Using Antibody Testing and GIS Mapping of Animal Shelter Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Miranda E; Krecic, Matthew R; Slater, Margaret R; Vigil, Nicole

    2018-03-20

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions. Dogs were excluded if trained personnel were concerned health would be compromised by phlebotomy. Blood samples were collected within 24 hours of entry. Four hundred and twenty-seven (40%) dogs had positive antibody test results for both viruses, 422 (40%) were positive for CPV, 37 (4%) were positive for CDV, and 170 (16%) were negative for both. Mapping revealed geographic patterns for dogs with negative antibody tests. This shelter admitted dogs with negative CPV and/or CDV antibody tests from defined community areas. Targeting vaccination efforts in communities to areas where dogs with negative antibody tests originate could be an effective wellness strategy.

  10. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... as a routine procedure. Most women (92%) underwent serum screening and most (86%) found the decision to participate or not easy. In almost every aspect of presentation and participation studied, serum and ultrasound screening differed from each other. 85% of respondents to ultrasound screening answered...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies....

  11. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  12. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  13. Efficacy of immunoassay chromatography test for hepatitis-C antibodies detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.; Khan, M.I.; Bano, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    To asses the efficacy of commercially available tests device method for anti HCV detection. Methods: Total 2000 blood samples for detection of anti HCV were screened initially by immuno chromatographic method. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the Biochemistry Laboratory of the Pakistan Medical Research Council, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Results: Out of a total of 2,000 blood samples, 177 were found to be initially reactive/positive for anti-HCV with immuno chromatographic method. When these reactive/positive samples were retested for confirmation with ELISA, 47 blood samples were found to have tested falsely positive for anti-HCV. Overall 2.35% of blood samples were found to be tested false positive for anti-HCV by immuno chromatographic device method. Conclusions: Immuno chromatographic device method test is rapid and simple, which can be used in setting with limited facility when rapid testing is required. However it should not be used as sole criteria for diagnosis but should serve the purpose of initial screening only. Further research is required to establish the reliability of such devices for their specificity and sensitivity. (author)

  14. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the

  15. Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Sheppard, Jo-Ann I; Chu, F Victor; Kapoor, Anil; Crowther, Mark A; Gangji, Azim

    2015-01-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies before cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (eg, platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological end point to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE precardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE before heparin reexposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. New monoclonal antibody-based test for Helicobacter pylori urease in gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Ho Dong; Park, Hyeuk; Choi, Seung; Beom, Jae Won; Kim, Woo Jong; Park, Chang Kook; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Hyung Rag; Park, Chul; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a new monoclonal antibody for Helicobacter pylori urease in gastric tissue. A total of 107 volunteers were enrolled. All subjects underwent a (13)C-urea breath test and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastric aspirates were analyzed for pH and ammonia. Six biopsy specimens in the gastric antrum and body were obtained for a rapid urease test and histology. The new monoclonal antibody-based H. pylori urease test (HPU) was performed to rapidly and qualitatively detect urease in two biopsy specimens. H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 73 subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPU was 89% and 74%, respectively. The subjects were divided into two groups: one with true-positive and true-negative HPU results (n = 90) and the other with false-positive and false-negative HPU results (n = 17). Across all subjects, ammonia levels were 900.5 ± 646.7 and 604.3 ± 594.3 μmol/L (p > 0.05), and pH was 3.37 ± 1.64 and 2.82 ± 1.51 (p > 0.05). Sensitivity was higher in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. HPU detected H. pylori in approximately 10 min. Gastric aspirate ammonia and pH levels did not affect the test results. Sensitivity was good in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia.

  17. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous experimental..., except legal holidays. (1) OECD (1995). Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, OECD 421...

  18. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  19. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  20. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.

    2018-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  1. Comparison of the automated vision screening test to the Snellen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, R; Falk, M

    1991-03-01

    The comparison of an automatic vision screening machine using the Landolt rings and the usual Snellen Chart was carried out among 123 second grade and 149 fifth grade students in an elementary school in Jerusalem. The sensitivity of the test for a cut-off point of greater than or equal to 6/12 according to the Snellen test was 41.7% (CI = 16.5-71.4) and the specificity was 86.5% (CI 78.1-92.2) for second graders. For fifth graders the values were 50.0% (CI = 20.1-79.9) and 90.6% (CI 83.7-94.8) respectively. Diagnosis by a specialist decreased the number of 'false negatives' and confirmed the pathological cases. The automatic test was well accepted by the children. Though more time is needed for assessment using the automatic test, its advantage is that no professional staff are required.

  2. Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do with a positive titer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailer-Hoeck Michaela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antinuclear antibody test (ANA is a much overused test in pediatrics. The ANA does have a role in serologic testing but it should be a very limited one. It is often ordered as a screening test for rheumatic illnesses in a primary care setting. However, since it has low specificity and sensitivity for most rheumatic and musculoskeletal illnesses in children, it should not be ordered as a screening test for non-specific complaints such as musculoskeletal pain. It should only be used as a diagnostic test for children with probable Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, (MCTD and other possible overlap-like illnesses. Such children should have developed definite signs and symptoms of a disease before the ANA is ordered. This review presents data supporting these conclusions and a review of the ANA literature in adults and children. By limiting ANA testing, primary care providers can avoid needless venipuncture pain, unnecessary referrals, extra medical expenses, and most importantly, significant parental anxieties. It is best not to do the ANA test in most children but if it ordered and is positive in a low titer (

  3. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  4. Validity of Forced Eyelid Closure Test: A Novel Clinical Screening Test for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinyawasisuk, Supanut; Zhou, Xinkai; Tian, Jack J; Garcia, Giancarlo A; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-09-01

    Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016. Patients without FECT testing were excluded. FECT and CLT results, and final diagnosis were recorded. To perform FECT, the patient was asked to squeeze his or her eyelids shut for 5-10 seconds then open quickly and fixate in primary position. The excessive upward overshoot of eyelids movement indicated a positive FECT. The test was performed by a neuro-ophthalmologist before establishing the diagnosis. Patients who had equivocal test results and/or inconclusive final diagnosis were excluded. Of the 48 patients studied, 18 patients (37.5%) had positive FECT; 15 of whom had a final diagnosis of OMG (83.3%). Of the 30 patients with negative FECT, 1 had OMG (3.3%). Of the 48 patients, 35 patients also had a documented CLT result (72.9%). CLT was positive in 11 of these 35 patients (31.4%), and 9 of these 11 had OMG (81.8%). Of the 24 patients with negative CLT, 2 of them had OMG (8.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of FECT were 94% and 91% (joint 95% confidence region: sensitivity × specificity = [0.70, 1] × [0.75, 1]). The relative true-positive fraction (rTPF) between FECT and CLT was 1.15; the relative false-positive fraction was 1.31. FECT is a simple clinical screening test with good sensitivity and specificity for OMG.

  5. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  6. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, C.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E. L.; Bloch, E. M.; Kaidarova, Z.; Tafflet, M.; Lefrère, J.-J.; Jouven, X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  7. Comparison of 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests for the screening of Cushing's syndrome in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Kebapcilar, Levent; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Azal, Omer; Ozgurtas, Taner; Corakci, Ahmet; Akgul, Emin Ozgur; Taslipinar, Mine Yavuz; Yazici, Mahmut; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is currently a major public health problem and one of the potential underlying causes of obesity in a minority of patients is Cushing's syndrome (CS). Traditionally, the gold standard screening test for CS is 1 mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. However, it is known that obese subjects have high false positive results with this test. We have therefore compared the 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in obese subjects. Patients whose serum cortisol after ODST was >50 nM underwent and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST); 24-hour urine cortisol was collected for basal urinary free cortisol (UFC). For positive results after overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test we also performed the overnight 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test. We prospectively evaluated 100 patients (22 men and 78 women, ranging in age from 17 to 73 years with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 who had been referred to our hospital-affiliated endocrine clinic because of simple obesity. Suppression of serum cortisol to suppression. Thyroid function tests, lipid profiles, homocysteine, antithyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, vitamin B12, folate levels, insulin resistance [by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)] and 1.0 mg postdexamethasone (postdex) suppression cortisol levels were measured. We found an 8% false-positive rate in 1 mg overnight test and 2% in 2 mg overnight test (p=0.001). There was no correlation between the cortisol levels after ODST and other parameters. Our results indicate that the 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) is more convenient and accurate than 1-mg ODST as a screening test for excluding CS in subjects with simple obesity.

  8. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  9. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... symposium on phthalates screening and testing methods. The symposium will be held at the CPSC's National... submit comments, identified by Docket No. CPSC-2012-0008, by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  10. Willingness to take a screening test for colorectal cancer: a community-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Jun, Yip Kar; Yee, Wai Mun; Waqiyuddin, Syazana J D B T; Lui, Lau Chiew; Shaung, Ooi Yin; Haw, Fong Jenn

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.

  11. Determination of antinucleic factors and anti-DNA antibodies with immunefluorescence, radioimmunoassay and latex-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, E.M.; Hoffmann, R.; Botzenhardt, U.; Mainz Univ.

    1976-01-01

    The results obtained with the 3 test methods are not completely equal. This is, on the one hand, based on the fact that at least in the fluorescence test other antibodies than in the DNS-compound test are also detected. Quantitatively, however, the two tests show a good correlation to the progress of the illness; strong positive DNA-compound is practically only found in SLE. The authors were able to prove that the addition of purified C1 or C1q components of the complementary system to the test can result in a DNA binding of over 50% and, consequently, in incorrect positive values in the compound test. The Latex test is less suitable for diagnosis and course observation since it relatively often renders negative results at established cases of SLE with distinct illness activity on the one hand, while on the other hand, quantitative evidence, which is desirable for assessing the illness activity, is not possible. (orig./GSE) [de

  12. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  13. In silico design and performance of peptide microarrays for breast cancer tumour-auto-antibody testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Weinhäusel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The simplicity and potential of minimally invasive testing using sera from patients makes auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in cancer diagnostics. Protein microarrays have been used for the identification of such auto-antibody signatures. Because high throughput protein expression and purification is laborious, synthetic peptides might be a good alternative for microarray generation and multiplexed analyses. In this study, we designed 1185 antigenic peptides, deduced from proteins expressed by 642 cDNA expression clones found to be sero-reactive in both breast tumour patients and controls. The sero-reactive proteins and the corresponding peptides were used for the production of protein and peptide microarrays. Serum samples from females with benign and malignant breast tumours and healthy control sera (n=16 per group were then analysed. Correct classification of the serum samples on peptide microarrays were 78% for discrimination of ‘malignant versus healthy controls’, 72% for ‘benign versus malignant’ and 94% for ‘benign versus controls’. On protein arrays, correct classification for these contrasts was 69%, 59% and 59%, respectively. The over-representation analysis of the classifiers derived from class prediction showed enrichment of genes associated with ribosomes, spliceosomes, endocytosis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Sequence analyses of the peptides with the highest sero-reactivity demonstrated enrichment of the zinc-finger domain. Peptides’ sero-reactivities were found negatively correlated with hydrophobicity and positively correlated with positive charge, high inter-residue protein contact energies and a secondary structure propensity bias. This study hints at the possibility of using in silico designed antigenic peptide microarrays as an alternative to protein microarrays for the improvement of tumour auto-antibody based diagnostics.

  14. A large-scale radiometric micro-quantitative complement fixation test for serum antibody titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengali, Z.H.; Levine, P.H.; Das, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A micro-quantitative complement fixation (CF) procedure based on 51 Cr release is described. The method employs 50% hemolysis as end point and the alternation equation to calculate the amount of complement involved in the hemolytic reaction. Compared to the conventional CF tests, the radiometric procedure described here is very precise and consistently reproducible. Also, since only 3 4-fold dilutions of sera are used for the titration of antibodies over a wide range of concentrations, the test is very concise and is economical to perform. Its format is amenable to automation and computerization. This radioimetric CF procedure is thus most useful for large-scale immunological research and epidemiological surveilance studies. (Auth.)

  15. The King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle F. Leong

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The data show worsening of K–D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K–D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion.

  16. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In current literature both universal and selective screening are still ... One of the central issues that has received less attention is the ... The recorded information included the type of food, ... Body mass index (BMI) at booking > 40 kg/m2.

  17. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young age; and a history of high-risk breast biopsy results. Women without these risk factors are at ... on when and how often you will have breast screening. Glossary Benign: Not cancer. Biopsy: A minor surgical procedure to remove a small ...

  18. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  19. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Vincent; Adams, Joseph; Hardy, Donna J; Katayev, Alexander; Fleming, James K

    2018-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP) the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells) were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6%) than when compared to the current method (89.4%). Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6-97.5% of patterns and 71.0-93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  20. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ricchiuti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA. As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6% than when compared to the current method (89.4%. Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6–97.5% of patterns and 71.0–93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  1. Commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Steingart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global tuberculosis epidemic results in nearly 2 million deaths and 9 million new cases of the disease a year. The vast majority of tuberculosis patients live in developing countries, where the diagnosis of tuberculosis relies on the identification of acid-fast bacilli on unprocessed sputum smears using conventional light microscopy. Microscopy has high specificity in tuberculosis-endemic countries, but modest sensitivity which varies among laboratories (range 20% to 80%. Moreover, the sensitivity is poor for paucibacillary disease (e.g., pediatric and HIV-associated tuberculosis. Thus, the development of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is imperative. Immune-based tests are potentially suitable for use in low-income countries as some test formats can be performed at the point of care without laboratory equipment. Currently, dozens of distinct commercial antibody detection tests are sold in developing countries. The question is "do they work?" METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to assess the accuracy of commercial antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies from all countries using culture and/or microscopy smear for confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible. Studies with fewer than 50 participants (25 patients and 25 control participants were excluded. In a comprehensive search, we identified 68 studies. The results demonstrate that (1 overall, commercial tests vary widely in performance; (2 sensitivity is higher in smear-positive than smear-negative samples; (3 in studies of smear-positive patients, Anda-TB IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay shows limited sensitivity (range 63% to 85% and inconsistent specificity (range 73% to 100%; (4 specificity is higher in healthy volunteers than in patients in whom tuberculosis disease is initially suspected and subsequently ruled out; and (5 there are insufficient data to determine the accuracy of most

  2. Validation of pre-coated ELISA tests to detect antibodies against T. congolense and T. vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, W.

