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Sample records for antibody responder mice

  1. Presence of common idiotypes on antibodies induced by glutamic acid-lysine-containing terpolymers in responder and nonresponder mice with the Ig-1b heavy chain allotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, T J; Benacerraf, B; Dorf, M E

    1977-12-01

    A B10.A (5R) responder mouse to the random linear terpolymer, poly--(Glu, Lys, Phe), GLphi, can produce immunoglobulins which bind poly-L (Glu, Lys), GL, that share idiotypic determinants with GL-binding antibodies produced by other members of the same strain. Expression of these common idiotypic determinants, termed BGL, is independent of the H-2 halotype and closely linked to the Ig-lb heavy chain allotype. Moreover, nonresponder mice with the Ig-lb heavy chain allotype, when immunized with GLphi that has been chemically coupled to an immunogenic carrier, chicken IgG, can produce GL-binding antibodies that share BGL idiotypic specificities with anti-GLphi antibodies produced by responder animals. Also, the responses to other GL-containing polymers, such as poly-L (Glu, Lys, Ala) and poly-L (Glu, Lys, Pro), which are under the control of distinct Ir genes, can stimulate the production of GL-binding antibodies that share common BGL idiotypic determinants with antibodies induced with GLphi. These findings are discussed with respect to their implications concerning the mechanism(s) of Ir gene control.

  2. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...... the relationship between the immunogenic proteins involved in this nondeleterious antibody response and the pathological response associated with food allergy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the antigenic specificity of the soy protein-specific antibody response generated in healthy mice...... ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...

  3. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is more severe in Th2 responding BALB/c mice compared to Th1 responding C3H/HeN mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Johansen, H K; Song, Z

    1997-01-01

    model of this infection was established in two strains of mice: C3H/HeN and BALB/c, generally known as Th1 and Th2 responders, respectively, which were challenged with alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa. Mortality was significantly lower in C3H/HeN compared to BALB/c mice (p

  4. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  5. Generation of heavy-chain-only antibodies in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Janssens (Rick); S. Dekker (Sylvia); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); G. Panayotou (George); A. van Remoortere (Alexandra); J.K. San (John Kong-a); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe have generated transgenic mice containing hybrid llama/human antibody loci that contain two llama variable regions and the human D, J, and Cmu and/or Cgamma constant regions. Such loci rearrange productively and rescue B cell development efficiently without LC rearrangement.

  6. Evaluation of study design variables and their impact on food-maintained operant responding in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluk, Desirae M; Wickman, Kevin

    2010-03-05

    Operant conditioning paradigms are useful for studying factors involved in reward, particularly when combined with the tools of genetic manipulation in mice. Published operant studies involving mice vary widely with respect to design, and insight into the consequences of design choices on performance in mice is limited. Here, we evaluated the impact of five design variables on the performance of inbred male mice in operant tasks involving solid food pellets as reinforcing agents. We found that the use of lever-press or nose-poke during FR1 sessions did not impact the performance of C57BL/6 mice, but that the lever-press approach correlated with enhanced performance during PR testing. While FR1 session duration had a notable impact on the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding, performance during FR1 and PR sessions was largely unaffected. Higher order schedules of reinforcement (FR3 and FR5) led to elevated responding during both FR and PR sessions, and improved the correspondence between rewards earned and consumed. Single and group-housed mice performed indistinguishably during FR1 and PR sessions, while environmental enrichment combined with group housing accelerated the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding while decreasing responding during PR testing. Finally, while C57BL/6 and 129/Sv mice exhibited comparable behavior during FR1 sessions, C57BL/6 mice tended to acquire food-maintained responding faster than 129/Sv counterparts, and exhibited elevated responding during PR testing. Altogether, our findings indicate that while operant performance for food in mice is relatively insensitive to many study parameters, experimental outcomes can be shaped predictably with proper design decisions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamousé-Smith, Esi S; Tzeng, Alice; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.

  8. The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esi S Lamousé-Smith

    Full Text Available The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.

  9. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Aping [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Cui, Guanglin, E-mail: guanglin.cui@yahoo.com [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Faculty of Health, Nord University at Levanger (Norway)

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. - Highlights: • The density of novel PU.1 positive Th9 cells is significantly increased in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • PU.1 positive Th9 cells are predominately located in the inflamed lamina propria in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • Blocking of Th9 cytokine IL-9 by antibody injection suppresses the severity of inflammation in the bowel in colitis mice. • Novel Th9 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

  10. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. II. Strain-specificity of the suppressive activity of serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune low responder mouse donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.H.; Tung, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    IgE antibody production in mice of high and low IgE responder phenotypes, respectively, can be appreciably enhanced in magnitude after low-dose whole-body x irradiation. Such enhanced responses, as well as adoptive secondary IgE responses, can be markedly suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum in low responder strains, but not in high responder strains. The studies presented here demonstrate that the suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum on IgE antibody production is strain specific. This is true even in reciprocal combinations of low IgE responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice, in which it was shown that serum capable of suppressing mice of the isologous strain was ineffective in diminishing IgE antibody production in the other low responder strain. Absence of suppressive activity in CFA-immune sera obtained from H-2 haplotypes while sharing many similarities in the background genome and, conversely, effective suppressive activity of H-2 congenic donor sera when H-2-identities between donor and recipient mice existed, strongly suggested a role, at least in part, of H-2 genes in dictating the strain specificity of such suppressive activity. Additional experiments provided evidence for a possible role of macrophages in catabolism of the active molecules in CFA-immune sera. These observations, together with those presented in the preceding paper, may provide valuable insight toward successful development of appropriate manipulations that could ultimately convert high IgE responder individuals into low responders

  11. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB11501* Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidice Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB11501* to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD+ RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB11501* as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW, CD1(ICR, and NSA(CF-1. DRB11501* mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB11501* mice immunized with RhD+ erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB11501* mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB11501* transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed.

  12. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) deletion in mice does not affect operant responding for food or cocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-22

    In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R{sup +/+}), both heterozygous (D4R{sup +/-}) and knockout (D4R{sup -/-}) mice showed no difference in responding for food or cocaine. Our findings suggest that the D4R is not directly involved in mediating operant response behaviors for food or cocaine.

  13. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Aping; Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei; Cui, Guanglin

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-CD14 Antibody-treated Neutrophils Respond to LPS: Possible Involvement of CD14 Upregulated by Anti-CD14 Antibody Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanui, Terukazu; Takeshita, Masaaki; Fukuda, Takao; Haraguchi, Akira; Aida, Yoshitomi; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2017-02-01

    CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4/MD2 (TLR4/MD2) mediate the action of LPS on neutrophils. The anti-CD14 antibody and the TLR4/MD2-antagonist, synthetic lipid IVa (LA-14-PP), are known to inhibit the response of neutrophils to LPS. We studied the role of CD14 in LPS-induced priming of neutrophils for enhanced release of the superoxide anion. The anti-CD14 antibody at much higher concentrations than required to saturate CD14 was required to inhibit priming by LPS. The inhibitory effect of the anti-CD14 antibody was overcome by LPS. After washing, anti-CD14-treated neutrophils showed upregulated CD14 upon incubation at 37°C and responded to LPS with a delayed time-course. Thus, CD14-blocked neutrophils gained responsiveness to LPS through newly upregulated CD14. These results suggested that the unbound/free anti-CD14 antibody was essential to inhibit LPS-induced priming by blocking CD14 that were newly expressed during incubation at 37°C. LA-14-PP inhibited the response of neutrophils to LPS in an anti-CD14 antibody sensitive manner. When neutrophils were treated with LA-14-PP followed by treatment with the anti-CD14 antibody, CD14 was upregulated upon warming, but priming was blocked, suggesting that TLR4/MD2 was not newly expressed by warming in association with CD14 molecules. Thus, in addition to blocking CD14, the anti-CD14 antibody was found to induce the expression of new CD14.

  15. The role of phagocytes and specific antibodies in gamma irradiated mice infected by intracellular bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, H.; Stulik, J.; Ledvina, M.

    1987-01-01

    The activation of oxygen metabolism in peritoneal macrophages during the defence against Francisella tularensis infection was inhibited by gamma irradiation of mice with 4.0 Gy. The application of specific antibodies protected the irradiated mice from the lethal infection without reactivation of oxygen metabolism in mononuclear phagocytes. These results demonstrated that the protecting function of the specific antibodies in the defence system against intracellular bacterial pathogens will be mediated by the oxygen-independent mechanisms. (author)

  16. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on an antibody production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, S; Inagaki, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on an antibody production in BALB/c mice, the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody against dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) were measured by the methods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mice fed on on a B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA absorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel. The contents of anti DNP-IgE antibodies in sera of B6 deficient mice significantly increased compared to that of control mice fed on a diet containing B6. In addition, Interleukin-4, which was known to induce IgE production in allergic reactions from splenocytes of B6 deficient mice, was approximately four-fold higher than that in control mice. According to the recovery test to the B6 deficient mice, that is feeding the control diet for 21 days, all values in terms of the body, thymus, and spleen weight, total serum protein, IgG, and anti DNP-IgE content, regained almost the same levels as those of control. These results suggest that B6 deficiency in mice would have relation to the stimulation of specific IgE antibody production against DNP-OVA.

  17. Frequent antibody production against RARalpha in both APL mice and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Marie; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Schlageter, Marie-Helene; Bengoufa, Djaouida; Guillemot, Isabelle; Pokorna, Katerina; Robert, Carine; Larghero, Jerome; Rousselot, Philippe; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Dombret, Herve; Fenaux, Pierre; Pla, Marika; Charron, Dominique; Padua, Rose-Ann; Chomienne, Christine

    2006-09-15

    In an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-transplantable mouse model, we previously reported the presence of antibodies recognizing PML-RARalpha and RARalpha in the sera of ATRA-treated mice. To evaluate this immune response, we determined the prevalence of anti-RARalpha antibodies in a cohort of 48 APL mice, treated by ATRA (n = 24) or by placebo pellets (n = 24), and in a preliminary subset of 9 patients with APL using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In APL mice, significantly higher antibody levels were observed at the latest time points (day 48 to 58 levels superior to day 15 to 18 or day 28 to 38 levels). Antibody levels were higher in ATRA-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice and were also predictive of better survival. In the patients with APL, anti-RARalpha antibodies were detected at diagnosis and after maintenance therapy, reminiscent of the ATRA-treated APL mice. Antinuclear or antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were also detected. These data reveal for the first time that in patients with APL an immune response may be detected at diagnosis and enhanced after maintenance therapy.

  18. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against West Nile virus infection in wild-type and immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Michael J; Diamond, Michael S

    2003-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient ( micro MT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (RAG1) C57BL/6J mice. Notably, no increased mortality due to immune enhancement was observed. Although immune antibody completely prevented morbidity and mortality in wild-type mice, its effect was not durable in immunocompromised mice: many micro MT and RAG1 mice eventually succumbed to infection. Thus, antibody by itself did not completely eliminate viral reservoirs in host tissues, consistent with an intact cellular immune response being required for viral clearance. In therapeutic postexposure studies, human gamma globulin partially protected against WNV-induced mortality. In micro MT mice, therapy had to be initiated within 2 days of infection to gain a survival benefit, whereas in the wild-type mice, therapy even 5 days after infection reduced mortality. This time point is significant because between days 4 and 5, WNV was detected in the brains of infected mice. Thus, passive transfer of immune antibody improves clinical outcome even after WNV has disseminated into the central nervous system.

  19. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...... antibody response in the offspring, bat in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy...

  20. Anti-tau antibody administration increases plasma tau in transgenic mice and patients with tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, Kiran; Patel, Tirth K; Jiang, Hong; Schindler, Suzanne; Ulrich, Jason D; Boxer, Adam L; Miller, Bruce L; Kerwin, Diana R; Gallardo, Gilbert; Stewart, Floy; Finn, Mary Beth; Cairns, Nigel J; Verghese, Philip B; Fogelman, Ilana; West, Tim; Braunstein, Joel; Robinson, Grace; Keyser, Jennifer; Roh, Joseph; Knapik, Stephanie S; Hu, Yan; Holtzman, David M

    2017-04-19

    Tauopathies are a group of disorders in which the cytosolic protein tau aggregates and accumulates in cells within the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. A promising treatment being explored for tauopathies is passive immunization with anti-tau antibodies. We previously found that administration of an anti-tau antibody to human tau transgenic mice increased the concentration of plasma tau. We further explored the effects of administering an anti-tau antibody on plasma tau. After peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody to human patients with tauopathy and to mice expressing human tau in the central nervous system, there was a dose-dependent increase in plasma tau. In mouse plasma, we found that tau had a short half-life of 8 min that increased to more than 3 hours after administration of anti-tau antibody. As tau transgenic mice accumulated insoluble tau in the brain, brain soluble and interstitial fluid tau decreased. Administration of anti-tau antibody to tau transgenic mice that had decreased brain soluble tau and interstitial fluid tau resulted in an increase in plasma tau, but this increase was less than that observed in tau transgenic mice without these brain changes. Tau transgenic mice subjected to acute neuronal injury using 3-nitropropionic acid showed increased interstitial fluid tau and plasma tau. These data suggest that peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody results in increased plasma tau, which correlates with the concentration of extracellular and soluble tau in the brain. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Prion-Specific Antibodies Produced in Wild-Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Andersen, Heidi Gertz

    2015-01-01

    method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well...

  2. Distinct Adipose Depots from Mice Differentially Respond to a High-Fat, High-Salt Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa C; Goldsby, Jennifer S; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Dietary factors such as high-sodium or high-fat (HF) diets have been shown to induce a proinflammatory phenotype. However, there is limited information with respect to how microenvironments of distinct intra-abdominal adipose depots respond to the combination of a high-salt, HF diet. We tested the hypothesis that HF feeding would cause changes in distinct adipose depots, which would be further amplified by the addition of high salt to the diet. Twenty-seven male C57BL6 mice were fed an HF diet (60% of kcal from fat), an HF + high-salt diet (4% wt:wt), a control diet [low-fat (LF);10% of kcal from fat], or an LF + high-salt diet for 12 wk. The main sources of fat in the diets were corn oil and lard. Adipokines in serum and released from adipose tissue organ cultures were measured by immunoassays. QIAGEN's Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to perform functional analysis of the RNA-sequencing data from distinct adipose depots. Diet-induced obesity resulted in a classical inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory mediators (38-56%) and reduced adiponectin concentrations (27%). However, high-salt feeding did not exacerbate the HF diet-induced changes in adipokines and cytokines. Leptin and interleukin-6 were differentially released from adipose depots and HF feeding impaired adiponectin and resistin secretion across all 3 depots (34-48% and 45-83%, respectively). The addition of high salt to the HF diet did not further modulate secretion in cultured adipose tissue experiments. Although gene expression data from RNA sequencing indicated a >4.3-fold upregulation of integrin αX (Itgax) with HF feeding in all 3 depots, markers of cellular function were differentially expressed in response to diet across depots. Collectively, these findings highlight the role of distinct adipose depots in mice in the development of obesity and emphasize the importance of selecting specific depots to study the effects of therapeutic

  3. Effects of repeated MDMA administration on the motivation for palatable food and extinction of operant responding in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Viñals, Xavier; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces mainly dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice. However, the consequences of this exposure on the behavioural responses related to natural reinforcing stimuli are still largely unknown. We examined whether repeated treatment with neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic doses of MDMA could exert acute and long-lasting effects on the motivation of mice to obtain a highly palatable food and on the extinction and reinstatement of food-seeking behaviour. Food-deprived mice were first trained to acquire stable responding on fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement and then treated twice daily with saline, 3 or 30 mg/kg MDMA during four consecutive days. The high dose of MDMA impaired instrumental responding on the first and third day of treatment, whilst no residual effects were apparent on FR5 responding at any of the doses studied 24 h after treatment withdrawal. Breaking points were decreased in mice treated with both doses of MDMA. This decrease in motivation for palatable food was not due to unspecific locomotor or coordination deficits. A resistance to extinction was observed only with the highest dose of MDMA, whilst all mice showed similar reinstatement of palatable food-seeking behaviour irrespective of previous treatment. Autoradiography of [3H]-mazindol binding revealed a decrease in striatal dopamine transporter binding only in mice treated with the highest dose of MDMA. This study demonstrates that repeated treatment with MDMA decreases the incentive motivation for a palatable food reward and that long-lasting MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity increases the resistance to extinction of responding in the absence of reward.

  4. [Screening of full human anthrax lethal factor neutralizing antibody in transgenic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Chi, Xiangyang; Liu, Ju; Liu, Weicen; Liu, Shuling; Qiu, Shunfang; Wen, Zhonghua; Fan, Pengfei; Liu, Kun; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Changming

    2016-11-25

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The major virulence factor of B. anthracis consists of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). PA binds with LF to form lethal toxin (LT), and PA binds with EF to form edema toxin (ET). Antibiotics is hard to work in advanced anthrax infections, because injuries and deaths of the infected are mainly caused by lethal toxin (LT). Thus, the therapeutic neutralizing antibody is the most effective treatment of anthrax. Currently most of the anthrax toxin antibodies are monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for PA and US FDA has approved ABTHRAX humanized PA monoclonal antibody for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Once B. anthracis was artificially reconstructed or PA had mutations within recognized neutralization epitopes, anti-PA MAbs would no longer be effective. Therefore, anti-LF MAbs is an important supplement for anthrax treatment. Most of the anti-LF antibodies are murine or chimeric antibodies. By contrast, fully human MAbs can avoid the high immunogenicity of murine antibodies. First, we used LF to immunize the transgenic mice and used fluorescent cell sorting to get antigen-specific memory B cells from transgenic mice spleen lymphocytes. By single cell PCR method, we quickly found two strains of anti-LF MAbs with binding activity, 1D7 and 2B9. Transiently transfected Expi 293F cells to obtain MAbs protein after purification. Both 1D7 and 2B9 efficiently neutralized LT in vitro, and had good synergistic effect when mixed with anti-PA MAbs. In summary, combining the advantages of transgenic mice, fluorescent cell sorting and single-cell PCR methods, this study shows new ideas and methods for the rapid screening of fully human monoclonal antibodies.

  5. Tau passive immunotherapy in mutant P301L mice: antibody affinity versus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina d'Abramo

    Full Text Available The use of antibodies to treat neurodegenerative diseases has undergone rapid development in the past decade. To date, immunotherapeutic approaches to Alzheimer's disease have mostly targeted amyloid beta as it is a secreted protein that can be found in plasma and CSF and is consequently accessible to circulating antibodies. Few recent publications have suggested the utility of treatment of tau pathology with monoclonal antibodies to tau. Our laboratory has begun a systematic study of different classes of tau monoclonal antibodies using mutant P301L mice. Three or seven months old mutant tau mice were inoculated weekly with tau monoclonal antibodies at a dose of 10 mg/Kg, until seven or ten months of age were reached respectively. Our data strongly support the notion that in P301L animals treated with MC1, a conformational monoclonal antibody specific for PHF-tau, the rate of development of tau pathology is effectively reduced, while injecting DA31, a high affinity tau sequence antibody, does not exert such benefit. MC1 appears superior to DA31 in overall effects, suggesting that specificity is more important than affinity in therapeutic applications. Unfortunately the survival rate of the P301L treated mice was not improved when immunizing either with MC1 or PHF1, a high affinity phospho-tau antibody previously reported to be efficacious in reducing pathological tau. These data demonstrate that passive immunotherapy in mutant tau models may be efficacious in reducing the development of tau pathology, but a great deal of work remains to be done to carefully select the tau epitopes to target.

  6. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Protection abilities of influenza B virus DNA vaccines express- ing hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, or both in mice. Acta. Virologica 52 107–112. Fedson DS 2008 NEW technologies for meeting the global demand for pandemic influenza vaccines. Biologicals: J. Int. Assn. Biol. Standard. 36 346–349.

  7. Mapping of genes controlling quantitative antibody production in biozzi mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puel, A. [Curie Institute, Paris (France); Groot, P.C.; Demant, P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    An extensive search for in vivo immunomodulatory genes (Im genes) was made, using highly polymorphic DNA markers (microsatellites), in F{sub 2} hybrids between the two lines of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) Ab production (Biozzi mice). H and L mice have extreme phenotypes resulting from the accumulation, during selective breeding, of genes endowed with, respectively, upward or downward additive effects on Ab production. A total genome screening with 90 microsatellite markers (polymorphic between H and L mice) was conducted in 60 F{sub 2} hybrids sorted out for their extreme phenotypes from an immunized population of 240 individuals. A difference in parental marker frequency between these two groups (measured by a {chi}{sup 2} test) reveals the presence of an Im gene close to the marker. Significant {chi}{sub 2} scores were indeed found in two regions corresponding to the MHC and Igh loci, already identified as partly contributing to the H/L phenotypic difference. A notable finding was the demonstration that a gene(s), located on the proximal part of chromosome 6, was linked with Ab responsiveness. Other markers at distinct chromosomal regions also give increased {chi}{sub 2} scores, the two regions most clearly pointed out being on chromosomes 4 and 8. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. T-cell independent Thy-1 allo-antibody response with the use of transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-I. Isobe; G. Kollias (George); A-B. Kolsto; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractWe have introduced a mouse Thy-1.1 gene into the germline of Thy-1.2 mice. The introduced gene was shown to be expressed at very high levels in thymocytes when compared with the endogenous gene. Transgenic thymocytes were shown to evoke a higher than normal primary anti-Thy-1.1 antibody

  9. Differential effects of preirradiation on adoptive antibody responses in DBA/2 and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkosky, D.; Buffett, R.F.; Bennett, M.

    1978-01-01

    Mice were lethally irradiated on the same day or 3 days prior to the infusion of syngeneic thymus and marrow cells. Mice were immunized with sheep erythrocytes and direct plaque-forming cells per spleen were determined 8 days after cell transfer. Preirradiation of hosts 3 days before cell transfer had varying effects on the level of adoptive antibody responses in mice of different strains: Responses of DBA/2 and DBA/1 were deficient, responses of CD2F1, B10, B10;D2, C3H, C3BF1 and SJL were unaffected, and responses of BALB/c, CBA, and 129 mice were enhanced. The defect in the antibody responses of DBA/2 hosts was dependent on the combination of a DBA/2 host and a DBA/2 cell inoculum. Differentiation of both DBA/2 thymus and marrow cells was deficient in the preirradiated DBA/2 host. This defect did not appear to be the result of loss of adherent cells from the preirradiated DBA/2 host. The enhanced antibody response observed in BALB/c mice appeared to be due to altered activity of BALB/c thymus cells. Preirradiated BALB/c or DBA/2 recipients reconstituted with BALB/c thymus cells and BALB/c or DBA/2 marrow cells showed enhanced antibody responses, while preirradiated BALB/c or DBA/2 recipients reconstituted with BALB/c marrow cells and DBA/2 thymus cells showed no change in degree of antibody responses when compared to control recipients. The preirradiated host had altered its ability to control BALB/c thymus cell activity; this lack of control may be due to loss of regulator cells from the host

  10. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T.; Gray, Matthew D.; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D.; Freund, Natalia T.; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B.; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S.; Schief, William R.; Strong, Roland K.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype. PMID:26907590

  11. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T; Gray, Matthew D; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D; Freund, Natalia T; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S; Schief, William R; Strong, Roland K; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-02-24

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype.

  12. Leptin deficient ob/ob mice and diet-induced obese mice responded differently to Roux-en-Y bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Münzberg, H; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Keenan, M; Coulon, D; Lu, H; Berthoud, H-R; Ye, J

    2015-05-01

    Weight regain contributes to the therapeutic failure in 15-20% of type 2 diabetic patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and the mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of weight regain. Wild-type (WT) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were used to mimic human obesity, and ob/ob mice were used for leptin deficiency-induced obesity. Two groups of mice were compared in weight regain for 10 months after RYGB. Weight loss, food intake, fecal energy loss and energy expenditure were monitored in the study of weight regain. Fasting insulin, insulin tolerance and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were tested for insulin sensitivity under the weight regain. Weight loss from RYGB and calorie restriction was compared for the impact in insulin sensitivity. In WT mice, RYGB induced a sustained weight loss and insulin sensitization over the sham operation in this 10-month study. However, RYGB failed to generate the same effects in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which suffered a weight regain over the pre-surgery level. In ob/ob mice, body weight was reduced by RYGB transiently in the first week, recovered in the second week and increased over the baseline thereafter. Weight loss was induced by RYGB relative to that of sham mice, but the loss was not sufficient to keep body weight below the pre-surgery levels. In addition, insulin sensitivity was not improved by the weight loss. The response to RYGB was improved in ob/ob mice by 2 weeks of leptin treatment. Weight loss from calorie restriction had an equivalent effect on insulin sensitization compared with that of RYGB. Those data demonstrate that ob/ob mice and DIO mice responded differently to RYGB surgery, suggesting that leptin may be one of the factors required for RYGB to prevent weight regain and diabetes recurrence.

  13. Validation of dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 antibodies using receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Tamara; Orlova, Michaela; Sialana, Fernando J; Höger, Harald; Stuchlik, Stanislav; Milenkovic, Ivan; Aradska, Jana; Lubec, Gert

    2017-06-01

    Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum. Moreover, a DRD1 antibody and a DRD2 antibody that were found specific in our tests were used for immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of the immunoprecipitate. Two out of nine antibodies (anti DRD1 Sigma Aldrich D2944 and anti DRD2 Merck Millipore AB5084P) against the abovementioned dopamine receptors were specific for DRD1 and DRD2 as evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and the immunoprecipitate indeed contained DRD1 and DRD2 as revealed by mass spectrometry. The observed findings may question the use of so far non-validated antibodies against the abovementioned dopamine receptors. Own observations may be valuable for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies using dopamine receptors DRD1 or DRD2.

  14. Recombinant influenza H7 hemagglutinins induce lower neutralizing antibody titers in mice than do seasonal hemagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Kristy; Kamal, Ram P; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Music, Nedzad; Wilson, Jason R; Stevens, James; Lipatov, Aleksander S; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines against avian influenza viruses often require high hemagglutinin (HA) doses or adjuvants to achieve serological titers associated with protection against disease. In particular, viruses of the H7 subtype frequently do not induce strong antibody responses following immunization. To evaluate whether poor immunogenicity of H7 viruses is an intrinsic property of the H7 hemagglutinin. We compared the immunogenicity, in naïve mice, of purified recombinant HA from two H7 viruses [A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7) and A/New York/107/2003(H7N2)] to that of HA from human pandemic [A/California/07/2009(H1N1pdm09)] and seasonal [A/Perth16/2009(H3N2)] viruses. After two intramuscular injections with purified hemagglutinin, mice produced antibodies to all HAs, but the response to the human virus HAs was greater than to H7 HAs. The difference was relatively minor when measured by ELISA, greater when measured by hemagglutination inhibition assays, and more marked still by microneutralization assays. H7 HAs induced little or no neutralizing antibody response in mice at either dose tested. Antibodies induced by H7 were of significantly lower avidity than for H3 or H1N1pdm09. We conclude that H7 HAs may be intrinsically less immunogenic than HA from seasonal human influenza viruses. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Generic anti-drug antibody assay with drug tolerance in serum samples from mice exposed to human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Mackeben, Klaus; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) status is necessary in early research studies. Because specific assay materials are sparse and time is pressing, a generic assay format with drug tolerance for detection of ADAs in serum samples from mice exposed to immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) is highly desirable. This article describes a generic immune complex assay in the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on (i) transformation of free ADAs to immune complexes by preincubation with excess drug, (ii) the use of a murine anti-human Fab constant domain Fab as capture reagent, (iii) detection of the immune complexes by a peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-murine Fc antibody, and (iv) ADA-positive control conjugates consisting of human Fab and murine IgG. Results of the experiments suggest that the generic immune complex assay for mouse serum samples was at least equivalent to specific ADA immune assays and even superior regarding drug tolerance. The generic immune complex assay confers versatility as it detects ADAs in complex with full-length IgG as well as with Fabs independent of the target specificity in mouse serum samples. These features help to save the sparse amounts of specific antibodies available in early research and development and speed up drug candidate selection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A tetravalent dengue nanoparticle stimulates antibody production in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Elisângela F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Infection with a single Dengue virus (DENV serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients experiencing secondary infection with a different serotype progresses to the severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat dengue infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles coated with proteins represent a promising method for in vivo delivery of vaccines. Findings Here, we used a murine model to evaluate the IgG production after administration of inactivated DENV corresponding to all four serotypes adsorbed to bovine serum albumin nanoparticles. This formulation induced a production of anti-DENV IgG antibodies (p Conclusions Our results show that while the nanoparticle system induces humoral responses against DENV, further investigation with different DENV antigens will be required to improve immunogenicity, epitope specicity, and functional activity to make this platform a viable option for DENV vaccines.

  17. Linear epitope recognition antibodies strongly respond to the C-terminal domain of HP-PRRSV GP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinglong; Qui, Li; Dang, Yu; Xiao, Sha; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2014-12-05

    A total of 155 peptides derived from the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) were printed on a chip to reveal the antigen reaction characteristics of the protein. The reactions of these peptides to HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were scanned and quantified using fluorescence intensity via the PepSlide(®) Analyzer software. The intensity plots showed different reactions in the different sectors of GP5. The highest reaction intensity value reached 3894.5, with a peptide sequence of IVEKGGKVEVEGHLI. Seventeen peptides that showed relatively high reaction levels with HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were selected as epitope candidates. Furthermore, the antigenic character was predicted using a software and was compared with the peptide scan results. In contrast to the software prediction, the HP-PRRSV-specific antibodies strongly responded to the C-terminal domain of GP5. The acquired data may be useful for understanding the antigenic characteristics of HP-PRRSV GP5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  19. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions.

  20. Trpm5 null mice respond to bitter, sweet, and umami compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Sami; Rong, Minqing; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Pérez, Cristian A; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Mosinger, Bedrich; Glendinning, John I; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Margolskee, Robert F

    2006-03-01

    Trpm5 is a calcium-activated cation channel expressed selectively in taste receptor cells. A previous study reported that mice with an internal deletion of Trpm5, lacking exons 15-19 encoding transmembrane segments 1-5, showed no taste-mediated responses to bitter, sweet, and umami compounds. We independently generated knockout mice null for Trpm5 protein expression due to deletion of Trpm5's promoter region and exons 1-4 (including the translation start site). We examined the taste-mediated responses of Trpm5 null mice and wild-type (WT) mice using three procedures: gustatory nerve recording [chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves], initial lick responses, and 24-h two-bottle preference tests. With bitter compounds, the Trpm5 null mice showed reduced, but not abolished, avoidance (as indicated by licking responses and preference ratios higher than those of WT), a normal CT response, and a greatly diminished NG response. With sweet compounds, Trpm5 null mice showed no licking response, a diminished preference ratio, and absent or greatly reduced nerve responses. With umami compounds, Trpm5 null mice showed no licking response, a diminished preference ratio, a normal NG response, and a greatly diminished CT response. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of eliminating Trmp5 expression vary depending upon the taste quality and the lingual taste field examined. Thus, while Trpm5 is an important factor in many taste responses, its absence does not eliminate all taste responses. We conclude that Trpm5-dependent and Trpm5-independent pathways underlie bitter, sweet, and umami tastes.