    2000-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal antibody detecting enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first described in 1977 and was further developed for use in large scale surveys in Zimbabwe. More recently, the IAEA initiated a programme to improve the robustness and standardisation of the assay. The IAEA supplied plates pre-coated with either a crude T. congolense or T. vivax antigen and the reagents necessary for analysing samples. Parasitologically positive and negative sera were used to validate and determine the cut-off values of the two tests. The samples were tested and results analysed using a variety of cut-off values. The tests provided similar information although the T. congolense pre-coated plates gave significantly higher optical density values than the plates coated with T. vivax. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using the different cut-off points. Results indicate that the test using T. congolense antigen had the highest specificity and sensitivity for a given cut-off value. Although the test could distinguish positive from negative sera, it was quite difficult to provide a suitable cut-off value, but the value should be dictated by the use of the test. (author)

  3. The Anti-Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody Test in Suspected Ocular Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the clinical significance of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR-Ab levels in suspected ocular myasthenia gravis. Methods. In total, 144 patients complaining of fluctuating diplopia and ptosis were evaluated for serum levels of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody and their medical charts were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were classified into three groups: variable diplopia only, ptosis only, and both variable diplopia and ptosis. We investigated serum anti-AChR-Ab titer levels and performed thyroid autoantibody tests. Results. Patients’ chief complaints were diplopia (N=103, ptosis (N=12, and their concurrence (N=29. Abnormal anti-AChR-Ab was observed in 21 of 144 patients (14.1%. Between the three groups, mean age, number of seropositive patients, and mean anti-AChR-Ab level were not significantly different (P=0.224, 0.073, and 0.062, resp.. Overall, 27.5% of patients had abnormal thyroid autoantibodies. Conclusion. The sensitivity of anti-AChR-Ab was 14.1% in suspected ocular myasthenia gravis and seropositivity in myasthenia gravis patients showed a high correlation with the presence of thyroid autoantibodies.

  4. Development and validation of a new cognitive screening test: The Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Helen F K; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Leung, Tony; Li, S W; Chow, Paulina; Tsoh, Joshua; Yan, Connie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Mike

    2018-07-01

    To develop and examine the validity of a new brief cognitive test with less educational bias for screening cognitive impairment. A new cognitive test, Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC), was developed based on review of the literature, as well as the views of an expert panel. Three groups of subjects aged 65 or above were recruited after written consent: normal older people recruited in elderly centres, people with mild NCD (neurocognitive disorder), and people with major NCD. The brief cognitive test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), were administered to the subjects. The performance of HKBC in differentiating subjects with major NCD, mild NCD, and normal older people were compared with the clinical diagnosis, as well as the MMSE and MoCA scores. In total, 359 subjects were recruited, with 99 normal controls, 132 subjects with major NCD, and 128 with mild NCD. The mean MMSE, MoCA, and HKBC scores showed significant differences among the 3 groups of subjects. In the receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the HKBC in differentiating normal subjects from those with cognitive impairment (mild NCD + major NCD), the area under the curve was 0.955 with an optimal cut-off score of 21/22. The performances of MMSE and MoCA in differentiating normal from cognitively impaired subjects are slightly inferior to the HKBC. The HKBC is a brief instrument useful for screening cognitive impairment in older adults and is also useful in populations with low educational level. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Clinical diagnosis of Graves’ or non-Graves’ hyperthyroidism compared to TSH receptor antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: TSH receptor antibody (TRAb is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the autoimmunity of Graves’ disease (GD, which is commonly diagnosed clinically. Aim: To evaluate the true positive (sensitivity and true negative (specificity rates of clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism compared to the TRAb test. Setting: University teaching hospital in North West England. Participants: Patients in the Endocrinology service who had a TRAb measurement between December 2009 and October 2015. Methods: Electronic patient records were studied retrospectively for a pre-TRAb clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism. We examined descriptive statistics and binary classification tests; Fisher exact test was used to analyse contingency tables. Results: We identified 316 patients with a mean age of 45 (range, 17–89 years; 247 (78% were women. Compared to the TRAb result, clinical diagnosis had a sensitivity of 88%, specificity 66%, positive predictive value 72%, negative predictive value 84%, false negative rate 12%, false positive rate 34%, positive likelihood ratio 2.6 and negative likelihood ratio 0.2 (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Clinicians were liable to both over- and under-diagnose GD. The TRAb test can help reduce the number of incorrect or unknown diagnoses in the initial clinical assessment of patients presenting with hyperthyroidism.

  6. Autofluorescence: A screening test for mycotic infection in tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection is a major health concern as the clinical features are not very distinctive. Lack of rapid diagnostic techniques results in delay in diagnosis, which may even culminate in a fatal outcome. The fact that many pathogenic fungal organisms autofluoresce in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E-stained sections under ultraviolet illumination led us to evaluate the role of autofluorescence as a rapid screening technique for fungal infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of autofluorescence as a screening method for detecting fungi on tissue sections and to compare the results of autofluorescence with conventional histochemical stains for fungi. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of mycotic lesions were examined under fluorescent microscope and the findings were compared with results of Gomori′s methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains. We found fungal autofluorescence in 63 out of 64 cases studied, with a sensitivity of 97.8% and specificity of 100% in comparison with fungal stains. This was statistically significant (P < 0.05. We conclude that autofluorescence can be used as a rapid screening method for identification of fungi in tissue sections as it does not require any other specialized staining procedure

  7. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  8. Standardization of serological tests for detecting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lauricella

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT and hemagglutination test (IHAT were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT and direct agglutination test (DAT were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1 parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134; (2 non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285; (3 dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6; (4 non-infected dogs (n = 56 which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA, one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.

  9. Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, M E; Slomka, M J; Breed, A C

    2018-01-01

    with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any 'gold standard'. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97......% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection...

  10. Lupus erythematosus cell preparation, antinuclear factor and antideoxyribonucleic acid antibody incongruity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Y C

    1983-01-01

    'Total antinuclear antibody' (ANF) is detected by the fluorescent antinuclear antibody technique which is a screening test, positive in 99% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. The LE factor (positive in 75% of SLE sera), like the anti-DNA antibody, is an antinuclear antibody but directed against DNA-histone. ANF-negative SLE is a clinical entity with absence of these antibodies. A false negative ANF, in the presence of high titre anti-DNA antibody and/or LE cells, is illustrated in two cases of SLE. Postulated mechanisms for this phenomenon are interference in ANF detection by rheumatoid factor, and the prozone effect on the immunofluorescent tests.

  11. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding breast cancer screening tests in Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izanloo, Azra; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Khoshroo, Fahimeh; Erfani Haghiri, Maryam; Izanloo, Sara; Samiee, Mohadeseh; Tabatabaei, Alireza; Mirshahi, Azadeh; Fakoor, Morteza; Moghadam, Najmeh Jafari; Sadrzadeh, Sayyed Majid

    2018-01-01

    According to recent statistics, there has been a rapid growth of breast cancer in developing countries. Thus, early detection is essential. This study is based on the perception of people in the Northeast of Iran regarding breast cancer screening. In a cross-sectional study, 1469 women were selected randomly in the period from April to November 2016. The study population consisted of women or their companions referring to outpatient clinics or people in public urban areas who filled out a breast cancer screening questionnaire in an interview. The patients' age was in the range of 14 to 84 years (mean = 38.8). More than 84% of interviewees were not informed of breast cancer and screening tests. The main reasons mentioned by patients for their failure to do screening tests was 'absence of any symptom or problem' and 'they did not think it was necessary'.There was not a significant difference between income level, marital status and knowledge of people about breast cancer screening tests (P > 0.05). However, employment, education level and family history had a positive effect on people's awareness of breast cancer and its screening tests (P economic classes was the main barrier to breast cancer screening. In this regard, organizing training programs by physicians and the media can help raise screening rates.

  12. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  13. Specific IgE Antibodies in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis--Correlation of Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Immunoblot Test and ImmunoCap System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Ewa; Ceregra, Aldona; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Surowska, Barbara; Trojanowska, Ilona; Roszko-Kirpsza, Izabela; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens is a common condition in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) allowing for a comprehensive assessment of atopy has been developed, but the usefulness in young AD children is not known. The aim of this study was to determine IgE specificity in AD children using MAST and to compare the results for selected food allergens with the reference ImmunoCap system. The study enrolled 50 children up to 2 years old with a diagnosis of AD. IgE antibodies were measured with the MAST-immunoblots. Children with specific IgE levels ≥ 0.35 kU/L were identified as sensitized to allergens. Most often children were sensitized to food allergens (egg white and yolk, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, codfish, and soybean), but a high percentage of them also had IgE antibodies against house dust mites (12%), grass (10%), and birch (10%). Eight percent of children were sensitized to domestic animals (cats and dogs). Almost perfect (kappa index 0.8 - 1.0) and substantial (kappa index 0.6 - 0.8) agreement between MAST and ImmunoCap was found for food allergens except codfish. Pearson's analysis of antibody classes showed a very strong correlation between two methods (r = 0.8 - 1.0) for egg white, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, and soybean, and a strong correlation (r = 0.6 - 0.79) was observed for peanut, egg yolk, and codfish. The study showed the frequent occurrence of IgE antibodies against food and airborne and animal allergens in young AD children and confirmed the usefulness of MAST-immunoblots for screening of sensitization in pediatric patients.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  15. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Juan C; Lacey, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-06-01

    Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates seeking cost-effective cervical cancer screening

  16. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image

  17. A virtual test of screening technology based on the AGEIA PhysX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai-min Li; Rui-ling Lv; Chu-sheng Liu [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

    2008-06-15

    The authors have created a virtual test of vibration particle-screening using Autodesk's 3ds Max software, the MAXScript scripting language and the AGEIA PhysX physics processing unit (PPU). The affect of various parameters on screening efficiency were modeled. The parameters included vibration amplitude, frequency and direction. The length and inclination of the vibrating surface were also varied. The virtual experiment is in basic agreement with results predicted from screening theory. This shows that the virtual screener can be used for preliminary investigations and the results used to evaluate screen design. In addition it can help with theoretical research. 11 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. On the Estimation of Disease Prevalence by Latent Class Models for Screening Studies Using Two Screening Tests with Categorical Disease Status Verified in Test Positives Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haitao; Zhou, Yijie; Cole, Stephen R.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To evaluate the probabilities of a disease state, ideally all subjects in a study should be diagnosed by a definitive diagnostic or gold standard test. However, since definitive diagnostic tests are often invasive and expensive, it is generally unethical to apply them to subjects whose screening tests are negative. In this article, we consider latent class models for screening studies with two imperfect binary diagnostic tests and a definitive categorical disease status measured only for those with at least one positive screening test. Specifically, we discuss a conditional independent and three homogeneous conditional dependent latent class models and assess the impact of misspecification of the dependence structure on the estimation of disease category probabilities using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Interestingly, the three homogeneous dependent models can provide identical goodness-of-fit but substantively different estimates for a given study. However, the parametric form of the assumed dependence structure itself is not “testable” from the data, and thus the dependence structure modeling considered here can only be viewed as a sensitivity analysis concerning a more complicated non-identifiable model potentially involving heterogeneous dependence structure. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian model averaging together with its limitations as an alternative way to partially address this particularly challenging problem. The methods are applied to two cancer screening studies, and simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods. In summary, further research is needed to reduce the impact of model misspecification on the estimation of disease prevalence in such settings. PMID:20191614

  19. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  20. Performance study of the automated immunoassay test anti-hepatitis C virus VIDAS® for the qualitative detection of antibodies anti-hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salvetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV represents a major worldwide public health problem requiring global action for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this infection. HCV is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and it is responsible for about 350,000 deaths yearly. Anti-HCV assays remain the first choice for screening HCV infection in most clinical laboratories. The anti-HCV VIDAS® (bioMérieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France test has been recently launched and we aimed to evaluate its performance compared with other widely used methods. Materials and methods: Routine anti-HCV screening of clinical samples was carried out on the ARCHITECT® i2000SR platform (Abbot Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA; out of 8876 samples tested from October 2012 to May 2013, 70 sera with low positive anti-HCV results (1≤S/CO<8 were collected. These samples were tested for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies using anti-HCV VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM HCV score assays (Innogenetics NV, Ghent, Belgium. Results and conclusions: Positive anti-HCV results were obtained in 61.4% and 41.4% of sera tested with VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM, respectively. Concordance between methods was 63.2% for ARCHITECT® and VIDAS®, 42.6% for ARCHITECT® and INNO-LIATM, and 79.4% for VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM. Anti-HCV VIDAS® demonstrated superior specificity compared to the anti-HCV test ARCHITECT®; therefore, this assay has been introduced in our routine analysis as a second level screening test to select samples to be subjected to confirmatory anti- HCV immunoblot.

  1. The impact of milk handling procedures on Ostertagia ostertagi antibody ELISA test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2010-04-19

    The impact of various milk handling stressors were analyzed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk from dairy cattle (Svanovir). An indirect ELISA has the ability to determine the amount of milk production losses related to intestinal parasitism. The ELISA test recommends fresh defatted milk, however, milk collected from Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs in North America undergo many stressors, including, heating, freezing and are not defatted. Normalized optical density ratios (ODRs) were compared between fresh defatted milk and milk subjected to one or more stressors with a linear mixed model accounting for differences in variation between the fresh and the frozen samples. Concordance correlation coefficients were also analyzed for comparisons to other similar studies. After accounting for random cow and container effects, the treatment factors interacted with each other (p<0.001). Biologically interesting contrasts were created to explain the interaction. The estimated difference in ODR between the milk samples handled according to recommendations of the manufacturers of Svanovir and the whole milk samples that were subjected to the most extreme treatment (heated, frozen, thawed, and re-frozen for 4 weeks) was 0.062 (p<0.001). This difference represented less than 5% of the range, and was thus considered biologically negligible. Frozen whole milk processed by DHI programs, the most likely method of collecting on-farm samples in North America, will likely yield reliable results for the indirect ELISA tests, particularly, Svanovir.

  2. Immunochemical faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syful Azlie, M F; Hassan, M R; Junainah, S; Rugayah, B

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review on the effectiveness and costeffectiveness of Immunochemical faecal occult IFOBT for CRC screening was carried out. A total of 450 relevant titles were identified, 41 abstracts were screened and 18 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of retrievable evidence to suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IFOBT varies with the cut-off point of haemoglobin, whereas the diagnostic accuracy performance was influenced by high temperature and haemoglobin stability. A screening programme using IFOBT can be effective for prevention of advanced CRC and reduced mortality. There was also evidence to suggest that IFOBT is cost-effective in comparison with no screening, whereby a two-day faecal collection method was found to be costeffective as a means of screening for CRC. Based on the review, quantitative IFOBT method can be used in Malaysia as a screening test for CRC. The use of fully automated IFOBT assay would be highly desirable.