  1. Galantamine Attenuates Type 1 Diabetes and Inhibits Anti-Insulin Antibodies in Nonobese Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, William M; Olofsson, Peder S; Kwan, Kevin; Hudson, LaQueta K; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in mice is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Disease pathogenesis involves invasion of pancreatic islets by immune cells, including macrophages and T cells, and production of antibodies to self-antigens, including insulin. Activation of the inflammatory reflex, the neural circuit that inhibits inflammation, culminates on cholinergic receptor signals on immune cells to attenuate cytokine release and inhibit B-cell antibody production. Here, we show that galantamine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and an activator of the inflammatory reflex, attenuates murine experimental type 1 diabetes. Administration of galantamine to animals immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) significantly suppressed splenocyte release of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 during KLH challenge ex vivo. Administration of galantamine beginning at 1 month of age in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice significantly delayed the onset of hyperglycemia, attenuated immune cell infiltration in pancreatic islets and decreased anti-insulin antibodies in serum. These observations indicate that galantamine attenuates experimental type 1 diabetes in mice and suggest that activation of the inflammatory reflex should be further studied as a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:26322849

  2. Inactivated H7 Influenza Virus Vaccines Protect Mice despite Inducing Only Low Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ram P; Blanchfield, Kristy; Belser, Jessica A; Music, Nedzad; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Holiday, Crystal; Burroughs, Ashley; Sun, Xiangjie; Maines, Taronna R; Levine, Min Z; York, Ian A

    2017-10-15

    Avian influenza viruses of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtype present a significant public health threat, as evidenced by the ongoing outbreak of human A(H7N9) infections in China. When evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, H7 viruses and vaccines are found to induce lower level of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) than do their seasonal counterparts, making it difficult to develop and evaluate prepandemic vaccines. We have previously shown that purified recombinant H7 HA appear to be poorly immunogenic in that they induce low levels of HI and MN antibodies. In this study, we immunized mice with whole inactivated reverse genetics reassortant (RG) viruses expressing HA and neuraminidase (NA) from 3 different H7 viruses [A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9), A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7), and A/New York/107/2003(H7N2)] or with human A(H1N1)pdm09 (A/California/07/2009-like) or A(H3N2) (A/Perth16/2009) viruses. Mice produced equivalent titers of antibodies to all viruses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the antibody titers induced by H7 viruses were significantly lower when measured by HI and MN assays. Despite inducing very low levels of nAb, H7 vaccines conferred complete protection against homologous virus challenge in mice, and the serum antibodies directed against the HA head region were capable of mediating protection. The apparently low immunogenicity associated with H7 viruses and vaccines may be at least partly related to measuring antibody titers with the traditional HI and MN assays, which may not provide a true measure of protective immunity associated with H7 immunization. This study underscores the need for development of additional correlates of protection for prepandemic vaccines. IMPORTANCE H7 avian influenza viruses present a serious risk to human health. Preparedness efforts include development of prepandemic vaccines. For seasonal influenza viruses, protection is correlated with antibody

  3. Exacerbation of collagen antibody-induced arthritis in transgenic mice overexpressing peroxiredoxin 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Dong Hun; Jo, Mi Ran; Son, Dong Ju; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Chul Ju; Park, Ju Ho; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Yoon, Do Young; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Youngsoo; Jeong, Jae Hwang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-11-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 plays important and complex roles in the process of inflammation, but its role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear. We undertook this study to investigate the roles and mechanisms of peroxiredoxin 6 in the development of collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) and antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice, in peroxiredoxin 6-transfected RAW 264.7 cells, in macrophages isolated from peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice, and in synoviocytes from arthritis patients. CAIA and AIA were induced using standard methods. Peroxiredoxin 6-transfected RAW 264.7 cells, macrophages isolated from peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice, and synoviocytes from arthritis patients were used to study proinflammatory responses and mechanisms. Clinical scores and histopathologic changes were determined in peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) mice with CAIA or AIA. Generation of nitric oxide (NO), expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activity of NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were determined in cultured macrophages and synoviocytes as well as in joint tissue from mice by Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and immunohistochemical analysis. Development of CAIA and AIA and proinflammatory responses were more exacerbated in peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice than in WT mice. Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 6 increased lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells, in macrophages isolated from peroxiredoxin 6-overexpressing transgenic mice, and in synoviocytes from arthritis patients, and this was accompanied by up-regulation of the JNK pathway. Moreover, a JNK inhibitor completely blocked RA development and proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that overexpression of peroxiredoxin 6 might promote development of RA through NF-κB and AP-1 activity via the JNK

  4. Immunity to Brugia pahangi in athymic nude and normal mice: eosinophilia, antibody and hypersensitivity responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L

    1984-11-01

    Congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, immunologically reconstituted by thymus grafting before inoculation with infective larvae, and mice heterozygous for the nu gene (nu/+), mounted potent protective humoral and cellular immune responses to Brugia pahangi. Although responses were not identical, both groups of mice produced IgM, IgG and IgE antibodies specific for adult worm antigen (S-Ag) present in a crude aqueous extract, made immediate and delayed hypersensitivity footpad swelling responses when challenged with S-Ag and eliminated their infection in the early larval stages. Heterozygotes also exhibited a marked eosinophilia which peaked coincident with larval killing. In contrast, thymus grafting of patent nudes had no effect upon microfilaraemias or adult worm burdens and did not completely protect against a challenge larval inoculum although antibodies specific for S-Ag were produced. With the occasional exceptions of moderate immediate footpad swelling and very low titres of IgM specific for S-Ag, no specific immune responses to B. pahangi were found in ungrafted nude mice which allowed full development of adult worms and supported patent infections.

  5. CD97 antibody depletes granulocytes in mice under conditions of acute inflammation via a Fc receptor-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veninga, Henrike; de Groot, Dorien M.; McCloskey, Natalie; Owens, Bronwyn M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Nourshargh, Sussan; van Eenennaam, Hans; Boots, Annemieke M.; Hamann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies to the pan-leukocyte adhesion-GPCR CD97 efficiently block neutrophil recruitment in mice, thereby reducing antibacterial host defense, inflammatory disease, and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. Here, we investigated the working mechanism of the CD97 antibody 1B2. Applying sterile

  6. The biodistribution study of 99mTc labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody in tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zongxin

    1992-01-01

    The author report the optimal condition of 99m Tc labelling with anti-CEA monoclonal antibody using chelating of 99m Tc with dimethylformamide. The labelling rate of this method is 60%-80%, the radiochemical purity of labelling antibody over 90% and maintain its better immuno activity. The biodistribution of the tumor bearing nude mice demonstrates that as compared with the control group, 24 hours after the intraperitoneal injection the injected labelled antibody has its specific concentration in tumor tissue

  7. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-09-08

    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibodies to granulocytic ehrlichiae in white-footed and cotton mice in eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C; Ijdo, J W; Fikrig, E; Oliver, J H; Hutcheson, H J; Boone, J L

    1999-04-01

    Serum samples, collected from Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) or Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mouse) during 1987 through 1990 in Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, and North Carolina (USA), and in 1997 in southern Connecticut were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods or Western blot procedures for antibodies to granulocytic ehrlichiae. Of the 82 sera from white-footed mice in Connecticut tested by IFA methods with either the BDS or NCH-1 strain of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, 45 (55%) and 42 (51%) of the samples contained antibodies to these strains, respectively, at concentrations ranging from 1:80 to 1:2560. One (2%) of 43 sera from P. leucopus captured in Assateague Island (Maryland) had a titer of 1:80, while three (20%) of 15 sera from P. gossypinus, captured in Sapelo Island (Georgia) and four (40%) of 10 sera from cotton mice caught in Amelia Island (Florida) had antibodies to the NCH-1 strain at titers of 1:160 to 1:1,280. Fifty-five sera from P. leucopus in Cape Hatteras (North Carolina) and 30 sera from P. gossypinus in Mississippi were negative. Western blot analyses confirmed seropositivity for 19 (95%) of 20 mouse sera positive by IFA staining methods, including samples from both mouse species captured in Connecticut, Maryland, or Florida. There were key banding patterns to proteins having molecular masses of about 44, 80, 105, 110, or 120 kDa. Both serologic assays can be used to determine if mice have been exposed to granulocytic ehrlichiae. These rodents also may be useful in surveillance programs to identify endemic sites for HGE and in performing laboratory studies on immune responses to the etiologic agent.

  9. High Titers of Mucosal and Systemic anti-PrP Antibodies Abrogates Oral Prion Infection in Mucosal Vaccinated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Fernando; Chabalgoity, Jose A.; Prelli, Frances; Schreiber, Fernanda; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Chung, Erika; Kascsak, Richard; Kascsak, Regina; Brown, David R.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Significant outbreaks of prion disease linked to oral exposure of the prion agent have occurred in animal and human populations. These disorders are associated with a conformational change of a normal protein, PrPC, to a toxic and infectious form, PrPSc. None of the prionoses currently have an effective treatment. Some forms of prion disease are thought to be spread by oral ingestion of PrPSc, such as chronic wasting disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Attempts to obtain an active immunization in wild-type animals have been hampered by auto-tolerance to PrP and potential toxicity. Previously, we demonstrated that it is possible to overcome tolerance and obtain a specific anti-PrP antibody response by oral inoculation of the PrP protein expressed in an attenuated Salmonella vector. This past study showed that 30% of vaccinated animals were free of disease more than 350 days post-challenge. In the current study we have both optimized the vaccination protocol and divided the vaccinated mice into low and high immune responder groups prior to oral challenge with PrPSc scrapie strain 139A. These methodological refinements lead to a significantly improved therapeutic response. 100% of mice with a high mucosal anti-PrP titer IgA and a high systemic IgG titer, prior to challenge, remained without symptoms of PrP infection at 400 days (long-rank test poral route PMID:18407424

  10. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO CANDIDA ALBICANS GERM TUBE BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe increasing incidence of systemic candidiasis, which parallels the use of invasive and immunosuppressive medical procedures, necessitates development of rapid and cost effective tests for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Therefore in this study 85 mice were first immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and then infected by Candida albicans NCPF 3153. Other 85 mice were employed as control. The case and control mice were bled and then autopsied. Hearts and kidneys were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for systemic candidiasis. The 85 sera from histological proven cases and 85 control mice were adsorbed with heat killed blastospores of same strain of C. albicans. Anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in case and control mice. In addition, sera from 35 mice with proven cryptococcosis were also tested. While 84 mice with proven systemic candidiasis (100% had anti-germ tube antibodies, these antibodies were absent in all controls and mice with cryptococcosis. The specificity was 100%, indicating a high degree of discrimination was possible between systemic candidiasis and cryptococcosis in the mice studied. It must be concluded that anti-germ tube responses did not appear to be significantly reduced in immunocompromised mice.

  11. Radioimaging of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in nude mice with a new monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Bode, W.; Kriegel, H.; Reidel, G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    A female Wistar rat aged 33 days was immunized by repeated intraperitoneal injections of a cell suspension of mammary carcinoma for eight months. Spleen cells of the immunized rat were then fused with X63-Ag8.653, a mouse myeloma line. Hybridoma supernatants were screened by ELISA using cells of mammary carcinoma (MaCa) as target cells. Initially 72 hybridomas showed positive response with MaCa cells, but no cross-reaction with normal mammary tissue was seen. Clone Ma 10-11 was chosen for its stable growth in vitro and in ascitic fluid. Monoclonal antibody obtained from ascitic fluid induced by intraperitoneal injection of 10 7 hybridoma cell into BALB/c-nu/nu mice was separated from albumin and transferrin. After separation only one band positioned at 155000 MW on SDS-PAGE slabs was detected. Radiolabeling with 131 I was achieved with the Iodogen method, the efficiency of labeling was 88%. 1.85 MBq of the intact labeled rat antibody were injected into nude mice xenografted with human mammary carcinoma and scintigrams were obtained every 48 hours p.i. up to 15 days. Scintigraphic images permitted tumor detection at 3 days p.i., but good tumor localization needed 8 days p.i.. The tumor-to-blood ratios calculated after dissection of tumor-bearing mice in groups of 3 increased from 0.97 at day 3 to 3 at day 15 p.i.. No uptake of the antibody in other organs was found. The half-life of the whole body clearance of the rat immunoglobulin was 36 h. This is significantly shorter than the half-life found for mouse immunoglobulin in nude mice. (Author)

  12. Individual and combining effects of anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody and teriparatide in ovariectomized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tokuyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and combined effects of teriparatide and anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand monoclonal antibody in ovariectomized mice. Three-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. Four weeks after OVX, they were assigned to 3 different groups to receive anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody (Ab alone (5 mg/kg single injection at 4 weeks after OVX, Ab group, teriparatide alone (80 μg/kg daily injection for 4 weeks from 4 weeks after OVX, PTH group, or mAb plus teriparatide (Ab + PTH group. Mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after OVX. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femur and lumbar spine. Hind limbs were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-I levels were measured to investigate the bone turnover. Compared with Ab group, Ab + PTH group showed a significant increase in BMD at distal femur and femoral shaft. Cortical bone volume was significantly increased in PTH and Ab + PTH groups compared with Ab group. Bone turnover in Ab + PTH group was suppressed to the same degree as in Ab group. The number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was markedly reduced in Ab and Ab + PTH groups. These results suggest that combined treatment of teriparatide with anti-RANKL antibody has additive effects on BMD in OVX mice compared with individual treatment.

  13. Three agonist antibodies in combination with high-dose IL-2 eradicate orthotopic kidney cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Janelle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination immunotherapies can be effective against subcutaneous tumors in mice but the effect against orthotopic malignant disease is less well characterized. In particular, a combination of three agonist antibodies, termed Tri-mAb, consisting of anti-DR5, anti-CD40 and anti-CD137 has previously been demonstrated to eradicate a large proportion of subcutaneous renal cell carcinoma (Renca tumors (75% long-term survival, but the effect against orthotopic disease is not known. Purpose To determine the relative response of orthotopic tumors, we inoculated Renca into the kidney followed by treatment with Tri-mAb. Results We found that orthotopic tumors responded much less to treatment (~13% survival, but a significant improvement in survival was achieved through the addition of IL-2 to the treatment regimen (55% survival. All three agonist antibodies and high dose IL-2, 100,000 IU for up to six doses, were required. CD8+ T cells were also required for optimal anti-tumor responses. Coadministration of IL-2 led to enhanced T cell activity as demonstrated by an increased frequency of IFN-gamma-producing T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes, which may have contributed to the observed improvement of therapy against kidney tumors. Implications Responses of subcutaneous tumors to immunotherapy do not necessarily reflect how orthotopic tumors respond. The use of combination immunotherapy stimulating multiple facets of immunity and including cytokine support for T cells can induce effective anti-tumor responses against orthotopic and metastatic tumors.

  14. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Mori, Nobuko; Esaki, Kozaburo; Imai, Shunsuke; Haga, Satomi; Hilgers, Jo; Takamori, Yasuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    To analyze the genetic basis of the relationship between the radiosensitivity of the immune response and radiation lymphomagenesis, we examined the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, F 1 hybrids, and their recombinant inbred mouse strains. The decrease in the number of plaque-forming spleen cells in BALB/cHeA mice exposed to 3 Gy X-irradiation was more than tenfold that in STS/A mice. The phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The coincidence between the strain distribution patterns of the genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody formation in the various recombinant inbred strains was in the region with the lgh locus on chromosome 12. There was obvious difference between the patterns in the region containing the lfa locus on chromosome 4 which has been shown to be related to the incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas. These results indicate that the region on chromosome 12 may contain major gene(s) related to radiosensitivity for antibody formation. (author)

  15. Anti-IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) polyclonal antibodies ameliorate autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Wang, Tianxiao; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Xiao, He; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2018-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines have been examined as therapeutic targets in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Our previous study showed that a novel IL-12 family cytokine, IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) mediates inflammation in lupus-like mice. In the present study, the effect of anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice was investigated. Rabbit anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant mouse IL-39, and purified using protein A chromatography. These antibodies were subsequently used to treat lupus-like mice. Flow cytometry, captured images, ELISA and H&E staining were used to determine the effect of anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on inflammatory cells, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells and the structure of the glomerular region. The anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies effectively reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells, splenomegaly, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and restored the structure of the glomerular region in MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies ameliorated autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice. Therefore, IL-39 may be used as a possible target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:29138852

  16. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Quintero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6 by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90% of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  17. Evidence that active protection following oral immunization of mice with live rotavirus is not dependent on neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; McNeal, M M; Sheridan, J F

    1992-05-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether active immunity against murine rotavirus (EDIM) infection of mice correlated with titers of neutralizing antibody to the challenge virus. Neonatal mice administered either murine or heterologous rotaviruses all developed diarrhea and high titers of serum rotavirus IgG. However, only mice given EDIM, the murine EB, or simian SA11-FEM strains were protected against EDIM infection when challenged 60 days later. Other serotype 3 strains (RRV, SA11-SEM), as well as strains belonging to serotypes 5 and 6 (OSU, NCDV, WC3), were not protective. Serum neutralizing antibody titers to EDIM were almost undetectable after rotavirus infection with any strain and could not, therefore, be correlated with protection. Likewise, intestinal neutralizing antibody titers were extremely low 21 days after EDIM infection, and by 60 days after inoculation, EDIM-infected mice had no greater intestinal neutralizing antibody titers than uninoculated controls. Mice inoculated with SA11-FEM as neonates had much higher serum rotavirus IgG responses than mice inoculated as adults, and only those infected with this virus as neonates were protected. Thus, although immunity to EDIM did not correlate with the presence of neutralizing antibody to EDIM, it did correlate with the overall magnitude of the immune response after inoculation with SA11-FEM.

  18. Vaccination with Shigella flexneri 2a conjugate induces type 2a and cross-reactive type 6 antibodies in humans but not in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Nahid; Ramon-Saraf, Reut; Banet-Levi, Yonit; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ashkenazi, Shai; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2017-09-05

    Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) 6 has emerged as an important cause of shigellosis. Our efficacy study of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) conjugates in 1-4year-olds had too few S. flexneri 2a cases for efficacy evaluation but surprisingly showed protection of 3-4year-olds, S. flexneri 2a-recipients, from S. flexneri 6 infection. To investigate this cross-protection antibodies to both Shigella types were investigated in all sera remaining from previous studies. Twenty to 30% of 3-44year-old humans injected with S. flexneri 2a conjugate responded with ≥4-fold increases of IgG anti type 6, p<0.00001. The specificity of these antibodies was shown by inhibition studies. S. flexneri 6 infection of 2 children induced besides S. flexneri 6, also S. flexneri 2a antibodies, at levels of S. flexneri 2a vaccinees. S. flexneri 2a antibodies induced by S. flexneri 6 conjugates could not be studied since no such conjugate was assessed in humans and mice responded almost exclusively to the O-SP of the injected conjugate, with no cross-reactive antibodies. Our results indicate induction of cross-reactive protective antibodies. The O-acetylated disaccharide shared by S. flexneri 6 and 2a O-SPs, is the likely basis for their cross-reactivity. S. flexneri 6 O-SP conjugates, alone and in combination with S. flexneri 2a, merit further investigation for broad S. flexneri protection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Pharmacological concentrations of recombinant factor VIIa restore hemostasis independent of tissue factor in antibody-induced hemophilia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, S; Sundaram, J; Rajulapati, A; Pendurthi, U R; Rao, L V M

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: The role of tissue factor (TF) in recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) therapy in hemophilia is unclear. An acquired mouse hemophilia model with very low or normal levels of human TF was used in the study. rFVIIa is equally effective in correcting the bleeding in mice expressing low or normal levels of TF. Pharmacological doses of rFVIIa restore hemostasis in hemophilia independent of TF. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has been used widely for treating hemophilia patients with inhibitory autoantibodies against factor VIII or IX. Its mechanism of action is not entirely known. A majority of in vitro studies suggested that pharmacological concentrations of rFVIIa restore hemostasis in hemophilia in a phospholipid-dependent manner, independent of tissue factor (TF). However, a few studies suggested that a TF-dependent mechanism has a primary role in correction of bleeding by rFVIIa in hemophilia patients. Here, we investigated the potential contribution of TF in rFVIIa-induced hemostasis in hemophilia employing a model system of FVIII antibody-induced hemophilia in TF transgenic mice. Mice expressing low levels of human TF (LTF mice), mice expressing relatively high levels of human TF (HTF mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice) had neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies administered in order to induce hemophilia in these mice. The mice were then treated with varying concentrations of rFVIIa. rFVIIa-induced hemostasis was evaluated with the saphenous vein bleeding model. Administration of FVIII inhibitory antibodies induced the hemophilic bleeding phenotype in all three genotypes. rFVIIa administration rescued the bleeding phenotype in all three genotypes. No significant differences were observed in rFVIIa-induced correction of bleeding between LTF and HTF mice that had FVIII antibodies administered. Our results provide strong evidence supporting the suggestion that the hemostatic effect of pharmacological doses of rFVIIa stems from a TF-independent mechanism. © 2016

  20. Oligoclonal antibody targeting ghrelin increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake in fasted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Joseph S; Zorrilla, Eric P; Zhou, Bin; Mayorov, Alexander V; Janda, Kim D

    2012-02-06

    Ghrelin, an enteric peptide hormone linked to the pathophysiology of obesity has been a therapeutic target of great interest over the past decade. Many research efforts have focused on the antagonism of ghrelin's endogenous receptor GHSR1a, which is found along ascending vagal afferent fibers, as well as in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Additionally, peptidic inhibitors of ghrelin O-acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the paracrine activation of ghrelin, have recently been studied. Our research has taken an alternative immunological approach, studying both active and passive vaccination as a means to sequester ghrelin in the periphery, with the original discovery in rat of decreased feed efficiency and adiposity, as well as increased metabolic activity. Using our previous hapten designs as a stepping-stone, three monoclonal antibodies (JG2, JG3, and JG4) were procured against ghrelin and tested in vivo. While mAb JG4 had the highest affinity for ghrelin, it failed to attenuate the orexigenic effects of food deprivation on energy metabolism or food intake in mice. However, animals that were administered a combination of JG3:JG4 (termed a doublet) or JG2:JG3:JG4 (termed a triplet) demonstrated higher heat dispersion and rate of respiration (higher CO(2) emission and O(2) consumption) during a 24 h fast refeed. Mice administered the triplet cocktail of JG2:JG3:JG4 also demonstrated decreased food intake upon refeeding as compared to control animals. Recently, Lu and colleagues reported that a passive approach using a single, high affinity N-terminally directed monoclonal antibody did not abrogate the effects of endogenous ghrelin. Our current report corroborates this finding, yet, refutes that a monoclonal antibody approach cannot be efficacious. Rather, we find that a multiple monoclonal antibody (oligoclonal) approach can reproduce the underlying logic to previously reported efficacies using active vaccinations.

  1. Human Recombinant Antimannan Immunoglobulin G1 Antibody Confers Resistance to Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mason X.; Bohlman, M. Charlotte; Itatani, Carol; Burton, Dennis R.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; St. Jeor, Stephen C.; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Mannan is a major cell wall component found in Candida species. Natural antimannan antibody is present in sera from most normal adults, but its role in host resistance to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis is unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop recombinant human antimannan antibody and to study its protective function. A phage Fab display combinatorial library containing Fab genes from bone marrow lymphocytes was screened with Candida albicans yeast cells and chemically purified mannan. One antimannan Fab, termed M1, was converted to a full-length immunoglobulin G1 antibody, M1g1, and M1g1 was produced in CHO cells. The M1g1 epitope was found in C. albicans serotypes A and B, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. Its expression was active at both 23°C and 37°C and uniform over the cell surface. BALB/c mice passively immunized with M1g1 were more resistant than control mice to a lethal hematogenous infection by C. albicans, as evidenced by extension of survival in an M1g1 dose-dependent manner (P, 0.08 to <0.001) and by reduction in number of infection foci and their size in the kidney. In vitro studies found that M1g1 promoted phagocytosis and phagocytic killing of C. albicans yeast cells by mouse peritoneal macrophages and was required for activation of the mouse complement cascade. Thus, human antimannan antibody may have a protective role in host resistance to systemic candidiasis. PMID:16368991

  2. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability...

  3. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111 In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  4. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration in mice exposed to partial weight-bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, J. M.; Ellman, R.; Cloutier, A. M.; Louis, L.; van Vliet, M.; Dwyer, D.; Stolina, M.; Ke, H. Z.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading. We hypothesize that treatment with SclAbII would improve bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in all loading conditions, but that there would be a greater skeletal response in the normally loaded mice than in partially unloaded mice suggesting the importance of combined countermeasures for exploration-class long duration spaceflight missions. Eleven-week-old female mice were assigned to one of four loading groups: normal weight-bearing controls (CON) or weight-bearing at 20% (PWB20), 40% (PWB40) or 70% (PWB70) of normal. Mice in each group received either SclAbII (25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) via twice weekly subcutaneous injection for 3 weeks. In partially-unloaded VEH-treated groups, leg BMD decreased -5 to -10% in a load-dependent manner. SclAbII treatment completely inhibited bone deterioration due to PWB, with bone properties in SclAbII-treated groups being equal to or greater than those of CON, VEH-treated mice. SclAbII treatment increased leg BMD from +14 to +18% in the PWB groups and 30 ± 3% in CON (p astronaut bone loss during terrestrial solar system exploration.

  5. Antibody study in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Li, X Y; Zhu, T; Yuan, L; Hu, J P; Chen, J; Gao, W; Ren, W Z

    2015-04-10

    The gene for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of canine distemper virus was cloned into the pMD-18T vector, and positive recombinant plasmids were obtained by enzyme digestion and sequencing. After digestion by both EcoRI and KpnI, the plasmid was directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA; the positive clone pcDNA-N was screened by electrophoresis and then transfected into COS-7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis results showed that the canine distemper virus N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of transfected COS-7 cells. After emulsification in Freund's adjuvant, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-N was injected into the abdominal cavity of 8-week-old BABL/c mice, with the pcDNA original vector used as a negative control. Mice were immunized 3 times every 2 weeks. The blood of immunized mice was drawn 2 weeks after completing the immunizations to measure titer levels. The antibody titer in the pcDNA-N test was 10(1.62 ± 0.164), while in the control group this value was 10(0.52 ± 0.56), indicating that specific humoral immunity was induced in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein-immunized mice.

  6. [Proteolytic activity of IgG-antibodies of mice, immunized by calf thymus histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Iu Ia; Korniĭ, N; Kril', I Ĭ; Mahorivs'ka, I B; Tkachenko, V; Bilyĭ, R O; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the ability of histones to induce production of the proteolytically active IgG-antibodies in BALB/c mice. In order to perform this study 8 mice were immunized with the fraction of total calf thymus histones. IgGs were isolated from the serum of the immunized and not immunized animals by means of precipitation with 33% ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose column. Histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), lysozyme, BSA, ovalbumin, macroglobulin, casein and cytochrome c served as substrates for determining the proteolytic activity. It was found that IgGs from the blood serum of immunized mice are capable of hydrolyzing histone H1, core histone and MBP. On the contrary, the proteolytic activity of IgGs from the blood serum of not immunized mice was not detected. The absence of proteolytical enzymes in the fraction of IgGs was proven by HPLC chromatography. High levels of proteolytic activity toward histones have been also detected in affinity purified IgGs from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but not in healthy donors. These data indicate that eukaryotic histones may induce production of protabzymes in mammals. The possible origin of these protabzymes and their potential biological role in mammalians is discussed.

  7. Sex chromosome complement influences operant responding for a palatable food in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Emanuele; Groman, Stephanie M; Arnold, Arthur P; Jentsch, J David

    2014-07-01

    The procurement and consumption of palatable, calorie-dense foods is influenced by the nutritional and hedonic value of foods. Although many factors can influence the control over behavior by foods rich in sugar and fat, emerging evidence indicates that biological sex may play a particularly crucial role in the types of foods individuals seek out, as well as the level of motivation individuals will exert to obtain those foods. However, a systematic investigation of food-seeking and consumption that disentangles the effects of the major sex-biasing factors, including sex chromosome complement and organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, has yet to be conducted. Using the four core genotypes mouse model system, we separated and quantified the effects of sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex on consumption of and motivation to obtain a highly palatable solution [sweetened condensed milk (SCM)]. Gonadectomized mice with an XY sex chromosome complement, compared with those with two X chromosomes, independent of gonadal sex, appeared to be more sensitive to the reward value of the SCM solution and were more motivated to expend effort to obtain it, as evidenced by their dramatically greater expended effort in an instrumental task with progressively larger response-to-reward ratios. Gonadal sex independently affected free consumption of the solution but not motivation to obtain it. These data indicate that gonadal and chromosomal sex effects independently influence reward-related behaviors, contributing to sexually dimorphic patterns of behavior related to the pursuit and consumption of rewards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Effects of sublethal gamma radiation on T and B cell activity in the antibody response of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.; Lubet, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The relative radiosensitivity of T and B cells was followed in sublethally irradiated mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells, thymus cells, or both, and simultaneously challenged with sheep erythrocytes. Numbers of antibody-forming cells in recipient spleens were determined on days 4 to 8. In this assay the response of mice given bone marrow cells was limited by the amount of residual T cell activity, while the response of mice given thymus cells was limited by the residual B cell activity. Although residual activity of both T and B cells was suppressed in mice given 300 to 700 rad at 80 rad/min, residual B cell activity was consistently lower in these animals. When antibody responses were initiated at intervals after irradiation, B cell activity was clearly limiting by 48 hr after 500 or 600 rad. The activity of both T and B cells was sensitive to differences in dose rate between 8 and 80 rad/min. The 4 to 7 fold dose-rate sensitivity of T cells paralleled that of differentially irradiated nonreconstituted mice. In contrast, dose-rate dependence of B cell activity varied from 10- to 20-fold between 8 and 80 rad/min. These results suggest that radiation suppression of antibody responses in mice is highly dependent upon B cell sensitivity, and that dose-rate dependence of the antibody response may be explained in large part by differential sensitivity of B cells

  9. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Ouyang, Qiufang [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ni, Jingqin [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Xu, Dongming [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Ling [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  10. Ribosome display of combinatorial antibody libraries derived from mice immunized with heat-killed Xylella fastidiosa and the selection of MopB-specific single-chain antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Armaghan; Arora, Arinder; Markiv, Anatoliy; Lampe, David J; Miller, Thomas A; Kang, Angray S

    2012-04-01

    Pierce's disease is a devastating lethal disease of Vitus vinifera grapevines caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. There is no cure for Pierce's disease, and control is achieved predominantly by suppressing transmission of the glassy-winged sharpshooter insect vector. We present a simple robust approach for the generation of panels of recombinant single-chain antibodies against the surface-exposed elements of X. fastidiosa that may have potential use in diagnosis and/or disease transmission blocking studies. In vitro combinatorial antibody ribosome display libraries were assembled from immunoglobulin transcripts rescued from the spleens of mice immunized with heat-killed X. fastidiosa. The libraries were used in a single round of selection against an outer membrane protein, MopB, resulting in the isolation of a panel of recombinant antibodies. The potential use of selected anti-MopB antibodies was demonstrated by the successful application of the 4XfMopB3 antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a Western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). These immortalized in vitro recombinant single-chain antibody libraries generated against heat-killed X. fastidiosa are a resource for the Pierce's disease research community that may be readily accessed for the isolation of antibodies against a plethora of X. fastidiosa surface-exposed antigenic molecules.

  11. Effect of anti-podoplanin antibody administration during lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Sian; Rayes, Julie; Thickett, David R; Watson, Steve P

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating pulmonary condition in the critically ill patient. A therapeutic intervention is yet to be found that can prevent progression to ARDS. We recently demonstrated that the interaction between podoplanin expressed on inflammatory alveolar macrophages (iAMs) and its endogenous ligand, platelet C-type lectin-like 2 (CLEC-2), protects against exaggerated lung inflammation during a mouse model of ARDS. In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic use of a crosslinking/activating anti-podoplanin antibody (α-PDPN, clone 8.1.1) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. Intravenous administration of α-PDPN was performed 6 hours after intratracheal LPS in wildtype, C57Bl/6 mice. Lung function decline was measured by pulse oximetry as well as markers of local inflammation including bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia and cytokine/chemokine expression. In parallel, alveolar macrophages were isolated and cultured in vitro from haematopoietic-specific podoplanin-deficient mice (Pdpn fl/fl VAV1cre + ) and floxed-only controls treated with or without LPS in the presence or absence of α-PDPN. Lung function decline as well as alveolar neutrophil recruitment was significantly decreased in mice treated with the crosslinking/activating α-PDPN in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in vitro, activation of podoplanin on iAMs regulates their secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These data confirm the importance of the CLEC-2-podoplanin pathway during intratracheal (IT)-LPS and demonstrate the beneficial effect of targeting podoplanin during IT-LPS in mice possibly via modulation of local cytokine/chemokine expression. Moreover, these data suggest that podoplanin-targeted therapies may have a beneficial effect in patients at risk of developing ARDS.

  12. Sclerostin Antibody Treatment Improves the Bone Phenotype of Crtap(-/-) Mice, a Model of Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Ingo; Alexander, Stefanie; Yang, Tao; Lietman, Caressa; Homan, Erica P; Munivez, Elda; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming Ming; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Asuncion, Franklin; Ke, Hua Zhu; Ominsky, Michael S; Lee, Brendan

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by low bone mass, poor bone quality, and fractures. Standard treatment for OI patients is limited to bisphosphonates, which only incompletely correct the bone phenotype, and seem to be less effective in adults. Sclerostin-neutralizing antibodies (Scl-Ab) have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of osteoporosis, and dominant OI resulting from mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen. However, Scl-Ab treatment has not been studied in models of recessive OI. Cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) is involved in posttranslational type I collagen modification, and its loss of function results in recessive OI. In this study, we treated 1-week-old and 6-week-old Crtap(-/-) mice with Scl-Ab for 6 weeks (25 mg/kg, s.c., twice per week), to determine the effects on the bone phenotype in models of "pediatric" and "young adult" recessive OI. Vehicle-treated Crtap(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice served as controls. Compared with control Crtap(-/-) mice, micro-computed tomography (μCT) analyses showed significant increases in bone volume and improved trabecular microarchitecture in Scl-Ab-treated Crtap(-/-) mice in both age cohorts, in both vertebrae and femurs. Additionally, Scl-Ab improved femoral cortical parameters in both age cohorts. Biomechanical testing showed that Scl-Ab improved parameters of whole-bone strength in Crtap(-/-) mice, with more robust effects in the week 6 to 12 cohort, but did not affect the increased bone brittleness. Additionally, Scl-Ab normalized the increased osteoclast numbers, stimulated bone formation rate (week 6 to 12 cohort only), but did not affect osteocyte density. Overall, our findings suggest that Scl-Ab treatment may be beneficial in the treatment of recessive OI caused by defects in collagen posttranslational modification. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Investigation of the Influence of Protein-Losing Enteropathy on Monoclonal Antibody Pharmacokinetics in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujie; Li, Tommy R; Balthasar, Joseph P

    2017-11-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE), which is characterized by substantial loss of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a complication of a variety of GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical studies have found that the clearance of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is often increased in subjects with diseases known to cause PLE; however, direct relationships between PLE and mAb pharmacokinetics have not been demonstrated. This study employed a murine model of colitis to examine the influence of PLE on mAb pharmacokinetics. Mice were given dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v) supplemented tap water as drinking source for 6 days to induce colitis and PLE. Mice were then intravenously injected with 8C2, a murine IgG1 mAb. 8C2 plasma concentrations were measured up to 14 days post injection. Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) clearance was measured as biomarker for PLE. DSS-treated mice developed PLE of clinically relevant severity. They also showed a transient increase in 8C2 plasma clearance and a decrease in 8C2 plasma exposure. The area under the 8C2 plasma concentration-time curve for the length of the study (AUC 0-14d ) reduced from 1368 ± 255 to 594 ± 224 day μg/ml following DSS treatment (p = 0.001). A quantitative relationship between A1AT clearance and 8C2 clearance was obtained via population pharmacokinetic modeling. DSS treatment substantially increased 8C2 clearance and reduced 8C2 exposure. Increased mAb plasma clearance was highly correlated with A1AT fecal clearance, suggesting the possible utility of A1AT fecal clearance as a mechanistic biomarker to predict the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies.

  14. Ekstrak Pegagan Meningkatkan Titer Antibodi Mencit Setelah Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT INCREASE ANTIBODY TITER IN MICE AFTER SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the ability of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica in enhancing antibodyresponse of C. asiatica treated mice following Salmonella typhi (S. typhi infections. It is therefore expectedthat herbal drug such as  C. asiatica  can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent and to curesalmonellosis both in animals and human. Experimental laboratory studies were conducted usingCompletely Factorial Randomized Design. Mice were divided into four groups and they were treatedrespectively with destilated water (negative control, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day of  C. asiaticaextract. The treatment was conducted daily for two weeks  and the mice were inoculated with 105 cells/mlof  S. typhi. The antibody response were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAon first day, second week and fourth week  after S. typhi infections.  The result showed that treatment ofmice with C. asiatica extract significantly (p<0,05 enhanced antibody titer of Balb/c mice after S. typhiinfections. The highest antibody titer was observed at four weeks after S. typhi infections with 500 mg/kgBW/day (94,0370 ± 1,69 IU.

  15. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xiao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  16. Investigation of phyotographic distribution of anti-P-gp antibody PHMA02 in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Lan; Shao Menglin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the photographic distribution of anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody PHMA02 in nude mice transplanted with K562/A02 cell tumor. Methods: PHMA02 were prepared by hybridoma technique, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophorsis and Western-blot were used to analyzed its purity, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was also used to determine its binding with K562 and K562/A02 cells. Nude mice were injected i.v with 125 I labeled PHMA02, and were scanned on different time by SPECT. Results: The purity and binding affinity of PHMA02 were both satisfactory. On the second day from injection, radioactivity appeared in all tumor regions of the P-gp + (K562/A02) group nude mice, and intensified in the following days. Concludsion: The photographic difference of PHMA02 distribution between P-gp + (K562/A02) and P-gp - (K562) group could specifically distinguish the P-gp + tumor tissue. (authors)

  17. The effects of acylation stimulating protein supplementation VS antibody neutralization on energy expenditure in wildtype mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ying

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylation stimulating protein (ASP is an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient C3 knockout mice are hyperphagic yet lean, as they display increased oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation compared to wildtype mice. In the present study, antibodies against ASP (Anti-ASP and human recombinant ASP (rASP were tested in vitro and in vivo. Continuous administration for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump of Anti-ASP or rASP was evaluated in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet (HFD to examine their effects on body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Results In mature murine adipocytes, rASP significantly stimulated fatty acid uptake (+243% vs PBS, P Conclusion In vitro, Anti-ASP effectively neutralized ASP stimulated fatty acid uptake. In vivo, Anti-ASP treatment increased whole body energy utilization while rASP increased energy storage. Therefore, ASP is a potent anabolic hormone that may also be a mediator of energy expenditure.

  18. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  19. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  20. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-04

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Myostatin blockade with a fully human monoclonal antibody induces muscle hypertrophy and reverses muscle atrophy in young and aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latres, Esther; Pangilinan, Jeffrey; Miloscio, Lawrence; Bauerlein, Roy; Na, Erqian; Potocky, Terra B; Huang, Ying; Eckersdorff, Mark; Rafique, Ashique; Mastaitis, Jason; Lin, Calvin; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Gromada, Jesper; Stitt, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of myostatin as a key negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function has supported the concept that inactivation of myostatin could be a useful approach for treating muscle wasting diseases. We generated a myostatin monoclonal blocking antibody (REGN1033) and characterized its effects in vitro using surface plasmon resonance biacore and cell-based Smad2/3 signaling assays. REGN1033 was tested in mice for the ability to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and prevent atrophy induced by immobilization, hindlimb suspension, or dexamethasone. The effect of REGN1033 on exercise training was tested in aged mice. Messenger RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and ex vivo force measurements were performed on skeletal muscle samples from REGN1033-treated mice. The human monoclonal antibody REGN1033 is a specific and potent myostatin antagonist. Chronic treatment of mice with REGN1033 increased muscle fiber size, muscle mass, and force production. REGN1033 prevented the loss of muscle mass induced by immobilization, glucocorticoid treatment, or hindlimb unweighting and increased the gain of muscle mass during recovery from pre-existing atrophy. In aged mice, REGN1033 increased muscle mass and strength and improved physical performance during treadmill exercise. We show that specific myostatin antagonism with the human antibody REGN1033 enhanced muscle mass and function in young and aged mice and had beneficial effects in models of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  2. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic of 1E10 monoclonal antibody after subcutaneous administration in healthy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, M; Hernández, I; Aldana, L; Ayra, F; Castro, Y; Leyva, R; García, L; Casaco, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate biodistribution and pharmacokinetic of the 1E10, the molecule was radio labelled with 125I and incorporated into a cold antibody formulation. Isotopic labeling was carried out by means of standardized methods.Introduction:1E10 monoclonal antibody was developed at Centre of Molecular Immunology (CIM) as antitumoral drug with proved efficacy in experimental models. In the present investigation, biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with the help of radio isotopic labeling. Materials and methods: 1E10 was supplied by CIM and labeled with 125I by the iodogen method. To male Balb/c mice from CENPALAB a single subcutaneous administration of 1 mg/kg was performed in the supra scapular region and accommodated in metabolic cages during experiments. Blood samples were taken alternating five groups of three animals according with a sparse data design. Biodistribution was carried out by direct organ sampling and radioactive counting. Pharmacokinetic was performed by compartmental analysis. Urine and faces were collected at regular time intervals. Results: Observed pharmacokinetic behaviour is typical of an immunoglobulin in the assay system used, showing a slow clearance and a small volume of distribution. Biodistribution shows no preference for any sampled organs or tissues. Only a high relative uptake was observed in axillary and brachial lymph nodes close to administration site. (author)

  3. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species.

  4. Strategies for induction of catalytic antibodies toward HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 in autoimmune prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durova, Oxana M; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Smirnov, Ivan V; Reshetnyak, Andrew V; Telegin, Georgy B; Shamborant, Olga G; Orlova, Nadezda A; Genkin, Dmitry D; Bacon, Andrew; Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2009-11-01

    Tremendous efforts to produce an efficient vaccine for HIV infection have been unsuccessful. The ability of HIV to utilize sophisticated mechanisms to escape killing by host immune system rises dramatic problems in the development of antiviral therapeutics. The HIV infection proceeds by interaction of coat viral glycoprotein gp120 trimer with CD4(+) receptor of the lymphocyte. Thus this surface antigen may be regarded as a favorable target for immunotherapy. In the present study, we have developed three different strategies to produce gp120-specific response in autoimmune prone mice (SJL strain) as potential tools for production "catalytic vaccine". Therefore (i) reactive immunization by peptidylphosphonate, structural part of the coat glycoprotein, (ii) immunization by engineered fused epitopes of gp120 and encephalogenic peptide, a part of myelin basic protein, and (iii) combined vaccination by DNA and corresponding gp120 fragments incorporated into liposomes were investigated. In the first two cases monoclonal antibodies and their recombinant fragments with amidolytic and gp120-specific proteolytic activities were characterized. In the last case, catalytic antibodies with virus neutralizing activity proved in cell line models were harvested.

  5. Effect of atorvastatin on antibody, interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haibi, Christelle; Rahal, Elias; Khauli, Raja B; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are widely used as the drug of choice for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, actions beyond that of simply lowering cholesterol levels have been reported. This study aims at evaluating the effect of atorvastatin on antibody interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin. Antibody levels were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine transcripts by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that repeated daily doses of 40 mg/Kg body weight of atorvastatin following immunization suppressed the antibody response in mice to egg albumin. Moreover, a decline in interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon transcripts was observed.

  6. Intranasal Immunization of Mice to Avoid Interference of Maternal Antibody against H5N1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs can protect offspring against influenza virus infection but may also inhibit active immune responses. To overcome MDA- mediated inhibition, active immunization of offspring with an inactivated H5N1 whole-virion vaccine under the influence of MDAs was explored in mice. Female mice were vaccinated twice via the intraperitoneal (IP or intranasal (IN route with the vaccine prior to mating. One week after birth, the offspring were immunized twice via the IP or IN route with the same vaccine and then challenged with a lethal dose of a highly homologous virus strain. The results showed that, no matter which immunization route (IP or IN was used for mothers, the presence of MDAs severely interfered with the active immune response of the offspring when the offspring were immunized via the IP route. Only via the IN immunization route did the offspring overcome the MDA interference. These results suggest that intranasal immunization could be a suitable inoculation route for offspring to overcome MDA interference in the defense against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus infection. This study may provide references for human and animal vaccination to overcome MDA-induced inhibition.

  7. Antibody-based inhibition of circulating DLK1 protects from estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figeac, Florence; Andersen, Ditte C.; Nipper Nielsen, Casper A.

    2018-01-01

    /TV) and inhibition of bone resorption. No significant changes were observed in total fat mass or in the number of bone marrow adipocytes. These results support the potential use of anti-DLK1 antibody therapy as a novel intervention to protect from E deficiency associated bone loss....... deficiency-associated bone loss in mice. Thus, we generated mouse monoclonal anti-mouse DLK1 antibodies (MAb DLK1) that enabled us to reduce and also quantitate the levels of bioavailable serum DLK1 in vivo. Ovariectomized (ovx) mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly with MAb DLK1 over a period...... of one month. DEXA-, microCT scanning, and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed. Compared to controls, MAb DLK1 treated ovx mice were protected against ovx-induced bone loss, as revealed by significantly increased total bone mass (BMD) due to increased trabecular bone volume fraction (BV...

  8. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Viraj Mane,1 Silvia Muro1, 21Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ~60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum

  9. Mass-Production and Characterization of Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody in Peritoneum of Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Aghebati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are important tools are used in basic research as well as, in diagnosis, imaging and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, infections and cancers. The purpose of this study was to produce large scale of monoclonal antibody against CD20 in order to diagnostic application in leukemia and lymphomas disorders. Methods: Hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibody against human CD20 were administered into the peritoneum of the Balb/c mice which have previously been primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After twelve days, approximately 7 ml ascetic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. Evaluation of mAb titration was assessed by ELISA method. In the present study, we describe a protocol for large scale production of MAbs. Results: We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs with high specificity and sensitivity against human CD20 by hybridoma method and characterized them by ELISA. The subclass of antibody was IgG2a and its light chain was kappa. Ascetic fluid was purified by Protein-A Sepharose affinity chromatography and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with FITC and Immunofluorescence was done for confirming the specific binding. Conclusion: The conjugated monoclonal antibody could have application in diagnosis B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and melanoma cancer stem cells.

  10. Influence of IgG Subclass on Human Antimannan Antibody-Mediated Resistance to Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiya, Casey T; Boxx, Gayle M; Robison, Kerry; Itatani, Carol; Kozel, Thomas R; Zhang, Mason X

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans is a yeast-like pathogen and can cause life-threatening systemic candidiasis. Its cell surface is enriched with mannan that is resistant to complement activation. Previously, we developed the recombinant human IgG1 antimannan antibody M1g1. M1g1 was found to promote complement activation and phagocytosis and protect mice from systemic candidiasis. Here, we evaluate the influence of IgG subclass on antimannan antibody-mediated protection. Three IgG subclass variants of M1g1 were constructed: M1g2, M1g3, and M1g4. The IgG subclass identity for each variant was confirmed with DNA sequence and subclass-specific antibodies. These variants contain identical M1 Fabs and exhibited similar binding affinities for C. albicans yeast and purified mannan. Yeast cells and hyphae recovered from the kidney of antibody-treated mice with systemic candidiasis showed uniform binding of each variant, indicating constitutive expression of the M1 epitope and antibody opsonization in the kidney. All variants promoted deposition of both murine and human C3 onto the yeast cell surface, with M1g4 showing delayed activation, as determined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. M1g4-mediated complement activation was found to be associated with its M1 Fab that activates the alternative pathway in an Fc-independent manner. Treatment with each subclass variant extended the survival of mice with systemic candidiasis (P < 0.001). However, treatment with M1g1, M1g3, or M1g4, but not with M1g2, also reduced the kidney fungal burden (P < 0.001). Thus, the role of human antimannan antibody in host resistance to systemic candidiasis is influenced by its IgG subclass. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice using monoclonal antibodies to osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed several monoclonal antibodies against human osteogenic sarcoma, one of which; OST7 (IgGl) selectively localized in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice. In the present study, F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment was compared with whole IgG and those labeled with In-111 as well as I-131 were used as a radiotracer for the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. IgC and F(ab')/sub 2/ were labeled with I-131 using chloramine-T method and injected into nude mice bearing human osteogenic sarcoma. Scintigrams at day 2 clearly delineated the site of tumors with almost no radioactivity in other organs with F(ab')/sub 2/, which yielded much better images than whole IgG. Tumor-to-blood ratio of 6.09-27.87 was obtained at day 2 using F(ab')/sub 2/, whereas it was 0.76-1.12 at day 2 and 2.05-3.27 at day 7 with IgG. I-131 labeled nonspecific F(ab')/sub 2/ or IgG resulted in no or very low tumor uptake with tumor-to-blood ratio of 0.94-1.18 at day 2 for F(ab')/sub 2/ and 0.67-0.76 at day 7 for IgG, respectively. In-111 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7, which was prepared using DTPA as a bifunctional chelate, also showed a high tumor accumulation with tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.67-17.54 at day 2, but higher background activity in the liver and kidney was observed than I-131 labeled one. These results indicate that F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7 labeled with either I-131 or In-111, has a great potential for the radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma

  12. Anti-thromboxane B2 antibodies protect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ćavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids are lipid compounds that mediate a variety of physiological and pathological functions in almost all body tissues and organs. Thromboxane (TX A2 is a powerful inducer of platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction and it has ulcerogenic activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Overdose or chronic use of a high dose of acetaminophen (N-acetyl-paminophenol, APAP is a major cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. We investigated whether TXA2 plays a role in host response to toxic effect of APAP. CBA/H Zg mice of both sexes were intoxicated with a single lethal or high sublethal dose of APAP, which was administered to animals by oral gavage. The toxicity of APAP was determined by observing the survival of mice during 48 h, by measuring concentration of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT in plasma 20-22 h after APAP administration and by liver histology. The results have shown that anti-thromboxane (TX B2 antibodies (anti-TXB2 and a selective inhibitor of thromboxane (TX synthase, benzylimidazole (BZI, were significantly hepatoprotective, while a selective thromboxane receptor (TPR antagonist, daltroban, was slightly protective in this model of acute liver injury. A stabile metabolite of TXA2, TXB2, and a stabile agonist of TPR, U-46619, had no influence on APAP-induced liver damage. Our findings suggest that TXA2 has a pathogenic role in acute liver toxicity induced with APAP, which was highly abrogated by administration of anti-TXB2. According to our results, this protection is mediated, at least in part, through decreased production of TXB2 by liver fragments ex vivo.

  13. A tetravalent virus-like particle vaccine designed to display domain III of dengue envelope proteins induces multi-serotype neutralizing antibodies in mice and macaques which confer protection against antibody dependent enhancement in AG129 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Ramasamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the fastest spreading vector-borne diseases, caused by four antigenically distinct dengue viruses (DENVs. Antibodies against DENVs are responsible for both protection as well as pathogenesis. A vaccine that is safe for and efficacious in all people irrespective of their age and domicile is still an unmet need. It is becoming increasingly apparent that vaccine design must eliminate epitopes implicated in the induction of infection-enhancing antibodies.We report a Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue immunogen, DSV4, based on DENV envelope protein domain III (EDIII, which contains well-characterized serotype-specific and cross-reactive epitopes. In natural infection, <10% of the total neutralizing antibody response is EDIII-directed. Yet, this is a functionally relevant domain which interacts with the host cell surface receptor. DSV4 was designed by in-frame fusion of EDIII of all four DENV serotypes and hepatitis B surface (S antigen and co-expressed with unfused S antigen to form mosaic virus-like particles (VLPs. These VLPs displayed EDIIIs of all four DENV serotypes based on probing with a battery of serotype-specific anti-EDIII monoclonal antibodies. The DSV4 VLPs were highly immunogenic, inducing potent and durable neutralizing antibodies against all four DENV serotypes encompassing multiple genotypes, in mice and macaques. DSV4-induced murine antibodies suppressed viremia in AG129 mice and conferred protection against lethal DENV-4 virus challenge. Further, neither murine nor macaque anti-DSV4 antibodies promoted mortality or inflammatory cytokine production when passively transferred and tested in an in vivo dengue disease enhancement model of AG129 mice.Directing the immune response to a non-immunodominant but functionally relevant serotype-specific dengue epitope of the four DENV serotypes, displayed on a VLP platform, can help minimize the risk of inducing disease-enhancing antibodies while eliciting effective tetravalent

  14. Quality and Kinetics of the Antibody Response in Mice after Three Different Low-Dose Influenza Virus Vaccination Strategies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Solveig; Madhun, Abdullah; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt

    2007-01-01

    The threat of a new influenza pandemic has led to renewed interest in dose-sparing vaccination strategies such as intradermal immunization and the use of adjuvanted vaccines. In this study we compared the quality and kinetics of the serum antibody response elicited in mice after one or two immunizations with a split influenza A (H3N2) virus, using three different low-dose vaccination strategies. The mice were divided into four groups, receiving either a low-dose vaccine (3 μg hemagglutinin [H...

  15. Improved pretargeted delivery of radiolabelled hapten to human tumour xenograft in mice by avidin chase of circulating bispecific antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirallie, Eric; Sai-Maurel, Catherine; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Barbet, Jacques; Thedrez, Philippe [Universite de Nantes, Cancer Research Department, Nantes (France); Regenet, Nicolas [Service de Chirurgie, CHU Nantes, Nantes (France); Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M. [IBC Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morris Plains, NJ (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Pretargeted therapy with radiolabelled bivalent haptens and bispecific antibodies has shown promising results, but blood clearance of the activity-carrying haptens under conditions designed for radioimmunotherapy is relatively slow. Thus, the chase of excess circulating bispecific antibody by biotinylation of the bispecific antibody and injection of avidin before hapten administration was tested with a view to increasing tumour-to-blood activity ratios. The anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) x anti-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid-indium (di-DTPA-indium) bispecific antibody (hMN-14 x 734) was derivatised with NHS-LC-biotin and injected into LS-174T tumour-bearing nude mice at a dose of 3.5 nmol, followed by avidin and finally by the{sup 125}I-labelled di-DTPA-indium hapten (1 nmol). Blood samples were collected, animals sacrificed and tumours and normal tissues counted. Avidin chased up to 72% of the circulating antibody in the liver and the spleen within 30 min. When the labelled hapten was injected 3 h after avidin, tumour to blood ratios measured 3 and 24 h after hapten injection were significantly improved by the chase (3.5-fold), whereas tumour uptake was not significantly reduced. Uptake in normal tissues was unchanged (liver, kidney) or decreased (muscle), with the exception of spleen, in which uptake of both antibody and hapten was increased by the avidin chase. (orig.)

  16. Host natural suppressor activity regulates hemopoietic engraftment kinetics in antibody-conditioned recipient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadelain, M.W.; Green, D.R.; Wegmann, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to semi-allogeneic or syngeneic hemopoietic stem cell engraftment can be reduced by treating the unirradiated host with anti-class I MHC antibody. In our previous studies we showed a direct correlation between such resistance and the level of natural suppressor (NS) activity in the host. Thus newborn mice that have high NS activity are very resistant to marrow engraftment, as are adults pretreated with CFA that increases NS activity in the bone marrow. We have now devised a method that allows us to follow hemopoietic engraftment kinetics within the marrow cavity itself by assaying individual CFU-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells for their host or donor origin over the immediate post-transplant period. By using this method, we find a close correlation between the rate of marrow engraftment and reduction in host NS activity. Marrow engraftment does not correlate with the reduction of either total host bone marrow cellular content or CFU-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell levels. NS activity is mediated by Thy-1-, partially radiosensitive, nylon wool nonadherent cells without NK activity. Adoptively transferred Thy-1-, irradiated spleen cells containing NS activity induced by pretreatment with CFA delayed engraftment kinetics in the marrow cavity. Thus hemopoietic engraftment in the marrow cavity appears to be controlled by an inhibitory regulatory activity that is reflected in the in vitro NS assay. These studies suggest new regulatory targets for selective host conditioning to eliminate resistance to marrow transplantation

  17. Tandem bispecific neutralizing antibody eliminates HIV-1 infection in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xilin; Guo, Jia; Niu, Mengyue; An, Minghui; Liu, Li; Wang, Hui; Jin, Xia; Zhang, Qi; Lam, Ka Shing; Wu, Tongjin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Qian; Du, Yanhua; Li, Jingjing; Cheng, Lin; Tang, Hang Ying; Shang, Hong; Zhang, Linqi; Zhou, Paul; Chen, Zhiwei

    2018-04-23

    The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bispecific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving 2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, BiIA-SG, displayed substantially improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1-pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, variants not susceptible to parental bnAbs and to many other bnAbs with an average IC50 value of 0.073 μg/ml (range HIV-1 stains. Moreover, whereas BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in a short-term therapeutic setting when combined with cART, a single injection of adeno-associated virus-transferred (AAV-transferred) BiIA-SG gene resulted dose-dependently in prolonged in vivo expression of BiIA-SG, which was associated with complete viremia control and subsequent elimination of infected cells in humanized mice. These results warrant the clinical development of BiIA-SG as a promising bs-bnAb-based biomedical intervention for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Production of anti-SRBC antibodies after DDC administration in whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautska, J.; Hosek, B.; Misustova, J.

    1990-01-01

    Production of antibody-forming cells (PFC) was studied in mice subjected to a single whole-body radiation dose of 3.8 Gy following an injection of sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC, 800 mg/kg) 30 min before irradiation. The animals were immunized (1% SRBC) 4 hours and 5 and 10 days after irradiation, and the number of PFC was determined by a modified Jerne plaque technique on days 4, 7 and 10 after immunization. After irradiation alone, the PFC levels were markedly reduced at all time intervals in comparison with unirradiated controls. Upon immunization of animals on day 10 after irradiation the peak PFC levels were observed on day 7 after immunization in the irradiated only group and in the group irradiated after DDC administration (in controls on day 4 after immunization). The administration of DDC entirely eliminated the unfavourable effect of radiation if immunization was performed 4 h after irradiation, in terms of the number and the peak level of PFC. Upon immunization of animals on day 5 and day 10 after irradiation the PFC levels were not markedly influenced by DDC injection. (author). 3 figs., 25 refs

  19. IgG subclass and vaccination stimulus determine changes in antigen specific antibody glycosylation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Daniela; Lux, Anja; Schaffert, Anja; Lang, Roland; Altmann, Friedrich; Nimmerjahn, Falk

    2017-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation can modulate antibody effector functions. Depending on the precise composition of the sugar moiety attached to individual IgG glycovariants either pro- or anti-inflammatory effector pathways can be initiated via differential binding to type I or type II Fc-receptors. However, an in depth understanding of how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state and how their glycosylation pattern changes during vaccination is missing. To monitor IgG subclass glycosylation during the steady state and upon vaccination of mice with different T-cell dependent and independent antigens, tryptic digests of serum, and antigen-specific IgG preparations were analyzed by reversed phase-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that there is a remarkable difference with respect to how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state. More importantly, upon T-cell dependent and independent vaccinations, individual antigen-specific IgG subclasses reacted differently with respect to changes in individual glycoforms, suggesting that the IgG subclass itself is a major determinant of restricting or allowing alterations in specific IgG glycovariants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Radiolocalization of bovine lymphosarcoma cells in athymic mice, using a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Ito, K.; Onuma, M.; Fujimori, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Izawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibody c 143 was purified and F(ab')2 fragments were generated by pepsin digestion and then radiolabeled with 125 I. The 125 I-labeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments were injected into athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. The fragments became preferentially localized in tumor tissues, but not in normal tissues, as determined by differential counting of tissue radioactivity. The fragments became localized specifically in those tumors that were reactive with c 143 in vitro, but did not become localized in unrelated tumors. Localization of labeled F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody of the same isotype directed against Taka virus (a variant of Newcastle disease virus) was not observed in athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. Tumors were detectable by radioimmunoscintigraphy, using radiolabeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments, without background subtraction, and by use of silver-grain scattering in light microscopic autoradiography

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of DSTA4637A: A novel THIOMAB™ antibody antibiotic conjugate against Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Lehar, Sophie; Gutierrez, Johnny; Rosenberger, Carrie M; Ljumanovic, Nina; Dinoso, Jason; Koppada, Neelima; Hong, Kyu; Baruch, Amos; Carrasco-Triguero, Montserrat; Saad, Ola; Mariathasan, Sanjeev; Kamath, Amrita V

    DSTA4637A, a novel THIOMAB™ antibody antibiotic conjugate (TAC) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is currently being investigated as a potential therapy against S. aureus infections. Structurally, TAC is composed of an anti-S. aureus antibody linked to a potent antibiotic, dmDNA31. The goal of the current study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAC in mice, assess the effect of S. aureus infection on its PK, and evaluate its pharmacodynamics (PD) by measuring the bacterial load in various organs at different timepoints following TAC treatment. Plasma concentrations of 3 analytes, total antibody (TAb), antibody-conjugated dmDNA31 (ac-dmDNA31), and unconjugated dmDNA31, were measured in these studies. In non-infected mice (target antigen absent), following intravenous (IV) administration of a single dose of TAC, systemic concentration-time profiles of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were bi-exponential and characterized by a short distribution phase and a long elimination phase as expected for a monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic. Systemic exposures of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were dose proportional over the dose range tested (5 to 50 mg/kg). In a mouse model of systemic S. aureus infection (target antigen present), a single IV dose of TAC demonstrated PK behavior similar to that in the non-infected mice, and substantially reduced bacterial load in the heart, kidney, and bones on 7 and 14 d post dosing. These findings have increased our understanding of the PK and PK/PD of this novel molecule, and have shown that at efficacious dose levels the presence of S. aureus infection had minimal effect on TAC PK.

  2. Adenovirus Particles that Display the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein NANP Repeat Induce Sporozoite-Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Christopher; Overstreet, Michael G.; Guedon, Jean-Marc; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ward, Cameron; Karen, Kasey A.; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus particles can be engineered to display exogenous peptides on their surfaces by modification of viral capsid proteins, and particles that display pathogen-derived peptides can induce protective immunity. We constructed viable recombinant adenoviruses that display B-cell epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) in the major adenovirus capsid protein, hexon. Recombinants induced high-titer antibodies against CSP when injected intraperitoneally into mice...

  3. Immunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice with I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Maul, F.D.; Wenisch, H.J.C.; Kriegel, H.; Hor, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the present study radioiodinated F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of CA19-9 and antibody that reacts specifically with human gastrointestinal cancer were examined for their ability to detect human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 80μCi of I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/ with a specific activity of 1.8μCi/μg. All mice were imaged after the injection and every 24hr up to 6 days. The retained radioactivity was also registered with a whole-body counter immediately after imaging. As a control F(ab's)/sub 2/ of a nonspecific antibody were administered in parallel to another group of animals bearing the same tumor. Three animals of each group were killed at 1,2,4 and 8 days for determination of the distribution of both labeled antibody-fragments. On scintigraphic images obtained with the CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/ the tumors could be visualized 24hr after injection, the best dilineation however was achieved 96hr p.i.. The biodistribution data exhibited a more rapid blood clearance for the specific fragments compared to that for the unspecific ones. Tumors showed an increase in uptake up to 48hr reaching 1.7% of the injected dose per gram, declining to values of 0.08%/g at day 6 p.i.. The highest tumor-to-blood ratios were found after 96h. They were 7 for the CA19-9-fragments compared to 1.5 for the unspecific fragments. The whole body counting revealed a more rapid excretion for the fragments of the specific monoclonal antibodies than for the unspecific ones. In summary the authors were able to show that CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments can be used for immunodetection of human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice

  4. Stimulation of cAMP levels and modulation of antibody formation in mice immunized with cholera toxin. [Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kateley, J.R.; Friedman, H.

    1975-02-28

    Injection of mice with 1.0 ..mu..g of a purified exotoxin derived from Vibrio cholerae together with a challenge injection of sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) or E. coli LPS markedly influenced the immune response to these antigens. Simultaneous injection of the toxin with antigen resulted in a delayed appearance of antibody-forming cells during the first few days after immunization, followed by a marked enhancement of the peak numbers of antibody-forming cells. In the case of the immune response to SRBC, both 19S and 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) were enhanced on the peak day of response after simultaneous immunization of toxin-injected mice. The secondary immune response to SRBC was also similarly affected when cholera toxin was given along with a second injection of erythrocytes; i.e., a delay in appearance of the first antibody-forming cells followed by a marked enhancement of the peak 19S and 7S PFC response. Injection of cholera toxin 1-3 days prior to SRBC or LPS was immunosuppressive. The effect of cholera toxin on the level of splenic cyclic AMP appeared related to the effects on antibody formation.

  5. Kinetics of antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects transmitting Leishmania parasites. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits specific immune response and the humoral immunity was shown to reflect the intensity of sand fly exposure. Thus, anti-saliva antibodies were suggested as the potential risk marker of Leishmania transmission. In this study, we examined the long-term kinetics and persistence of anti-Phlebotomus papatasi saliva antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We also tested the reactivity of mice sera with P. papatasi salivary antigens and with the recombinant proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice experimentally bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-saliva IgE, IgG and its subclasses. We detected a significant increase of specific IgG and IgG1 in both mice strains and IgG2b in BALB/c mice that positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. papatasi females. Using western blot and mass spectrometry we identified the major P. papatasi antigens as Yellow-related proteins, D7-related proteins, antigen 5-related proteins and SP-15-like proteins. We therefore tested the reactivity of mice sera with four P. papatasi recombinant proteins coding for most of these potential antigens (PpSP44, PpSP42, PpSP30, and PpSP28. Each mouse serum reacted with at least one of the recombinant protein tested, although none of the recombinant proteins were recognized by all sera. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed the concept of using anti-sand fly saliva antibodies as a marker of sand fly exposure in Phlebotomus papatasi-mice model. As screening of specific antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenate, utilization of recombinant proteins in such studies would be beneficial. Our present work demonstrates the feasibility of this implementation. A combination of recombinant salivary proteins is recommended for evaluation of intensity of

  6. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation reduces IgG autoantibody production and enhances specific antibody responses in NZB/NZW F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinas, M.C.; Strober, S.

    1989-07-01

    Thymus-independent primary antibody responses were studied in young and old (9 months) untreated and TLI-treated NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. Untreated old NZB/NZW mice had a low primary response to Brucella abortus (BA) as compared to that of young NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. However, TLI treatment resulted in a 130-fold increase in the IgG anti-BA primary antibody response at day 21 postimmunization, achieving similar levels to those of young NZB/NZW or nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. Anti-TNP responses to trinitrophenylated BA or Ficoll were masked by high background levels of anti-TNP antibodies. Despite the increase in the anti-BA response, spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion and autoantibody levels were markedly decreased after TLI in old NZB/NZW mice.