  3. From guidelines to hospital practice: reducing inappropriate ordering of thyroid hormone and antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Chevret, S; Cassinat, B; Schlageter, M H; Beressi, J P; Rain, J D

    2000-06-01

    Because of major technical improvements and conscious care about cost effectiveness, limiting the inadequate use of thyroid biological tests appears to be a major issue. To (i) estimate the ordering prevalence of each thyroid test, (ii) assess the prevalence of relevant thyroid tests, and (iii) evaluate the impact of expressing justification for tests during a 2-month intervention period on these prevalences. During a prospective 2-month survey (June-July 1997), all the request forms were divided into four groups of prescription: (1) investigation of thyroid function, (2) taking drugs affecting the thyroid, (3) monitoring of nodule and cancer, and (4) investigation of thyroid autoimmunity. Their appropriateness was thus determined according to consensus in our hospital and previously published recommendations. Results were compared with those of retrospective similar 2-month periods in 1996 and 1998. Combinations of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibodies were analyzed during the 1996, 1997 and 1998 periods. The overall estimated rate of appropriate ordering between 1996 and 1997 increased from 42.5% to 72.4% (P<10(-4)), with a significant improvement in each group of main diagnosis referral, except in group 3 where suitability was always over 85%. However, in group 4, appropriateness remained low (36%). Combinations of thyroid tests revealed an increase in single TSH order forms and single autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) ones, while TSH+free thyroxine+free tri-iodothyronine and TPOAb+ autoantibodies to thyroglobulin ones decreased significantly. Interestingly, all these changes were maintained 1 year later (June-July 1998) even though physicians were not aware of this new study. Persistent change in medical practice was thus assessed.

  4. The role of HLA antibodies in allogeneic SCT: is the 'type-and-screen' strategy necessary not only for blood type but also for HLA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, S; Taniguchi, K; Ogawa, H; Saji, H

    2012-12-01

    The role of HLA antibodies in SCT has drawn increasing attention because of the significantly increased number of patients who receive HLA-mismatched SCT, including cord blood transplantation, haploidentical SCT and unrelated SCT. Technical advancements in the methods of HLA Ab testing have realized rapid, accurate and objective identification, as well as quantification of specific HLA antibodies. Recent clinical studies have suggested that the presence of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in patients is associated with graft failure in HLA-mismatched SCT when the above-listed stem cell sources are used and results in different impacts. Of note, most of the 'HLA-matched' unrelated SCT actually involve HLA mismatches in HLA-DP and the presence of antibodies against this locus has been reported to be associated with graft failure. Thus, HLA Ab should be examined as a work-up for all patients who undergo SCT from 'alternative donors.' The simplest route for preventing HLA Ab-mediated graft failure in Ab-positive patients is to avoid donors who possess the target Ag of HLA antibodies. If SCT from such donors must be performed, treatment for DSA before SCT may improve the chances of successful donor engraftment.

  5. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.

    2016-01-01

    -risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...... testing (NIPT) has enabled efficient and accurate screening for T21, T18 and T13. Various professional societies suggested that NIPT could be considered as a second-tier screening test for women at high risk for aneuploidy. What does this study add? This study reports the performance of NIPT...

  6. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    well-being respectively worries in pregnancy. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with 6,427 pregnant women consecutively included before the time of a nuchal translucency scan. Participants were recruited from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge....... The results presented are based on 4,111 pregnant women (64%). Knowledge was measured by 15 knowledge questions. The primary outcomes were measured by use of pre-existing validated scales i.e. The Decisional Conflict Scale, the WHO well-being index, and the Cambridge Worry Scale. Associations were analysed...... associated with higher levels of well-being (adjusted linear coefficient 0.51 (0.26 to 0.75), p

  7. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  8. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-09-01

    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  9. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON): a prespecified analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess the effect of screening with increasing screening intervals on lung cancer mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we aimed to assess screening test performance, and the epidemiological, radiological, and clinical characteristics of interval cancers in NELSON trial participants assigned to the screening group. Eligible participants in the NELSON trial were those aged 50-75 years, who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day for more than 25 years or ten or more cigarettes for more than 30 years, and were still smoking or had quit less than 10 years ago. We included all participants assigned to the screening group who had attended at least one round of screening. Screening test results were based on volumetry using a two-step approach. Initially, screening test results were classified as negative, indeterminate, or positive based on nodule presence and volume. Subsequently, participants with an initial indeterminate result underwent follow-up screening to classify their final screening test result as negative or positive, based on nodule volume doubling time. We obtained information about all lung cancer diagnoses made during the first three rounds of screening, plus an additional 2 years of follow-up from the national cancer registry. We determined epidemiological, radiological, participant, and tumour characteristics by reassessing medical files, screening CTs, and clinical CTs. The NELSON trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl, number ISRCTN63545820. 15,822 participants were enrolled in the NELSON trial, of whom 7915 were assigned to low-dose CT screening with increasing interval between screens, and 7907 to no screening. We included 7155 participants in our study, with

  10. When should we test for voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies? A retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B J; Steele, T; Ellul, M A; Kirby, E; Duale, A; Kier, G; Crooks, D; Jacob, A; Solomon, T; Michael, B D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are increasingly recognized as having central, peripheral or combined phenotypes. With increasing awareness, more patients are tested and the clinical spectrum is expanding. Consequently, clinicians may be uncertain as to which patients should or should not be tested. Previous studies have identified common clinical features, but none has looked at the usefulness of these in predicting seropositive disease. We conducted a case-control study of patients tested for VGKC-complex antibodies over 10years at a regional tertiary neurology centre determining which clinical/biochemical features were associated with antibody-positive disease. We found a marked increase in the numbers tested, although the percentage positive remained low. Antibody titre was highest in central disease (pVGKC-disease (p=0.01). Seizures were present in 11 (69%) of those with VGKC-disease versus three (18%) without (odds ratio [OR] 10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-52.7, p=0.005). There was an inverse correlation between the antibody titre and serum sodium. A multivariate model selected seizures and hyponatraemia as predictive of VGKC disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity 82%); faciobrachial dystonic movements were specific but insensitive. Interestingly serum alkaline phosphatase was higher in those with VGKC-disease (p=0.016) and highest in those with peripheral disease (p=0.015). An ALP>70u/L was strongly associated with antibody positivity (OR 4.11 95% CI: 1.43-11.8, p=0.007) with a sensitivity of 74.2%. The presence of seizures, faciobrachial movements, and hyponatraemia should raise suspicion of VGKC-disease; alkaline phosphatase may represent a novel biomarker, particularly in those with peripheral disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay, a new rapid test for neutralizing antibodies to intact and trypsin-cleaved poliovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a new rapid test, the radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay (RACINA), for the determination of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. HeLa cells prelabeled with 51 Cr, [ 3 H]leucine, or, preferentially, with [ 3 H]uridine are used as sensitive quantitative indicators of residual infectious virus. Both suspensions and monolayer cultures of the indicator cells can be used. Neutralization of a fraction of a high-titer virus preparation can be scored after the first replication cycle at 8 to 10 h. By lowering the incubation temperature to 30 degree C, the completion of the cytolysis due to the first replication cycle of poliovirus was delayed beyond 21 h. This makes it possible to use the RACINA, unlike the standard microneutralization assay, for measuring antibodies to trypsin-cleaved polioviruses. The RACINA was found to be as sensitive as and more reproducible than the standard microneutralization assay in the measurement of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. The RACINA is a rapid and reliable test for neutralizing antibodies and in principle it may be applicable for quantitation of neutralizing antibodies to other cytolytic agents as well

  12. Screening for mikroalbuminuri med Micral-Test. En semikvantitativ urinstix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F

    1993-01-01

    , specificity and diagnostic specificity in detecting microalbuminuria was 92, 58 and 12% respectively. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 5.6%. In conclusion, the Micral-Test is highly sensitive in detecting microalbuminuria, but at the expense of a relatively high number of false positive tests....

  13. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: annanusca@gmail.com, E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  14. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  15. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  16. Perceived effectiveness of HPV test as a primary screening modality among US providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) test, administered alone without the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, was recently recognized as a cervical cancer screening option in the United States by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the Food and Drug Administration has approved an HPV test for primary screening. Surveys of US internists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists were conducted in 2009 and 2012 to investigate providers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the HPV test administered alone as a population-based screening modality (2009: N=1040, 141-494 per provider group; 2012: N=1039, 155-435 per provider group). The majority in each provider group agreed that the HPV test administered alone is an effective screening modality in 2009 (75.3%-86.1%) and 2012 (79.5%-91.8%), and agreement rose significantly during this time period among family practitioners (χ(2)=15.26, df=1, ptest administered alone is an effective cervical cancer screening modality was widespread among providers in both 2009 and 2012, however implementation of guidelines for screening with the HPV test may be influenced by many other factors including reimbursement and patient preferences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A Conserved Epitope Mapped with a Monoclonal Antibody against the VP3 Protein of Goose Parvovirus by Using Peptide Screening and Phage Display Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Dafei; Meng, Runze; Zhang, Qingshan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV.

  18. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  19. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... the selection criteria for endocrine testing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). EPA has no...) because the chemicals meet the selection criteria. EPA has no plans to issue further test orders for the... Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). In response to the test...

  20. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  1. Results from the Dutch speech-in-noise screening test by telephone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.; Houtgast, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to implement a previously developed automatic speech-in-noise screening test by telephone (Smits, Kapteyn, & Houtgast, 2004), introduce it nationwide as a self-test, and analyze the results. DESIGN: The test was implemented on an interactive voice response

  2. Comparison of Two Assays to Determine Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis in relation to Other Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Assaying Anti-Modified Citrullinated Vimentin Antibodies Adds Value to Second-Generation Anti-Citrullinated Cyclic Peptides Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lizette Díaz-Toscano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2 and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n=142, chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n=86, and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n=56 to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2% as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%. When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis.

  3. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  4. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  5. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  6. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  7. A comparison of antibody testing, permeability testing, and zonulin levels with small-bowel biopsy in celiac disease patients on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, D R; Wilhelm-Boyles, C; Veitch, R; Kryszak, D; Parry, D M

    2010-04-01

    Active celiac disease is associated with positive endomysial (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies, elevated zonulin levels, and increased intestinal permeability. There is little known about what happens to these immunologic and structural abnormalities in patients on a gluten-free diet and their correlation with small-bowel biopsy changes. Adult patients previously diagnosed with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet for greater than 1 year were considered for the study. All patients underwent the following: measurement of EMA and TTG antibodies, serum zonulin levels, intestinal permeability (IP) testing with lactulose/mannitol ratios, food diary analysis for gluten ingestion and small- bowel biopsy. A total of 21 patients on a gluten-free diet for a mean of 9.7 years completed the study. There were ten patients who had normalization of intestinal biopsies, IP and TTG, and EM antibodies. Six patients had Marsh type 2 or 3 lesions and all had either abnormal IP (5/6) or TTG antibody (4/6). In patients with Marsh type 3 lesions, there was a correlation between IP and zonulin levels. A subgroup of patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet has complete normalization of intestinal biopsies, intestinal permeability defects, and antibody levels. Patients with Marsh type 3 lesions have abnormal TTG antibodies and intestinal permeability with zonulin levels that correlate with IP. These abnormalities may be due to continued gluten ingestion. Further study is needed to determine the clinical utility of TTG antibodies and IP testing in following patients with celiac disease.

  8. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Marcia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great

  10. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  11. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  12. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  13. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  14. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  15. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  16. Correlation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, United Kingdom screening test and electrodiagnosis for early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study

  17. Cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA primary screening test: Results of a population-based screening programme in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Basilio; Gustinucci, Daniela; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Cesarini, Elena; Bulletti, Simonetta; Carlani, Angela; Martinelli, Nadia; Broccolini, Massimo; D'Angelo, Valentina; D'Amico, Maria Rosaria; Di Dato, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Paola; Malaspina, Morena; Spita, Nicoletta; Tintori, Beatrice; Giaimo, Maria Donata

    2017-09-01

    Objective To present the results of the first and second round human papilloma virus (HPV)-based screening programme in the Umbria region after three years. Methods From August 2010 to November 2011, the entire female population aged 35-64 in a local health district was invited for HPV testing (HPV-DNA cobas4800 on a liquid-based cytology sample). HPV-negative women were re-invited after three years. For HPV-positive women, a slide was prepared and interpreted. Positive cytologies were referred to colposcopy; negatives were referred to repeat HPV after one year. If HPV was persistently positive, women were referred to colposcopy; if negative, to normal screening. Indicators of the first and second round are compared with those of cytology screening in the same area in the preceding three years. Results Participation was 56.5%, the same as cytology (56.6%). HPV-positivity was 6.4% (396/6272), cytology triage positivity was 35.6%; 251 cytology negative women were referred to one-year HPV retesting, 84.1% complied, and 55.5% were positive. Total colposcopy referral was 4.1%, and for cytology 1%. The detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe was 10‰, compared with 3.7‰ using cytology. After three years, HPV-positivity was 3.4% (129/3831), overall colposcopy referral was 2.3% (most at one-year follow-up), and detection rate was 0.5/1000. Conclusions The first round detection rate was more than twice that of cytology screening, while colposcopy referral increased fourfold. At the second round, the detection rate decreased dramatically, showing that longer interval and more conservative protocols are needed.

  18. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  19. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  20. Design and Testing of a Thermostable Platform for Multimerization of Single Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    H.J. Properties , production, and applications of camelid single domain antibody fragments. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 2007, 77, 13‒22. 2. Goldman...Conway, J.; Sherwood, L.J.; Fech, M.; Vo, B.; Liu, J.L.; Hayhurst, A. Thermostable llama single domain antibodies for detection of Botulinum A...antiparallel coiled-coil inserted. J. Mol. Bio. 2001, 306, 25‒35. 9. Liu, J.L.; Anderson, G.P.; Goldman, E.R. Isolation of anti- toxin single domain

  1. Risk of iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection through transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in a Zambian hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consten, E. C.; van der Meer, J. T.; de Wolf, F.; Heij, H. A.; Henny, P. C.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via the transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Surgical patients (n = 370) were tested with antibody

  2. Evaluation of serological tests for detecting tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christine; Beer, Martin; Saier, Regine; Schubert, Harald; Bischoff, Sabine; Süss, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in animals is not well understood yet. TBE virus (TBEV) serology in several host species could be valuable for epidemiological analyses in the field as well as for the detection of clinical cases. However, performance and suitability of the available test systems are not well assessed. Therefore, we evaluated two commercial TBEV-ELISA kits in a pilot study and compared them for their suitability in veterinary applications. For this purpose, we tested 163 field collected goat sera and evaluated the results by serum neutralization test (SNT) as "gold standard". Twenty-eight SNT positive sera (17.2%) were detected. The best suited ELISA kit was used for determination of a species-specific cutoff for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys with defined sera from animals without known or with improbable contact to TBEV. The level of non-specific ELISA results does not only differ between animal species but may also be influenced by the age of the tested animals. The number of sera which tested false positive by ELISA was higher in older than in young sheep. In order to obtain defined polyclonal sera as references, two dogs, cattle, goats, sheep, rabbits and pigs each, as well as one horse and 90 mice were immunized four times with a commercially available TBEV vaccine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that commercial TBEV-ELISA kits are suitable for application in veterinary medicine for both, verification of clinical TBE cases and epidemiological screening. However, positive ELISA results should be verified by SNT. Only a very low number of false negative ELISA-results were found.

  3. Estimation of diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing test and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Yan, Jing; Jin, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yu; Yu, Wei; Xu, Shanhu; Wu, Haibin; Xu, Ying; Liu, Caixia

    2017-05-09

    Dementia is one of the leading causes of dependence in the elderly. This study was conducted to estimate diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) by Bayesian models. A total of 2015 participants aged 65 years or more in eastern China were enrolled. The four screening tests were administered and scored by specifically trained psychiatrists. The prior information of sensitivity and specificity of every screening test was updated via Bayes' theorem to a posterior distribution. Then the results were compared with the estimation based on National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria (NIA-AA). The diagnostic characteristics of Mini-Cog, including sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, especially the Youden index, performed well, even better than the combinations of several screening tests. The Mini-Cog with excellent screening characteristics, spending less time, could be considered to be used as a screening test to help to screen patients with cognitive impairment or dementia early. And Bayesian method was shown to be a suitable tool for evaluating dementia screening tests. The Mini-Cog with excellent screening characteristics, spending less time, could be considered to be used as a screening test to help to screen patients with cognitive impairment or dementia early. And Bayesian method was shown to be a suitable tool for evaluating dementia screening tests.

  4. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  5. Antibody binding constants from Farr test and other radioimmunoassays. A theoretical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.; Schalch, W.

    1980-01-01

    For the reaction of monovalently reacting antibody (116-700pIEF) with its antigen (streptococcal group A-variant polysaccharide), an apparent binding constant Ksub(a) was derived by the ammonium sulfate precipitation technique (Farr assay) which was 40 times larger than the true binding constant K = 10 6 M -1 determined by fluorescence titration and equilibrium dialysis. For monovalently reacting antibodies the time needed for re-equilibration of the binding reaction is short as compared to the time of ammonium sulfate incubation. A thermodynamic analysis was therefore performed for the case of complete equilibration of all components in solution and in the ammonium sulfate precipitate. It was found that in this limiting case Ksub(a)/K is equal to the ratio of the solubilities of the antibody and the antibody complex corrected by the activity coefficients of the components in the precipitate. For other antibody-antigen reactions in which the antibody reacts with both binding sites to the same antigen molecule, re-equilibration of the binding reaction in solution is much slower. For such systems a disturbance of the binding reaction by the precipitation is less likely and correct binding constants may be obtained by the Farr technique or other radioimmunoassays involving precipitation. (author)

  6. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  7. Evaluation of two automated chemiluminescence immunoassays, the LIAISON Treponema Screen and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP, and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Dietenberger, Hanna

    2011-08-01

    Automated Treponema pallidum-specific chemi-luminescence immunoassays (CLIA) run on random-access analyzers allow for rapid diagnosis of syphilis infection. We evaluated the LIAISON Treponema Screen (LIA) and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP (ARCH) in comparison to the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test, as a screening test for syphilis. We performed a prospective study using 577 sera submitted for diagnosis of syphilis, including 318 samples from pregnant women. In addition, 42 stored sera from 32 patients with clinically and serologically characterized syphilis infection were investigated. In the prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were 100% (18/18), 100% (17/17), and 100% (18/18), and 100% (558/558), 99.8% (552/553), and 99.6% (556/558), respectively. In pregnant women, the specificity of LIA and ARCH was 100% (317/317) and of TPPA 99.7% (316/317). One sample from a child with assumed exposure to maternal antitreponemal antibodies was omitted from analysis. LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were also positive in all investigated sera from patients with known syphilis. Both automated CLIA demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis under routine conditions of a diagnostic laboratory. Thus, these may be used independently as an alternative to the manual TPPA screen.

  8. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  9. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV. Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15% of the clean sera and 7 (41% of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1 establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2 recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3 recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4 store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. [Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening at a public health service of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Solana; Ibáñez, Carolina; Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Brañes, Jorge; Barriga, María Isabel; Cartagena, Jaime; Núñez, Felipe; González, Francisca; Cook, Paz; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection have a good performance as screening tests and could be included in cervical cancer early detection programs. We conducted a population-based trial comparing HPV detection and Papanicolaou as primary screening tests, in a public health service in Santiago, Chile. To describe the experience of implementing this new molecular test and present the main results of the study. Women aged 25 to 64 enrolled in three public health centers were invited to participate. In all women, samples were collected for Papanicolaou and HPV DNA testing, and naked-eye visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was performed. Women with any positive screening test were referred to the local area hospital for diagnostic confirmation with colposcopy and biopsy of suspicious lesions. Screening results were obtained for 8265 women, of whom 931 (11.3%) were positive to any test. The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was 1.1%; nine women had invasive cervical cancer. Sensitivities for the detection of CIN2+ were 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16.4-29.2) for Papanicolaou and 92.7% (95% CI 84.4-96.8) for HPV testing; specificities were 98.9% (95% CI 98.7-99.0) and 92.0% (95% CI 91.4-92.6) respectively. This experience showed that the implementation of a molecular test for cervical cancer screening is not a major challenge in Chile: it was well accepted by both the health team and the participants, and it may improve the effectiveness of the screening program.

  11. Assessment of Prospective Memory – a Validity Study of Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdicek, O.; Raskin, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.; Ruzicka, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal of the present study was to validate the Czech version of the Memory for Intentions (Screening) Test (MIST, 2010). We included standardized testing material, translation of administration and scoring, and assessment of normative data for the MIST in the Czech population. Introduction:

  12. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  13. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  14. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is a breakthrough in prenatal screening Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very...

  15. Cross-sectional evaluation of an internet-based hearing screening test in an occupational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique Cj; de Laat, Jan Apm; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Occupational Earcheck (OEC) is an online internet test to detect high-frequency hearing loss for the purposes of occupational hearing screening. In this study, we evaluated the OEC in an occupational setting in order to assess test sensitivity, specificity, and validity. Methods A

  16. Elevated phenylalanine on newborn screening: follow-up testing may reveal undiagnosed galactosaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Lynette; Downing, Melanie; Allen, Joyce; Casbolt, Ann-Marie; Ellin, Sheila; Maloney, Martin; Race, Gillian; Bonham, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Introduction Newborn screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) can reveal other conditions which lead to an increased blood spot phenylalanine (Phe) concentration. We have investigated the proportion of blood spot samples that gave a positive screen due to clinically significant conditions other than PKU, compared the positive predictive value (PPV) of our referral Phe cut-off with that recommended by the UK Newborn Screening Programme Centre (UKNSPC) (>210 and >240 μmol/L, respectively) and evaluated the effectiveness of reflex testing for galactosaemia using a lower blood spot Phe cut-off concentration of 130 μmol/L. All blood spot samples that screened positive, for an increased Phe concentration, between April 2001 and March 2008, were identified from the records of the Sheffield Newborn Screening Laboratory and the diagnoses noted. In addition, all cases of galactosaemia detected in or notified to our screening laboratory within this time were also examined and the screened Phe concentrations compared. Out of 438,674 babies who were screened, 67 had Phe concentration >210 μmol/L (15 per 100,000). Of these, 40 had PKU or persistent hyperphenylalaninaemia with a Phe concentration identified by screening between 270 and 2350 μmol/L. A further 11 were diagnosed with another clinically significant disorder: galactosaemia (n = 8), biopterin defects (n = 2), tyrosinaemia Type 1 (n = 1). In addition, 16 had transient elevations in Phe. In total, nine cases of galactosaemia were identified, of whom, three had Phe concentrations 240 μmol/L) will not affect the detection rate of classical PKU, but will improve the PPV from 76% to 80%. The use of a lower cut-off (130 μmol/L) for reflex galactosaemia testing enables the timely identification of asymptomatic cases that benefit particularly from early treatment, without prompting any unnecessary clinical referrals or delaying any referrals. This intervention may reduce mortality in this vulnerable group.

  17. IgG western blot for confirmatory diagnosis of equivocal cases of toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and fluorescent antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2013-08-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique.

  18. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Testing in a Large Cohort of Unselected Greek Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsiveriotis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To retrospectively evaluate ANCA testing in a cohort of unselected Greek in- and outpatients. Methods. In 10803 consecutive serum samples, ANCA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and ELISA. ELISA in inpatients was performed only on IIF positive sera. Results. Low prevalence (6.0% of IIF positive samples was observed. Among these samples, 63.5% presented perinuclear (p-ANCA, 9.3% cytoplasmic (c-ANCA and 27.2% atypical (x-ANCA pattern. 16.1% of p-ANCA were antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO positive, whereas 68.3% of c-ANCA were antiproteinase-3 (anti-PR3 positive. Only 17 IIF negative outpatients' samples were ELISA positive. ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV, connective tissue disorders and gastrointestinal disorders represented 20.5%, 23.9%, and 21.2% of positive results, respectively. AAV patients exhibited higher rates of MPO/PR3 specificity compared to non-AAV (93.8% versus 8%. Conclusions. This first paper on Greek patients supports that screening for ANCA by IIF and confirming positive results by ELISA minimize laboratory charges without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Captopril renal scan - a noninvasive screening test for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Captopril renal scan is simple, noninvasive and cost-effective test for the initial diagnosis with the sensitivity of 98%. Renal scan with Tc-99m DTPA was performed on the suspected patient one hour after oral intake of 25 mg of captopril. Relative renal function, renogram curves and GFR for both the kidneys were calculated by computer software. Right kidney was small in size, showed relative renal function of 12% and the GFR was 9.64 ml/min. The left organ revealed relative function of 88% and the GFR was 72.12 ml/min. There was marked difference in renogram peaks. On baseline study, the right kidney showed marked improvement of renogram curve peak and the renal function improved to 23% while the GFR showed rise to 19 ml/min. In comparison with baseline findings, the right kidney, in response to ACE inhibitor showed deterioration of renogram peak, 47.8% deterioration of relative renal function and 49.2% fall in GFR. Major criteria for renovascular cause was fulfilled and the patient was labeled for having high probability for renal artery stenosis. Renal angiography, later on confirmed the diagnosis. (author)

  20. Rapid Screening Assay for the Detection of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol using Monoclonal Antibody and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalenol (NIV) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp that contaminate mainly cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. These mycotoxins are serious health hazards to human and domestic animals. The study reports a rapid screening method of NIV and DO...

  1. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbedewy, T.A.; Elashtokhy, H.A.; Rabee, E.S.; Kheder, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  2. Factors predicting the acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody testing among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Brady, Rebecca C; Tu, Wanzhu; Wu, Jingwei; Bernstein, David I; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Stone, Katherine M; Leichliter, Jami S; Fife, Kenneth H

    2004-11-01

    The rates and determinants of acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) testing have not been adequately studied. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with acceptance of HSV-2 antibody testing in individuals with no history of genital herpes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study followed by the offer of free HSV-2 serologic testing at an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, 2 general adult medical clinics, an urban university campus, and an urban adolescent medicine clinic. A total of 1199 individuals aged 14 to 30 years completed the survey and were offered testing. A total of 68.4% accepted HSV-2 testing. Factors independently associated with acceptance were female sex, older age, having an STD history, having 1 or more sexual partners in the last 6 months, perceived vulnerability to HSV-2 infection, and perceived benefits of HSV-2 testing. Fear of needles predicted rejection of testing, as did attending a general medical clinic versus an STD clinic and nonwhite race. There is a substantial interest in HSV-2 antibody testing across a variety of settings. Those at greatest behavioral and historic risk for HSV-2 infection, women, and persons whose health beliefs are consistent with testing are more likely to accept serologic testing when it is offered.

  3. Ausab test - a radioimmunoassay in the solid phase for the detection of antibodies against HBsAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, W; Koehler, H; Apodaca, J [Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Virologie

    1974-01-01

    The suitability of a newly developed RIA (Ausab test, Abbott laboratories) for the detection of antibodies against the Hepatitis B (surface) antigen (HBsAg) has been tested on 1968 sera of blood donors. Reproducibility test and specificity test were included. During the examination the technique of the Ausab test was changed from the original one-step to the two-step procedure. With the one-step technique 431 of 1968 sera (21.9%) showed positive reactions. During the test problems concerning the differentiation between positive and negative results were encountered due to high unspecific binding of radioactivity. Positive sera were re-examined employing the two-step technique and only 77.4% of the previously positive reactions could be reproduced. 50 sera that were negative in the one-step test remained negative in the two-step test. Difficulties concerning nonspecific binding of radioactivity as observed with the one-step technique were not encountered with the two-step procedure. On 92 of the confirmed positive sera a specificity test was run and 90 (97.8%) proved to be specific. A calculated 16.5% of the blood donors in Berlin have to be considered as antibody carriers. Only 6 of the Ausab positive sera were found to give positive reactions in CEP. 3 sera that were initially positive in CEP could neither be confirmed in a repeated CEP nor in the Ausab test.

  4. The Ausab test - a radioimmunoassay in the solid phase for the detection of antibodies against HBsAg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Koehler, H.; Apodaca, J.