  8. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  9. IL-17A Monoclonal Antibody Partly Reverses the Glucocorticoids Insensitivity in Mice Exposed to Ozonec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xia; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Bao, Wu-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation and glucocorticoid insensitivity. This study aimed to observe the capacity of anti-murine interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody (IL-17mAb) to reverse ozone-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity and to detect its effects with glucocorticoids in protecting against airway inflammation. After C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5 ppm; 3 h) for 12 times over 6 weeks, PBS, IL-17mAb (50 ug/ml), dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and combination administration of IL-17mAb (50 ug/ml) and dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected into mice at a dose of 0.1 ml, respectively, for 10 times over 5 weeks. At sacrifice, lung histology, airway inflammatory cells, levels of related cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and serum were analyzed, airway inflammatory cell infiltration density and mean linear intercept (Lm) were measured, the expression of IL-17A mRNA, glucocorticoid receptors (GR), NF-κB, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined. We found that combination administration markedly reduced ozone-induced total inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils; inhibited levels of cytokines, including IL-8, IL-17A, and TNF-α in BALF; and suppressed airway inflammatory cell infiltration density and Lm. Additionally, combination administration significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ in BALF, decreased the dexamethasone-induced increase of IL-17A mRNA, and increased the expression of GR and decrement of NF-κB and p38MAPK phosphorylation, which are also related to glucocorticoids insensitivity. Collectively, combination administration shows profound efficacy in inhibiting certain cytokines, and IL-17 mAb partly improved the glucocorticoids insensitivity via modulating the enhanced production rate and improving expression of IL-17A induced by glucocorticoids administration and p38MAPK, NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Humanized Immunoglobulin Mice: Models for HIV Vaccine Testing and Studying the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoczy, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    A vaccine that can effectively prevent HIV-1 transmission remains paramount to ending the HIV pandemic, but to do so, will likely need to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses. A major technical hurdle toward achieving this goal has been a shortage of animal models with the ability to systematically pinpoint roadblocks to bnAb induction and to rank vaccine strategies based on their ability to stimulate bnAb development. Over the past 6 years, immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in (KI) technology has been leveraged to express bnAbs in mice, an approach that has enabled elucidation of various B-cell tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production and evaluation of strategies to circumvent such processes. From these studies, in conjunction with the wealth of information recently obtained regarding the evolutionary pathways and paratopes/epitopes of multiple bnAbs, it has become clear that the very features of bnAbs desired for their function will be problematic to elicit by traditional vaccine paradigms, necessitating more iterative testing of new vaccine concepts. To meet this need, novel bnAb KI models have now been engineered to express either inferred prerearranged V(D)J exons (or unrearranged germline V, D, or J segments that can be assembled into functional rearranged V(D)J exons) encoding predecessors of mature bnAbs. One encouraging approach that has materialized from studies using such newer models is sequential administration of immunogens designed to bind progressively more mature bnAb predecessors. In this review, insights into the regulation and induction of bnAbs based on the use of KI models will be discussed, as will new Ig KI approaches for higher-throughput production and/or altering expression of bnAbs in vivo, so as to further enable vaccine-guided bnAb induction studies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  12. Anti-Glycoprotein G Antibodies of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Contribute to Complete Protection after Vaccination in Mice and Induce Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Mediated Cytolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Görander

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein G (mgG-2 of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 in protective immunity after vaccination. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgG-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two CpG motifs plus alum as adjuvant. All C57BL/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. High levels of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced IFN-γ. None of the sera from immunized mice exhibited neutralization, while all sera exerted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement-mediated cytolysis (ACMC activity. Passive transfer of anti-mgG-2 monoclonal antibodies, or immune serum, to naive C57BL/6 mice did not limit disease progression. Immunized B‑cell KO mice presented lower survival rate and higher vaginal viral titers, as compared with vaccinated B-cell KO mice after passive transfer of immune serum and vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Sera from mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously and intranasally with mgG-2 presented significantly lower titers of IgG antibodies and lower ADCC and ACMC activity. We conclude that anti-mgG-2 antibodies were of importance to limit genital HSV‑2 infection. ADCC and ACMC activity are potentially important mechanisms in protective immunity, and could tentatively be evaluated in future animal vaccine studies and in clinical trials.

  13. Anti-glycoprotein g antibodies of herpes simplex virus 2 contribute to complete protection after vaccination in mice and induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-mediated cytolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görander, Staffan; Ekblad, Maria; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-11-12

    We investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein G (mgG-2) of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) in protective immunity after vaccination. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgG-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two CpG motifs plus alum as adjuvant. All C57BL/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. High levels of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) and IgG2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced IFN-γ. None of the sera from immunized mice exhibited neutralization, while all sera exerted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytolysis (ACMC) activity. Passive transfer of anti-mgG-2 monoclonal antibodies, or immune serum, to naive C57BL/6 mice did not limit disease progression. Immunized B‑cell KO mice presented lower survival rate and higher vaginal viral titers, as compared with vaccinated B-cell KO mice after passive transfer of immune serum and vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Sera from mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously and intranasally with mgG-2 presented significantly lower titers of IgG antibodies and lower ADCC and ACMC activity. We conclude that anti-mgG-2 antibodies were of importance to limit genital HSV‑2 infection. ADCC and ACMC activity are potentially important mechanisms in protective immunity, and could tentatively be evaluated in future animal vaccine studies and in clinical trials.

  14. Clearance of a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody following administration of DNA in normal and autoimmune mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, F.S.; Pisetsky, D.S.; Kurlander, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    To study the assembly of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in vivo, we have measured the clearance from blood and organ localization of a murine IgG2a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, called 6/0, following the infusion of DNA intravenously or intraperitoneally. Intraperitoneal DNA caused a profound acceleration of 6/0 anti-DNA clearance that was dose dependent and demonstrable after the infusion of as little as 1.9 microgram per gram of body weight of single-stranded DNA. The antibody was cleared primarily in the liver without increased deposition in the kidney. Intraperitoneal infusions of DNA also accelerated the clearance of 6/0 in autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice. In contrast, intravenous DNA given in comparable doses caused only a slight increase in 6/0 antibody clearance; this accelerated clearance was seen only at low antigen doses and only during the first 10 min following DNA infusion. Using double-radiolabeling techniques, 6/0 and Cl.18, an IgG2ak myeloma protein without anti-DNA activity, were found to disappear from blood at a comparable rate in both B6D2 mice and MRL-lpr/lpr mice. These results suggest that the DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes can form in vivo but that this process is profoundly affected by the manner in which DNA enters the circulation. In addition, the results suggest that DNA-dependent clearance is not a major pathway for anti-DNA metabolism in normal or at least one strain of autoimmune mice

  15. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-03-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG seems to be dependent upon T-cells in Toxoplasma-infected mice.

  16. Treatment with anti-interferon-gamma monoclonal antibodies modifies experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Penkowa, M; Sáez-Torres, I

    2001-01-01

    antibodies (mAb) on day 8 postimmunization. Clinical scoring and both histological and immunohistochemical studies were undertaken for all groups. We hereby show that treatment with anti-IFN-gamma mAb worsened the disease course of 129Sv wild-type mice. However, it decreased the mean daily score in IFN......-gamma R(-/-) 129Sv and the incidence of the disease down to 50% in C57Bl/6x129Sv IFN-gamma R(-/-) mice. Moreover, after anti-IFN-gamma mAb treatment, oxidative stress levels, metallothionein I and II antioxidant protein expression, and apoptoticneuronal death were increased in wild-type mice while......(-/-)) mouse types: C57Bl/6x129Sv, with a disruption of the IFN-gamma receptor cytoplasmic domain, and 129Sv, homozygous for a disrupted IFN-gamma receptor gene. Mice were immunized with peptide 40-55 from rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. A subgroup of mice was treated with anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal...

  17. Perinatal Exposure to Insecticide Methamidophos Suppressed Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Responding to Virus Infection in Lung Tissues in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamidophos, a representative organophosphate insecticide, is regulated because of its severe neurotoxicity, but it is suspected of contaminating agricultural foods in many countries due to illicit use. To reveal unknown effects of methamidophos on human health, we evaluated the developmental immunotoxicity of methamidophos using a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed to methamidophos (10 or 20 ppm in their drinking water from gestation day 10 to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offsprings born to these dams were intranasally infected with RSV. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-gamma in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after infection were significantly decreased in offspring mice exposed to methamidophos. Treatment with methamidophos did not affect the pulmonary viral titers but suppressed moderately the inflammation of lung tissues of RSV-infected offspring, histopathologically. DNA microarray analysis revealed that gene expression of the cytokines in the lungs of offspring mice exposed to 20 ppm of methamidophos was apparently suppressed compared with the control. Methamidophos did not suppress IL-6 production in RSV-infected J774.1 cell cultures. Thus, exposure of the mother to methamidophos during pregnancy and nursing was suggested to cause an irregular immune response in the lung tissues in the offspring mice.

  18. Anti-high Mobility Group Box 1 Antibody Ameliorates Albuminuria in MRL/lpr Lupus-Prone Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Watanabe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficacy of a neutralizing anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 monoclonal antibody in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (5 mg/kg weight or class-matched control immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a was administered intravenously twice a week for 4–15 weeks. Urine albumin was monitored, and histological evaluation of the kidneys was conducted at 16 weeks. Lymphadenopathies were evaluated by 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-[18F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]FAC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT at 12 weeks. Following 4-week treatment, [18F]FAC-PET/CT showed similar accumulation in cervical and axillary lymph nodes at 12 weeks of age. However, anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody sufficiently inhibited the increase in albuminuria compared to an isotype control following 15-week treatment. Complement deposition was also improved; however, there were no significant differences in IgG deposition and renal pathological scores between the two groups. Anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody titers and cytokine and chemokine levels were also unaltered. Although there were no significant differences in glomerular macrophage infiltration, neutrophil infiltration was significantly decreased by the anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody. Antagonizing HMGB1 treatment suppressed HMGB1 translocation from nuclei in the kidney and suppressed neutrophil extracellular traps. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody demonstrated therapeutic potential against albuminuria in lupus nephritis by inhibiting neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil extracellular traps.

  19. Improved pretargeted delivery of radiolabelled hapten to human tumour xenograft in mice by avidin chase of circulating bispecific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirallié, Eric; Saï-Maurel, Catherine; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Regenet, Nicolas; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M; Chatal, Jean-François; Barbet, Jacques; Thedrez, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    Pretargeted therapy with radiolabelled bivalent haptens and bispecific antibodies has shown promising results, but blood clearance of the activity-carrying haptens under conditions designed for radioimmunotherapy is relatively slow. Thus, the chase of excess circulating bispecific antibody by biotinylation of the bispecific antibody and injection of avidin before hapten administration was tested with a view to increasing tumour-to-blood activity ratios. The anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) x anti-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid-indium (di-DTPA-indium) bispecific antibody (hMN-14x734) was derivatised with NHS-LC-biotin and injected into LS-174T tumour-bearing nude mice at a dose of 3.5 nmol, followed by avidin and finally by the 125I-labelled di-DTPA-indium hapten (1 nmol). Blood samples were collected, animals sacrificed and tumours and normal tissues counted. Avidin chased up to 72% of the circulating antibody in the liver and the spleen within 30 min. When the labelled hapten was injected 3 h after avidin, tumour to blood ratios measured 3 and 24 h after hapten injection were significantly improved by the chase (3.5-fold), whereas tumour uptake was not significantly reduced. Uptake in normal tissues was unchanged (liver, kidney) or decreased (muscle), with the exception of spleen, in which uptake of both antibody and hapten was increased by the avidin chase. The chase strategy reduces hapten concentration in blood and thus should reduce bone marrow exposure. The use of two different recognition systems limits possible interference between the chase and targeting steps.

  20. Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibodies against Mouse Proteases Raised in Gene-Deficient Mice Block Proteolytic Functions in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Rasch, Morten G; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Identification of targets for cancer therapy requires the understanding of the in vivo roles of proteins, which can be derived from studies using gene-targeted mice. An alternative strategy is the administration of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), causing acute disruption of the target...... protein function(s). This approach has the advantage of being a model for therapeutic targeting. mAbs for use in mouse models can be obtained through immunization of gene-deficient mice with the autologous protein. Such mAbs react with both species-specific epitopes and epitopes conserved between species....... mAbs against proteins involved in extracellular proteolysis, including plasminogen activators urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), their inhibitor PAI-1, the uPA receptor (uPAR), two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9 and MMP14), as well as the collagen...

  1. Adenovirus Particles that Display the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein NANP Repeat Induce Sporozoite-Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Christopher; Overstreet, Michael G.; Guedon, Jean-Marc; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ward, Cameron; Karen, Kasey A.; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus particles can be engineered to display exogenous peptides on their surfaces by modification of viral capsid proteins, and particles that display pathogen-derived peptides can induce protective immunity. We constructed viable recombinant adenoviruses that display B-cell epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) in the major adenovirus capsid protein, hexon. Recombinants induced high-titer antibodies against CSP when injected intraperitoneally into mice. Serum obtained from immunized mice recognized both recombinant PfCSP protein and P. falciparum sporozoites, and neutralized P. falciparum sporozoites in vitro. Replicating adenovirus vaccines have provided economical protection against adenovirus disease for over three decades. The recombinants described here may provide a path to an affordable malaria vaccine in the developing world. PMID:21199707

  2. Induction of neutralizing antibody response against four dengue viruses in mice by intramuscular electroporation of tetravalent DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompetchara, Eakachai; Ketloy, Chutitorn; Keelapang, Poonsook; Sittisombut, Nopporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine against dengue is an interesting strategy for a prime/boost approach. This study evaluated neutralizing antibody (NAb) induction of a dengue tetravalent DNA (TDNA) vaccine candidate administered by intramuscular-electroporation (IM-EP) and the benefit of homologous TDNA boosting in mice. Consensus humanized pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) of each serotypes, based on isolates from year 1962-2003, were separately cloned into a pCMVkan expression vector. ICR mice, five-six per group were immunized for three times (2-week interval) with TDNA at 100 µg (group I; 25 µg/monovalent) or 10 µg (group II; 2.5 µg/monovalent). In group I, mice received an additional TDNA boosting 13 weeks later. Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) were performed at 4 weeks post-last immunization. Both 100 µg and 10 µg doses of TDNA induced high NAb levels against all DENV serotypes. The median PRNT50 titers were comparable among four serotypes of DENV after TDNA immunization. Median PRNT50 titers ranged 240-320 in 100 µg and 160-240 in 10 µg groups (p = ns). A time course study of the 100 µg dose of TDNA showed detectable NAb at 2 weeks after the second injection. The NAb peaked at 4 weeks after the third injection then declined over time but remained detectable up to 13 weeks. An additional homologous TDNA boosting significantly enhanced the level of NAb from the nadir for at least ten-fold (pdengue viral strain for both vaccine immunogen design and neutralization assays is critical to avoid a mismatching outcome. In summary, this TDNA vaccine candidate induced good neutralizing antibody responses in mice; and the DNA/DNA prime/boost strategy is promising and warranted further evaluation in non-human primates.

  3. Effects of an amyloid-beta 1-42 oligomers antibody screened from a phage display library in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Li, Nan; Ma, Jun; Gu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Lie; Fu, Xiaojie; Liu, Xi; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-15

    We screened anti-Aβ1-42 antibodies from a human Alzheimer's disease (AD) specific single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display library and assessed their effects in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Reverse transcription-PCR was used to construct the scFv phage display library, and screening identified 11A5 as an anti-Aβ1-42 antibody. We mixed 11A5 and the monoclonal antibody 6E10 with Aβ1-42 and administered the mixture to Sprague-Dawley rats via intracerebroventricular injection. After 30 days, rats injected with the antibody/Aβ1-42 mixture and those injected with Aβ1-42 alone were tested on the Morris water maze. We also injected 11A5 and 6E10 into APP/PS1 transgenic mice and assessed the concentrations of Aβ in brain and peripheral blood by ELISA at 1-month intervals for 3 months. Finally we evaluated behavior changes in the Morris water maze. Rats injected with Aβ1-42 and mixed antibodies showed better performance in the Morris water maze than did rats injected with Aβ1-42 alone. In APP/PS1 transgenic mice, Aβ concentration was lower in the brains of the antibody-treated group than in the control group, but higher in the peripheral blood. The antibody-treated mice also exhibited improved behavioral performance in the Morris water maze. In conclusion, anti-Aβ1-42 antibodies (11A5) screened from the human scFv antibody phage display library promoted the efflux or clearance of Aβ1-42 and effectively decreased the cerebral Aβ burden in an AD mouse model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Efficacy of Novel Recombinant Tetravalent Dengue DNA Vaccine Comprising Envelope Domain III in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kulkarni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is a global arboviral threat to humans; causing 390 million infections per year. The availability of safe and effective tetravalent dengue vaccine is a global requirement to prevent epidemics, morbidity, and mortality associated with it. Methods: Five experimental groups (6 mice per group each of 5-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with vaccine and placebo (empty plasmid (100 µg, i.m. on days 0, 14 and 28. Among these, four groups (one group per serotype of each were subsequently challenged 3 weeks after the last boost with dengue virus (DENV serotypes 1-4 (100 LD50, 20 µl intracerebrally to determine vaccine efficacy. The fifth group of each was used as a control. The PBS immunized group was used as mock control. Serum samples were collected before and after subsequent immunizations. EDIII fusion protein expression was determined by Western blot. Total protein concentration was measured by Bradford assay. Neutralizing antibodies were assessed by TCID50-CPE inhibition assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata/IC 10.1 software for Windows. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test were used for neutralizing antibody analysis and vaccine efficacy, respectively. Results: The recombinant EDIII fusion protein was expressed adequately in transfected 293T cells. Total protein concentration was almost 3 times more than the control. Vaccine candidate induced neutralizing antibodies against all four DENV serotypes with a notable increase after subsequent boosters. Vaccine efficacy was 83.3% (DENV-1, -3, -4 and 50% (DENV-2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccine is immunogenic and protective; however, further studies are required to improve the immunogenicity particularly against DENV-2.

  5. Heterogeneous stock mice are susceptible to encephalomyelitis and antibody-initiated arthritis but not to collagen- and G6PI-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczkowska, D; Raposo, B; Nandakumar, K S

    2011-01-01

    The strategy of using heterogeneous stock (HS) mice has proven to be successful in fine mapping of quantitative trait loci in complex diseases. However, whether these mice can be used for arthritis, encephalomyelitis and autoimmune phenotypes has not been addressed. Here, we screened the Northport HS mice for arthritis phenotypes using three different models: collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), using rat, bovine or chicken collagen type II (CII); recombinant human glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI)-induced arthritis; and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). Irrespective of the origin of collagen, we found HS mice to be fairly resistant to CIA and G6PI-induced arthritis, despite the development of antibodies against the respective antigens. On the other hand, HS mice were found to be susceptible for CAIA. Similarly, these mice developed encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced either with mouse or rat spinal cord homogenate (SCH), or with recombinant rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, with elevated antibody levels against CNS proteins. Accordingly, we conclude that the use of HS mice for fine mapping and positional cloning of gene(s) involved in CAIA and EAE is possible, but not for collagen- and G6PI-induced arthritis. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Large Scale Generation and Characterization of Anti-Human CD34 Monoclonal Antibody in Ascetic Fluid of Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushan Sineh sepehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies or specific antibodies are now an essential tool of biomedical research and are of great commercial and medical value. The purpose of this study was to produce large scale of monoclonal antibody against CD34 in order to diagnostic application in leukemia and purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Methods: For large scale production of monoclonal antibody, hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibody against human CD34 were injected into the peritoneum of the Balb/c mice which have previously been primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. 5 ml ascitic fluid was harvested from each mouse in two times. Evaluation of mAb titration was assessed by ELISA method. The ascitic fluid was examined for class and subclasses by ELISA mouse mAb isotyping Kit. mAb was purified from ascitic fluid by affinity chromatography on Protein A-Sepharose. Purity of monoclonal antibody was monitored by SDS -PAGE and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with FITC. Results: Monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity against human CD34 by hybridoma technology were prepared. The subclass of antibody was IgG1 and its light chain was kappa. Conclusion: The conjugated monoclonal antibody could be a useful tool for isolation, purification and characterization of human hematopoietic stem cells.

  7. Sclerostin antibody treatment improves the bone phenotype of Crtap−/− mice, a model of recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Ingo; Alexander, Stefanie; Yang, Tao; Lietman, Caressa; Homan, Erica P; Munivez, Elda; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming Ming; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Asuncion, Franklin; Ke, Hua Zhu; Ominsky, Michael S; Lee, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is characterized by low bone mass, poor bone quality and fractures. Standard treatment for OI patients is limited to bisphosphonates, which only incompletely correct the bone phenotype, and seem to be less effective in adults. Sclerostin neutralizing antibodies (Scl-Ab) have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of osteoporosis, and dominant OI resulting from mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen. However, Scl-Ab treatment has not been studied in models of recessive OI. Cartilage associated protein (CRTAP) is involved in posttranslational type I collagen modification, and its loss of function results in recessive OI. In this study, we treated 1 and 6 week old Crtap−/− mice with Scl-Ab for 6 weeks (25 mg/kg, s.c., twice per week), to determine the effects on the bone phenotype in models of “pediatric” and “young adult” recessive OI. Vehicle treated Crtap−/− and wildtype (WT) mice served as controls. Compared with control Crtap−/− mice, microCT analyses showed significant increases in bone volume and improved trabecular microarchitecture in Scl-Ab treated Crtap−/− mice in both age cohorts, in both vertebrae and femurs. Additionally, Scl-Ab improved femoral cortical parameters in both age cohorts. Biomechanical testing showed that Scl-Ab improved parameters of whole bone strength in Crtap−/− mice, with more robust effects in the week 6–12 cohort, but did not affect the increased bone brittleness. Additionally, Scl-Ab normalized the increased osteoclast numbers, stimulated bone formation rate (week 6–12 cohort only), but did not affect osteocyte density. Overall, our findings suggest that Scl-Ab treatment may be beneficial in the treatment of recessive OI caused by defects in collagen post-translational modification. PMID:26716893

  8. Influence of maternal antibodies on active pertussis toxoid immunization of neonatal mice and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewicz, Monika; Gracia, Aleksandra; Buchanan, Rachelle; Strom, Stacy; Halperin, Scott A; Potter, Andrew A; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2011-10-13

    Whooping cough caused by infection with Bordetella pertussis, is a serious illness in infants and young children. Mortality due to whooping cough is being reported in infants too young to be immunized as well as those who have not completed their series of vaccinations. One of the major factors that interferes with successful active immunization in early life is the presence of maternal antibodies (MatAbs). Using the mouse and pig models, we evaluated the effect of maternal antibodies on active immunization with pertussis toxoid (PTd) and explored strategies to overcome this interference. Our results indicate that passively transferred maternal antibodies interfered with active immunization using pertussis toxoid. The level of passively transferred antibodies directly correlated with the level of interference observed. However, this interference could be overcome by using a second booster immunization or by co-formulating the toxoid with novel adjuvants. These results support the need for novel vaccine formulations that are optimized for the neonate and that can be used not only to modulate the inherently biased neonatal immune system but also to prime the response in the presence of passively transferred maternal antibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of Type III penumococcal polysaccharide low responders to high responders by immunization with a thymus-dependent form of antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley-Mullen, H.; Sharp, G.C.

    1974-01-01

    C57BL/Ks mice immunized with 0.6 μg Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (S3) or with 10 9 S3 conjugated sheep erythrocytes (S3-SRBC) produced 5 to 7 times fewer S3-specific plaque-forming cells than similarly immunized BALB/c mice. However, when mice were primed with the SRBC carrier prior to challenge with S3-SRBC the low responder C57BL/Ks mice responded as well as the high-responder BALBc strain. The cell activated by the carrier priming was shown to be a thymus-derived (T) cell and the antibody produced by primed mice was mercaptoethanol sensitive (presumably IgM). Nonspecific T cell activation by unrelated antigens did not enhance C57BL/Ks responses to the same degree as specific carrier priming. These findings are discussed in relation to the possible cellular basis for genetic control of the S3 immune response

  10. Ontogeny of thymic independent antibody responses in vitro in normal mice and mice with an x-linked B cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosier, D.E.; Mond, J.J.; Goldings, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The primary in vitro antibody response of neonatal spleen cells to three thymic independent antigens has been examined. The time of onset of responsiveness to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was significantly earlier than the onset of responsiveness to TNP-Ficoll. This ontologic sequence was not affected by T cell depletion or antigen presentation on adult macrophages. In neonatal mice bearing the X-linked CBA/N defect, the response to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was much delayed and no response to TNP-Ficoll developed. We conclude that different thymic independent antigens address different subpopulations of B cells, one of which appears earlier in ontogeny than the other

  11. Ontogeny of thymic independent antibody responses in vitro in normal mice and mice with an x-linked B cell defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, D.E.; Mond, J.J.; Goldings, E.A.

    1977-12-01

    The primary in vitro antibody response of neonatal spleen cells to three thymic independent antigens has been examined. The time of onset of responsiveness to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was significantly earlier than the onset of responsiveness to TNP-Ficoll. This ontologic sequence was not affected by T cell depletion or antigen presentation on adult macrophages. In neonatal mice bearing the X-linked CBA/N defect, the response to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was much delayed and no response to TNP-Ficoll developed. We conclude that different thymic independent antigens address different subpopulations of B cells, one of which appears earlier in ontogeny than the other.

  12. Pharmacological profile of MEDI-551, a novel anti-CD19 antibody, in human CD19 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sandra; Turman, Sean; Yusuf, Isharat; Akhgar, Ahmad; Wu, Yuling; Roskos, Lorin K; Herbst, Ronald; Wang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    B cell depletion therapy is beneficial for patients with B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. CD19, a transmembrane protein, is expressed on a vast majority of normal and neoplastic B cells, making it a suitable target for monoclonal antibody (MAb) mediated immunotherapy. We have developed MEDI-551, an affinity optimized and afucosylated IgG1 MAb targeting human CD19 for B cell depletion. MEDI-551 is currently under investigation in multiple clinical trials. Because MEDI-551 does not cross react with rodent and non-human primate CD19, the pharmacological characteristics of the MAb were evaluated in human CD19 transgenic mice (hCD19 Tg). Here we show that MEDI-551 potently depletes tissue and circulating B cells in hCD19 Tg mice and is more efficacious than the anti-CD19 MAb with intact fucose. The length of B cell depletion depends on MEDI-551 dose; and, B cell recovery in the circulation follows stepwise phenotypic maturation. Furthermore, intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of MEDI-551 results in comparable efficacy. Lastly, the combination of MEDI-551 with the anti-CD20 MAb, rituximab, further prolongs the duration of B cell depletion. In summary, the pharmacological profile of MEDI-551 presented in hCD19 Tg mice supports further testing of MEDI-551 in clinical trials involving B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subependymal Zone-Derived Oligodendroblasts Respond to Focal Demyelination but Fail to Generate Myelin in Young and Aged Mice

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    Ilias Kazanis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two populations of oligodendrogenic progenitors co-exist within the corpus callosum (CC of the adult mouse. Local, parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (pOPCs and progenitors generated in the subependymal zone (SEZ cytogenic niche. pOPCs are committed perinatally and retain their numbers through self-renewing divisions, while SEZ-derived cells are relatively “young,” being constantly born from neural stem cells. We compared the behavior of these populations, labeling SEZ-derived cells using hGFAP:CreErt2 mice, within the homeostatic and regenerating CC of the young-adult and aging brain. We found that SEZ-derived oligodendroglial progenitors have limited self-renewing potential and are therefore not bona fide OPCs but rather “oligodendroblasts” more similar to the neuroblasts of the neurogenic output of the SEZ. In the aged CC their mitotic activity is much reduced, although they still act as a “fast-response element” to focal demyelination. In contrast to pOPCs, they fail to generate mature myelinating oligodendrocytes at all ages studied.

  14. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-01-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG ...

  15. Tumor infarction in mice by antibody-directed targeting of tissue factor to tumor vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, XM; Molema, G; King, S; Watkins, L; Edgington, TS; Thorpe, PE

    1997-01-01

    Selective occlusion of tumor vasculature was tested as a therapy for solid tumors in a mouse model. The formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within the tumor Vessels was initiated by targeting the cell surface domain of human tissue factor, by means of a bispecific antibody, to an experimentally

  16. How does the recombinant human interferon beta induce antibodies in immune tolerant mice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins revolutionized the treatment of severe diseases like multiple sclerosis, diabetes, haemophilia and many more. Unfortunately, their usage is often limited due to the formation of anti drug antibodies (ADAs), which may block the activity of these protein drugs and may lead to

  17. Antibody Drug Conjugates Differentiate Uptake and DNA Alkylation of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines in Tumors from Organs of Xenograft Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Erickson, Hans K; Polson, Andrew; Pillow, Thomas H; Yu, Shang-Fan; Wang, Hong; Dragovich, Peter S; Zhang, Donglu

    2016-12-01

    Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD)-dimer is a DNA minor groove alkylator, and its CD22 THIOMAB antibody drug conjugate (ADC) demonstrated, through a disulfide linker, an efficacy in tumor reduction for more than 7 weeks with minimal body weight loss in xenograft mice after a single 0.5-1 mg/kg i.v. dose. The DNA alkylation was investigated here in tumors and healthy organs of mice to understand the sustained efficacy and tolerability. The experimental procedures included the collection of tumors and organ tissues of xenograft mice treated with the ADC followed by DNA isolation/hydrolysis/quantitation and payload recovery from reversible DNA alkylation. PBD-dimer formed a considerable amount of adducts with tissue DNA, representing approximately 98% (at 24 hours), and 99% (at 96 hours) of the total PBD-dimer in tumors, and 78-89% in liver and lung tissues, suggesting highly efficient covalent binding of the released PBD-dimer to tissue DNA. The amount of PBD-DNA adducts in tumor tissues was approximately 24-fold (at 24 hours) and 70-fold (at 96 hours) greater than the corresponding amount of adducts in liver and lung tissues. In addition, the DNA alkylation levels increased 3-fold to 4-fold from 24 to 96 hours in tumors [41/10 6 base pairs (bp) at 96 hours] but remained at the same level (1/10 6 bp) in livers and lungs. These results support the typical target-mediated cumulative uptake of ADC into tumors and payload release that offers an explanation for its sustained antitumor efficacy. In addition, the low level of DNA alkylation in normal tissues is consistent with the tolerability observed in mice. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. IgM antibody and colony fungal load impacts of orally administered ethanol extract of Plectranthus scutellarioides on mice with systemic candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni Br. Karo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida albicans is a pathogenic fungus that causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, which presents significant clinical problems in immunocompromised patients. There are no studies that correlate IgM antibody responses and fungal loads following the use of ethanol leaf extract of Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R.Br. (ELEP on VVC. Aims: To examine colony fungi loads, IgM antibody responses, and their correlation in Balb/c mice infected with C. albicans treated with orally administered ELEP. Methods: Twenty-five female Balb/c mice were randomly divided into five groups (five mice in each group: normal group (oral ELEP + not infected, VVC control (VCC group (infected + oral 0.2 mL saline, ketoconazole-treated in VCC group (infected + oral antifungal agents, and two treatment groups (infected + oral ELEP with 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w.. Treatments were administered for 14 days after infection with C. albicans. Colony fungal loads and IgM antibodies were measured by counting colony forming units and flow cytometry using anti-C. albicans antibody kits, respectively. Results: Ingestion of the ELEP significantly affected fungal load clearance and decreased IgM antibody levels compared to that in the VCC group (p<0.001. Furthermore, ingestion of the ELEP was associated with significantly lower concentrations of IgM antibodies and colony forming units (p<0.001. Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that IgM antibody response is involved in of the mechanism by which ELEP decreases C. albicans infection. Furthermore, these results provide important information for the potential application of ELEP in the treatment of Balb/C mice with systemic candidiasis.

  19. The monoclonal antitoxin antibodies (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab treatment facilitates normalization of the gut microbiota of mice with Clostridium difficile infection

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    Mária Džunková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials. Although the main mechanism of protection is through direct neutralization of the toxins, the impact of MK-3415A on gut microbiota and its restoration has not been examined. Using a CDI murine model, we compared the bacterial diversity of the gut microbiome of mice under different treatments including MK-3415A, vancomycin or vancomycin combined with MK-3415A, sampled longitudinally. Here we showed that C. difficile infection resulted in the prevalence of Enterobacter species. 60% of mice in the vehicle group died after two days and their microbiome was almost exclusively formed by Enterobacter. MK-3415A treatment resulted in lower Enterobacter levels and restoration of Blautia, Akkermansia and Lactobacillus which were the core components of the original microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to significantly lower survival rate than the combo treatment of MK-3415A and vancomycin. Vancomycin treatment decreased bacterial diversity with predominant Enterobacter and Akkermansia, while Staphylococcus expanded after vancomycin treatment was terminated. In contrast, mice treated by vancomycin combined with MK-3415A also experienced decreased bacterial diversity during vancomycin treatment. However, these animals were able to recover their initial Blautia and Lactobacillus proportions, even though episodes of Staphylococcus overgrowth were

  20. Antibody Prophylaxis and Therapy against West Nile Virus Infection in Wild-Type and Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Michael J.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient (μMT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (R...

  1. Effective multiple oral administration of reverse genetics engineered infectious bursal disease virus in mice in the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyák, Ákos; Lipinski, Kai S; Bakonyi, Tamás; Forgách, Petra; Horváth, Ernő; Farsang, Attila; Hedley, Susan J; Palya, Vilmos; Bakács, Tibor; Kovesdi, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Despite spectacular successes in hepatitis B and C therapies, severe hepatic impairment is still a major treatment problem. The clinically tested infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) superinfection therapy promises an innovative, interferon-free solution to this great unmet need, provided that a consistent manufacturing process preventing mutations or reversions to virulent strains is obtained. To address safety concerns, a tissue culture adapted IBDV vaccine strain V903/78 was cloned into cDNA plasmids ensuring reproducible production of a reverse engineered virus R903/78. The therapeutic drug candidate was characterized by immunocytochemistry assay, virus particle determination and immunoblot analysis. The biodistribution and potential immunogenicity of the IBDV agent was determined in mice, which is not a natural host of this virus, by quantitative detection of IBDV RNA by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus neutralization test, respectively. Several human cell lines supported IBDV propagation in the absence of visible cytopathic effect. The virus was stable from pH 8 to pH 6 and demonstrated significant resistance to low pH and also proved to be highly resistant to high temperatures. No pathological effects were observed in mice. Single and multiple oral administration of IBDV elicited antibodies with neutralizing activities in vitro. Repeat oral administration of R903/78 was successful despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Single oral and intravenous administration indicated that IBDV does not replicate in mammalian liver alleviating some safety related concerns. These data supports the development of an orally delivered anti-hepatitis B virus/ anti-hepatitis C virus viral agent for human use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Brain delivery of AAV9 expressing an anti-PrP monovalent antibody delays prion disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Vimercati, Chiara; Campagnani, Ilaria; Ruggerone, Margherita; Giaccone, Giorgio; Morbin, Michela; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Zucca, Ileana; Legname, Giuseppe; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by a conformational modification of the cellular prion protein (PrP (C)) into disease-specific forms, termed PrP (Sc), that have the ability to interact with PrP (C) promoting its conversion to PrP (Sc). In vitro studies demonstrated that anti-PrP antibodies inhibit this process. In particular, the single chain variable fragment D18 antibody (scFvD18) showed high efficiency in curing chronically prion-infected cells. This molecule binds the PrP (C) region involved in the interaction with PrP (Sc) thus halting further prion formation. These findings prompted us to test the efficiency of scFvD18 in vivo. A recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral vector serotype 9 was used to deliver scFvD18 to the brain of mice that were subsequently infected by intraperitoneal route with the mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML. We found that the treatment was safe, prolonged the incubation time of scrapie-infected animals and decreased the burden of total proteinase-resistant PrP (Sc) in the brain, suggesting that scFvD18 interferes with prion replication in vivo. This approach is relevant for designing new therapeutic strategies for prion diseases and other disorders characterized by protein misfolding.

  3. Comparison of infection-neutralizing and -enhancing antibody balance induced by two distinct genotype strains of dengue virus type 1 or 3 DNA vaccines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjatha, Fithriyah; Takizawa, Yamato; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2013-11-01

    Dengue viruses have spread throughout tropical and subtropical countries, and vaccine development is urgently needed. However, one concern is that induction of insufficient levels of neutralizing antibodies in vaccines may increase disease severity because of a hypothetical mechanism termed antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. This study used two distinct genotype strains of dengue virus types 1 and 3 (DENV1 and DENV3, respectively) to compare antibody responses in a mouse-DNA vaccine model. As expected, a conventional neutralization test using Vero cells showed higher antibody titers in homologous rather than heterologous combinations of genotype strains used for mouse immunization and the neutralization test, for each of DENV1 and DENV3. However, our assay system using K562 cells to measure the balance of neutralizing and enhancing antibodies indicated that Vero cell-neutralizing antibody titers did not always correlate with enhancing activities observed at subneutralizing doses. Rather, induction of enhancing activities depended on the genotype strain used for mouse immunization. The genotype/strain difference also affected IgG subclass profiles and potentially the composition of antibody species induced in mice. This study suggests that enhancing activities of dengue virus-induced neutralizing antibodies may vary according to the genotype and has implications for vaccine antigen development. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral vaccination of mice with recombinant Schistosoma japonicum proteins induces specific anti-parasite antibodies and damage to adult worms after a challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W; Gobert, G N; McManus, D P

    1997-07-01

    Mucosal immunisation by the oral route represents a cheap and simple method for delivering protective antigens to a host against gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens. In the case of schistosome (bloodfluke) worms, 2 life-cycle stages may be exposed to the host's mucosa; the larval schistosomulum is exposed to the respiratory mucosa and, depending on the species, the egg may come into contact with the intestinal or urinogenital mucosa. Both IgA and some Isotypes of IgG have been implicated in protective immunity against schistosomiasis in humans and in experimental animal models. We have used a novel approach to determine whether schistosome-specific antibodies and protective immunity could be generated in mice by oral administration of bacterial lysates containing recombinant Schistosoma japonicum proteins. The mice produced specific antibodies to paramyosin and GST26, 2 important vaccine candidates for schistosomiasis, but there was no significant reduction in worm burdens in groups of mice immunised with either protein. Significantly, however, transmission electron microscopy revealed damage to the teguments of adult female and male S. japonicum worms obtained from mice vaccinated with recombinant paramyosin; there was also extensive damage to the tegument of male worms recovered from mice vaccinated with recombinant GST26. Our observations that oral vaccination with bacterial lysates containing recombinant proteins induced particular classes and subclasses of circulating antibodies with resultant damage to the surface of adult worms may have important implications for the future development of oral vaccines against a systemic infection such as schistosomiasis.

  5. Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Mills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time.

  6. Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against mouse proteases raised in gene-deficient mice block proteolytic functions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Katrine Lund

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of targets for cancer therapy requires the understanding of the in vivo roles of proteins, which can be derived from studies using gene-targeted mice. An alternative strategy is the administration of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, causing acute disruption of the target protein function(s. This approach has the advantage of being a model for therapeutic targeting. mAbs for use in mouse models can be obtained through immunization of gene-deficient mice with the autologous protein. Such mAbs react with both species-specific epitopes and epitopes conserved between species. mAbs against proteins involved in extracellular proteolysis, including plasminogen activators (uPA, tPA, their inhibitor PAI-1, the uPA receptor (uPAR, two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9 and MMP14, as well as the collagen internalization receptor uPARAP, have been developed. The inhibitory mAbs against uPA and uPAR block plasminogen activation and thereby hepatic fibrinolysis in vivo. Wound healing, another plasmin-dependent process, is delayed by an inhibitory mAb against uPA in the adult mouse. Thromboembolism can be inhibited by anti-PAI-1 mAbs in vivo. In conclusion, function-blocking mAbs are well-suited for targeted therapy in mouse models of different diseases, including cancer.

  7. Induction of broadly neutralising HCV antibodies in mice by integration-deficient lentiviral vector-based pseudotyped particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Deng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs are a promising platform for immunisation to elicit both humoral immunity and cellular mediated immunity (CMI. Here, we compared the specific immunity in mice immunised via different regimens (homologous and cocktail with IDLV-based HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpps carrying pseudotyped glycoproteins E1E2 and bearing the HCV NS3 gene. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were also evaluated after IDLV-HCVpp immunisation combined with heterologous rAd5-CE1E2 priming protocols. Sera from the mice effectively elicited anti-E1, -E2, and -NS3 antibody responses, and neutralised various HCVpp subtypes (1a, 1b, 2a, 3a and 5a. No significant CMI was detected in the groups immunised with IDLV-based HCVpps. In contrast, the combination of rAd5-CE1E2 priming and IDLV-based HCVpp boosting induced significant CMI against multiple antigens (E1, E2, and NS3. CONCLUSION: IDLV-based HCVpps are a promising vaccination platform and the combination of rAd5-CE1E2 and IDLV-based HCVpp prime-boost strategy should be further explored for the development of a cross-protective HCV vaccine.

  8. Highly specific PET imaging of prostate tumors in mice with an iodine-124-labeled antibody fragment that targets phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Stafford

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylserine (PS is an attractive target for imaging agents that identify tumors and assess their response to therapy. PS is absent from the surface of most cell types, but becomes exposed on tumor cells and tumor vasculature in response to oxidative stresses in the tumor microenvironment and increases in response to therapy. To image exposed PS, we used a fully human PS-targeting antibody fragment, PGN635 F(ab'2, that binds to complexes of PS and β2-glycoprotein I. PGN635 F(ab'2 was labeled with the positron-emitting isotope iodine-124 ((124I and the resulting probe was injected into nude mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic human PC3 prostate tumors. Biodistribution studies showed that (124I-PGN635 F(ab'2 localized with remarkable specificity to the tumors with little uptake in other organs, including the liver and kidneys. Clear delineation of the tumors was achieved by PET 48 hours after injection. Radiation of the tumors with 15 Gy or systemic treatment of the mice with 10 mg/kg docetaxel increased localization in the tumors. Tumor-to-normal (T/N ratios were inversely correlated with tumor growth measured over 28 days. These data indicate that (124I-PGN635 F(ab'2 is a promising new imaging agent for predicting tumor response to therapy.

  9. Passive transfer with serum and IgG antibodies of irradiated cercaria-induced resistance against Schistosoma mansoni in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The role of humoral immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in C57BL/6J mice was examined by employing a passive transfer system. Sera from highly resistant mice that had been exposed to two or three immunizations with 50-kilorad-gamma-irradiated cercariae were tested for their ability to transfer protection against S. mansoni challenge. All five batches of serum tested were observed to have protective activity. Immune serum recipients exhibited statistically significant reductions in challenge worm burdens of 20 to 50% compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The most consistent level of resistance was obtained when immune serum was administered several days post-challenge, i.e., at a time coincident with schistosomulum residence in the lungs. Furthermore, it was shown that the protective activity in immune serum was associated with factors that bind to staphylococcal protein A and that are precipitated by 50% ammonium sulfate; thus it appears that the protective factors in immune serum are IgG antibodies

  10. Induction of pulmonary antibodies against oxidized lipids in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayaparan, Danya; Shen, Pamela; Stämpfli, Martin R; Morissette, Mathieu C

    2016-08-04

    Chronic cigarette smoke exposure is known to activate the adaptive immune system; however, the functional role of these processes is currently unknown. Given the role of oxidized lipids in driving innate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke, we investigated whether an adaptive immune response against damaged lipids was induced following chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Using a well-established mouse model, we showed that cigarette smoke exposure led to a progressive increase in pulmonary antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). Functionally, we found that intranasal delivery of an antibody against oxidized phosphatidylcholine (anti-OxPC; clone E06) increased lipid and particle uptake by pulmonary macrophages without exacerbating cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia. We also found that anti-OxPC treatment increased particle uptake following smoking cessation. Finally, the frequency of pulmonary macrophages with internalized particles was increased after prolonged smoke exposure, at which time lung anti-OxPC responses were highest. Altogether, this is the first report to demonstrate a non-pathogenic, and possibly protective, function of a newly identified autoantibody induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure.

  11. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  12. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote an Early Antibody Response to a Respiratory Antigen in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Bartemes, Kathleen; Kita, Hirohito

    2016-08-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new family of immune cells that play important roles in innate immunity in mucosal tissues, and in the maintenance of tissue and metabolic homeostasis. Recently, group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) were found to promote the development and effector functions of Th2-type CD4(+) T cells by interacting directly with T cells or by activating dendritic cells, suggesting a role for ILC2s in regulating adaptive immunity. However, our current knowledge on the role of ILCs in humoral immunity is limited. In this study, we found that ILC2s isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice enhanced the proliferation of B1- as well as B2-type B cells and promoted the production of IgM, IgG1, IgA, and IgE by these cells in vitro. Soluble factors secreted by ILC2s were sufficient to enhance B cell Ig production. By using blocking Abs and ILC2s isolated from IL-5-deficient mice, we found that ILC2-derived IL-5 is critically involved in the enhanced production of IgM. Furthermore, when adoptively transferred to Il7r(-/-) mice, which lack ILC2s and mature T cells, lung ILC2s promoted the production of IgM Abs to a polysaccharide Ag, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl Ficoll, within 7 d of airway exposure in vivo. These findings add to the growing body of literature regarding the regulatory functions of ILCs in adaptive immunity, and suggest that lung ILC2s promote B cell production of early Abs to a respiratory Ag even in the absence of T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR......)-induced pleurisy in mice, a preclinical model of airway inflammation where type 1 proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-alpha play a key pathogenic role. The data show that prophylactic treatment with anti-CD30L mAb markedly reduces both laboratory and histological signs of CAR...

  14. Poor Long-Term Efficacy of Prevnar-13 in Sickle Cell Disease Mice Is Associated with an Inability to Sustain Pneumococcal-Specific Antibody Titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Szczepanek

    Full Text Available One of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell disease (SCD is infection with the pneumococcal bacterium (Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unfortunately, the polysaccharide-conjugate vaccine appears to be less effective in individuals with SCD when compared to the general population. We sought to better understand the relative efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in a SCD mouse challenge model.Transgenic control and SCD mice were monitored for mortality after intranasal pneumococcal infection or pneumococcal vaccination with Prevnar-13 and type-matched challenge. Anti-pneumococcal antibody titers were measured by ELISA and opsonophagocytosis was measured in vitro.Mortality after pneumococcal infection was similar between control and SCD mice. However, after three intramuscular polysaccharide-conjugate vaccinations, all control mice were protected following high-dose intranasal infection, whereas 60% of SCD mice died. Anti-pneumococcal antibody titers showed initial IgG and IgM responses in both groups, but waning titers were observed in the SCD group, even after boosting. When functionally assayed in vitro, serum from SCD mice 13 weeks after a second booster shot maintained little to no ability to opsonize pneumococci, while serum from control mice sustained a significantly higher capacity opsonization. Thus, it appears that SCD mice do not maintain antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides after Prevnar-13 vaccination, thereby leaving them susceptible to mortality after type-matched infection.Our results emphasize the need to better understand the correlates of immune protection in SCD so that pneumococcal vaccines can be improved and mortality reduced in this susceptible population.

  15. Subversion of early innate antiviral responses during antibody-dependent enhancement of Dengue virus infection induces severe disease in immunocompetent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vivian V; Fagundes, Caio T; Valadão, Deborah F; Ávila, Thiago V; Cisalpino, Daniel; Rocha, Rebeca F; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Ascenção, Fernando R; Kangussu, Lucas M; Celso, M Q; Astigarraga, Ruiz G; Gouveia, Frederico L; Silva, Tarcília A; Bonaventura, Daniela; Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Souza, Danielle G

    2014-08-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the majority of severe dengue cases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), occurs predominantly in either individuals with cross-reactive immunity following a secondary heterologous infection or in infants with primary DENV infections born from dengue-immune mothers, suggesting that B-cell-mediated and antibody responses impact on disease evolution. We demonstrate here that B cells play a pivotal role in host responses against primary DENV infection in mice. After infection, μMT(-/-) mice showed increased viral loads followed by severe disease manifestation characterized by intense thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, cytokine production and massive liver damage that culminated in death. In addition, we show that poly and monoclonal anti-DENV-specific antibodies can sufficiently increase viral replication through a suppression of early innate antiviral responses and enhance disease manifestation, so that a mostly non-lethal illness becomes a fatal disease resembling human DHF/DSS. Finally, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin containing anti-DENV antibodies confirmed the potential enhancing capacity of subneutralizing antibodies to mediate virus infection and replication and induce severe disease manifestation of DENV-infected mice. Thus, our results show that humoral responses unleashed during DENV infections can exert protective or pathological outcomes and provide insight into the pathogenesis of this important human pathogen.

  16. The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N; Root, Jon Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B; Beaty, Barry J

    2011-05-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the United States and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of HPS. Prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. Given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, often acutely, it is not unreasonable to assume a direct correlation between the numbers of infected rodents and the number of human infections, unless confounding factors are involved. During a 13-year longitudinal study at a site in southwestern Colorado, we accumulated data regarding deer mice and antibody to SNV and therefore had the opportunity to compare dynamics of deer mouse populations, seroprevalence of antibody to SNV in the rodents, and numbers of HPS cases in Durango and in the State of Colorado as a whole. If abundances of deer mouse populations are directly correlated with occurrence of HPS, it is reasonable to assume that low densities of deer mice and low prevalences of antibody to SNV would lead to fewer human cases than would high densities and high prevalences. Our results substantiate such an assumption and suggest that the risk of acquisition of HPS is likely related to both high numbers of infected deer mice and human activities, rather than being strictly related to prevalence of SNV in the host rodent.

  17. A heterologous prime-boost Ebola virus vaccine regimen induces durable neutralizing antibody response and prevents Ebola virus-like particle entry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan; Li, Dapeng; Song, Yufeng; Yang, Xi; Liu, Qingwei; Jin, Xia; Zhou, Dongming; Huang, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against EBOV infections. Thus, an EBOV vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. We report here that a heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen can elicit durable EBOV-neutralizing antibody response in mice. A chimpanzee serotype 7 adenovirus expressing EBOV GP (denoted AdC7-GP) was generated and used for priming. A truncated version of EBOV GP1 protein (denoted GP1t) was produced at high levels in Drosophila S2 cells and used for boosting. Mouse immunization studies showed that the AdC7-GP prime/GP1t boost vaccine regimen was more potent in eliciting neutralizing antibodies than either the AdC7-GP or GP1t alone. Neutralizing antibodies induced by the heterologous prime-boost regimen sustained at high titers for at least 18 weeks after immunization. Significantly, in vivo challenge studies revealed that the entry of reporter EBOV-like particles was efficiently blocked in mice receiving the heterologous prime-boost regimen even at 18 weeks after the final dose of immunization. These results suggest that this novel AdC7-GP prime/GP1t boost regimen represents an EBOV vaccine approach capable of establishing long-term protection, and therefore warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on the antibody response of mice and humans after immunization with potential influenza virus A (H1N1) vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumbourios, P.; Jackson, D.C.; Oxford, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The antibody response of mice and adult humans to immunization with subunit vaccines derived from a pair of antigenically distinct influenza A H1N1 viruses isolate in eggs was investigated. Although the haemagglutinin molecule of each virus differed by only three amino acid residues, highly specific antibody responses were elicited in mice as determined by haemagglutination inhibition and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. Results from competitive radioimmunoassays using monoclonal antibodies of known specificity and a study of the reactivity of mouse antisera with H1N1 field strains indicated that the marked differences in the antibody responses to the two vaccines was due to an amino acid substitution in the distal tip of the haemagglutinin molecule. In contrast, cross reactive antibody responses were elicited in humans presumably due to exposure to viruses related to the candidate vaccine prior to vaccination. Although immunogenic differences are apparent in this pair of antigenically distinct viruses in naive laboratory animals, these differences are not apparent following vaccination of humans that had prior exposure to related viruses. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Differential antibody production by adherent and nonadherent spleen cells transferred to irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated recipient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, J.F.; Deitchman, J.W.; Hassell, S.A.; Ozato, K.

    1975-01-01

    Mouse spleen cells were separated into adherent (Ad) and nonadherent (Nad) populations by incubation in plastic petri dishes. Adherent, Nad and unfractionated cell preparations (UCP) were transferred into syngeneic recipient mice that had been either irradiated or cyclophosphamide (CY) treated and the adoptive humoral Ab responses were studied by assessment of hemolytic Ab-forming cells (PFC) or humoral serum Ab production. Adherent cells failed to produce PFC in irradiated recipients, but functioned vigorously in CY-treated recipients. Nonadherent cells generated PFC in either type of host, as did UCP. Studies of comparative responses in CY-treated recipients revealed that: (a) Ad-cells generated 2 / 3 the number of PFC given by equivalent numbers of transferred Nad cells and UCP; (b) per equivalent numbers of transferred cells the Ad fraction generated 5 times more and 16 times more Ab than did the Nad cells and UCP, respectively. Spleen cells taken from mice 6 hr after CY treatment failed to respond to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, showing that all cells were temporarily incapable of proliferation. Transfer of spleen cells from donor mice 16 hr after CY treatment, into thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted recipients revealed substantial T-helper cell activity. We conclude that: (a) Ad preparations lacked T cells that were supplied by CY-treated recipients although T cell proliferation was temporarily inhibited in the latter; (b) B cells present in the Ad fraction were removed from some type of inhibitor of Ab synthesis and/or secretion, the production of which may be associated with T cells present in Nad preparations and UCP; (c) T-helper cells were only transiently affected by CY

  20. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. B cell and antibody responses in mice induced by a putative cell surface peptidase of Pneumocystis murina protect against experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Sanbao; Cai, Yang; Ramsay, Alistair J; Welsh, David A; Norris, Karen; Shellito, Judd E

    2017-01-23

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected subjects, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients. No vaccine is currently available. By chemical labeling coupled with proteomic approach, we have identified a putative surface protein (SPD1, Broad Institute gene accession number PNEG_01848) derived from single suspended P. murina cysts. SPD1 was expressed in an insect cell line and tested for vaccine development. Mice were immunized with SPD1 plus adjuvant MF-59 by subcutaneous injection. Three weeks after the last immunization, CD4+ cells were depleted with anti-CD4 antibody GK1.5. The mice were then challenged with 2×10 5 Pneumocystis organisms. Mice were sacrificed at 4 and 6weeks after PC challenge. Spleen/lung cells and serum were harvested. B cells and memory B cells were assessed via flow cytometry. Specific Pneumocystis IgG antibody was measured by ELISA before and after challenge. Infection burden was measured as real-time PCR for P. murina rRNA. Normal mice infected with Pneumocystis mounted a serum IgG antibody response to SPD1. Serum from rhesus macaques exposed to Pneumocystis showed a similar serum IgG response to purified SPD1. SPD1 immunization increased B cell and memory B cell absolute cell counts in CD4-depleted Balb/c mice post Pneumocystis challenge in spleen and lung. Immunization with SPD1 significantly increased specific Pneumocystis IgG antibody production before and after challenge. Mice immunized with SPD1 showed significantly decreased P. murina copy number compared with mice that did not receive SPD1 at 6weeks after challenge. Immunization with SPD1 provides protective efficacy against P. murina infection. SPD1 protection against Pneumocystis challenge is associated with enhanced memory B cell production and higher anti-Pneumocystis IgG antibody production. SPD1 is a potential vaccine candidate to prevent or treat pulmonary infection with Pneumocystis. Copyright

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  3. Selection of a novel anti-nicotine vaccine: influence of antigen design on antibody function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pryde

    Full Text Available Anti-nicotine vaccines may aid smoking cessation via the induction of anti-nicotine antibodies (Ab which reduce nicotine entering the brain, and hence the associated reward. Ab function depends on both the quantity (titer and the quality (affinity of the Ab. Anti-nicotine vaccines tested previously in clinical studies had poor efficacy despite high Ab titer, and this may be due to inadequate function if Ab of low affinity were induced. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel nicotine-like haptens which were all linked to diphtheria toxoid (DT as carrier, but which differed in the site of attachment of linker to nicotine, the nature of linker used, and the handle used to attach the hapten to DT. The resulting hapten conjugates were evaluated in a mouse model, using CpG (a TLR9 agonist and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3 as adjuvants, whereby Ab titers, affinity and function were evaluated using a radiolabeled nicotine challenge model. A series of additional linkers varying in length, rigidity and polarity were used with a single hapten to generate additional DT-conjugates, which were also tested in mice. Conjugates made with different haptens resulted in various titers of anti-nicotine Ab. Several haptens gave similarly high Ab titers, but among these, Ab affinity and hence function varied considerably. Linker also influenced Ab titer, affinity and function. These results demonstrate that immune responses induced in mice by nicotine-conjugate antigens are greatly influenced by hapten design including site of attachment of linker to nicotine, the nature of linker used, and the handle used to attach the hapten to DT. While both Ab titer and affinity contributed to function, affinity was more sensitive to antigen differences.

  4. One Injection of DsRed Followed by Bites from Transgenic Mosquitoes Producing DsRed in the Saliva Elicits a High Titer of Antibody in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Gen-Ichiro; Hattori, Ryuta; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hirai, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    It has been proposed that transgenic mosquitoes can be used as a "flying syringe" for infectious disease control. We succeeded in generating a transgenic (TG) mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, excreting and discharging DsRed in saliva. DsRed was deposited on the membrane where the TG mosquito probed with its proboscis. Repeated feeding by the TG mosquitoes induced anti-DeRed as well as anti-SG antibodies in mice. This indicates that the TG mosquitoes can immunize the animal. Moreover, in this report, we employed a pre-immunization method before exposing mice to the TG mosquitoes. We injected DsRed to mice to prepare memory B cells and exposed the mice to bites by the TG mosquitoes excreting DsRed. The mice produced a higher titer of antibody to DsRed, suggesting that the bites from TG mosquitoes act as a booster and that primary immunization with a vaccine protein and exposure to TG mosquitoes excreting the vaccine protein in the saliva produces a synergistic effect.

  5. Detection of new MHC mutations in mice by skin grafting, tumor transplantation and monoclonal antibodies: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, I.K.; Egorov, O.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two mechanisms of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mutations have been described in mice: gene conversion and homologous but unequal recombination. However, the knowledge of mutations in MHC is incomplete because studies have been limited almost exclusively to two haplotypes, H-2/sup b/ and H-2/sup d/, while hundreds of haplotypes exist in nature; it has been biased by the use of only one procedure of screening for mutation, skin grafting. The authors used three procedures to screen for MHC mutations: (1) conventional techniques of skin grafting, (2) syngeneic tumor transplantation and (3) typing with monoclonal anti-MHC antibodies (mAbs) and complement. The faster technique of tumor transplantation detected mutants similar to those discovered by skin grafting technique. Screening with mAbs allowed us to detect both mutants that are capable of rejecting standard skin grafts and those that are silent in skin grafting tests, and which therefore resulted in a higher apparent mutation frequency. Two mutants of the H-2/sup a/ haplotype were found that carry concomitant class I and class II antigenic alterations. Both MHC mutants silent in skin grafting tests and mutants carrying concomitant class I and class II alterations have never been studied before and are expected to reveal new mechanisms of generating MHC mutations. 1-Ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) failed to induce de novo MHC mutations in our skin grafting series

  6. Neonatal exposure to anti-nerve growth factor antibodies affects exploratory behavior of developing mice in the hole board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamandrei, G; Pennazza, S; Ricceri, L; Valanzano, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess in developing mice whether the neutralization of endogenous NGF following ICV administration of anti-NGF antibodies (50 micrograms/2 microliters) on postnatal days 3, 6, 9, and 12 affected locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and response to the cholinergic blocker scopolamine. In Experiments 1 and 2 activity and age-typical scopolamine effects were evaluated on PND 13 or 17 in an automated apparatus. No significant main effect of anti-NGF treatment was found at either age. On day 13 scopolamine (0.2, 1, or 2 mg/kg) decreased locomotion in both anti-NGF and control animals. In Experiment 3, locomotion and exploratory behavior were analyzed in an open field arena or in a hole board apparatus on PND 16. No significant effects of anti-NGF treatment on general motor activity and investigation of a novel object in the open field was found, though anti-NGF animals tended to be less active than controls. In the hole board anti-NGF pups showed a different pattern of head dipping behavior from controls, exploring mainly the holes located in the periphery of the apparatus.

  7. Sporozoite neutralizing antibodies elicited in mice and rhesus macaques immunized with a Plasmodium falciparum repeat peptide conjugated to meningococcal outer membrane protein complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig ePrzysiecki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies that neutralize infectivity of malaria sporozoites target the central repeat region of the circumsporozoite (CS protein, which in Plasmodium falciparum is comprised primarily of 30-40 tandem NANP tetramer repeats. We evaluated immunogenicity of an alum-adsorbed (NANP6 peptide conjugated to an outer membrane protein complex (OMPC derived from Neisseria meningitidis, a carrier protein used in a licensed H. influenzae pediatric vaccine. Mice immunized with alum-adsorbed (NANP6-OMPC, with or without Iscomatrix© as co-adjuvant, developed high levels of anti-repeat peptide antibody that inhibited in vitro invasion of human hepatoma cells by transgenic P. berghei sporozoites that express P. falciparum CS repeats (PfPb. Inhibition of sporozoite invasion in vitro correlated with in vivo resistance to challenge by the bites of PfPb infected mosquitoes. Challenged mice had > 90% reduction of hepatic stage parasites as measured by real-time PCR, and either sterile immunity, i.e. no detectable blood stage parasites, or delayed prepatent periods which indicate neutralization of a majority, but not all, sporozoites. Rhesus macaques immunized with two doses of (NANP6-OMPC/MAA formulated with Iscomatrix© developed anti-repeat antibodies that persisted for ~2 years. A third dose of (NANP6-OMPC/MAA+ Iscomatrix© at that time elicited strong anamnestic antibody responses. Rhesus macaque immune sera obtained post second and third dose of vaccine displayed high levels of sporozoite neutralizing activity in vitro that correlated with presence of high anti-repeat antibody titers. These preclinical studies in mice of different MHC haplotypes and a non-human primate support use of CS peptide-OMPC conjugates as a highly immunogenic platform to evaluate CS protective epitopes. Potential pre-erythrocytic vaccines can be combined with sexual blood stage vaccines as a multi-antigen malaria vaccine to block invasion and transmission of Plasmodium parasites

  8. The influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, external radiation and unlabeled antibody on the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled anti-E6 C1P5 antibody in cervical cancer in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaeton, Rébécca; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a necessary step for the development of cervical cancer and >95% of all cervical cancers have detectable HPV sequences. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which targeted viral oncoprotein E6 in treatment of experimental cervical cancer We hypothesized that pre-treatment of tumor cells with various agents which cause cell death and/or elevation of E6 levels would increase the accumulation of radiolabeled antibodies to E6 in cervical tumors. Methods HPV-16 positive CasKi cells were treated in vitro with up to 6 Gy of external radiation, or proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or unlabeled anti-E6 antibody C1P5 and cell death was assessed. Biodistribution of 188Rhenium (188Re)-labeled C1P5 antibody was performed in both control and radiation MG-132 treated CasKi tumor-bearing nude mice. Results . 188Re-C1P5 antibody demonstrated tumor specificity and very low uptake and fast clearance from the major organs. The amount of tumor uptake was enhanced by MG-132 but was unaffected by pre-treatment with radiation. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated an unanticipated effect of unlabeled antibody on the amount of cell death, a finding that was suggested by our previous in vivo studies in CasKi tumor model. Conclusion We demonstrated that pre-treatment of cervical tumors with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and with unlabeled antibody to E6 can serve as a means to generate non-viable cancer cells and to elevate the levels of target oncoproteins in the cells for increasing the accumulation of targeted radiolabeled antibodies in tumors. These results favor further development of RIT of cervical cancers targeting viral antigens. PMID:20127955

  9. Anti-cocaine antibody and butyrylcholinesterase-derived cocaine hydrolase exert cooperative effects on cocaine pharmacokinetics and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Orson, Frank; Kosten, Tom; Kinsey, Berma; Shen, Xiao Yun; White, Sarah J.; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating treatments for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase, which can reduce cocaine-stimulated locomotion and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats for many months. Here, in mice, we explored the possibility that anti-cocaine antibodies can complement the actions of CocH to reduce cocaine uptake in brain and block centrally-evoked locomotor stimulation. Direct injections of test...

  10. A dual vaccine against influenza & Alzheimer's disease failed to enhance anti-β-amyloid antibody responses in mice with pre-existing virus specific memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Hayk; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Arpine; Cadagan, Richard; Marleau, Annette M; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-12-15

    Novel dual vaccine, WSN-Aβ(1-10), based on the recombinant influenza virus, expressing immunodominant B-cell epitope of β-amyloid, simultaneously induced therapeutically potent anti-Aβ and anti-influenza antibodies. In this study we showed that boosting of WSN-WT primed mice with WSN-Aβ(1-10) enhances anti-viral, but fails to induce anti-Aβ antibody responses. This inhibition is associated with expression of Aβ(1-10) within the context of an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. These results demonstrate that the use of an inactivated influenza virus as a carrier for AD vaccine may not be applicable due to the possible inhibition of anti-Aβ antibody response in individuals previously vaccinated or infected with influenza. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies and cytokines and on T cell differentiation in C57BL/6 mice immunized by ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hua; Kobayashi, Takao; Hong, Tie; Cyong, Jong-Chol

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies against ovalbumin, and the differentiation of T cells, in C57BL/6 mice. The oral administration of Inula Britannica suppressed IL-4 and IL-6 production in lymphocytes collected from an inguinal lymph node in the immunized leg. On the other hand, the intraperitoneal administration of Inula Britannica suppressed IgG1 production, the ratio of IFN-gamma+IL-4-/IFN-gamma-IL-4+ cells and cytokine production of IL-6. It was presumed that the effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies were induced by regulation of the balance of Th1 and Th2. Further, IL-4 and IL-6 production by lymphocytes collected from an inguinal lymph node in the immunized leg were suppressed, and therefore production of antibodies was suppressed.

  12. Hormesis of specific IgG antibody to rabies virus in serum of mice irradiated with low dose γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Chen Deqing

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of low dose ionizing radiation on specific antibody in mouse serum. Methods: Kunming strain male mice, weighing 18-22 g, aged 6-8 weeks, were immunized intraperitoneally with rabies vaccine after exposure to cobalt-60 γ-rays. The specific IgG antibody against rabies virus in mouse serum was measured. Results: (1) The serum levels of specific IgG in mice irradiated with 5-30 cGy γ-rays were significantly elevated in comparison with those in control mice (P<0.01), the optimum stimulating dose being 10 cGy. (2) Exposure to 10 cGy caused significant enhancement and earlier emergence of the peak level of specific IgG in serum. (3) The hormesis of specific IgG to rabies virus induced by 10 cGy γ-rays could last one week at least. Conclusion: Low dose ionizing radiation can enhance the level of specific antibody in mouse serum, and this effect can last for one week at least

  13. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K.; Schijf, Marcel A.; Coenjaerts, Frank E.; van der Schoot, Ellen C.; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M.

    2013-01-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to

  14. Antibody-mediated allotype suppression in adult mice: the role of antigen, effector isotype and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curling, E M; Dresser, D W

    1984-10-01

    It has been reported (Contemp. Top. Immunobiol. 1974. 3:41) that allotype-specific T suppressor cells can be induced after monoclonal anti-allotype treatment of neonatal (BALB/c X SJL)F1 (Igha/b) mice. Here we show that (BALB/c X CB20)F1 adult-derived spleen cells (SC) are, by contrast, potently suppressed by monoclonal allotype-specific reagents, (when transferred into irradiated BALB/c recipients) in the absence of primary T suppressor cell induction. Such suppression is only induced in activated B cells [exposed to lipopolysaccharide or sheep red blood cells (SRBC)], and is probably dependent on the isotype of the anti-allotype sera administered. For example, two independently produced IgG1 monoclonal reagents raised against the Igh-1b allotype were poorly suppressive or nonsuppressive, whereas an IgG3 and an IgG2a monoclonal antibody induced a 90% suppression of the target allotype in transferred adult SC. It was found that suppression was not due to a depletion of antigen-specific T cell help since: (a) the addition of SRBC-educated T cells did not break suppression and (b) suppressed SC were as good a source of T cell help as normal SC, in the response of virgin or memory B cell (Thy-1-depleted) responses to SRBC in vivo. Suppression was maintained in suppressed cells which had been rechallenged with SRBC after transfer into a second irradiated recipient, but was not induced in normal SC when these were admixed with an equal number from this suppressed SC population. These findings point to a possible mechanism for the regulation of B cell expression, through the formation of an antibody-Ig receptor complex at the surface of the B lymphocyte. After complexing the target cell is either deleted or inactivated. The response to SRBC was reduced or ablated for at least 70 days after treatment with a single dose of anti-allotype serum.