    1974-01-01

    The suitability of a newly developed RIA (Ausab test, Abbott Laboratories) for the detection of antibodies against the Hepatitis B (surface) antigen (HBsAg) has been tested on 1,968 sera of blood donors. Reproducibility test and specificity test were included. During the examination the technique of the Ausab test was changed from the original one-step to the two-step procedure. With the one-step technique 431 of 1,968 sera (21.9%) showed positive reactions. During the test problems concerning the differentiation between positive and negative results were encountered due to high unspecific binding of radioactivity. Positive sera were reexamined employing the two-step technique and only 77.4% of the previously positive reactions could be reproduced. 50 sera that were negative in the one-step test remained negative in the two-step test. Difficulties concerning nonspecific binding of radioactivity as observed with the one-step technique were not ecountered with the two-step procedure. On 92 of the confirmed positive sera a specificity test was run and 90 (97.8%) proved to be specific. A calculated 16.5% of the blood donors in Berlin have to be considered as antibody carriers. Only 6 of the Ausab positive sera were found to give positive reactions in CEP. 3 sera that were initially positive in CEP could neither be confirmed in a repeated CEP nor in the Ausab test. (orig.) [de

  5. The Ausab test - a radioimmunoassay in the solid phase for the detection of antibodies against HBsAg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Koehler, H.; Apodaca, J.

    1974-01-01

    The suitability of a newly developed RIA (Ausab test, Abbott laboratories) for the detection of antibodies against the Hepatitis B (surface) antigen (HBsAg) has been tested on 1968 sera of blood donors. Reproducibility test and specificity test were included. During the examination the technique of the Ausab test was changed from the original one-step to the two-step procedure. With the one-step technique 431 of 1968 sera (21.9%) showed positive reactions. During the test problems concerning the differentiation between positive and negative results were encountered due to high unspecific binding of radioactivity. Positive sera were re-examined employing the two-step technique and only 77.4% of the previously positive reactions could be reproduced. 50 sera that were negative in the one-step test remained negative in the two-step test. Difficulties concerning nonspecific binding of radioactivity as observed with the one-step technique were not encountered with the two-step procedure. On 92 of the confirmed positive sera a specificity test was run and 90 (97.8%) proved to be specific. A calculated 16.5% of the blood donors in Berlin have to be considered as antibody carriers. Only 6 of the Ausab positive sera were found to give positive reactions in CEP. 3 sera that were initially positive in CEP could neither be confirmed in a repeated CEP nor in the Ausab test. (orig.) [de

  6. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  7. Malignancies in Patients with Anti-RNA Polymerase III Antibodies and Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis of the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research Cohort and Possible Recommendations for Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaroni, Maria-Grazia; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Colombo, Enrico; Dobrota, Rucsandra; Hernandez, Jasmin; Hesselstrand, Roger; Varju, Cecilia; Nagy, Gabriella; Smith, Vanessa; Caramaschi, Paola; Riccieri, Valeria; Hachulla, Eric; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Chatelus, Emmanuel; Romanowska-Próchnicka, Katarzyna; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Airò, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the characteristics of anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies (anti-RNAP3)- positive patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR) registry with a focus on the risk of cancer and the characteristics of malignancies, and the aim to provide guidelines about potential cancer screening in these patients. (1) Analysis of the EUSTAR database: 4986 patients with information on their anti-RNAP3 status were included. (2) Case-control study: additional retrospective data, including malignancy history, were queried in 13 participating EUSTAR centers; 158 anti-RNAP3+ cases were compared with 199 local anti-RNAP3- controls, matched for sex, cutaneous subset, disease duration, and age at SSc onset. (3) A Delphi exercise was performed by 82 experts to reach consensus for cancer screening in anti-RNAP3+ patients. In the EUSTAR registry, anti-RNAP3 were associated in multivariable analysis with renal crisis and diffuse cutaneous involvement. In the case-control study, anti-RNAP3 were associated with gastric antral vascular ectasia, rapid progression of skin involvement, and malignancies concomitant to SSc onset (OR 7.38, 95% CI 1.61-33.8). When compared with other anti-RNAP3+ patients, those with concomitant malignancies had older age (p < 0.001) and more frequent diffuse cutaneous involvement (p = 0.008). The Delphi exercise highlighted the need for malignancy screening at the time of diagnosis for anti-RNAP3+ patients and tight followup in the following years. Anti-RNAP3+ patients with SSc have a high risk of concomitant malignancy. These results have implications for clinical practice and suggest regular screening for cancer in anti-RNAP3+ patients.

  8. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  9. Relationship between serum Chlamydia trachomatis antibody titer and tubal block in infertile Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khairy Makled

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: ELISA can be used as a simple, noninvasive screening test for C. trachomatis IgG antibodies, with a high predictive value for tubal occlusion in infertile Egyptian women, however larger studies are needed to confirm our results.

  10. A focus group study of consumer attitudes toward genetic testing and newborn screening for deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sarah K; Withrow, Kara; Arnos, Kathleen S; Kalfoglou, Andrea L; Pandya, Arti

    2006-12-01

    Progress in identifying genes for deafness together with implementation of universal audiologic screening of newborns has provided the opportunity for more widespread use of molecular tests to detect genetic forms of hearing loss. Efforts to assess consumer attitudes toward these advances have lagged behind. Consumer focus groups were held to explore attitudes toward genetic advances and technologies for hearing loss, views about newborn hearing screening, and reactions to the idea of adding molecular screening for hearing loss at birth. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Five focus groups with 44 participants including hearing parents of deaf children, deaf parents and young deaf adults were held. Focus group participants supported the use of genetic tests to identify the etiology of hearing loss but were concerned that genetic information might influence reproductive decisions. Molecular newborn screening was advocated by some; however, others expressed concern about its effectiveness. Documenting the attitudes of parents and other consumers toward genetic technologies establishes the framework for discussions on the appropriateness of molecular newborn screening for hearing loss and informs specialists about potential areas of public education necessary prior to the implementation of such screening.

  11. Comparison of indirect hemagglutination and 51Chromium release tests for detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antibodies in patients with recurrent herpes infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavalu, L.; Seth, P.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutination and 51 Cr release tests (IHAT and 51-CRT respectively) were compared in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from whom HSV-1 or HSV-2 was isolated. Both tests were equally sensitive and specific in detecting HSV antibodies. However, IHAT was more specific in detecting homologous HSV antibody response in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Past infections with HSV-1 in the patients with dual infections were detected by determining HSV-type specific antibodies by inhibition of IHAT. Cross absorption studies showed that the antibody reactivity measured by the two tests was qualitatively and quantitatively different. Nevertheless, IHAT has been found to be more appropriate test for seroepidemiologic studies of HSV-2 infections because of its specificity, rapidity and less cost, whereas, 51-CRT appears to measure antibodies against recent and more predominant type of infecting HSV. (Author)

  12. Development of a immunochromatographic test with avidin-biotin for the detection of antibodies against antigen e of hepatitis B in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainet Gonzalez, Damian; Palenzuela Gardon, Daniel O; Diaz Argudin, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The disappearance of antigen e of hepatitis B in the presence of the plasmatic antibodies against antigen e may indicate a satisfactory therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The immuno-chromatographic test carried out in the diagnosis of diseases use different antibody combinations and may employ the avidin or streptavidin-biotin technology to develop a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for the detection of antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. They were detected in the laboratory by means of two fast immuno-chromatographic tests when using in one of them the avidin-biotin technology. These tests are carried out with a one-step competitive inhibition format and amplified or not with avidin-biotin. Monoclonal antibodies against antigen e obtained by cellular hybridization were used. Forty-six plasmatic samples classified as positive and negative to the anti-antigen antibodies were evaluated with a reference immunochromatographic test Advanced QualityTM. The possible expiry time of the biological reagents forming part of these tests were studied with accelerated thermal-stability experiments. The possible interference in the plasma of some of the biochemical compounds used in these trials was analyzed. Four murine monoclonal antibodies anti-antigen e were obtained and only one of them was used in these immunochromatographic tests with an anti-antigen polyclonal antibody conjugated with gold. Both tests and their stable biological reagents discriminated the positive and negative samples to the antibodies anti-antigen e, as well as the commercial test. There was no interference in the biochemical compounds studied in these tests. Both immuno-chromatographic tests made in the laboratory are useful to detect antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. The avidin-biotin increased the analytical sensitivity of this type of fast immuno-chromatographic test without altering its performance features. (Author)

  13. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  14. Speech-in-noise screening tests by internet, part 3: test sensitivity for uncontrolled parameters in domestic usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    The online speech-in-noise test 'Earcheck' is sensitive for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study investigates effects of uncontrollable parameters in domestic self-screening, such as presentation level and transducer type, on speech reception thresholds (SRTs) obtained with Earcheck.

  15. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO 2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective levels of canine distemper virus antibody in an urban dog population using plaque reduction neutralization test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Oyedele

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 50 dogs were collected at three veterinary clinics in Ibadan and Abuja, Nigeria and the serum from each sample was evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV by the highly sensitive plaque reduction (PRN neutralization assay. Thirteen dogs had plaque reduction neutralization titres of 0-100, seven had titres of 100-1 000 while 30 had titres ranging from 1 000-6 000. The PRN titres of vaccinated dogs were found to be significantly higher than unvaccinated dogs. The widespread use of the highly reproducible PRN test for the evaluation of antibody response to CDV may be very important in the generation of international CDV positive serum standards that should help to improve pre-and post-vaccination testing of dogs worldwide.

  17. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  18. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions...... in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively...

  19. Imaging evaluation of infants with neuroblastoma detected by VMA screening spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, M.; Saiki, N.; Aihara, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the Saitama Prefecture in Japan, VMA (vanillyl manderic acid) screening spot test for detection of neuroblastoma has been performed in 173,046 infants in the years 1981-1986 and 15 infants were found to have neuroblastoma. Two infants had mediastinal tumors and the remainder, 13, had intraabdominal tumors. Only 7 infants had palpable masses. Although CT was documented to be the best imaging procedure to provide sufficient information for treatment, conventional radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen, and abdominal ultrasonography were able, as initial imaging procedures, to detect reasonably small neuroblastomas in infants with a positive VMA screening test. (orig.)

  20. Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    determined that shielding the screen from solar gains was the best way to avoid monitor failure. In order to accomplish this Hot Mirror glass from...side of the monitor in order to shield the monitor from the solar loading. 2.7 Test 7 – Bench Test with a 250 W Heat Lamp and Hot Mirror Glass , 1 Inch...method to shield the screen from solar loading. The Hot Mirror glass uses a glass substrate with a coating on 1 side that passes visible light, but

  1. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  2. Attitudes towards colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening tests among elderly Malay patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Yap, Bee W; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Osman, Muhamed T

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in Malaysia, where data are limited regarding knowledge and barriers in regard to CRC and screening tests. The aim of the study was to assess these parameters among Malaysians. The questionnaires were distributed in the Umra Private Hospital in Selangor. The questionnaire had four parts and covered social-demographic questions, respondent knowledge about CRC and colorectal tests, attitude towards CRC and respondentaction regarding CRC. More than half of Malay participants (total n=187) were female (57.2%) and 36.9% of them were working as professionals. The majority of the participants (93.6%) never had a CRC screening test. The study found that only 10.2% of the study participants did not consider that their chances of getting CRC were high. A high percentage of the participants (43.3%) believed that they would have good chance of survival if the cancer would be found early. About one third of the respondents did not want to do screening because of fear of cancer, and concerns of embarrassment during the procedure adversely affected attitude to CRC screening as well. Age, gender, income, family history of CRC, vegetable intake and physical activity were found to be significant determinants of knowledge on CRC. The major barriers identified towards CRC screening identified in our study were fear of pain and embarrassment. The findings have implications for understanding of similarities and differences in attitude to CRC amongst elderly patients in other cultural/ geographic regions.

  3. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2010-07-12

    Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.

  4. Determination of antinucleic factors and anti-DNA and antibodies with immunefluorescence, radioimmunoassay and latex-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmel, E M; Hoffmann, R; Botzenhardt, U

    1976-01-01

    The results obtained with the 3 test methods are not completely equal. This is, on the one hand, based on the fact that at least in the fluorescence test other antibodies than in the DNA-compound test are also detected. Quantitatively, however, the two tests show a good correlation to the progress of the illness; strong positive DNA-compound is practically only found in SLE. The authors were able to prove that the addition of purified C1 or C1q components of the complementary system to the test can result in a DNA binding of over 50% and, consequently, in incorrect positive values in the compound test. The Latex test is less suitable for diagnosis and course observation since it relatively often renders negative results at established cases of SLE with distinct illness activity on the one hand, while on the other hand, quantitative evidence, which is desirable for assessing the illness activity, is not possible.

  5. Evaluation of the localization auditory screening test in children 6-18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillis, C H; Grimm, W A

    1978-01-01

    The present paper is a report of a project to develop an automated auditory screening test for infants six to 18 months of age. The first year of the project was devoted to developing equipment and test procedures; the second year was concerned with testing the effectiveness of the equipment and procedures on an actual population of six to 18 month old infants. Two-hundred and fifty infants were screened auditorily as part of a county health department child development clinic. The pass/fail results of the screening test were evaluated in terms of physical and developmental examination following the screening and by means of a case review of the child's previous history. The results indicate that the procedure under investigation can be used to differentiate the normal hearing infant from the infant with possible hearing problems. It is shown by the test environment in which this study was conducted that the procedure reported can be successfully incorporated into a public health program, i.e., child development clinics or EPSDT programs.

  6. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hazardous or risky drinking. Two instruments in particular, the AUDIT and the CAGE, are cited throughout this issue— ... drinking in a very specific population—pregnant women. The AUDIT, CAGE, and T-ACE are presented here in ...

  7. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Selby, Neil [AWE Blacknest

    2012-08-14

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  8. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    including stromal, endothelial, and immune cells (20,21). Tumors can be infiltrated with many types of lymphocytes, some that may foster and others that may...reactive and less clonally expanded anti-hemagglutinin antibodies than influenza vaccination. PLoS One 6, e25797 32. Chen, Z. J., Wheeler , C. J., Shi, W

  9. Patient Preferences Regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening: Test Features and Cost Willing to Pay Out of Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney C; Weiss, Paul S; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Mittal, Pardeep K; Votaw, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether test features would make an individual more or less likely to undergo colorectal cancer screening and how much an individual would be willing to pay out of pocket for a screening test. The methods include an administration of a survey to consecutive adult patients of a general medicine clinic. The survey consisted of Likert-scale questions assessing the patients' likelihood of choosing a screening test based on various test characteristics. Additional questions measured the patients' age, race, gender, and maximum out-of-pocket cost they would be willing to pay. Chi-square tests were used to assess the associations between the likelihood questions and the various demographic characteristics. In results, survey response rate was 88.8% (213 of 240). Respondents were 48.4% female (103 of 213), 51.6% male (110 of 213), 82.6% White (176 of 213), 11.3% African-American (24 of 213), and 6.1% other (13 of 213). Risk of internal injury and light exposure to radiation were the least desirable test features. Light sedation was the only test feature that most respondents (54.8%) indicated would make them likely or very likely to undergo a colorectal cancer screening test. The vast majority of respondents (86.8%) were willing to pay less than $200 out of pocket for a colorectal cancer screening test. There was no statistically significant difference in the responses of males and females, or in the responses of individuals of different races or different ages regarding test features, or the amount individuals were willing to pay for a screening test. To conclude, survey results suggest that patient education emphasizing the low complication rate of computed tomographic colonography (CTC), the minimal risks associated with the low-level radiation exposure resulting from CTC, and the benefits of a sedation-free test (eg, no risk of sedation-related complication and no need for a driver) may increase patient acceptance of

  10. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. Development of diagnostic RI test method for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) antibody, an autoantibody of nerve intractable diseases and I-type diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saita, Takahiko

    1999-01-01

    Characterization of brain GAD derived from various animals was made using anti-GAD65 peptide and anti-GAD67 peptide antibodies, and the effects of the peptide antibodies on GAD activities were investigated. Enzyme fractions of GAD were prepared from the brains of mouse, rat, bovine and humans to perform Western blot analysis and GAD enzyme assay. When the brain homogenate was applied to Western blotting analysis, anti-GAD65 N-peptide antibody and anti-GAD67 N-peptide one specifically reacted with 67 kDa and 65 kDa isoform, respectively, whereas their C-peptide antibodies were reactive to both respective isoforms. There was no difference in each isoform molecular weight among the species. The immuno-specificity of these antipeptide antibodies was confirmed by immune absorbance assay in the presence of each peptide. Then, effects of the anti-peptide antibody on GAD activity were investigated. The activity of GAD immobilized on the column was dose-dependently increased by adding the anti-serum containing GAD65 or GAD67 N-peptide antibody, but the GAD activity was fully inactivated in the presence of GAD67 C-peptide antibody as well as in the normal serum. These results showed that GAD65 and GAD67 could be isolated by selective use of the respective N-peptide antibodies. However, the yield of isolation by antibody affinity column chromatography was considerably low (only several %) and the enzyme activity obtained was almost inactivated. Therefore, further improvement of the isolation method was thought necessary to use for convenient screening. (M.N.)

  13. Development of diagnostic RI test method for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) antibody, an autoantibody of nerve intractable diseases and I-type diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saita, Takahiko [Utano National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of brain GAD derived from various animals was made using anti-GAD65 peptide and anti-GAD67 peptide antibodies, and the effects of the peptide antibodies on GAD activities were investigated. Enzyme fractions of GAD were prepared from the brains of mouse, rat, bovine and humans to perform Western blot analysis and GAD enzyme assay. When the brain homogenate was applied to Western blotting analysis, anti-GAD65 N-peptide antibody and anti-GAD67 N-peptide one specifically reacted with 67 kDa and 65 kDa isoform, respectively, whereas their C-peptide antibodies were reactive to both respective isoforms. There was no difference in each isoform molecular weight among the species. The immuno-specificity of these antipeptide antibodies was confirmed by immune absorbance assay in the presence of each peptide. Then, effects of the anti-peptide antibody on GAD activity were investigated. The activity of GAD immobilized on the column was dose-dependently increased by adding the anti-serum containing GAD65 or GAD67 N-peptide antibody, but the GAD activity was fully inactivated in the presence of GAD67 C-peptide antibody as well as in the normal serum. These results showed that GAD65 and GAD67 could be isolated by selective use of the respective N-peptide antibodies. However, the yield of isolation by antibody affinity column chromatography was considerably low (only several %) and the enzyme activity obtained was almost inactivated. Therefore, further improvement of the isolation method was thought necessary to use for convenient screening. (M.N.)

  14. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  15. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA, created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology in NSP for 5 inherited metabolic diseases, using ultramicroassays developed at the Department of Newborn Screening at the Immunoassay Center. Since 1986, SUMA technology has been used in the Cuban NSP for congenital hypothyroidism, initially studying thyroid hormone in cord serum samples. In 2000, a decentralized program for the detection of hyperphenylalaninemias using heel dried blood samples was initiated. These successful experiences permitted including protocols for screening congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, and biotinidase deficiency in 2005. A program for the newborn screening of CH using the thyroid-stimulating hormone Neonatal ultramicro-ELISA was fully implemented in 2010. Nowadays, the NSP is supported by a network of 175 SUMA laboratories. After 30 years, more than 3.8 million Cuban newborns have been screened, and 1002 affected children have been detected. Moreover, SUMA technology has been presented in Latin America for over 2 decades and has contributed to screen around 17 million newborns. These results prove that developing countries can develop appropriate diagnostic technologies for making health care accessible to all.

  16. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  17. Validity of Commonly Used Clinical Tests to Diagnose and Screen for Spinal Pain in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2016-01-01

    , the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.60 to 0.65. None of the selected tests could predict incidence cases of neck pain, mid back pain, or low back pain. CONCLUSION: Clinical tests commonly used in spinal screening in adolescents could not detect present spinal pain...... under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for evaluation of all tests combined. RESULTS: The sensitivity was low, and specificity was high for all tests at both baseline (age, 11-13 years) and follow-up (age, 13-15 years). When all tests were evaluated collectively in 1 model...

  18. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  19. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can the Bruckner test be used as a rapid screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the suitability of Brückner test as a screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children. Materials and Methods: A pediatric ophthalmologist prospectively observed the size and location of pupillary crescent on Brückner test as hyperopic, myopic or astigmatic. This was compared with the cycloplegic refraction. Detailed ophthalmic examination was done for all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Brückner test were determined for the defined cutoff levels of ametropia. Results: Ninety-six subjects were examined. Mean age was 8.6 years (range 1 to 16 years. Brückner test could be completed for all; the time taken to complete this test was 10 seconds per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 131 eyes as ametropic, 61 as emmetropic. The Brückner test had sensitivity 91%, specificity 72.8%, positive predictive value 85.5% and negative predictive value 83.6%. Of 10 false negatives four had compound hypermetropic astigmatism and three had myopia. Conclusions: Brückner test can be used to rapidly screen the children for significant refractive errors. The potential benefits from such use may be maximized if programs use the test with lower crescent measurement cutoffs, a crescent measurement ruler and a distance fixation target.

  1. Influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency-doubling perimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, GP; Jansonius, NM

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency,doubling perimetry (FDT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: FDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated three times using three different strategies for handling unreliable (that is, > 0

  2. Individual differences in aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments: association with cancer screening cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Williams, Andrew E; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F Lee; Klein, William M P; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2014-12-01

    Aversion to "ambiguity"-uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information-about medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. A survey of 1,074 adults, ages 40 to 70 years, was conducted in four integrated U.S. healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and PSA screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (P ambiguity. Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level...

  4. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  5. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of

  6. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 ...

  7. Contribution to the study for an optimum choice of filter and screens in radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillieret, V.; Peix, G.; Babot, D.; Lormand, G.

    1985-01-01

    In order to optimize the choices of screens and filter in steel specimens radiographic testing with iridium 192 and cobalt 60, we started a theoretical and experimental study of their actions on radiative and latent images formation. Theoretical modelisation of photons interactions in steel and experimental apparatus for spectral analysis are described

  8. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  9. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  10. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  11. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C Franzeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. RESULTS: Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47, 169/272 (63% subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439. HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0% subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28% were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6% and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%. Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Pilot study of risk behaviour, voluntary HIV counselling and HIV antibody testing from saliva among inmates of prisons in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneková, D; Ondrejka, D; Habeková, M; Wimmerová, S; Kucerková, S

    2001-05-01

    To implement a pilot study of risk behaviour and HIV infection using HIV antibody testing from saliva to improve the situation as regards HIV/AIDS infection in prison institutions in the Slovak Republic. The study comprised adult and juvenile males of grade one correction categories and prisoners from the prison for juveniles in Martin, as well as females prisoners in Nitra. Preventive activities were implemented in May 1998 in the form of discussions concerning topics related to HIV/AIDS infection. Saliva was collected for the presence of HIV antibodies and a questionnaire regarding sexual practice was completed. 32 persons [8 adult males (25%), 6 juvenile males (18.7%) and 18 females (56%)] were voluntarily tested for the presence of HIV antibodies in saliva. Nobody was HIV-positive. 75 persons (20 adult males, 30 juvenile males and 25 females) were involved in the study of risk behaviour. 40.8% participants had primary education, 28.2% secondary education, 2.8% were students of universities and 28.2% were apprenticies. 60% inmates (mostly females) were religious. Juvenile males reported the highest number of partners while females the smallest (p prison while 19%, 5.6% and 8.3% in the prison, respectively. Paid sexual services were offered by 9.1% females, 15.8% adult males and 25% juvenile males. Outside prison adult and juvenile males used non-sterile used syringes as well as tattooing more often than females (p prisoners.

  13. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  14. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  15. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  16. Comparison between the Counter Immunoelectrophoresis Test and Mouse Neutralization Test for the Detection of Antibodies against Rabies Virus in Dog Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Helena Queiroz da Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of rabies antibodies is extremely valuable for epidemiological studies, determination of immune status in man, animals, and for the diagnosis of the disease. Several serological procedures have been described for this purpose. The present study reports a comparison between counterimmunoelectrophoresis test (CIET and mouse neutralization test (MNT in the detection of antibodies against rabies virus from 212 serum samples of vaccinated dogs. The agreement between both techniques was 79.7% and a significative association was demonstrated. The correlation coefficients between MNT and the CIET titers was determined considering 88 samples showing positive results in both techniques [CIET = 2 and MNT = 5 (0.13 IU/ml] and resulted r² = 0.7926 (p < 0.001. The performance of CIET system was technically simple, cheap and rapid, and thereby it could be useful for serological monitoring of dog vaccination campaigns as well as for individual analysis.

  17. Awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentın; Lopez de Andres, Ana; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo Pino, Carmen; Jimenez-Garcıa, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    We aim to describe levels of awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests and to analyze the association to socio-demographic and health-related variables. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted using a home-based personal interview survey on a nationwide representative sample (n = 7938) of population aged ≥18 years (Oncobarometro Survey). Awareness was assessed by asking participants: Now I am going to mention several medical tests for cancer detection, please tell me if you already know about them or if this is the first time you have heard of them? The tests mentioned were faecal occult blood test (FOBT), mammography, Pap smear and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Cancer screening uptake was assessed by asking participants whether they had received tests within the previous 2 years. Awareness rates of 38.55% for FOBT, 95.03% for mammography, 70.84% for Pap smears and 54.72% for PSA were found. Uptake mammography was 74.46%, Pap smears 65.57%, PSA 35.19% and FOBT 9.40%. Factors such as immigration status, lower educational level or income and not suffering from chronic conditions are negative predictors for uptake. Awareness and uptake results showed acceptable figures for mammography, moderate for Pap smears and unacceptably low for FOBT. Inequalities exist in uptake of cancer screening. It is necessary to develop public health educational programmes, especially for the vulnerable populations, aiming to inform and motivate them to use screening services on a regular basis. Our data suggest that although PSA is not recommended, this opportunistic screening is frequently used in Spain.

  18. Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) and fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Eduardo S.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Pacheco, Raquel S.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2005-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) has proved to be a very important sero-diagnostic tool combining high levels of intrinsic validity and ease of performance. Otherwise, fast agglutination screening test (FAST) utilises only one serum dilution making the test very suitable for the screening of

  19. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  1. Uptake of a colorectal cancer screening blood test in people with elevated risk for cancer who cannot or will not complete a faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Cock, Charles; Meng, Rosie; Cole, Stephen R; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P

    2017-03-31

    Participation rates in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are low. Nonparticipation is commonly attributed to psychosocial factors, but some medical conditions also prevent screening. These barriers might be partially overcome if a blood test for CRC screening was available. This study determined whether people who had always declined screening by FOBT would participate if offered a blood test. An audit of registrants within a personalized CRC screening programme was undertaken to determine the reasons for regular nonparticipation in FOBT. Consistent nonparticipants (n=240) were randomly selected and invited for CRC screening with a blood test. Demographic characteristics and the reasons for prior FOBT nonparticipation were collected by means of a questionnaire. Nonparticipation in the screening programme could be classified as either behavioural (8.6%), with consistent noncompliance, or due to medical contraindications (8.5%), which included chronic rectal bleeding, being deemed unsuitable by a health professional, and needing personal assistance. Blood test uptake was 25%, with participation in the medical contraindications group greater than that in the behavioural group (43 vs. 12%, Pprocrastination and dislike of the test, but these were not associated with blood test uptake (P>0.05). There is a subgroup of the community who have medical reasons for nonparticipation in CRC screening with FOBT but will participate if offered a blood test. The option of a blood test does not, however, improve uptake in those who admit to behavioural reasons for noncompliance with screening.

  2. Rapid Identification of Dengue Virus Serotypes Using Monoclonal Antibodies in an Indirect Immunofluorescence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    encephalitis(TBH-28), West Nile(E-101), Yellow fever(French neurotropic and 17D strains), and Zika . Two Sandfly Fever viruses (213452 and Candiru) were...were provided as first passage isolates ( Aedes pseudoscutellaris cells, AP-61) or human serum from recent dengue virus patients. African isolates... viruses of the Phlebovirus genus (Table 1). Several monoclonal antibody preparations reacted solely with dengue virus serotypes. Two preparations (13E7 and

  3. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool.

  4. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  5. The Clock Drawing Test versus Mini-mental Status Examination as a Screening Tool for Dementia: A Clinical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G. Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C.; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated. PMID:29403122

  6. The Clock Drawing Test versus Mini-mental Status Examination as a Screening Tool for Dementia: A Clinical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated.

  7. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  8. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations.