  15. Induction of a protein-targeted catalytic response in autoimmune prone mice: antibody-mediated cleavage of HIV-1 glycoprotein GP120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Alexandrova, Elena S; Reshetnyak, Andrew V; Telegin, Georgy B; Khaidukov, Sergey V; Avalle, Bérangère; Karavanov, Alexander; Morse, Herbert C; Thomas, Daniel; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-01-10

    We have induced a polyclonal IgG that degrades the HIV-1 surface antigen, glycoprotein gp120, by taking advantage of the susceptibility of SJL mice to a peptide-induced autoimmune disorder, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Specific pathogen-free SJL mice were immunized with structural fragments of gp120, fused in-frame with encephalitogenic peptide MBP(85-101). It has resulted in a pronounced disease-associated immune response against antigens. A dramatic increase of gp120 degradation level by purified polyclonal IgG from immunized versus nonimmunized mice has been demonstrated by a newly developed fluorescence-based assay. This activity was inhibited by anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies as well as by Ser- and His-reactive covalent inhibitors. A dominant proteolysis site in recombinant gp120 incubated with purified polyclonal IgG from immunized mice was shown by SDS-PAGE. The SELDI-based mass spectrometry revealed that these antibodies exhibited significant specificity toward the Pro484-Leu485 peptide bond. The sequence surrounding this site is present in nearly half of the HIV-I variants. This novel strategy can be generalized for creating a catalytic vaccine against viral pathogens.

  16. A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

  17. The dataset from administration of single or combined immunomodulation agents to modulate anti-FVIII antibody responses in FVIII plasmid or protein primed hemophilia A mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lien Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A mice with pre-existing inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII were treated with single agents, AMD3100 and GCS-F, respectively. Inhibitor titers in treated mice and control HemA inhibitors mice were followed over time. Total B cells and plasma cells (PCs were characterized by flow cytometry. HemA inhibitor mice were then treated with a combination regimen of IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes plus rapamycin and AMD3100. Finally, HemA inhibitor mice were treated with a new combination therapy using include IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes + Anti-CD20+AMD3100+G-CSF. The timeline of combination therapy was illustrated. Inhibitor titers following treatment in FVIII plasmid or protein induced inhibitor mice were evaluated overtime. A representative figure and gating strategies to characterize the subsets of Treg cells and B cells are presented. Please see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.01.005 [1] for interpretation and discussion of these data and results.

  18. IgM but not IgG monoclonal anti-Nocardia brasiliensis antibodies confer protection against experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection.

  19. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Catherine F; McGowan, Catherine R; Dicks, Steve; Baguelin, Marc; Moore, David A J; Mabey, David; Roberts, Chrissy H; Kumar, Alex; Samuel, Dhan; Tedder, Richard; Glynn, Judith R

    2017-05-01

    Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV). Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016. We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3%) returned an oral fluid sample (OFS). The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5%) reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16%) as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21%) reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70%) were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with similar results

  20. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine F Houlihan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV. Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016.We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3% returned an oral fluid sample (OFS. The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5% reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16% as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21% reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70% were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with

  1. Yeast expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of Novel H1N1 elicits neutralising antibodies in rabbits and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmaram TN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently available vaccines for the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 2009 produced in chicken eggs have serious impediments viz limited availability, risk of allergic reactions and the possible selection of sub-populations differing from the naturally occurring virus, whereas the cell culture derived vaccines are time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to combat the present/future pandemic. Hemagglutinin (HA based subunit vaccine for H1N1 requires the HA protein in glycosylated form, which is impossible with the commonly used bacterial expression platform. Additionally, bacterial derived protein requires extensive purification and refolding steps for vaccine applications. For these reasons an alternative heterologous system for rapid, easy and economical production of Hemagglutinin protein in its glycosylated form is required. The HA gene of novel H1N1 A/California/04/2009 was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA- synthetic gene having α-secretory tag was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having multiple copy integrants of the transgene expressed full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. The Recombinant yeast derived H1N1 HA protein elicited neutralising antibodies both in mice and rabbits. The sera from immunised animals also exhibited Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI activity. Considering the safety, reliability and also economic potential of Pichia expression platform, our preliminary data indicates the feasibility of using this system as an alternative for large-scale production of recombinant influenza HA protein in the face of influenza pandemic threat.

  2. Generation of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies from Immunised Mice and Rabbits via Flow Cytometry and Sorting of Antigen-Specific IgG+ Memory B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale O Starkie

    antibody from mice with an affinity of 90 pM.

  3. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie E Bounds

    Full Text Available DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co glycoprotein (GP genes of Ebola virus (EBOV and Sudan virus (SUDV produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000 were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000 were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA. Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR(-/- mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  4. A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo virus when administered up to 48 h after airborne challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Lyn M., E-mail: lmobrien@dstl.gov.uk; Goodchild, Sarah A.; Phillpotts, Robert J.; Perkins, Stuart D.

    2012-05-10

    Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the V{sub H} and V{sub L} domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.

  5. The effect of circulating antigen on the biodistribution of the engineered human antibody hCTM01 in a nude mice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Q.; Perkins, A.C.; Frier, M.; Watson, S.; Lalani, E.N.; Symonds, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Clinical studies are currently underway to assess the biodistribution and therapeutic potential of the genetically engineered human antibody hCTM01 directed against polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM) in patients with ovarian carcinoma. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of circulating PEM antigen on the biodistribution of the anti-PEM antibody in mice bearing MUC-1 transfected adenocarcinoma cell lines. Tumour xenografts were established from three cell lines: 413-BCR, which expressed antigen on the cell surface and also shed antigen into the circulation, E3P23, which expressed the antigen but did not shed into the circulation, and a negative control (410.4 MUCI). Groups of five mice were injected with 1.0 mg/kg antibody, imaged after 72 h and then sacrificed, followed by assay of tissue uptake. The results showed a clear difference in the tumour and liver uptake, with the non-secreting cell line showing almost twice the tumour uptake and approximately 20% of the liver uptake of the secreting cell line. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria.

  7. Microneedle Vaccination Elicits Superior Protection and Antibody Response over Intranasal Vaccination against Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyung Shin

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the critical infectious diseases globally and vaccination has been considered as the best way to prevent. In this study, immunogenicity and protection efficacy between intranasal (IN and microneedle (MN vaccination was compared using inactivated swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine. Mice were vaccinated by MN or IN administration with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccine. Antigen-specific antibody responses and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI titers were measured in all immunized sera after immunization. Five weeks after an immunization, a lethal challenge was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy. Furthermore, mice were vaccinated by IN administration with higher dosages (> 1 μg, analyzed in the same manner, and compared with 1 μg-vaccine-coated MN. Significantly higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer were measured in sera in MN group than those in IN group. While 100% protection, slight weight loss, and reduced viral replication were observed in MN group, 0% survival rate were observed in IN group. As vaccine dose for IN vaccination increased, MN-immunized sera showed much higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer than other IN groups. In addition, protective immunity of 1 μg-MN group was similar to those of 20- and 40 μg-IN groups. We conclude that MN vaccination showed more potential immune response and protection than IN vaccination at the same vaccine dosage.

  8. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2017-01-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  9. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack, E-mail: gabiortegacoelho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Costa, Andrea da; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pollizeli; Galisteo Júnior, Andrés Jimenez; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br, E-mail: raquelaires@itpacporto.com.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Protozoologia; Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: seibertcs@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to human mammary tumor-associated antigens and their use for radiolocalization of xenografts in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized membrane-enriched extracts of human metastatic mammary tumor cells as immunogens to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies reactive with determinants that would be maintained on metastatic, as well as primary, human mammary carcinoma cells. Multiple assays using tumor cells extracts, tissue sections, and live cells in culture have been employed to reveal the diversity of the monoclonal antibodies generated. Then the utility of these antibodies for radiolocalization studies was examined. (Auth.)

  11. A Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Method for the Detection of Oral Cancers in Mice Using an Indocyanine Green-Labeled Podoplanin Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Inada, Shunko; Kato, Toshio; Nakata, Susumu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goto, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Yoshida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Podoplanin is distinctively overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma than oral benign neoplasms and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma but its diagnostic application is quite limited. Here, we report a new near-infrared fluorescence imaging method using an indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a desktop/a handheld ICG detection device for the visualization of oral squamous cell carcinoma-xenografted tumors in nude mice. Both near-infrared imaging methods using a desktop (in vivo imaging system: IVIS) and a handheld device (photodynamic eye: PDE) successfully detected oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors in nude mice in a podoplanin expression-dependent manner with comparable sensitivity. Of these 2 devices, only near-infrared imaging methods using a handheld device visualized oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in mice in real time. Furthermore, near-infrared imaging methods using the handheld device (PDE) could detect smaller podoplanin-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors than a non-near-infrared, autofluorescence-based imaging method. Based on these results, a near-infrared imaging method using an ICG-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a handheld detection device (PDE) allows the sensitive, semiquantitative, and real-time imaging of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors and therefore represents a useful tool for the detection and subsequent monitoring of malignant oral neoplasms in both preclinical and some clinical settings.

  12. In vivo localization of labeled anti-AFP variant monoclonal antibody VG5 against human hepatic cancer in tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baihe

    1991-01-01

    VG5 is one of the murine monoclonal antibodies against human AFP-R-LCA and had a high specific binding capacity with human hepatic cancer tissues and cell lines in vitro study. Present study investigated the in vivo distribution and image in nude mice bearing human hepatoma cell line SMMC-LINM with 131 I-VG5, and use 125 I-IgG as contral group. The tumor/liver and tumor/spleen ratios were 5.27 and 5.16 respectively. The localization index of tumor was 5.16 at 96 hr. The radio activity of 125 I-NMIgG in tumor was much lower than that of 131 I-VG5 and tended to decrease with tumor. The results showed that monoclonal antibody VG5 could be used in localization and may be also beneficial to the treatment of human hepatic cancer

  13. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. → N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. → These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  14. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Li, Lin [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Jiang, Shibo, E-mail: sjiang@nybloodcenter.org [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  15. A randomized pilot trial on the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on antibody response in hemodialysis patients who had not responded to routine hepatitis B virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Mohaghegh, Poopak; Raeesjalali, Ghanbarali; Behzadi, Saeed; Sagheb, Mehdi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-01-01

    Various strategies have been applied to improve the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in hemodialysis patients. The present study was under taken to compare the seroconversion rate of hemodialysis patients who had not respond to 3 intramuscular (IM) doses (40 μg each) of HBV vaccine , after a fourth IM dose (40 μg) of HBV vaccine that was administered alone or with subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (5 μg/kg). Twenty six hemodialysis patients who had not responded to 3 IM injections of HBV vaccine were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received a booster dose of 40 μg HBV vaccine IM, group 2 received a booster dose of 40 μg HBV vaccine IM plus 5 μg/kg subcutaneous G-CSF. Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was measured 1 month after the booster dose. Seroconversion rate in group 1 was 40%. There was a trend towards a higher seroconversion rate at 60% in group 2 patients; however, because of the small number of patients it did not reach statistical significance. Larger number of patients and other innovative strategies should be applied for vaccination of this group of patients. More prolonged follow up of the patients is needed to evaluate the duration of protection induced by each method of vaccination.

  16. Cross-lineage influenza B and heterologous influenza A antibody responses in vaccinated mice: immunologic interactions and B/Yamagata dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Skowronski

    Full Text Available The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1 but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria. In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008-09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009-10 and 2010-11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008-09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010-11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic. With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam. The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008-09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010

  17. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  18. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines, particularly against DENV strains that contain multiple mutations or genetic recombination within or between their

  19. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  20. Protective efficacy of VP1-specific neutralizing antibody associated with a reduction of viral load and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human SCARB2-transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuen-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available Hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16 in children have now become a severe public health issue in the Asian-Pacific region. Recently we have successfully developed transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2, a receptor of EV71 and CVA16 as an animal model for evaluating the pathogenesis of enterovirus infections. In this study, hSCARB2-transgenic mice were used to investigate the efficacy conferred by a previously described EV71 neutralizing antibody, N3. A single injection of N3 effectively inhibited the HFMD-like skin scurfs in mice pre-infected with clinical isolate of EV71 E59 (B4 genotype or prevented severe limb paralysis and death in mice pre-inoculated with 5746 (C2 genotype. This protection was correlated with remarkable reduction of viral loads in the brain, spinal cord and limb muscles. Accumulated viral loads and the associated pro-inflammatory cytokines were all reduced. The protective efficacy of N3 was not observed in animals challenged with CVA16. This could be due to dissimilarity sequences of the neutralizing epitope found in CVA16. These results indicate N3 could be useful in treating severe EV71 infections and the hSCARB2-transgenic mouse could be used to evaluate the protective efficacy of potential anti-enterovirus agent candidates.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Mice, Rats and Humans Elicits a Strong Antibody Response to a Limited Number of Reduction-Sensitive Epitopes on Five Major Tegumental Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Krautz-Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases. Recognition of each of these major bands was lost when the blots were run under reducing condition. We expressed a rationally selected group of schistosome tegumental membrane antigens in insect host cells, and used the membrane extracts of these cells to unambiguously identify the major antigens recognized by S. mansoni infected mouse, rat and human serum. These results revealed that a limited number of dominant, reduction-sensitive conformational epitopes on five major tegumental surface membrane proteins: SmTsp2, Sm23, Sm29, SmLy6B and SmLy6F, are primary targets of mouse, rat and human S. mansoni infection sera antibodies. We conclude that, Schistosoma mansoni infection of both permissive (mouse and non-permissive (rat rodent models, as well as humans, elicit a dominant antibody response recognizing a limited number of conformational epitopes on the same five tegumental membrane proteins. Thus it appears that neither infecting schistosomula nor mature adult schistosomes are substantively impacted by the robust circulating anti-tegumental antibody response they elicit to these antigens. Importantly, our data suggest a need to re-evaluate host immune responses to many schistosome antigens and has important implications regarding schistosome immune evasion mechanisms and schistosomiasis vaccine development.

  2. Antibodies directed against monomorphic and evolutionary conserved self epitopes may be generated in 'knock-out' mice. Development of monoclonal antibodies directed against monomorphic MHC class I determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Endel, B; Ulrik, J

    1994-01-01

    binding antibodies. Three stable anti-MHC class I (MHC-I) antibody secreting hybridoma clones were established and subcloned. All three MoAbs precipitated radiolabelled H-2 molecules as analysed by SDS PAGE, and all three MoAbs stained H-2b, H-2d, as well as H-2k cells by FACS analysis. The MoAbs stained...... to two beta 2m loss mutant cell lines, C4.4-25- and R1E, suggesting that some MHC-I heavy chain is exported to the cell surface even in the absence of endogenous beta 2m. Staining of murine cell lines kept under serum-free culture conditions was strongly influenced by the addition of bovine or human......-S cells were cultured at 37 degrees C. In total, these observations suggest that the MoAbs recognize conformational, presumably beta 2m and peptide dependent, self epitopes on MHC-class I. One of the three MoAbs stained rat blood mononuclear blood cells (BMC), all three MoAbs stained hamster BMC, whereas...

  3. Monoclonal antibody fragment from combinatorial phage display library neutralizes alpha-latrotoxin activity and abolishes black widow spider venom lethality, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugli, Francesca; Graffeo, Rosalia; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Torelli, Riccardo; Masucci, Luca; Sali, Michela; Grasso, Alfonso; Rufini, Stefano; Ricci, Enzo; Fadda, Giovanni; Pescatori, Mario

    2008-03-15

    Alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-ltx), a component of the venom of black widow spiders (BWSV), binds to higher vertebrates presynaptic nerve terminals, stimulating massive neurotransmitter release. This neurotoxic protein is responsible for most of the symptoms elicited in men by the bite of black widow spider (BWS), i.e. a neurological syndrome named latrodectism. By reasoning that targeting this single component would abrogate most of the effect of BWS envenomation, we took advantage of the antibody phage display technology to generate monoclonal Fab fragments able to bind and neutralize the alpha-ltx. To this aim, we immunized Balb/c mice with purified toxin and cloned their antibody repertoire in the pCombIII phage display vector. By combining a high-stringency affinity selection with a sensitive 45Ca(2+) uptake assay, we isolated a Fab fragment (FM1) able to bind the alpha-ltx in the low nM range and neutralize its ionophore activity, in vitro and in vivo. After the onset of overt symptomatology, administration of FM1 to experimentally envenomed mice induced remission of symptoms and prevented lethality. Since alpha-ltx is the only molecule responsible for the great toxicity of BWS bites in mammals, the FM1 Fab, highly effective in neutralizing the toxin in vivo, represents a promising immunotherapy reagent for treating latrodectic patients.

  4. Production of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody (IgY) Against Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Evaluation of Its Prophylaxis Potency in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Babak; Ebrahimi, Firouz; Nazarian, Shahram

    2018-03-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), responsible for the harmful effects of cholera infection, is made up of one A subunit (enzymatic), and five B subunits (cell binding). The release of cholera toxin is the main reason for the debilitating loss of intestinal fluid. Inhibition of the B subunit (CTB) may block CT activity. To determine the effect of anti CTB-IgY against oral challenge with V. cholera in suckling infant mice. The binding domain of cholera toxin was amplified and ligated into pET28a vector. The pET28a (+)/ctb expression vector was confirmed by endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis. The expression of recombinant CTB in E. coli was performed by induction with IPTG. After immunizing the chickens with recombinant CTB, IgY was purified by water dilution method and NaCl precipitation and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Moreover, the activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were assessed by ELISA. The SDS-PAGE and western blot techniques showed that CTB protein was successfully expressed and specifically recognized by polyclonal antibodies against the cholera toxin. The oral administration of anti- (V. cholera+CTB) in infant mice in challenge with active V. cholera bacterium demonstrated high rate of survival. The increase in the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria implies the necessity of finding novel antibiotics. Our results suggest the possibility of passive protection from purified IgY, hence implying that anti CTB-IgY may be useful in the treatment of cholera infections.

  5. Effect of infusing rat monoclonal antibodies to the murine GPIb-IX-V complex on platelet and megakaryocyte morphology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujol, Christel; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Nurden, Paquita; Nieswandt, Bernard; Nurden, Alan

    2003-02-01

    In the Bernard-Soulier syndrome, the absence of GPIb-IX-V leads to thrombocytopenia and giant platelets. In autoimmune thrombocytopenia in man, anti-platelet antibodies are associated with changes in megakaryocyte (MK) morphology and platelet size heterogeneity. We have compared the ultrastructural changes in mature MK following the infusion of rat monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to different epitopes of the murine GPIb-IX-V complex in mice. Blood and marrow samples were examined during both the acute thrombocytopenic phase and during the recovery phase. A MoAb to GPV induced neither thrombocytopenia nor changes in platelet morphology. During the acute thrombocytopenic phase with anti-GPIbalpha MoAbs, the size of residual platelets was heterogeneous and included large forms and platelets with few granules. During recovery, platelet size heterogeneity continued, and some platelets showed signs of activation. But only rare platelets were giant forms with ultrastructural defects resembling BSS. Megakaryocytopoiesis during acute thrombocytopenia was already abnormal, with some mature cells often showing vacuoles and an irregular development of the demarcation membrane system which varied in extent. These changes continued into the recovery phase. The anti-GPV MoAb had no effect on MK. Thus, anti-platelet antibodies can induce a different medullary response even when binding to the same receptor.

  6. Combination therapy with L-arginine and α-PD-L1 antibody boosts immune response against osteosarcoma in immunocompetent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Lin, Haiqing; Yuan, Li; Li, Binghao

    2017-02-01

    L-arginine supplementation was recently proved to promote the function of immune cells, especially T-cells, by facilitating T-cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in vivo. Cytotoxic CD8 + plays a crucial role in modulating anti-cancer response mediated by the immune system, but was restricted by exhaustion. Thus, we hypothesized that L-arginine, in combination with α-PD-L1 antibody, may provide a favored environment for T-cell response against osteosarcoma. Immunocompetent BALB/c mouse models bearing orthotopic and metastatic osteosarcoma were established to validate this conjecture. We found that L-arginine significantly elevated the number of splenic CD8 + T-cells, the level of serum interferon-γ, and CD8 + T-cell infiltration. Furthermore, α-PD-L1 antibody protected these amplified CD8 + T-cells from exhaustion, and therefore strengthened the secretion of interferon-γ, granzyme B and perforin by these T-cells. As a result, this combination treatment strategy significantly prolonged survival of osteosarcoma bearing mice, suggesting that L-arginine supplementation in combination with α-PD-L1 antibody may be a promising method for osteosarcoma patients.

  7. Evaluation of Antibody and Cytokines Responses in Intranasally and Intramuscularly Administrated BALB/C Mice With Influenza Virus-Like Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haideh Nadmdari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed an influenza virus like particle with HA, M, and NA proteins using Bac-to-Bac expression system and SF9 cell line. To evaluate the immunogenicity of our construct, we assessed the humoral, cytokine induced by H1N1-VLP in BALB/c mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Relative quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate the antibody (IgG and IgA and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-g in PBMCs. Our results showed that VLP was capable of intranasal (I.N. and intramuscular (I.M. induction of serum IgG and IgA responses. Interestingly, I.N. route induced higher IgG and IgA titer than I.M. route, which was statistically significant. Moreover, mRNA levels of IL-6 (4.2-4.5 folds, IFN-g (5.5-5.7 folds, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (2.5-3 folds and IL-4 (2.4-2.8 folds were significantly elevated in mice immunized I.N. and I.M. with H1N1-VLP compared to the control group. Our findings indicated that a non-infectious genome-less VLP approach mimics parenteral virus with multiple viral antigens and epitopes that stimulate a diverse set of immune responses such as innate immunity, specific serum IgG antibody, cell-mediated immunity, and local antibodies.

  8. A single exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles attenuates antigen-specific antibody production and T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen CC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Chang Shen1, Chia-Chi Wang1, Mei-Hsiu Liao2, Tong-Rong Jan11Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Energy Research, Taoyuan, TaiwanBackground: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in clinical applications as a diagnostic contrasting agent. Previous studies showed that iron oxide nanoparticles deposited in the liver and spleen after systemic administration. The present study investigated the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on antigen-specific immune responses in mice sensitized with the T cell-dependent antigen ovalbumin (OVA.Methods: BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles (10-60 mg Fe/kg 1 hour prior to OVA sensitization, and the serum antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were examined 7 days later.Results: The serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly attenuated by treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 by splenocytes re-stimulated with OVA in culture was robustly suppressed in mice administered with iron oxide nanoparticles. The viability of OVA-stimulated splenocytes was also attenuated. In contrast, treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles did not affect the viability of splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, a T-cell mitogen.Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that systemic exposure to a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles compromises subsequent antigen-specific immune reactions, including the serum production of antigen-specific antibodies, and the functionality of T cells.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticle, antigen-specific, immune, ovalbumin

  9. Evaluation of an Anti-rPA IgG ELISA for Measuring the Antibody Response in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, S

    2004-01-01

    A recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure the serological response of female A/J mice after inoculation with the new rPA-based anthrax vaccine...

  10. Beta-lactam antibiotic decreases acquisition of and motivation to respond for cocaine, but not sweet food, in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sara Jane; Rasmussen, Bruce A; Corley, Gladys; Henry, Craig; Kim, Jae K; Walker, Ellen A; Rawls, Scott M

    2011-08-01

    No medication is approved to treat cocaine addiction, but mounting evidence suggests that glutamate-directed approaches may reduce cocaine dependence and relapse. We tested the hypotheses that the glutamate transporter subtype 1 activator, ceftriaxone, disrupts acquisition of cocaine self-administration, motivation to self-administer cocaine, and conditioned place preference in mice. Repeated ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg) reduced the ability of mice to acquire cocaine and the motivation to self-administer cocaine after successful acquisition without affecting acquisition of or motivation for sweet food. Repeated ceftriaxone had no effect on cocaine-conditioned place preference. These results suggest that a β-lactam antibiotic reduces the direct reinforcing strength of cocaine without producing nonspecific deficits in conditioned learning processes.

  11. The biodistribution and pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-CEA single-chain antibody and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Li Biao; Zhu Chengmo; Jiang Xufeng; Feng Guowei; Wu Xiangpu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution and two-step pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single-chain antibody (ScFv) and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice. Methods: Before the injection of 153 Sm-biotin, the fusion protein of ScFv-core-streptavidin was pretargeted for 24 h (200 μg every nude mouse), 24 h later 153 Sm-biotin was injected. The uptake of radioactivity in tumor and normal tissues in 20 nude mice was measured at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h and the other 3 nude mice was scanned at 8 and 24 h after peritoneal injection of 153 Sm-biotin. Results: The tumor to blood ratio (tumor/blood) reached 0.49 , 1.21, 1.56 and 3.09 at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h respectively. Radioactivity concentration peaked at 8 h in tumor site and demonstrated a 'hot' area, with significant decreasing its background at 24 h. Conclusion: The fusion protein can elevate the tumor/blood ratio, shorten pretargeting and imaging process and also improve image quality

  12. The Bordetella pertussis Type III Secretion System Tip Complex Protein Bsp22 Is Not a Protective Antigen and Fails To Elicit Serum Antibody Responses during Infection of Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Bibova, Ilona; Cerny, Ondrej; Vecerek, Branislav; Wald, Tomas; Benada, Oldrich; Zavadilova, Jana; Sebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bordetellae employs a self-associating tip complex protein Bsp22. This protein is immunogenic during infections by Bordetella bronchiseptica and could be used as a protective antigen to immunize mice against B. bronchiseptica challenge. Since low-passage clinical isolates of the human pathogen Bordetella pertussis produce a highly homologous Bsp22 protein (97% homology), we examined its vaccine and diagnostic potential. No Bsp22-specific antibodies were, however, detected in serum samples from 36 patients with clinically and serologically confirmed whooping cough disease (pertussis syndrome). Moreover, although the induction of Bsp22 secretion by the laboratory-adapted 18323 strain in the course of mice lung infection was observed, the B. pertussis 18323-infected mice did not mount any detectable serum antibody response against Bsp22. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant Bsp22 protein yielded induction of high Bsp22-specific serum antibody titers but did not protect mice against an intranasal challenge with B. pertussis 18323. Unlike for B. bronchiseptica, hence, the Bsp22 protein is nonimmunogenic, and/or the serum antibody response to it is suppressed, during B. pertussis infections of humans and mice. PMID:23690400

  13. A mimotope peptide of Aβ42 fibril-specific antibodies with Aβ42 fibrillation inhibitory activity induces anti-Aβ42 conformer antibody response by a displayed form on an M13 phage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koichi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Takiguchi, Sho; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Tahara, Haruna; Gotanda, Takuma; Abe, Risa; Ito, Yuji; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2011-07-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in different forms, including fibrils and oligomers. Recently, we established three distinct conformation-dependent human single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies, including B6 scFv, which bound to Aβ42 fibril but not to soluble-form Aβ, inhibiting Aβ42 fibril formation. In this study, we determined the mimotopes of these antibodies and found a common mimotope sequence, B6-C15, using the Ph.D.-C7C phage library. The B6-C15 showed weak homology to the C-terminus of Aβ42 containing GXXXG dimerization motifs. We synthesized the peptide of B6-C15 fused with biotinylated TAT at the N-terminus (TAT-B6-C15) and characterized its biochemical features on an Aβ42-fibrillation reaction in vitro. We demonstrated that, first, TAT-B6-C15 inhibited Aβ42 fibril formation; secondly, TAT-B6-C15 bound to prefibril Aβ42 oligomers but not to monomers, trimers, tetramers, fibrils, or ultrasonicated fragments; thirdly, TAT-B6-C15 inhibited Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity against human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells; and, fourthly, when mice were administered B6-C15-phages dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline, the anti-Aβ42 conformer IgG antibody response was induced. These results suggested that the B6-C15 peptide might provide unique opportunities to analyze the Aβ42 fibrillation pathway and develop a vaccine vehicle for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mouse polyomavirus-specific antibodies in laboratory mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W.J. Broeders; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of IgM and IgG serum antibodies to mouse polyomavirus (MPV). To evaluate the potential of this ELISA for the screening of laboratory rodents, serum samples from specific pathogen free (SPF)

  15. Treatment with Anti-HMGB1 Monoclonal Antibody Does Not Affect Lupus Nephritis in MRL/lpr Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Petersen, Arend; Horst, Gerda; Bijl, Marc; Limburg, Pieter C.; Westra, Johanna; Heeringa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA binding protein which acts as an alarmin when secreted. HMGB1 is increased in SLE and might represent a potential therapeutic target. We investigated whether treatment with a anti-HMGB1 antibody affects the development of lupus nephritis

  16. Antibodies against a class II HLA-peptide complex raised by active immunization of mice with antigen mimicking peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Tuxen, R; Riise, Erik Skjold

    2009-01-01

    , have been found in the peripheral blood of MS patients. These autoreactive T cells are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MS. In this article, antibodies against the HLA complex DR2b (DRA1*0101/DRB1*1501) in complex with the MBP-derived peptide MBP(85-99) have been generated by immunization...

  17. ApoE Receptor 2 mediates trophoblast dysfunction and pregnancy complications induced by antiphospholipid antibodies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Victoria; Gelber, Shari E; Vukelic, Milena; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Herz, Joachim; Urbanus, Rolf T; de Groot, Philip G; Natale, David R; Harihara, Anirudha; Redecha, Patricia; Abrahams, Vikki M; Shaul, Philip W; Salmon, Jane E; Mineo, Chieko

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnancies in women with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are frequently complicated by fetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). How circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) cause pregnancy complications in APS is poorly understood. We sought to determine if the LDL

  18. Novel transdermal photodynamic therapy using ATX-S10.Na(II) induces apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts and ameliorates collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, S; Nishida, K; Komiyama, T; Nakae, Y; Takeda, K; Yorimitsu, M; Kitamura, A; Kunisada, T; Ohtsuka, A; Inoue, H

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to test the effect of transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) on synovial proliferation in vitro and in vivo, using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na(II). Synovial fibroblasts were obtained from patients with RA (RASF). Cell viability with or without PDT was determined by MTT assay. Cell morphology was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. DNA fragmentation was labeled by TUNEL stain. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced in DBA/1 mice, and the effects of transdermal PDT were evaluated by clinical and histological examination. PDT showed drug concentration-dependent and laser dose-dependent cytotoxicity on RASF. TUNEL stain and TEM study revealed the induction of apoptotic cell death of RASF. Transdermal PDT significantly reduced clinical arthritis and synovial inflammation in this model of arthritis. These results suggest that transdermal PDT using ATX-S10.Na(II) might be a novel less invasive treatment strategy for small joint arthritis and tenosynovitis.

  19. Total Body Irradiation Mitigates Inflammation and Extends the Therapeutic Time Window for Anti-Ricin Antibody Treatment against Pulmonary Ricinosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a highly toxic plant-derived toxin, is considered a potential weapon in biowarfare and bioterrorism due to its pronounced toxicity, high availability, and ease of preparation. Pulmonary exposure to ricin results in the generation of an acute edematous inflammation followed by respiratory insufficiency and death. Massive neutrophil recruitment to the lungs may contribute significantly to ricin-mediated morbidity. In this study, total body irradiation (TBI served as a non-pharmacological tool to decrease the potential neutrophil-induced lung injury. TBI significantly postponed the time to death of intranasally ricin-intoxicated mice, given that leukopenia remained stable following intoxication. This increase in time to death coincided with a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory marker levels, and led to marked extension of the therapeutic time window for anti-ricin antibody treatment.

  20. Vault nanocapsules as adjuvants favor cell-mediated over antibody-mediated immune responses following immunization of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra K Kar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modifications of adjuvants that induce cell-mediated over antibody-mediated immunity is desired for development of vaccines. Nanocapsules have been found to be viable adjuvants and are amenable to engineering for desired immune responses. We previously showed that natural nanocapsules called vaults can be genetically engineered to elicit Th1 immunity and protection from a mucosal bacterial infection. The purpose of our study was to characterize immunity produced in response to OVA within vault nanoparticles and compare it to another nanocarrier. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized immunity resulting from immunization with the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA encased in vault nanocapsules and liposomes. We measured OVA responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ memory T cell responses, cytokine production and antibody titers in vitro and in vivo. We found that immunization with OVA contain in vaults induced a greater number of anti-OVA CD8(+ memory T cells and production of IFNγ plus CD4(+ memory T cells. Also, modification of the vault body could change the immune response compared to OVA encased in liposomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments show that vault nanocapsules induced strong anti-OVA CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell memory responses and modest antibody production, which markedly differed from the immune response induced by liposomes. We also found that the vault nanocapsule could be modified to change antibody isotypes in vivo. Thus it is possible to create a vault nanocapsule vaccine that can result in the unique combination of immunogen-responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell immunity coupled with an IgG1 response for future development of vault nanocapsule-based vaccines against antigens for human pathogens and cancer.

  1. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-enhanced humoral immune response and production of antibodies to prion protein PrPSc in mice immunized with 139A scrapie-associated fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Daryl S; Kascsak, Regina B; Lafauci, Giuseppe; Meeker, Harry C; Ye, Xuemin; Flory, Michael J; Kim, Jae Il; Schuller-Levis, Georgia B; Levis, William R; Wisniewski, Thomas; Carp, Richard I; Kascsak, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to a protease-resistant conformer, the srapie form of PrP (PrP(Sc)). Humoral immune responses to nondenatured forms of PrP(Sc) have never been fully characterized. We investigated whether production of antibodies to PrP(Sc) could occur in PrP null (Prnp(-/-)) mice and further, whether innate immune stimulation with the TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 1826 could enhance this process. Whether such stimulation could raise anti-PrP(Sc) antibody levels in wild-type (Prnp(+/+)) mice was also investigated. Prnp(-/-) and Prnp(+/+) mice were immunized with nondenatured 139A scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF), with or without ODN 1826, and were tested for titers of PrP-specific antibodies. In Prnp(-/-) mice, inclusion of ODN 1826 in the immunization regime increased anti-PrP titers more than 13-fold after two immunizations and induced, among others, antibodies to an N-terminal epitope, which were only present in the immune repertoire of mice receiving ODN 1826. mAb 6D11, derived from such a mouse, reacts with the N-terminal epitope QWNK in native and denatured forms of PrP(Sc) and recombinant PrP and exhibits a K(d) in the 10(-)(11) M range. In Prnp(+/+) mice, ODN 1826 increased anti-PrP levels as much as 84% after a single immunization. Thus, ODN 1826 potentiates adaptive immune responses to PrP(Sc) in 139A SAF-immunized mice. These results represent the first characterization of humoral immune responses to nondenatured, infectious PrP(Sc) and suggest methods for optimizing the generation of mAbs to PrP(Sc), many of which could be used for diagnosis and treatment of prion diseases.

  2. Involvement of tachykinins and NK1 receptor in the joint inflammation with collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Akira; Sakai, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation associated with severe pain. Because RA is an immune-mediated joint disease and because type II collagen is considered an autoantigen, rodent models of arthritis using collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibodies are valuable for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and for evaluating therapeutic strategies. The tachykinin family peptides, substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1), are expressed in the nervous systems and in many peripheral organs and immunocompetent cells and activate tachykinin NK1 receptors with similar affinities. NK1 receptors are involved in the inflammation and hyperalgesia associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined the involvement of SP and HK-1 in the joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model in mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of the TAC1 gene encoding SP and of the TAC4 gene encoding HK-1 were decreased in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord at the peak of the inflammatory symptoms in CAIA. Systemic injection of an NK1 receptor antagonist, WIN 51708, significantly inhibited the joint swelling, but not the mechanical allodynia, on day 7 in CAIA mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of TAC1 and TAC4 in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord were unaffected by treatment with WIN 51708. These findings suggest that tachykinins and NK1 receptors play a key role in joint inflammation, rather than in nociceptive sensitization, in CAIA.

  3. Multi-response model for rheumatoid arthritis based on delay differential equations in collagen-induced arthritic mice treated with an anti-GM-CSF antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Wagner, Thomas; Plater-Zyberk, Christine; Lahu, Gezim; Schropp, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is an experimental model for rheumatoid arthritis, a human chronic inflammatory destructive disease. The therapeutic effect of neutralizing the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by an antibody was examined in the mouse disease in a view of deriving a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model. In CIA mice the development of disease is measured by a total arthritic score (TAS) and an ankylosis score (AKS). We present a multi-response PKPD model which describes the time course of the unperturbed and perturbed TAS and AKS. The antibody acts directly on GM-CSF by binding to it. Therefore, a compartment for the cytokine GM-CSF is an essential component of the mathematical model. This compartment drives the disease development in the PKPD model. Different known properties of arthritis development in the CIA model are included in the PKPD model. Firstly, the inflammation, driven by GM-CSF, dominates at the beginning of the disease and decreases after some time. Secondly, a destructive (ankylosis) part evolves in the TAS that is delayed in time. In order to model these two properties a delay differential equation was used. The PKPD model was applied to different experiments with doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg/kg. The influence of the drug was modeled by a non-linear approach. The final mathematical model consists of three differential equations representing the compartments for GM-CSF, inflammation and destruction. Our mathematical model described well all available dosing schedules by a simultaneous fit. We also present an equivalent and easy reformulation as ordinary differential equation which grants the use of standard PKPD software.

  4. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercaria- I. analysis of antibody and T-lymphocyte responses in mouse strains developing differing levels of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.; Labine, M.; Sher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of cellular and humoral responses directed against schistosomula were examined in mice of three inbred strains which demonstrate differences in the degree of resistance induced by immunization with irradiated cercariae. T-Cell reactivity was observed during the first 4 weeks after vaccination but declined to control levels thereafter. Anti-schistosomulum antibody was first detected 2 weeks after vaccination, peaked by 6 weeks, and persisted as late as 15 weeks. In sera obtained at 6 weeks, antibody activity was detected in affinity chromatography-purified fractions containing IgM, IgA, IgG 1 , IgG 2 /sub a/, and IgG 3 immunoglobulins. In general, the cellular and humoral responses observed in C57Bl/6J mice, which consistently developed a high level of immunity after vaccination, were not significantly different from those observed in C3H/HeJ or CBA/J mice, which achieved only low to moderate levels of immunity. Thus, although antibody production appears to correlate more closely than T lymphocyte responsiveness with the typical long-term resistance pattern observed in this model, the absence of striking differences in parasite-specific antibody levels between mice of these different strains suggests that additional mechanisms may be involved in the development of immunity after vaccination

  5. EFFICACY EVALUATION OF A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTORS RECEPTOR IN THE MODEL OF SUBCUTANEOUS XENOGRAFT IN IMMUNODEFICIENT MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. Yu. Ustyugov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the comparative antitumor efficacy study of two test articles of therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR manufactured by Russian biopharmaceutical company CJSC “Biocad” and the commercial drug “Erbitux®” (Merck, Germany in subcutaneous xenografts model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431NS cell line. EGFR overexpression in epithelial tumor cells is a commonly known fact that determines use of this receptor as a target for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The basic mechanism of action of such drugs is blocking of epithelial cells proliferation through competitive binding to EGFR. Evaluation of tumor growth dynamics in immunodeficient (Nu/Nu mice was performed during in vivo experiment using two parameters: tumor growth index and tumor growth inhibition (TGI, %. The results received with used study design show that antitumor effects of the test articles manufactured by CJSC “Biocad” and the commercial comparator drug “Erbitux®” estimated by values of TGI and tumor growth index are comparable.

  6. PHiD-CV induces anti-Protein D antibodies but does not augment pulmonary clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, Matthew K; Gill, Simren K; Langford, Paul R; Li, Yanwen; Ladhani, Shamez N; Tregoning, John S

    2015-09-11

    A recently-licensed 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) uses Protein D from Haemophilus influenzae as a carrier protein. PHiD-CV therefore has the potential to provide additional protection against nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). NTHi frequently causes respiratory tract infections and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and there is currently no vaccine. We developed mouse models of NTHi infection and influenza/NTHi superinfection. Mice were immunized with PHiD-CV, heat-killed NTHi, or a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that did not contain Protein D (PCV13; Prevenar, Pfizer) and then infected intranasally with NTHi. Infection with NTHi resulted in weight loss, inflammation and airway neutrophilia. In a superinfection model, prior infection with pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (strain A/England/195/2009) augmented NTHi infection severity, even with a lower bacterial challenge dose. Immunization with PHiD-CV produced high levels of antibodies that were specific against Protein D, but not heat-killed NTHi. Immunization with PHiD-CV led to a slight reduction in bacterial load, but no change in disease outcome. PHiD-CV induced high levels of Protein D-specific antibodies, but did not augment pulmonary clearance of NTHi. We found no evidence to suggest that PHiD-CV will offer added benefit by preventing NTHi lung infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A chimeric haemagglutinin-based influenza split virion vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 induces protective stalk-reactive antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Kinzler, David; Choi, Angela; Hirsh, Ariana; Beaulieu, Edith; Lecrenier, Nicolas; Innis, Bruce L; Palese, Peter; Mallett, Corey P; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus vaccines are generally effective at preventing disease, but need to be well matched to circulating virus strains for maximum benefit. Influenza viruses constantly undergo antigenic changes because of their high mutation rate in the immunodominant haemagglutinin (HA) head domain, which necessitates annual re-formulation and re-vaccination for continuing protection. In case of pandemic influenza virus outbreaks, new vaccines need to be produced and quickly distributed. Novel influenza virus vaccines that redirect the immune response towards more conserved epitopes located in the HA stalk domain may remove the need for annual vaccine re-formulation and could also protect against emergent pandemic strains to which the human population is immunologically naive. One approach to create such universal influenza virus vaccines is the use of constructs expressing chimeric HAs. By sequential immunization with vaccine strains expressing the same conserved HA stalk domain and exotic HA heads to which the host is naive, antibodies against the stalk can be boosted to high titres. Here we tested a monovalent chimeric HA-based prototype universal influenza virus split virion vaccine candidate with and without AS03 adjuvant in primed mice. We found that the chimeric HA-based vaccination regimen induced higher stalk antibody titres than the seasonal vaccine. The stalk antibody responses were long lasting, cross-reactive to distantly related HAs and provided protection in vivo in a serum transfer challenge model. The results of this study are promising and support further development of a universal influenza vaccine candidate built on the chimeric HA technology platform.

  8. A proteoliposome based formulation administered by the nasal route produces vibriocidal antibodies against El Tor Ogawa Vibrio cholerae O1 in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José Luis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Callicó, Adriana; Fernández, Yovania; Cedré, Bárbara; Año, Gemma; González, Lissette; Falero, Gustavo; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Oliver; García, Luis

    2009-01-07

    A vaccine candidate against the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae was developed based on a proteoliposome (PL) formulation using a wild type strain C7258, V. cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa as part of strategy to develop a combined formulation against enteric diseases preventable by the stimulation of the mucosal immune system. A detergent extraction method was applied to obtain the PL. Scanning electron microscopy and molecular exclusion chromatography showed the presence of two PL populations. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies were then carried out to evaluate the size (169.27+/-3.85nm), polydispersity (0.410) and zeta potential (-23.28+/-1.21mV) of the PL. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) and a range of outer membrane proteins, including OmpU. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with two doses of PL containing 25mug of LPS each 28 days apart. The mice showed high anti-LPS IgG titres (3.36+/-0.235) and vibriocidal antibodies (3.70+/-0.23) after two weeks from last dose. These results show for the first time that PL can be obtained from V. cholerae O1 and when administer by intranasal route has the potential to protect against this pathogen.

  9. Nasal immunization of mice with Lactobacillus casei expressing the Pneumococcal Surface Protein A: induction of antibodies, complement deposition and partial protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ivana B; Darrieux, Michelle; Ferreira, Daniela M; Miyaji, Eliane N; Silva, Débora A; Arêas, Ana Paula M; Aires, Karina A; Leite, Luciana C C; Ho, Paulo L; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S

    2008-04-01

    Strategies for the development of new vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections try to overcome problems such as serotype coverage and high costs, present in currently available vaccines. Formulations based on protein candidates that can induce protection in animal models have been pointed as good alternatives. Among them, the Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) plays an important role during systemic infection at least in part through the inhibition of complement deposition on the pneumococcal surface, a mechanism of evasion from the immune system. Antigen delivery systems based on live recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represents a promising strategy for mucosal vaccination, since they are generally regarded as safe bacteria able to elicit both systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this work, the N-terminal region of clade 1 PspA was constitutively expressed in Lactobacillus casei and the recombinant bacteria was tested as a mucosal vaccine in mice. Nasal immunization with L. casei-PspA 1 induced anti-PspA antibodies that were able to bind to pneumococcal strains carrying both clade 1 and clade 2 PspAs and to induce complement deposition on the surface of the bacteria. In addition, an increase in survival of immunized mice after a systemic challenge with a virulent pneumococcal strain was observed.

  10. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  11. Combination of monoclonal antibodies with DST inhibits accelerated rejection mediated by memory T cells to induce long-lived heart allograft acceptance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Chen, Jibing; Dai, Helong; Peng, Yuanzheng; Wang, Feng; Xia, Junjie; Thorlacius, Henrik; Zhu, Qi; Qi, Zhongquan

    2011-08-30

    Donor-reactive memory T cells mediated accelerated rejection is known as a barrier to the survival of transplanted organs. We investigated the combination of different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and donor-specific transfusion (DST) in memory T cells-based adoptive mice model. In the presence of donor-reactive memory T cells, the mean survival time (MST) of grafts in the anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST group was 49.8d. Adding anti-CD44/CD70 mAbs to anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST treatment. The MST was more than 100 d (MST>100 d). Compared with anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST group, anti-CD40L/LFA-1/CD44/CD70/DST group notably reduced the expansion of memory T cells, enhanced the proportion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppressed donor-specific responses. Our data suggest that anti-CD40L/LFA-1/CD44/CD70mAbs and DST can synergistically inhibit accelerated rejection mediated by memory T cells to induce long-lived heart allograft acceptance in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  13. Anti-osteopontin monoclonal antibody prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice by promotion of osteoclast apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Huaqing; Wei, Huafeng; Zhao, Jian; Guo, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • We first report that anti-osteopontin mAb could protect osteoporosis in mice. • Anti-osteopontin mAb could promote the osteoclast apoptosis. • Targeting osteopontin might have therapeutic potentials for osteoporosis. - Abstract: Osteopontin (OPN) is abundant in mineralized tissues and has long been implicated in bone remodeling. However, the therapeutic effect of targeting OPN in bone loss diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here, we reported that anti-OPN mAb (23C3) could protect against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice, demonstrated by microcomputed tomography analysis and histopathology evaluation. In vitro assay showed that 23C3 mAb reduced osteoclasts (OCs)-mediated bone resorption through promotion of mature OC apoptosis. Thus, the study has important implications for understanding the role of OPN in OC bone resorption and survival, and OPN antagonists may have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis and other osteopenic diseases

  14. Anti-osteopontin monoclonal antibody prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice by promotion of osteoclast apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); PLA General Hospital Cancer Center and PLA Cancer Research Institute, PLA Postgraduate School of Medicine, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing (China); Dai, Jianxin [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); PLA General Hospital Cancer Center and PLA Cancer Research Institute, PLA Postgraduate School of Medicine, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing (China); National Engineering Research Center for Antibody Medicine and Shanghai Key Lab. of Cell Engineering and Antibody, 399 Libing Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Wang, Huaqing [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wei, Huafeng [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); PLA General Hospital Cancer Center and PLA Cancer Research Institute, PLA Postgraduate School of Medicine, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing (China); Zhao, Jian [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Antibody Medicine and Shanghai Key Lab. of Cell Engineering and Antibody, 399 Libing Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Guo, Yajun, E-mail: yguo_smmu@163.com [International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); PLA General Hospital Cancer Center and PLA Cancer Research Institute, PLA Postgraduate School of Medicine, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing (China); National Engineering Research Center for Antibody Medicine and Shanghai Key Lab. of Cell Engineering and Antibody, 399 Libing Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlight: • We first report that anti-osteopontin mAb could protect osteoporosis in mice. • Anti-osteopontin mAb could promote the osteoclast apoptosis. • Targeting osteopontin might have therapeutic potentials for osteoporosis. - Abstract: Osteopontin (OPN) is abundant in mineralized tissues and has long been implicated in bone remodeling. However, the therapeutic effect of targeting OPN in bone loss diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here, we reported that anti-OPN mAb (23C3) could protect against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice, demonstrated by microcomputed tomography analysis and histopathology evaluation. In vitro assay showed that 23C3 mAb reduced osteoclasts (OCs)-mediated bone resorption through promotion of mature OC apoptosis. Thus, the study has important implications for understanding the role of OPN in OC bone resorption and survival, and OPN antagonists may have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis and other osteopenic diseases.

  15. Intravenous IgA complexed with antigen reduces primary antibody response to the antigen and anaphylaxis upon antigen re-exposure by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kouya; Miyatake, Kenji; Nakashima, Takayuki; Morioka, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Midori; Ishibashi, Yuki; Ito, Ayaka; Kuranishi, Ayu; Yoshino, Shin

    2014-10-01

    Serum IgG, IgE and IgM have been shown to enhance the primary antibody responses upon exposure to the soluble antigens recognized by those antibodies. However, how IgA affects these responses remains unknown. We investigated the effects of intravenously administered monoclonal IgA on the immune responses in mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with ovalbumin in the presence or absence of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA. The Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin and the anaphylaxis induced by re-exposure to ovalbumin were measured. IgA complexed with antigen attenuated the primary antibody responses to the antigen in mice, in contrast to IgG2b and IgE. The primary antibody responses, i.e. the de novo synthesis of anti-ovalbumin IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE in the serum, and the subsequent anaphylaxis induced with re-exposure to ovalbumin were reduced by the co-injection of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA at ovalbumin immunization. The Th1, Th2 and Tr1 cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, respectively, released from ovalbumin-restimulated cultured splenocytes collected from allergic mice were also reduced by the treatment. The induction of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 secretion by splenocytes from ovalbumin-immunized mice stimulated in vitro with ovalbumin was also significantly reduced by the antigen complexed with anti-ovalbumin IgA. These data suggest that the direct inhibition of Th1 and Th2 activation by anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA participates in the inhibition of the primary antibody responses. IgA plays important immunosuppressive roles under physiological and pathological conditions and is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of immune disorders.

  16. Cross-reactive neuraminidase antibodies afford partial protection against H5N1 in mice and are present in unexposed humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Sandbulte

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A pandemic H5N1 influenza outbreak would be facilitated by an absence of immunity to the avian-derived virus in the human population. Although this condition is likely in regard to hemagglutinin-mediated immunity, the neuraminidase (NA of H5N1 viruses (avN1 and of endemic human H1N1 viruses (huN1 are classified in the same serotype. We hypothesized that an immune response to huN1 could mediate cross-protection against H5N1 influenza virus infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized against the NA of a contemporary human H1N1 strain by DNA vaccination. They were challenged with recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 viruses bearing huN1 (PR8-huN1 or avN1 (PR8-avN1 or with H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Additional naïve mice were injected with sera from vaccinated mice prior to H5N1 challenge. Also, serum specimens from humans were analyzed for reactivity with avN1. Immunization elicited a serum IgG response to huN1 and robust protection against the homologous challenge virus. Immunized mice were partially protected from lethal challenge with H5N1 virus or recombinant PR8-avN1. Sera transferred from immunized mice to naïve animals conferred similar protection against H5N1 mortality. Analysis of human sera showed that antibodies able to inhibit the sialidase activity of avN1 exist in some individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that humoral immunity elicited by huN1 can partially protect against H5N1 infection in a mammalian host. Our results suggest that a portion of the human population could have some degree of resistance to H5N1 influenza, with the possibility that this could be induced or enhanced through immunization with seasonal influenza vaccines.

  17. Antibodies enhance the protective effect of CD4+ T lymphocytes in SCID mice perorally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Salát, Jiří; Horká, Helena; Saková, Kamila; Ditrich, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2006), s. 95-99 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D167; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Encephalitozoon cuniculi * humoral immunity * SCID mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2006

  18. A mathematical model of a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody's effects on cocaine pharmacokinetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Hanna N; Zhang, Tongli; Norman, Andrew B

    2017-09-01

    A recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb), h2E2, is at an advanced stage of pre-clinical development as an immunotherapy for cocaine abuse. It is hypothesized that h2E2 binds to and sequesters cocaine in the blood. A three-compartment model of the effects of h2E2 on cocaine's distribution was constructed. The model assumes that h2E2 binds to cocaine and that the h2E2-cocaine complex does not enter the brain but distributes between the central and peripheral compartments. Free cocaine is eliminated from both the central and peripheral compartments, and h2E2 and the h2E2-cocaine complex are eliminated from the central compartment only. This model was tested against a new dataset measuring cocaine concentrations in the brain and plasma over 1h in the presence and absence of h2E2. The mAb significantly increased plasma cocaine concentrations with a concomitant significant decrease in brain concentration. Plasma concentrations declined over the 1-hour sampling period in both groups. With a set of parameters within reasonable physiological ranges, the three-compartment model was able to qualitatively and quantitatively simulate the increased plasma concentration in the presence of the antibody and the decreased peak brain concentration in the presence of antibody. Importantly, the model explained the decline in plasma concentrations over time as distribution of the cocaine-h2E2 complex into a peripheral compartment. This model will facilitate the targeting of ideal mAb PK/PD properties thus accelerating the identification of lead candidate anti-drug mAbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly Specific PET Imaging of Prostate Tumors in Mice with an Iodine-124-Labeled Antibody Fragment That Targets Phosphatidylserine

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Jason H.; Hao, Guiyang; Best, Anne M.; Sun, Xiankai; Thorpe, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an attractive target for imaging agents that identify tumors and assess their response to therapy. PS is absent from the surface of most cell types, but becomes exposed on tumor cells and tumor vasculature in response to oxidative stresses in the tumor microenvironment and increases in response to therapy. To image exposed PS, we used a fully human PS-targeting antibody fragment, PGN635 F(ab')2, that binds to complexes of PS and β2-glycoprotein I. PGN635 F(ab')2 was...

  20. Adjuvant-enhanced antibody and cellular responses to inclusion bodies expressing FhSAP2 correlates with protection of mice to Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Francheska; Espino, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2 (FhSAP2) is a protein differentially expressed in various developmental stages of F. hepatica. Recombinant FhSAP2 has demonstrated the induction of partial protection in mice and rabbits when it is administered subcutaneously (SC) in Freund's adjuvant. Because FhSAP2 is overexpressed in bacteria in the form of inclusion bodies (IBs), we isolated IBs expressing FhSAP2 and tested their immunogenicity when administered SC in mice emulsified in two different adjuvants: QS-21 and Montanide TM ISA720. Animals received three injections containing 20 μg of protein two weeks apart and 4 weeks after the third injection, mice were infected with 10 F. hepatica metacercariae by oral route. The percentages of protection induced by FhSAP2-IBs were estimated to be between 60.0 and 62.5% when compared with adjuvant-vaccinated, infected controls. By determining the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and IL-4 and IFNγ cytokines in the serum of experimental animals, it was found that both Th1 and Th2 immune responses were significantly increased in the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated groups compared with the adjuvant-vaccinated, infected control groups. The adjuvant-vaccinated groups had significantly lower IgG1 to IgG2a ratios and lower IL-4 to IFNγ ratios than the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated animals, which is indicative of higher levels of Th2 immune responses. Irrespective to the adjuvant used, animals vaccinated with FhSAP2-IBs exhibited significantly higher survival percentage and less liver damage than the adjuvant-control groups. This study suggests that FhSAP2 has potential as vaccine against F. hepatica and that the protection elicited by this molecule could be linked to a mechanism driven by the CD4-Th1 cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Network analysis of hepatic genes responded to high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice: nutrigenomics data mining from recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Eunjung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seo; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-08-01

    Obesity and its associated complications, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and some cancers, have been a global health problem with a rapid increase of the obese population. In this study, we selected 31 obesity candidate genes in the liver of high-fat-induced obese C57BL/6J mice through investigation of literature search and analyzed functional protein-protein interaction of the genes using the STRING database. Most of the obesity candidate genes were closely connected through lipid metabolism, and in particular acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 appeared to be a core obesity gene. Overall, genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and gluconeogenesis were up-regulated, and genes involved in sterol biosynthesis, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress defense system were down-regulated with a high-fat diet. Future identification of core obesity genes and their functional targets is expected to provide a new way to prevent obesity by phytochemicals or functional foods on the basis of food and nutritional genomics.

  2. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Ford, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D 1 cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing

  3. Biodistribution of 125I-labeled anti-endoglin antibody using SPECT/CT imaging: Impact of in vivo deiodination on tumor accumulation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmani, Linda; Levêque, Philippe; Bouzin, Caroline; Bol, Anne; Dieu, Marc; Walrand, Stephan; Vander Borght, Thierry; Feron, Olivier; Grégoire, Vincent; Bonifazi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled antibodies directed against endoglin (CD105) are promising tools for imaging and antiangiogenic cancer therapy. To validate iodinated antibodies as reliable tracers, we investigated the influence of the radiolabeling method (direct or indirect) on their in vivo stability. Methods: Anti-CD105 mAbs were radioiodinated directly using chloramine-T ( 125 I-anti-CD105-mAbs) or indirectly using D-KRYRR peptide as a linker ( 125 I-KRYRR-anti-CD105-mAbs). The biodistribution was studied in B16 tumor-bearing mice via SPECT/CT imaging. Results: Radioiodinated mAbs were stable in vitro. In vivo, thyroid showed the most important increase of uptake after 24 h for 125 I-anti-CD105-mAbs (91.9 ± 4.0%ID/ml) versus 125 I-KRYRR-anti-CD105-mAbs (4.4 ± 0.6%ID/ml). Tumor uptake of 125 I-anti-CD105-mAbs (0.9 ± 0.3%ID/ml) was significantly lower than that of 125 I-KRYRR-anti-CD105-mAbs (4.7 ± 0.2%ID/ml). Conclusions: An accurate characterization of the in vivo stability of radioiodinated mAbs and the choice of an appropriate method for the radioiodination are required, especially for novel targets. The indirect radioiodination of internalizing anti-CD105 mAbs leads to more stable tracer by decreasing in vivo deiodination and improves the tumor retention of radioiodinated mAbs. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: To date, the only antiangiogenic antibody approved for clinical indications is bevacizumab. There is a need to develop more antibodies that have targets highly expressed on tumor endothelium. CD105 represents a promising marker of angiogenesis, but its therapeutic relevance in cancer needs to be further investigated. In this context, this study suggests the potential use of indirectly iodinated anti-CD105 mAbs for tumor imaging and for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111 In, 67 Ga and 131 I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  5. Maternal Intake of Fish Oil but not of Linseed Oil Reduces the Antibody Response in Neonatal Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, T. M. R.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Dietary levels of n-3 PUFA are believed to influence the immune system. The importance of the source of n-3 PUFA is debated. This study addressed how the content and source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet influenced tissue FA composition and the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice pups....... From the day of conception and throughout lactation, dams were fed diets containing 4% fat from linseed oil (LSO), fish oil (FO) or a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (DEF). Pups were injected with OVA within 24 h of birth and sacrificed at weaning (day 21). Overall, the content of n-3 PUFA in milk, liver...

  6. Rat monoclonal antibody distribution in mice: an epitope inside the lung vascular space mediates very efficient localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Lee, Ray (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Bultman, Scott (Tennessee Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (USA). Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences); Kabalka, George (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Biomedical Imaging Center)

    1990-01-01

    MoAb to an epitope on lung endothelial cells accumulates rapidly in the lung resulting in localization ratios of over 100. MoAb to a macrophage antigen found in spleen and lung has maximum localization ratios of 24 and 5, respectively, while MoAb specific for a human tumor grown in nude mice has a maximum ratio of about 4. Epitope concentrations in target organs (300-600 ng/mg protein) are comparable in all three systems, indicating that the MoAb to endothelium is efficient in localization to the lung. (author).

  7. Generation and characterization of human monoclonal antibody HMD4 against ovarian carcinoma and the study of radioimmunoimaging in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H.N.; Cui, H.; Feng, J.; Fu, T.Y.; Wei, P.; Fu, Z.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of patients with ovarian carcinoma were immortalized by fusing them with a nonsecreting cell line of murine myeloma (Sp2/0-Ag14). By early cloning and recloning a hybrid cell line, named HMD4, was established. It has secreted human IgG for more than 15 months stably. Chromosome analysis corresponded with the characterization of human-mouse hybridoma. Large quantities of ascites were obtained after hybrid cells injection into the primed nude mice. Human IgG of light chain was detected and purified from the ascites. Twenty-six of 43 (60.5%) epithelial ovarian cancers were positively stained with HMD4 by ABC immunoperoxidase methods while nonepithelial ovarian cancers and almost all benign tumors and normal tissues were negative. The molecular weight of the antigen recognized by HMD4 was 55KDa determined by Western blotting. 131I labeled HMD4 was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing human ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma; 131I labeled normal human IgG and normal murine IgG were used as controls. Measurements of T/NT and T/B ratios of 131I-HMD4 were done. Radioimaging showed HMD4 clearly localized on tumor regions at 48 and 72 hours and the biodistribution and metabolism of the labeled HMD4 corresponded with the images. The above results indicate that HMD4 was specific to ovarian carcinoma, a hopeful clue for clinical applications

  8. Changes in 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose incorporation, hexokinase activity and lactate production by breast cancer cells responding to treatment with the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheyne, Richard W. [School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Trembleau, Laurent; McLaughlin, Abbie [School of Natural and Computing Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Smith, Tim A.D., E-mail: t.smith@abdn.ac.u [School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: Changes in 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) incorporation by tumors, detected using positron emission tomography, during response to chemotherapy are utilized clinically in patient management. Here, the effect of treatment with growth-inhibitory doses of the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) on the incorporation of FDG by breast tumor cells was measured along with hexokinase (HK) and glucose transport to determine the potential of FDG-positron emission tomography in predicting response to these biological anti-cancer therapies and their modulatory effects on the steps involved in FDG incorporation. Methods: The sensitivity to trastuzumab of three breast tumor cell lines, SKBr3, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-468, expressing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 at high, medium and low levels, respectively, was determined using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay over a 6-day period, and a clonogenic assay was carried out after 7- and 10-day exposures. FDG incorporation by cells treated with growth-inhibitory doses of trastuzumab was carried out after 4 h and 2, 4 and 6 days of treatment. Glucose transport (rate of uptake of the non-metabolizable analogue [{sup 3}H]O-methyl-D-glucose), HK activity and lactate production were measured on cells treated with inhibitory doses of trastuzumab for 6 days. Results: The IC{sub 50} doses for SKBr3 and MDA-MB-453 and the IC{sub 20} dose for MDA-MB-468 after 6 days of treatment with trastuzumab were 0.25, 1 and 170 {mu}g/ml, respectively. FDG incorporation by SKBr3 and MDA-MB-453 cells was found to be decreased using IC{sub 50} doses of trastuzumab for 6 days. At the IC{sub 50} doses, FDG incorporation was also decreased at 4 days and, in the case of MDA-MB-453, even after 4 h of treatment. Decreased FDG incorporation corresponded with decreased HK activity in these cells. Lactate production, previously suggested to be a

  9. Treatment with anti-IL-6 receptor antibody prevented increase in serum hepcidin levels and improved anemia in mice inoculated with IL-6–producing lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Mori, Kazushige; Fujimoto-Ouchi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is produced mainly by interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. A mechanism linking cancer-related anemia and IL-6 through hepcidin production is suggested. To clarify the hypothesis that overproduction of IL-6 elevates hepcidin levels and contributes to the development of cancer-related anemia, we evaluated anti-IL-6 receptor antibody treatment of cancer-related anemia in an IL-6–producing human lung cancer xenograft model. Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with cells of the IL-6–producing human lung cancer cell line LC-06-JCK and assessed as a model of cancer-related anemia. Mice bearing LC-06-JCK were administered rat anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody MR16-1 and their serum hepcidin levels and hematological parameters were determined. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice developed anemia according to the production of human IL-6 from xenografts, with decreased values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to non–tumor-bearing (NTB) mice. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed decreased body weight and serum albumin with increased serum amyloid A. MR16-1 treatment showed significant inhibition of decreased body weight and serum albumin levels, and suppressed serum amyloid A level. There was no difference in tumor volume between MR16-1-treated mice and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-treated control mice. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV in LC-06-JCK–bearing mice was significantly relieved by MR16-1 treatment. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed high red blood cell counts and erythropoietin levels as compared to NTB mice, whereas MR16-1 treatment did not affect their levels. Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels were statistically elevated in mice bearing LC-06-JCK. LC-06-JCK–bearing mice showed lower values of MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and serum iron as compared to NTB mice. Administration of MR16-1 to mice bearing LC-06-JCK significantly suppressed levels of both serum hepcidin and

  10. Disaggregation of amyloid plaque in brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice with daily subcutaneous administration of a tetravalent bispecific antibody that targets the transferrin receptor and the Abeta amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbria, Rachita K; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2013-09-03

    Anti-amyloid antibodies (AAA) are under development as new therapeutics that disaggregate the amyloid plaque in brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the AAAs are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in the absence of BBB disruption. In the present study, an AAA was re-engineered for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB via the endogenous BBB transferrin receptor (TfR). A single chain Fv (ScFv) antibody form of an AAA was fused to the carboxyl terminus of each heavy chain of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the mouse TfR, and this produced a tetravalent bispecific antibody designated the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein. Unlike a conventional AAA, which has a plasma half-time of weeks, the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein is cleared from plasma in mice with a mean residence time of about 3 h. Therefore, a novel protocol was developed for the treatment of one year old presenilin (PS)-1/amyloid precursor protein (APP) AD double transgenic PSAPP mice, which were administered daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of 5 mg/kg of the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein for 12 consecutive weeks. At the end of the treatment, brain amyloid plaques were quantified with confocal microscopy using both Thioflavin-S staining and immunostaining with the 6E10 antibody against Abeta amyloid fibrils. Fusion protein treatment caused a 57% and 61% reduction in amyloid plaque in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively. No increase in plasma immunoreactive Abeta amyloid peptide, and no cerebral microhemorrhage, was observed. Chronic daily sc treatment of the mice with the fusion protein caused no immune reactions and only a low titer antidrug antibody response. In conclusion, re-engineering AAAs for receptor-mediated BBB transport allows for reduction in brain amyloid plaque without cerebral microhemorrhage following daily sc treatment for 12 weeks.