  9. Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent but under-diagnosed in primary care settings. To validate, in primary care, a single-item screening test for unhealthy alcohol use recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Cross-sectional study. Adult English-speaking patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms. Participants were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of 1 or greater [corrected] is considered positive. Unhealthy alcohol use was defined as the presence of an alcohol use disorder, as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview, or risky consumption, as determined using a validated 30-day calendar method. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single-question screen was 81.8% sensitive (95% confidence interval (CI) 72.5% to 88.5%) and 79.3% specific (95% CI 73.1% to 84.4%) for the detection of unhealthy alcohol use. It was slightly more sensitive (87.9%, 95% CI 72.7% to 95.2%) but was less specific (66.8%, 95% CI 60.8% to 72.3%) for the detection of a current alcohol use disorder. Test characteristics were similar to that of a commonly used three-item screen, and were affected very little by subject demographic characteristics. The single screening question recommended by the NIAAA accurately identified unhealthy alcohol use in this sample of primary care patients. These findings support the use of this brief screen in primary care.

  10. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Forward Genetic Screening Using Behavioral Tests in Zebrafish: A Proof of Concept Analysis of Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert; Poshusta, Tanya L; Rampersad, Mindy; Fernandes, Yohaan; Greenwood, Tammy M; Cousin, Margot A; Klee, Eric W; Clark, Karl J

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens. We generated mutant lines using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, allowing us to bias mutant selection with target genes expressed within the brain. Furthermore, we employed an efficient and fast behavioral pre-selection in which we investigated the locomotory response of 5-day post-fertilization old larval fish to hyperosmotic shock. Based on this assay, we selected five lines for our lower throughput secondary adult behavioral screen. The latter screen utilized tests in which computer animated image presentation and video-tracking-based automated quantification of behavior allowed us to compare heterozygous zebrafish with their wild-type siblings on their responses to a variety of stimuli. We found significant mutation induced adult behavioral alterations in 4 out of the 5 lines analyzed, including changes in response to social or fear inducing stimuli, to handling and novelty, or in habituation to novelty. We discuss the pros and cons of behavioral phenotyping and of the use of different forward genetic methods in biomedical research with zebrafish.

  12. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  14. Utility of quick oculomotor tests for screening the vestibular system in the subacute and chronic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of some widely used, easily administered clinical tests. Simple tests of oculomotor function have become widely used for clinical screening of patients suspected of having vestibular disorders despite a paucity of evidence showing good statistical support for their use in this highly variable population. Healthy controls with no history of otologic or neurologic disorders (n = 291) were compared to patients with known vestibular disorders (n = 62). All subjects performed passive and active head shaking, un-instrumented head impulse tests (HT), and video head impulse tests (vHIT) recorded with infrared video-oculography. For both passive and active head shaking, using presence/absence of vertigo and of nystagmus, sensitivity was low (<0.40). Sensitivity of presence/absence of saccades on HT was even lower (<0.15). On vHIT, gains were all approximately = 1.0, so sensitivity was very low (approximately 0.15-0.35). Sensitivity and specificity for presence/absence of saccades were moderately poor (less than 0.70). None of these tests are adequate for screening patients in the out-patient clinic for vestibular disorders or for screening people in epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of vestibular disorders.

  15. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  16. Preclinical Testing of Antihuman CD28 Fab' Antibody in a Novel Nonhuman Primate Small Animal Rodent Model of Xenogenic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, Keli L; Watkins, Benjamin; Tkachev, Victor; Lemire, Amanda M; Lehnen, Charles; Riddle, Megan J; Singh, Karnail; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Vanhove, Bernard; Tolar, Jakub; Kean, Leslie S; Blazar, Bruce R

    2016-12-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current therapies to prevent alloreactive T cell activation largely cause generalized immunosuppression and may result in adverse drug, antileukemia and antipathogen responses. Recently, several immunomodulatory therapeutics have been developed that show efficacy in maintaining antileukemia responses while inhibiting GVHD in murine models. To analyze efficacy and better understand immunological tolerance, escape mechanisms, and side effects of clinical reagents, testing of species cross-reactive human agents in large animal GVHD models is critical. We have previously developed and refined a nonhuman primate (NHP) large animal GVHD model. However, this model is not readily amenable to semi-high throughput screening of candidate clinical reagents. Here, we report a novel, optimized NHP xenogeneic GVHD (xeno-GVHD) small animal model that recapitulates many aspects of NHP and human GVHD. This model was validated using a clinically available blocking, monovalent anti-CD28 antibody (FR104) whose effects in a human xeno-GVHD rodent model are known. Because human-reactive reagents may not be fully cross-reactive or effective in vivo on NHP immune cells, this NHP xeno-GVHD model provides immunological insights and direct testing on NHP-induced GVHD before committing to the intensive NHP studies that are being increasingly used for detailed evaluation of new immune therapeutic strategies before human trials.

  17. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  18. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P

    2018-03-01

    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Autoantibodies to the Rpp25 component of the Th/To complex are the most common antibodies in patients with systemic sclerosis without antibodies detectable by widely available commercial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Satoh, Minoru; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Chan, Jason Y F; Chan, Edward K L; Wick, James; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2014-07-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) occur in up to 95% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). In most, SSc-associated antibodies are detected (i.e., centromere, topoisomerase I, RNA polymerase III, PM/Scl, Ro52/TRIM21, and U1RNP). Ribonuclease P protein subunit p25, (Rpp25) is an autoantigenic component of the Th/To complex. The contribution of anti-Th/To and anti-Rpp25 antibodies to ANA positivity in patients with SSc remains unknown. Sera from 873 patients with SSc were tested for ANA, and SSc-associated antibodies were measured. Samples without antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA; n = 53, ANA+/ENA-), were analyzed by immunoprecipitation (IP) and metabolically labeled proteins and for anti-Rpp25 antibodies (n = 50) by a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and Rpp25 ELISA. Anti-Th/To antibodies occurred in 19/53 (36%), as determined by IP, and were the most common autoantibody in ANA+/ENA- SSc. Of those samples, 50/53 were available for additional testing by CLIA and ELISA. Anti-Rpp25 antibodies were detected in 12 (24% CLIA) or 10 (20% ELISA) of 50 patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed similar discrimination between Th/To IP-positive (n = 19) and -negative samples (n = 31) by CLIA and ELISA (area under the curve 0.90 vs 0.87; p = 0.6691). The positive percent agreement between IP and CLIA or ELISA was 12/19 (63.2%, 95% CI 38.4-83.7%) or 10/19 (52.6%, 95% CI 73.3-94.2%), respectively. Negative percent agreement was 100% for both assays. Autoantibodies to the Th/To autoantigen are important in patients with SSc who have been considered negative for SSc-specific or SSc-associated antibodies by widely available commercial assays. Rpp25 can be considered a major target of anti-Th/To antibodies. Assays detecting anti-Th/To and anti-Rpp25 antibodies may be important in SSc.

  20. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  1. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne

    2013-06-10

    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Review of beta2 -glycoprotein-l antibody testing results from a peer-driven multilaboratory quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W; Jovanovich, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the results of lgG beta2-glycoprotein-I (B2GPI) antibody assays in a multilaboratory setting by analyzing data from an external quality assurance program for the 2003 through 2005 cycles for 27 serum samples, including quantitative IgG-B2GPI values and qualitative interpretation and grading (ie, negative or positive; grade of positivity), according to method type and in conjunction with clinical data. We report high interlaboratory variation in numeric IgG-B2GPI results, comparable to that reported for IgG anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) testing, and some method-based variation. For example, interlaboratory coefficients of variation for IgG-B2GPI were more than 50% in 19 samples (70%). For qualitative reporting, there was generally better consensus than previously reported for semiquantitative IgG-aCL testing; although 100% consensus occurred for only 11 samples (41%), more than 90% of laboratories agreed for 19 samples (70%). In some cases, laboratory findings (negative or positive IgG-B2GPI) did not agree with clinical information. Despite the lack of formal standardization for IgG-B2GPI testing compared with IgG-aCL, there seems to be better cross-laboratory consensus. Improvement in standardization of these assays is still required to improve interlaboratory and intermethod concordance of results and interpretation between laboratories and the clinical usefulness of IgG-B2GPI testing.

  4. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  5. Evaluation of a covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for screening of Salmonella antibodies in pig serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, E.Y.W.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Jauho, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a commercial Salmonella covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological detection of Salmonella infection in swine was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional fecal culture method and inter-laboratory proficiency testing, using a panel of sera tested.......9% tested negative. The interlaboratory comparison study found a kappa value of 0.9 between our laboratory (using an automated system) and the manufacturer laboratory (using the manual method). Comparison of ELISA results from all 5 participating laboratories showed very good to excellent agreement, between...

  6. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  7. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  8. [Costs of Chagas' disease screening test in blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis, Nelson José; Díaz, Diana Patricia; Castillo, Liliana; Alvis, Nelson Rafael; Bermúdez, María Isabel; Berrío, Olga Maritza; Beltrán, Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2018-03-15

    Transfusion is a mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease. There are no studies on the costs of the screening test in Colombian blood banks. To estimate the costs of the screening test for Chagas' disease among blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015. We conducted a micro-costing study from the perspective of the health care provider to estimate the cost of Chagas' disease testing in two blood banks, Banco de Sangre de la Cruz Roja, Seccional Bolívar, and Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Yopal, Casanare, taking into account four cost categories: 1) Administrative costs: public services and insurance costs were calculated based on the blood bank area in square meters; 2) capital costs: building and equipment costs that were annualized using a 3% discount rate and a lifespan of 20 years for building and five for equipment; 3) costs of Chagas' disease test materials and reagents adjusted by blood bank production level, and 4) costs of staff in charge of Chagas' disease test processing. The costs of transfusion bagsand immunohematology tests are also reported. The cost of Chagas' disease test in the blood bank of Seccional Bolívar was COP$ 37,804 (USD$ 12), and the blood bag and immunohematology test costs were COP$ 25,941 (USD$ 8.2) and COP$ 6,800 (USD$ 2.2), respectively. In the blood bank of Yopal, Casanare, the costs were COP$ 77,384 (USD$ 24.6), COP$ 30,141 (USD$ 9.6) and COP$ 12,627 (USD$ 4), respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the highest percentage of the total cost for both blood banks (47.5% in Seccional Bolívar, and 55.7% in Yopal, Casanare). Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.

  9. The King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool administered by sports parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, D F; Balcer, L J; Galetta, S L; Liu, Z; Master, C L

    2014-02-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing awareness due to short- and long-term neurologic sequelae seen among athletes. The King-Devick (K-D) test captures impairment of eye movements and other correlates of suboptimal brain function. We investigated the K-D test as a screening for concussion when administered by layperson sports parents in a cohort of amateur boxers. The K-D test was administered pre-fight and post-fight by laypersons masked to the head trauma status of each athlete. Matches were watched over by a ringside physician and boxing trainer. Athletes with suspected head trauma received testing with the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) by the ringside physician to determine concussion status. Athletes sustaining concussion were compared to the athletes screened using the K-D test. Post-fight K-D scores were lower (better) than the best baseline score (41 vs. 39.3 s, P=0.34, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), in the absence of concussion. One boxer sustained a concussion as determined by the ringside physician. This boxer was accurately identified by the layperson K-D testers due to a worsening in K-D test compared to baseline (3.2 seconds) and an increased number of errors. High levels of test-retest reliability were observed (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 [95% CI 0.84-0.97]). Additionally, 6 boxers who participated in multiple bouts showed no worsening of their K-D times further supporting that scores are not affected by the fatigue associated with sparring. The K-D test is a rapid sideline screening tool for concussion that can be effectively administered by non-medically trained laypersons.

  10. Automated Cervical Screening and Triage, Based on HPV Testing and Computer-Interpreted Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Hyun, Noorie; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Zhang, Han; Stamps, Robin E; Poitras, Nancy E; Wheeler, William; Befano, Brian; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-11

    State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions. To permit completely automatable cervical screening/triage, we designed and validated a novel triage method, a cytologic risk score algorithm based on computer-scanned liquid-based slide features (FocalPoint, BD, Burlington, NC). We compared it with abnormal cytology in predicting precancer among 1839 women testing HPV positive (HC2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Precancer outcomes were ascertained by record linkage. As additional validation, we compared the algorithm prospectively with cytology results among 243 807 women screened at KPNC (2016-2017). All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, the algorithm matched the triage performance of abnormal cytology. Combined with HPV16/18/45 typing (Onclarity, BD, Sparks, MD), the automatable strategy referred 91.7% of HPV-positive CIN3/AIS cases to immediate colposcopy while deferring 38.4% of all HPV-positive women to one-year retesting (compared with 89.1% and 37.4%, respectively, for typing and cytology triage). In the 2016-2017 validation, the predicted risk scores strongly correlated with cytology (P < .001). High-quality cervical screening and triage performance is achievable using this completely automated approach. Automated technology could permit extension of high-quality cervical screening/triage coverage to currently underserved regions.

  11. Tests for Serum Transglutaminase and Endomysial Antibodies Do Not Detect Most Patients With Celiac Disease and Persistent Villous Atrophy on Gluten-free Diets: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Kurada, Satya; Szwajcer, Andrea; Kelly, Ciarán P; Leffler, Daniel A; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Tests to measure serum endomysial antibodies (EMA) and antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were developed to screen for celiac disease in patients consuming gluten. However, they are commonly used to monitor patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the sensitivity and specificity of tTG IgA and EMA IgA assays in identifying patients with celiac disease who have persistent villous atrophy despite a GFD. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, BIOSIS, SCOPUS, clinicaltrials.gov, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Library databases through November 2016. Inclusion criteria were studies of subjects with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease, follow-up biopsies, and measurement of serum antibodies on a GFD, biopsy performed on subjects regardless of symptoms, or antibody test results. Our analysis excluded subjects with refractory celiac disease, undergoing gluten challenge, or consuming a prescribed oats-containing GFD. Tests were considered to have positive or negative findings based on manufacturer cut-off values. Villous atrophy was defined as a Marsh 3 lesion or villous height:crypt depth ratio below 3.0. We constructed forest plots to determine the sensitivity and specificity of detection for individual studies. For the meta-analysis, a bivariate random effects model was used to jointly model sensitivity and specificity. Our search identified 5408 unique citations. Following review of abstracts, 442 articles were reviewed in detail. Only 26 studies (6 of tTG assays, 15 of EMA assays, and 5 of tTG and EMA assays) met our inclusion criteria. The most common reason studies were excluded from our analysis was inability to cross-tabulate histologic and serologic findings. The serum assays identified patients with persistent villous atrophy with high levels of specificity: 0.83 for the tTG IgA assay (95% CI, 0.79-0.87) and 0.91 for the EMA IgA assay (95% CI, 0.87-0.94). However, they detected villous atrophy with low levels of sensitivity: 0

  12. Aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica: re-testing study in a large population from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Youming; Liang, Junyan; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Linzhan; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Shaopeng; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xueping; Yang, Ning; Gao, Min; Wang, Zhanhang

    2017-09-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody sero-positivity is critically important in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the sensitivity of different assays is highly variable. Repeating detection with a highly sensitive assay in a large population is necessary in the case of so-called negative NMO. Retrospective analysis where AQP4 antibodies were detected by commercial cell-based assay (CBA), in-house M23-CBA and in-house M1-CBA. Of the 1011 serum samples, 206 (20.4%) were sero-positive by primary commercial CBA. In the retest, all 206 participants positive by primary commercial CBA also yielded positive results by in-house M23-CBA and the second commercial CBA again, but only 124 positive in in-house M1-CBA. Among the 805 participants negative by primary commercial CBA, 71 participants were positive for in-house M23-CBA, of which 20 participants were positive for the second commercial CBA, and none were positive by in-house M1-CBA. Of the 171 cerebral spinal fluid samples, 75 (43.9%) were positive by primary commercial CBA. All 75 participants positive by primary commercial CBA also yielded positive results by in-house M23-CBA and the second commercial CBA. Forty-nine (65.3%) of these 75 participants were positive by in-house M1-CBA. Among the 96 participants negative by primary commercial CBA, 15 participants were positive for in-house M23-CBA and none were positive by in-house M1-CBA and the second commercial CBA. Different AQP4 isoforms in CBA result in different detection effects, and in-house M23-CBA is the most sensitive method. Some AQP4 antibody-negative NMO may be subject to diagnostic uncertainty due to limitations of the assays.

  13. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors--an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. The HIV-Antigen Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H J; Epstein, J S; Swenson, S G; VanRaden, M J; Ward, J W; Kaslow, R A; Menitove, J E; Klein, H G; Sandler, S G; Sayers, M H

    1990-11-08

    We performed a multicenter study in 1989 to determine whether screening whole-blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen would improve transfusion safety by identifying carriers of the virus who are seronegative for HIV-1 antibody. More than 500,000 donations were tested at 13 U.S. blood centers with test kits from two manufacturers. Units found repeatedly reactive were retested in a central laboratory; if the results were positive, they were confirmed by a neutralization assay. A subgroup of units was also tested for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. Selected donors confirmed or not confirmed as having p24 antigen were contacted for follow-up interviews to identify risk factors and undergo retesting for HIV-1 markers. Positive tests for p24 antigen were confirmed by neutralization in five donors (0.001 percent of all donations tested), all of whom were also positive for HIV-1 antibody and HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. Three of the antigen-positive donors had other markers of infectious disease that would have resulted in the exclusion of their blood; two had risk factors for HIV-1 that should have led to self-exclusion. Of 220 blood units with repeatedly reactive p24 antigen whose presence could not be confirmed by neutralization (0.04 percent of the donations studied), none were positive for HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction (120 units tested), or virus culture (76 units tested)--attesting to the specificity of confirmatory neutralization. The finding that no donation studied was positive for p24 antigen and negative for HIV-1 antibody suggests that screening donors for p24 antigen with tests of the current level of sensitivity would not add substantially to the safety of the U.S. blood supply.

  14. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Easier operation and similar power of 10 g monofilament test for screening diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yi, Na; Liu, Siying; Zheng, Hangping; Qiao, Xiaona; Xiong, Qian; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shuo; Wen, Jie; Ye, Hongying; Zhou, Linuo; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Lu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Objective The 10 g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament evaluation (SWME) of 4 sites on each foot is recommended for distal symmetric polyneuropathy screening and diagnosis. A similar method has been proposed to diagnose 'high-risk' (for ulceration) feet, using 3 sites per foot. This study compared the effectiveness of SWME for testing 3, 4 and 10 sites per foot to identify patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods We included 3497 subjects in a SWME of 10 sites; records from the 10-site SWME were used for a SWME of 3 and 4 sites. Neuropathy symptom scores and neuropathy deficit scores were evaluated to identify patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Results The sensitivities of the 10 g SWME for 3, 4 and 10 sites were 17.8%, 19.0% and 22.4%, respectively. The Kappa coefficients for the SWME tests of 3, 4 and 10 sites were high (range: 0.78-0.93). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of 3-, 4- and 10-site SWME testing for diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening. SWME testing of 3 sites on each foot may be sufficient to screen for diabetic neuropathy.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  17. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  18. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.

    1996-01-01

    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  19. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  20. How many cervical cancer cases can potentially be prevented using a more sensitive screening test at young age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test has higher sensitivity than cytology for cervical cancer screening. Therefore, cervical cancer cases that are missed by cytology could potentially be identified if we use primary HPV testing. Studies showed that HPV screening is the preferred

  1. Production of a broad specificity antibody for the development and validation of an optical SPR screening method for free and intracellular microcystins and nodularin in cyanobacteria cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Campbell, Katrina; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive broad specificity monoclonal antibody was produced and characterised for microcystin detection through the development of a rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor based immunoassay. The antibody displayed the following cross-reactivity: MC-LR 100%; MC-RR 108%; MC-YR 68%; MC-LA 69%; MC-LW 71%; MC-LF 68%; and Nodularin 94%. Microcystin-LR was covalently attached to a CM5 chip and with the monoclonal antibody was employed in a competitive 4 min injection assay to detect total microcystins in water samples below the WHO recommended limit (1 µg/L). A 'total microcystin' level was determined by measuring free and intracellular concentrations in cyanobacterial culture samples as this toxin is an endotoxin. Glass bead beating was used to lyse the cells as a rapid extraction procedure. This method was validated according to European Commission Decision 96/23/EC criteria. The method was proven to measure intracellular microcystin levels, the main source of the toxin, which often goes undetected by other analytical procedures and is advantageous in that it can be used for the monitoring of blooms to provide an early warning of toxicity. It was shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with recoveries from spiked samples ranging from 74 to 123%, and had % CVs below 10% for intra-assay analysis and 15% for inter-assay analysis. The detection capability of the assay was calculated as 0.5 ng/mL for extracellular toxins and 0.05 ng/mL for intracellular microcystins. A comparison of the SPR method with LC-MS/MS was achieved by testing six Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and this study yielded a correlation R(2) value of 0.9989. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic-test evaluation of immunoassays for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in a random sample of Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Castillo-Cruz, Rocío; Murieta, Sandra; Ortíz-Alegría, Luz Belinda; Calderón-Segura, Esther; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Cañedo-Solares, Irma; Correa, Dolores

    2014-05-14

    There are few articles on evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii serological tests. Besides, commercially available tests are not always useful and are expensive for studies in open population. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-house ELISA and western blot for IgG antibodies in a representative sample of people living in Mexico. Three hundred and five serum samples were randomly selected from two national seroepidemiological survey banks; they were taken from men and women of all ages and from all areas of the country. ELISA cut-off was established using the mean plus three standard deviations of negative samples. Western blots were analysed by two experienced technicians and positivity was established according to the presence of at least three diagnostic bands. A commercial ELISA kit was used as a third test. Two reference standards were built up: one using concordant results of two assays leaving the evaluated test out and the other in which the evaluated test was included (IN) with at least two concordant results to define diagnosis. the lowest values of diagnostic parameters were obtained with the OUT reference standards: in-house ELISA had 96.9% sensitivity, 62.1% specificity, 49.6% PPV, 98.1% NPV and 71.8% accuracy, while western blot presented 81.8%, 89.7%, 84.0%, 88.2% and 86.6% values and the best kappa coefficient (0.72-0.82). The in-house ELISA is useful for screening people of Mexico, due to its high sensitivity, while western blot may be used to confirm diagnosis. These techniques might prove useful in other Latin American countries.

  3. Maternal hepatitis C (HCV) infection and Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy: study testing antibodies, RNA and Genotype of HCV in Baghdad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Daud, Suzanna; Al-Kubaisi, Mustafa Waseem; Al-Kubaisi, Omar Waseem; Abdullah, Nik Nairan

    2018-04-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem. It is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease. Worldwide, 1-8% of all pregnant women were infected. Women with viral hepatitis may be at an increased risk of pregnancy complications. There are several obstetrics intervention acts as risk factors, which are specific to women pertaining the HCV infection; anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy may be one of them. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), RNA, and genotype distribution among women with anti-D Ig therapy. A cross sectional study was conducted. A sample of 154 Rhesus negative (Rh - ve) pregnant women regardless of the anti-D Ig therapy was collected. Anti-HCV were tested using third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) and immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-111), subsequently. In addition, 89 serum samples were subjected to molecular analysis using RT-PCR and DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method for the detection of HCV-RNA and genotypes. Anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA seroprevalence were significantly higher (17.1, 35.5%) among women with anti-D Ig than their counter group (6.4, 13.16%), p = .038, .018, respectively. Significant direct positive dose response correlation (r = 0.78, p = .005) had been seen between number of anti-D Ig therapy and anti-HCV seropositive rate. Anti-D Ig therapy act as a risk factor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.01-8.9) especially from the third dose onward. Women with anti-D Ig therapy were at higher risk (3.6 times more) of positive HCV-RNA (OR =3.6, 95%CI =1.19-10.837). Genotype HCV-1b showed higher prevalent (52.9%) among the recipients of anti-D Ig therapy while genotype HCV-3a (6.6%) was the lowest. Our study showed that Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy acts as a risk factor for acquiring HCV infection. Screening for HCV should be recommended for all recipients of anti-D Ig. Not only HCV antibodies but HCV-RNA detection being recommended for the diagnosis of HCV

  4. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R

    2006-11-01

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite......BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  6. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... up will be sent to the women (RCT). The intention is to ensure that all women will be notified about the test result, quickly, homogenously and in layman’s written language, still with the opportunity to contact or be contacted by the GP, if there is special needs. Furthermore, it is assumed that GP...

  7. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  8. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  9. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  11. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  12. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  13. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Reif, David M.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M.; Dix, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. Objectives This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the ty...

  14. Do Men and Women Need to Be Screened Differently with Fecal Immunochemical Testing? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulen, Miriam P van der; Kapidzic, Atija; Leerdam, Monique E van; van der Steen, Alex; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; de Koning, Harry J; Hol, Lieke; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that test characteristics for the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) differ by gender, triggering a debate on whether men and women should be screened differently. We used the microsimulation model MISCAN-Colon to evaluate whether screening stratified by gender is cost-effective. Methods: We estimated gender-specific FIT characteristics based on first-round positivity and detection rates observed in a FIT screening pilot (CORERO-1). Subsequently, we used the model to estimate harms, benefits, and costs of 480 gender-specific FIT screening strategies and compared them with uniform screening. Results: Biennial FIT screening from ages 50 to 75 was less effective in women than men [35.7 vs. 49.0 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, respectively] at higher costs (€42,161 vs. -€5,471, respectively). However, the incremental QALYs gained and costs of annual screening compared with biennial screening were more similar for both genders (8.7 QALYs gained and €26,394 for women vs. 6.7 QALYs gained and €20,863 for men). Considering all evaluated screening strategies, optimal gender-based screening yielded at most 7% more QALYs gained than optimal uniform screening and even resulted in equal costs and QALYs gained from a willingness-to-pay threshold of €1,300. Conclusions: FIT screening is less effective in women, but the incremental cost-effectiveness is similar in men and women. Consequently, screening stratified by gender is not more cost-effective than uniform FIT screening. Impact: Our conclusions support the current policy of uniform FIT screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1328-36. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for cognitive impairment in older individuals. Validation study of a computer-based test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Green, J; Harrison, J M; Kutner, M H

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the validity of a computer-based cognitive test that was recently designed to screen the elderly for cognitive impairment. Criterion-related validity was examined by comparing test scores of impaired patients and normal control subjects. Construct-related validity was computed through correlations between computer-based subtests and related conventional neuropsychological subtests. University center for memory disorders. Fifty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment by strict clinical criteria and 50 unimpaired, age- and education-matched control subjects. Control subjects were rigorously screened by neurological, neuropsychological, imaging, and electrophysiological criteria to identify and exclude individuals with occult abnormalities. Using a cut-off total score of 126, this computer-based instrument had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.96. Using a prevalence estimate of 10%, predictive values, positive and negative, were 0.70 and 0.96, respectively. Computer-based subtests correlated significantly with conventional neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive domains. Thirteen (17.8%) of 73 volunteers with normal medical histories were excluded from the control group, with unsuspected abnormalities on standard neuropsychological tests, electroencephalograms, or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Computer-based testing is a valid screening methodology for the detection of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly, although this particular test has important limitations. Broader applications of computer-based testing will require extensive population-based validation. Future studies should recognize that normal control subjects without a history of disease who are typically used in validation studies may have a high incidence of unsuspected abnormalities on neurodiagnostic studies.

  17. Comparative study of colloidal gold and quantum dots as labels for multiplex screening tests for multi-mycotoxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foubert, Astrid, E-mail: astrid.foubert@hotmail.com; Beloglazova, Natalia V.; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-02-22

    Quantum dots (QDs) and colloidal gold nanoparticles (CG) were evaluated as labels for multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for determination of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T2/HT2-toxin (T2/HT2) in cereal matrices. Both developed assays were based on the same immunoreagents (except for the labels), therefore their analytical characteristics could be objectively compared. For both LFIAs antigens (DON-ovalbumin (OVA), ZEN-OVA and T2-OVA) and rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin were immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane as three test lines and one control line, respectively. Depending on the LFIA, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against DON, ZEN and T2 were conjugated with CdSeS/ZnS QDs or CG. T2 and HT2 were detected by one test line (T2-OVA) with an anti-T2 mAb which showed 110% cross-reactivity with HT2. Both tests were developed in accordance with the legal limits and were developed in such a way that they had the same cut-off limits of 1000 μg kg{sup −1}, 80 μg kg{sup −1} and 80 μg kg{sup −1} for DON, ZEN and T2/HT2, respectively in order to allow a correct comparison. Applicability of these assays was demonstrated by analysis of naturally contaminated wheat samples. The results demonstrate that both the LFIAs can be used as rapid, cost-effective and convenient qualitative tool for on-site screening for simultaneous detection of DON, ZEN and HT2/T2 in wheat without special instrumentation. However, the QD-based LFIA consumed