  11. One Dose of Staphylococcus aureus 4C-Staph Vaccine Formulated with a Novel TLR7-Dependent Adjuvant Rapidly Protects Mice through Antibodies, Effector CD4+ T Cells, and IL-17A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca; Monaci, Elisabetta; Lofano, Giuseppe; Torre, Antonina; Bacconi, Marta; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Arcidiacono, Letizia; Galletti, Bruno; Laera, Donatello; Pallaoro, Michele; Tuscano, Giovanna; Fontana, Maria Rita; Bensi, Giuliano; Grandi, Guido; Rossi-Paccani, Silvia; Nuti, Sandra; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly acting, single dose vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus would be highly beneficial for patients scheduled for major surgeries or in intensive care units. Here we show that one immunization with a multicomponent S. aureus candidate vaccine, 4C-Staph, formulated with a novel TLR7-dependent adjuvant, T7-alum, readily protected mice from death and from bacterial dissemination, both in kidney abscess and peritonitis models, outperforming alum-formulated vaccine. This increased efficacy was paralleled by higher vaccine-specific and α-hemolysin-neutralizing antibody titers and Th1/Th17 cell responses. Antibodies played a crucial protective role, as shown by the lack of protection of 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccine in B-cell-deficient mice and by serum transfer experiments. Depletion of effector CD4+ T cells not only reduced survival but also increased S. aureus load in kidneys of mice immunized with 4C-Staph/T7-alum. The role of IL-17A in the control of bacterial dissemination in 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccinated mice was indicated by in vivo neutralization experiments. We conclude that single dose 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccine promptly and efficiently protected mice against S. aureus through the combined actions of antibodies, CD4+ effector T cells, and IL-17A. These data suggest that inclusion of an adjuvant that induces not only fast antibody responses but also IL-17-producing cell-mediated effector responses could efficaciously protect patients scheduled for major surgeries or in intensive care units.

  12. One Dose of Staphylococcus aureus 4C-Staph Vaccine Formulated with a Novel TLR7-Dependent Adjuvant Rapidly Protects Mice through Antibodies, Effector CD4+ T Cells, and IL-17A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mancini

    Full Text Available A rapidly acting, single dose vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus would be highly beneficial for patients scheduled for major surgeries or in intensive care units. Here we show that one immunization with a multicomponent S. aureus candidate vaccine, 4C-Staph, formulated with a novel TLR7-dependent adjuvant, T7-alum, readily protected mice from death and from bacterial dissemination, both in kidney abscess and peritonitis models, outperforming alum-formulated vaccine. This increased efficacy was paralleled by higher vaccine-specific and α-hemolysin-neutralizing antibody titers and Th1/Th17 cell responses. Antibodies played a crucial protective role, as shown by the lack of protection of 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccine in B-cell-deficient mice and by serum transfer experiments. Depletion of effector CD4+ T cells not only reduced survival but also increased S. aureus load in kidneys of mice immunized with 4C-Staph/T7-alum. The role of IL-17A in the control of bacterial dissemination in 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccinated mice was indicated by in vivo neutralization experiments. We conclude that single dose 4C-Staph/T7-alum vaccine promptly and efficiently protected mice against S. aureus through the combined actions of antibodies, CD4+ effector T cells, and IL-17A. These data suggest that inclusion of an adjuvant that induces not only fast antibody responses but also IL-17-producing cell-mediated effector responses could efficaciously protect patients scheduled for major surgeries or in intensive care units.

  13. A Rationally Designed TNF-α Epitope-Scaffold Immunogen Induces Sustained Antibody Response and Alleviates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The TNF-α biological inhibitors have significantly improved the clinical outcomes of many autoimmune diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis. However, the practical uses are limited due to high costs and the risk of anti-drug antibody responses. Attempts to develop anti-TNF-α vaccines have generated encouraging data in animal models, however, data from clinical trials have not met expectations. In present study, we designed a TNF-α epitope-scaffold immunogen DTNF7 using the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin, named DTT as a scaffold. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the grafted TNF-α epitope is entirely surface-exposed and presented in a native-like conformation while the rigid helical structure of DTT is minimally perturbed, thereby rendering the immunogen highly stable. Immunization of mice with alum formulated DTNF7 induced humoral responses against native TNF-α, and the antibody titer was sustained for more than 6 months, which supports a role of the universal CD4 T cell epitopes of DTT in breaking self-immune tolerance. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, DTNF7-alum vaccination markedly delayed the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, and reduced incidence as well as clinical score. DTT is presumed safe as an epitope carrier because a catalytic inactive mutant of diphtheria toxin, CRM197 has good clinical safety records as an active vaccine component. Taken all together, we show that DTT-based epitope vaccine is a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  15. Activated platelets in carotid artery thrombosis in mice can be selectively targeted with a radiolabeled single-chain antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Heidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activated platelets can be found on the surface of inflamed, rupture-prone and ruptured plaques as well as in intravascular thrombosis. They are key players in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. In this study we describe the construction of a radiolabeled single-chain antibody targeting the LIBS-epitope of activated platelets to selectively depict platelet activation and wall-adherent non-occlusive thrombosis in a mouse model with nuclear imaging using in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography as well as small animal SPECT-CT for in vivo analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LIBS as well as an unspecific control single-chain antibody were labeled with (111Indium ((111In via bifunctional DTPA ( = (111In-LIBS/(111In-control. Autoradiography after incubation with (111In-LIBS on activated platelets in vitro (mean 3866 ± 28 DLU/mm(2, 4010 ± 630 DLU/mm(2 and 4520 ± 293 DLU/mm(2 produced a significantly higher ligand uptake compared to (111In-control (2101 ± 76 DLU/mm(2, 1181 ± 96 DLU/mm(2 and 1866 ± 246 DLU/mm(2 indicating a specific binding to activated platelets; P<0.05. Applying these findings to an ex vivo mouse model of carotid artery thrombosis revealed a significant increase in ligand uptake after injection of (111In-LIBS in the presence of small thrombi compared to the non-injured side, as confirmed by histology (49630 ± 10650 DLU/mm(2 vs. 17390 ± 7470 DLU/mm(2; P<0.05. These findings could also be reproduced in vivo. SPECT-CT analysis of the injured carotid artery with (111In-LIBS resulted in a significant increase of the target-to-background ratio compared to (111In-control (1.99 ± 0.36 vs. 1.1 ± 0.24; P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nuclear imaging with (111In-LIBS allows the detection of platelet activation in vitro and ex vivo with high sensitivity. Using SPECT-CT, wall-adherent activated platelets in carotid arteries could be depicted in vivo. These results encourage further studies elucidating the role of

  16. Ovalbumin-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays effectively induce ovalbumin-specific antibody and T-cell responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaden, Koen; Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Romeijn, Stefan; Ossendorp, Ferry; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the applicability of antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays for effective vaccination strategies. Therefore, a model antigen (ovalbumin) was coated onto pH-sensitive (pyridine-modified) microneedle arrays to test pH-triggered antigen release by applying the coated arrays onto ex vivo human skin, and by conducting a dermal immunization study in mice. The release of antigen into ex vivo human skin from the coated microneedles was determined by using radioactively labeled ovalbumin. To investigate the induction of antigen-specific IgG, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, BALB/c mice were immunized with antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedles by the 'coat and poke' approach. These responses were compared to responses induced by the 'poke and patch' approach, and subcutaneous and intradermal vaccination with classic hypodermic needles. The pH-sensitive microneedle arrays were efficiently coated with ovalbumin (95% coating efficiency) and upon application of six microneedle arrays 4.27 of 7 μg ovalbumin was delivered into the skin, showing a release efficiency of 70%. In contrast, the 'poke and patch' approach led to a delivery of only 6.91 of 100 μg ovalbumin (7% delivery efficiency). Immunization by means of ovalbumin-coated microneedles resulted in robust CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses comparable to those obtained after subcutaneous or intradermal immunization with conventional needles. Moreover, it effectively induced IgG responses; however, it required prime-boost immunizations before antibodies were produced. In conclusion, antigen delivery into ex vivo human skin by antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays is more efficient than the 'poke-and-patch' approach and in vivo vaccination studies show the applicability of pH-sensitive microneedles for the induction of both T cell and B cell responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined SEP and anti-PD-L1 antibody produces a synergistic antitumor effect in B16-F10 melanoma-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengping; Ye, Liang; Xing, Yingying; Hu, Jinhang; Xi, Tao

    2018-01-09

    The increased PD-L1 induces poorer prognosis in melanoma. The treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have a low response rate. The combination immunotherapies are the encouraging drug development strategy to receive maximal therapeutic benefit. In this study, we investigated the enhanced antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of combined SEP and αPD-L1 in B16-F10 melanoma-bearing mice. The results shown that combined SEP and αPD-L1 presented significant synergistic antitumor effects, increased the frequency of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells in spleen and tumor, cytotoxic activity of CTL in spleen, and IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in splenocytes and tumor. The combination treatment also produced synergistic increase in P-ERK1/2 level in spleen. Immunohistochemistry shown that SEP induced the PD-L1 expression in melanoma tissue possibly by promoting IFN-γ excretion, which led to the synergistic anti-tumor effects of aPD-L1 and SEP. Furthermore, in the purified T lymphocyte from the naive mice, the combination of SEP and αPD-L1 had more potent than SEP or αPD-L1 in promoting T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines secretion including IL-2 and IFN-γ, at least partially by activating MEK/ERK pathway. Our study provides the scientific basis for a clinical trial that would involve combination of anti-PD-L1 mAb and SEP for sustained melanoma control.

  18. Efficacy of a parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5-based H7N9 vaccine in mice and guinea pigs: antibody titer towards HA was not a good indicator for protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Li

    Full Text Available H7N9 has caused fatal infections in humans. A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale outbreaks in the human population. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5, an avirulent paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector. In this work, we generated a recombinant PIV5 expressing the HA gene of H7N9 (PIV5-H7 and tested its efficacy against infection with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9 in mice and guinea pigs. PIV5-H7 protected the mice against lethal H7N9 challenge. Interestingly, the protection did not require antibody since PIV5-H7 protected JhD mice that do not produce antibody against lethal H7N9 challenge. Furthermore, transfer of anti-H7 serum did not protect mice against H7N9 challenge. PIV5-H7 generated high HAI titers in guinea pigs, however it did not protect against H7N9 infection or transmission. Intriguingly, immunization of guinea pigs with PIV5-H7 and PIV5 expressing NP of influenza A virus H5N1 (PIV5-NP conferred protection against H7N9 infection and transmission. Thus, we have obtained a H7N9 vaccine that protected both mice and guinea pigs against lethal H7N9 challenge and infection respectively.

  19. Preventive Activity against Influenza (H1N1 Virus by Intranasally Delivered RNA-Hydrolyzing Antibody in Respiratory Epithelial Cells of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral effect of a catalytic RNA-hydrolyzing antibody, 3D8 scFv, for intranasal administration against avian influenza virus (H1N1 was described. The recombinant 3D8 scFv protein prevented BALB/c mice against H1N1 influenza virus infection by degradation of the viral RNA genome through its intrinsic RNA-hydrolyzing activity. Intranasal administration of 3D8 scFv (50 μg/day for five days prior to infection demonstrated an antiviral activity (70% survival against H1N1 infection. The antiviral ability of 3D8 scFv to penetrate into epithelial cells from bronchial cavity via the respiratory mucosal layer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and histopathological examination. The antiviral activity of 3D8 scFv against H1N1 virus infection was not due to host immune cytokines or chemokines, but rather to direct antiviral RNA-hydrolyzing activity of 3D8 scFv against the viral RNA genome. Taken together, our results suggest that the RNase activity of 3D8 scFv, coupled with its ability to penetrate epithelial cells through the respiratory mucosal layer, directly prevents H1N1 virus infection in a mouse model system.

  20. Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavell Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL. These studies tested if prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT or caspase-3 deficient female mice, 25–26 days old, were given 10 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG intraperitoneally (IP followed by 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG IP 46 h later to synchronize ovulation. The animals were then injected with IgG (2 micrograms, i.v., the FAS-activating antibody Jo2 (2 micrograms, i.v., or PGF2α (10 micrograms, i.p. at 24 or 48 h post-ovulation. Ovaries from each group were collected 8 h later for assessment of active caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis (measured by the TUNEL assay in the CL. Regardless of genotype or treatment, CL in ovaries collected from mice injected 24 h after ovulation showed no evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. However, PGF2α or Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation and collected 8 h later induced caspase-3 activation in 13.2 ± 1.8% and 13.7 ± 2.2 % of the cells, respectively and resulted in 16.35 ± 0.7% (PGF2α and 14.3 ± 2.5% TUNEL-positive cells when compared to 1.48 ± 0.8% of cells CL in IgG treated controls. In contrast, CL in ovaries collected from caspase-3 deficient mice whether treated with PGF2α , Jo2, or control IgG at 48 h post-ovulation showed little evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. CL of WT mice treated with Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation had an 8-fold increase in the activity of caspase-8, an activator of caspase-3 that is coupled to the FAS death receptor. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, treatment of WT mice with PGF2α at 48 h post-ovulation resulted in a 22-fold increase in caspase-8 activity in the CL, despite the fact

  1. Biodistribution of indium-111-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody after intraperitoneal injection in nude mice intraperitoneally grafted with ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedrez, P.; Saccavini, J.C.; Nolibe, D.; Simoen, J.P.; Guerreau, D.; Gestin, J.F.; Kremer, M.; Chatal, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the biodistribution of 111In-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) with known affinity for ovarian carcinomas in a nude mouse model grafted i.p. with a human ovarian cancer (NIH:OVCAR-3). Tumor uptake 24 h after i.p. injection was higher with intact 111In-labeled OC 125 MAb than with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin. The kinetics of tumor uptake also differed, showing a plateau followed by a drop at Day 7 with 111In-OC 125 MAb and a decrease beginning at 24 h with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin. Tumor-to-normal tissue ratios ranged between 29.91 +/- 11.85 and 0.68 +/- 0.15 with 111In-OC 125 MAb and between 4.50 +/- 1.06 and 0.53 +/- 0.04 with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin according to the normal tissues and the time points considered. Tumor uptake 2 h after injection was the same for F(ab')2 fragments as for intact MAb, whereas maximum uptake at 24 h was lower and was followed by a decrease at Day 4. Tumor-to-normal tissue ratios were in the same range, except for the tumor to blood ratio which was higher and the tumor to kidney ratio which was lower at 24 and 96 h. Maximum tumor uptake was higher after i.p. than i.v. injection. Instead of attaining the plateau noted after i.p. injection, tumor uptake after i.v. injection remained low at 2 h, reaching its peak only after 96 h. 131I-OC 125 injected i.p., which reached maximum tumor uptake at 2 h, showed tumor-to-tissue ratios ranging between 15.98 +/- 2.63 and 0.96 +/- 0.86, i.e., not very different from those with 111In. After i.p. injection of a radiolabeled colloid solution, maximum tumor uptake was reached at 96 h, but with very high nonspecific uptake in liver and spleen. These results indicate high, selective tumor uptake of 111In-OC 125 after i.p

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies, Derived from Humans Vaccinated with the RV144 HIV Vaccine Containing the HVEM Binding Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D, Neutralize HSV Infection, Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity, and Protect Mice from Ocular Challenge with HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Tomaras, Georgia D; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Goodman, Kyle N; Berman, Phillip W; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Haynes, Barton F; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-10-01

    The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) so that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection, as well as antibodies to HSV. We derived monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from peripheral blood B cells of recipients of the RV144 HIV vaccine and showed that these antibodies neutralized HSV-1 infection in cells expressing HVEM, but not the other major virus receptor, nectin-1. The MAbs mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mice that received the MAbs and were then challenged by corneal inoculation with HSV-1 had reduced eye disease, shedding, and latent infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MAbs derived from human recipients of a vaccine that specifically target the HVEM binding site of gD. In summary, we found that monoclonal antibodies derived from humans vaccinated with the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD (i) neutralized HSV-1 infection in a cell receptor-specific manner, (ii) mediated ADCC, and (iii) reduced ocular disease in virus-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores and neonatal herpes and is a leading cause of blindness. Despite many trials, no HSV vaccine has been approved. Nectin-1 and HVEM are the two major cellular receptors for HSV. These receptors are expressed at different levels in various tissues, and the role of each receptor in HSV pathogenesis is not well understood. We derived human monoclonal antibodies from persons who received the HIV RV144 vaccine that contained the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD fused to HIV gp120. These antibodies were

  3. [Treatment of liver cancer in vitro and in mice by monoclonal antibody targeting epithelial specific antigen-positive liver cancer stem cells in combination with cisplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y Y; Yu, L; Rong, Y; Sun, L X; Sun, L C; Yang, Z H; Ran, Y L; Li, L

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the biological characteristics of monoclonal antibodies against human liver cancer stem cells and its therapeutic effect in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell culture in serum-free medium and PKH26 staining were used to determine the existence of cancer stem cells in human liver Bel7402-V3 cell line. The co-expression of antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody (McAb) 15D2 and epithelial specific antigen (ESA) and PKH26-positive cells in the Bel7402-V3 cells were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Serum-free suspension culture was used to detect the self-renewal ability of 15D2-positive Bel7402-V3 cells sorted by flow cytometry and the effect of 15D2 on the self-renewal ability of Bel7402-V3 cells. The effect of 15D2 on cisplatin resistance in the cells was examined by CCK8 method. The inhibitory effect of 15D2 combined with cisplatin on the transplanted tumor growth in mice was also observed. Single PKH26-positive cells were observed in the Bel7402-V3 cell spheroids cultured for 11 days. Immunofluorescence assay showed that the 15D2-recognized antigen could be conjugated with PKH26 and ESA and co-localized on Bel7402-V3 cells. The spheroid formation rate of 15D2-positive cells in serum-free medium was significantly higher than that of 15D2-negative cells [(30.4±3.4)% vs. (8.8±1.8)%, Pcisplatin resistance of 15D2-positive cells was obviously higher than that of 15D2-negative cells (IC50: 1.014 μmol/L vs. 0.365 μmol/L). McAb 15D2 significantly suppressed the spheroid formation of Bel7402-V3 cells, with an inhibition rate of 37.5%. McAb 15D2 also notably inhibited the cisplatin resistance of Bel7302-V3 cells. The IC50 was 0.211 μg/ml in the 15D2 group and 0.325 μg/ml in the control group. The mouse experiment showed that the tumor growth rates of 50 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg 15D2-treatment groups were 82.6%, 71.4% and 60.0%, respectively; that of the 50 mg/kg 15D2 + cisplatin group was 91

  4. Natural and Man-made Antibody Repertories for Antibody Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C eAlmagro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of human, mice and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process.

  5. In vivo imaging and specific targeting of P-glycoprotein expression in multidrug resistant nude mice xenografts with [{sup 125}I]MRK-16 monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Andrew M.; Rosa, Eddie; Mehta, Bippin M.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.; Finn, Ronald D.; Biedler, June L.; Tsuruo, Takashi; Kalaigian, Hovannes; Larson, Steven M

    1995-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors is associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression. In vivo quantitation of Pgp may allow MDR to be evaluated noninvasively prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to radiolabel MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody that targets an external epitope of P-glycoprotein, and perform in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in a MDR xenograft nude mouse model. MRK-16 was labeled with {sup 125}I by the iodogen method, with subsequent purification by size exclusion chromatography. Groups of 10 Balb/c mice were each xenografted with colchicine-resistant or -sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines, respectively. Whole body clearance and tumor uptake over time was quantitated by gamma camera imaging, and biodistribution studies were performed with [{sup 125}]MRK-16 and an isotype matched control antibody, A33. Quantitative autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors was also evaluated to confirm specific targeting of [{sup 125}I]MRK-16. Peak tumor uptake was at 2-3 days post-injection, and was significantly greater in resistance compared to sensitive tumors (mean % injected dose/g {+-} SD) (18.76 {+-} 2.94 vs 10.93 {+-} 0.96; p < 0.05). Quantitative autoradiography verified these findings (19.13 {+-} 0.622 vs 12.08 {+-} 0.38, p < 0.05). Specific binding of [{sup 125}I]MRK-16 was confirmed by comparison to [{sup 131}I]A33 in biodistribution studies, and localized to cellular components of tissue stroma by comparison of histologic and autoradiographic sections of sensitive and resistant tumors. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a 4.5-fold difference in P-glycoprotein expression between sensitive and resistant cell lines without colchicine selective pressure. We conclude that in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in MDR tumors can be performed with [{sup 125}I]MRK-16. These findings suggest a potential clinical application for radiolabeled MRK-16 in the in vivo evaluation of multidrug resistance in tumors.

  6. Iodine-131-labeled MAb F(ab')2 fragments are more efficient and less toxic than intact anti-CEA antibodies in radioimmunotherapy of large human colon carcinoma grafted in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Pelegrin, A.; Delaloye, B.; Bischof-Delaloye, A.; Mach, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    During one week, beginning 18 days after transplantation, nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma ranging from 115 to 943 mm3 (mean 335 mm3) were treated by repeated intravenous injections of either iodine-131-( 131 I) labeled intact antibodies or 131 I-labeled corresponding F(ab')2 fragments of a pool of four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against distinct epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Complete tumor remission was observed in 8 of 10 mice after therapy with F(ab')2 and 6 of the animals survived 10 mo in good health. In contrast, after treatment with intact MAbs, tumors relapsed in 7 of 8 mice after remission periods of 1 to 3.5 mo despite the fact that body weight loss and depression of peripheral white blood cells, symptoms of radiation toxicity, and the calculated radiation doses for liver, spleen, bone, and blood were increased or equal in these animals as compared to mice treated with F(ab')2

  7. Modulation of antibody synthesis by chloera exotoxin: influence on helper thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kateley, J.R.; Friedman, H.

    1975-01-01

    This report demonstrates that a major biological influence of cholera exotoxin (CT) on antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes is mediated by the toxin's influence on the helper function of thymic lymphocytes. Hemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses for lethally X-irradiated mice repopulated with isologous thymus-marrow cell suspensions were stimulated three- to fivefold when 1.0 μg CT was administered at cell transfer. For mice given marrow cells only, CT did not elevate the PFC response; however, CT stimulated as many PFC in spleens of mice given marrow and 1 x 10 7 thymus cells as mice given marrow and 4 x 10 7 thymus cells. In other transfer experiments, depressed PFC responses were observed when irradiated mice were given marrow and thymus cells from donor mice inoculated with CT 24 hr prior to cell preparation and infusion, or given marrow cells from normal mice and thymus cells from CT-treated mice. In contrast, mice given marrow from CT-treated mice and thymus cells from normal mice responded as well as mice repopulated with normal thymus-marrow cells suspensions

  8. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of avian antibodies against influenza virus H5N1 and H1N1 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan H Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic influenza poses a serious threat to global health and the world economy. While vaccines are currently under development, passive immunization could offer an alternative strategy to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. Attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been made. However, passive immunization based on mAbs may require a cocktail of mAbs with broader specificity in order to provide full protection since mAbs are generally specific for single epitopes. Chicken immunoglobulins (IgY found in egg yolk have been used mainly for treatment of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Because the recent epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV strain H5N1 has resulted in serious economic losses to the poultry industry, many countries including Vietnam have introduced mass vaccination of poultry with H5N1 virus vaccines. We reasoned that IgY from consumable eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam could provide protection against infections with HPAIV H5N1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that H5N1-specific IgY that are prepared from eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam by a rapid and simple water dilution method cross-protect against infections with HPAIV H5N1 and related H5N2 strains in mice. When administered intranasally before or after lethal infection, the IgY prevent the infection or significantly reduce viral replication resulting in complete recovery from the disease, respectively. We further generated H1N1 virus-specific IgY by immunization of hens with inactivated H1N1 A/PR/8/34 as a model virus for the current pandemic H1N1/09 and found that such H1N1-specific IgY protect mice from lethal influenza virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that readily available H5N1-specific IgY offer an enormous source of valuable biological material to combat a potential H5N1 pandemic. In addition, our study provides a proof-of-concept for the approach using virus

  9. Pan-HSV-2 IgG Antibody in Vaccinated Mice and Guinea Pigs Correlates with Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, William P.; Geltz, Joshua; Gershburg, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We lack a correlate of immunity to herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) that may be used to differentiate whether a HSV-2 vaccine elicits robust or anemic protection against genital herpes. This gap in knowledge is often attributed to a failure to measure the correct component of the adaptive immune response to HSV-2. However, efforts to identify a correlate of immunity have focused on subunit vaccines that contain less than 3% of HSV-2's 40,000-amino-acid proteome. We were interested to determine if a correlate of immunity might be more readily identified if 1. animals were immunized with a polyvalent immunogen such as a live virus and/or 2. the magnitude of the vaccine-induced immune response was gauged in terms of the IgG antibody response to all of HSV-2's antigens (pan-HSV-2 IgG). Pre-challenge pan-HSV-2 IgG levels and protection against HSV-2 were compared in mice and/or guinea pigs immunized with a gD-2 subunit vaccine, wild-type HSV-2, or one of several attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 − viruses (0Δ254, 0Δ810, 0ΔRING, or 0ΔNLS). These six HSV-2 immunogens elicited a wide range of pan-HSV-2 IgG levels spanning an ∼500-fold range. For 5 of the 6 immunogens tested, pre-challenge levels of pan-HSV-2 IgG quantitatively correlated with reductions in HSV-2 challenge virus shedding and increased survival frequency following HSV-2 challenge. Collectively, the results suggest that pan-HSV-2 IgG levels may provide a simple and useful screening tool for evaluating the potential of a HSV-2 vaccine candidate to elicit protection against HSV-2 genital herpes. PMID:23755244

  10. Cyclosporin A is an adjuvant in murine IgE antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.; Stanescu, G.; Magalski, A.E.; Qian, Y.Y.

    1989-06-15

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an undecapeptide fungal metabolite and is generally regarded as a new generation of immunosuppressive drugs. We uncovered a novel immunomodulatory property of CsA as a potent immunologic stimulator in the murine IgE antibody system. The enhancement of IgE responses was observed in mice receiving as few as three daily i.m. injections before Ag priming. Our studies demonstrate the three points listed below. First, CsA potentiates murine IgE responses regardless of Ag specificities in inbred mice. A hierarchy of immunopotentiation by CsA follows the order of low, intermediate, and high IgE responder mice. Second, CsA, when administered along with Ag, exerts a thorough and long lasting impact on the Ag-specific IgE antibody response, and leads to an Ag-specific breakthrough of IgE antibody synthesis in mice rendered tolerant in the IgE antibody system by soluble Ag pretreatment or neonatal IgE treatment. Third, IgE enhancer cells become sensitive to a low dose of irradiation. Two enhancer cellular components are identified, those of the Th cells and B cells, which appear to favor the induction of IgE responses. Understanding the cellular basis of the immunopotentiating effect of CsA will provide further insight into the murine IgE antibody system.

  11. Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jögi, Annika; Rønø, Birgitte; Lund, Ida K

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation by plasmin and metalloproteinases is essential for epidermal regeneration in skin wound healing. Plasminogen deficient mice have severely delayed wound closure as have mice simultaneously lacking the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u...

  12. Biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles as an efficient delivery vehicle for Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipids to induce potent cytokines and antibody response through activation of γδ T cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ishani; Padhi, Avinash; Mukherjee, Sitabja; Dash, Debi P.; Kar, Santosh; Sonawane, Avinash

    2017-04-01

    The activation of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is critical for protection against the pathogen and nanoparticle-mediated delivery of antigens is a more potent way to induce different immune responses. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid-bound chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) induce secretion of prominent type-1 T-helper (Th-1) and type-2 T-helper (Th-2) cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induces significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice. Furthermore, significantly enhanced γδ-T-cell activation was observed in lymph node cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid-coated chitosan NPs as compared to mice immunized with chitosan NPs alone or Mtb lipid liposomes. In comparison to CD8+ cells, significantly higher numbers of CD4+ cells were present in both the lymph node and spleen cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid-coated chitosan NPs. In conclusion, this study represents a promising new strategy for the efficient delivery of Mtb lipids using chitosan NPs to trigger an enhanced cell-mediated and antibody response against Mtb lipids.

  13. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol in Balb/c mice I. Effect on antibody forming cell, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, splenic subset, and natural killer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Byun, Jung A.; Park, Seung Hee; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Jae Hyun; Eom, Juno H.; Oh, Hye Young

    2004-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (MCPD) is a well-known by-product of acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce during its manufacturing process. MCPD has been reported genotoxic in vitro, and reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats. However, no previous studies have investigated MCPD-induced alterations in the immune system. In the present study, MCPD was administered by gavage for 14 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day to female Balb/c mice. The antibody-mediated immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed using the antibody-forming cell (AFC) assay, and splenic cell phenotypes were quantified by flow cytometry. Hematological and histopathological changes were assessed. Mitogen-stimulated spleen lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated. The T-lymphocyte blastogenesis by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 and B-lymphocyte blastogenesis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were not significantly changed. There were no significant changes in the hematological and histopathological findings of MCPD-treated mice. However, the significant decrease in thymus weight was observed in 100 mg dose group, even though that did not change body weight gain. The cellularities of spleen and thymus were significantly reduced in high-dose group. Exposure to high dose of MCPD decreased the AFC response to SRBC in mice. There was a significant decrease in NK cell activity of mice treated with high dose of MCPD. These results indicate that MCPD could modulate the immune function in Balb/c mice

  14. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditzel, H.; Erb, K.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Jensenius, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and tumour localization were evaluated in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma and human melanoma grafts. Faster clearance from the circulation was seen for the smaller half-monomeric fragment with a half-life (rapid phase/slow phase) of 2 h/16 h compared with the intact antibody, 4 h/25 h, and the monomeric fragment, 3 h/27 h. Intact COU-1 as well as the fragments accumulated in the colon tumour graft. Higher amounts of radioactivity were found in the colon tumour as compared to normal organs for intact COU-1 at days 4 and 6, for the monomeric fragment at day 4, and for the half-monomeric fragment at day 2 after injection. This investigation demonstrates the favourable biodistribution of the half monomeric COU-1 fragment. The fast clearance of this fragment resulted in a tumour-to-muscle ratio as high as 22 on day 2 after injection. Also, only this fragment gave a positive tumour-to-blood ratio. Normal IgM and its fragments were used as controls. Radioimmunoscintigraphy demonstrated the colon tumour discriminatory properties of each of the three iodine-labelled antibody preparations. The results compare favourably with previously reported investigations of the localization of human monoclonal antibodies and suggest that fragments of human monoclonal IgM antibodies may be useful tools for the immunodetection of cancer in patients. (orig.)

  15. A synthetic peptide derived from the animo acid sequence of canine parvovirus structural proteins which defines a B cell epitope and elicits antiviral antibody in BALB c mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Carlson; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides, recombinant fusion proteins and mouse monoclonal antibodies were used to delineate a B cell epitope of the VP'2 structural protein of canine parvovirus (CPV). Although this epitope is not preferentially recognized in the normal antibody response to CPV, virus-specific

  16. Increased T cell breadth and antibody response elicited in prime-boost regimen by viral vector encoded homologous SIV Gag/Env in outbred CD1 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne Marie Carola; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2016-01-01

    ) or homologous (SIVmac239) gag sequences using adenovirus (Ad5) and MVA vectors. Env (SIVmac239) was co-encoded in the vectors to study the induction of antibodies, which is a primary target of current HIV vaccine designs. All three vaccines were designed as virus-encoded virus-like particle vaccines. Antibody...

  17. Antibody kinetics among 8-10 years old respondents to hepatitis B vaccination in a low endemic country and the effect of a booster dose given 5 or 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Vladimir; De Serres, Gaston; Boulianne, Nicole; De Wals, Philippe; Murphy, Donald; Trudeau, Gisele; Massé, Richard; Duval, Bernard

    2009-10-09

    Few data are available concerning the persistence of anti-HBs and the effect of booster doses given several years post-vaccination against hepatitis B during preadolescence. The objective of this open-labelled clinical trial was to evaluate the persistence of antibodies after vaccination with three paediatric doses of Engerix-B at the age of 8-10 years and the effect of a booster dose given 5 (Group Y5) or 10 (Group Y10) years later. Anti-HBs were measured before and one month post-primary vaccination, then 5 and 10 years later, before the booster dose, as well as one month and 1 year post-booster. The anamnestic response was defined as a >or=fourfold increase of anti-HBs post-booster (>or=10 IU/L) when compared to pre-booster. Ten years post-primary vaccination, 559 of the 652 initially randomized subjects (86%) were eligible for analysis. Group Y5, 5 years post-booster results: 99% of subjects had detectable levels of antibodies and 96% a titer >or=10 IU/L. The anti-HBs GMTs decreased from 114,489 IU/L one month post-booster to 3354 IU/L 5 years later. Group Y10 results: 10 years post-primary vaccination 96% of subjects had a detectable level of anti-HBs and 85% were above the threshold of 10 IU/L. The GMTs one month post-booster were 31,030 IU/L. The challenge with a booster demonstrated an anamnestic response in 99% of subjects in group Y5 and 100% of subjects in group Y10. All subjects were anti-HBc negative. The booster doses were well tolerated. The excellent anamnestic response observed after the booster dose demonstrates the persistence of immunity in virtually all young adults vaccinated at the age of 8-10 with three paediatric doses of Engerix-B.

  18. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  19. Influence of conditioned psychological stress on immunological recovery in mice exposed to low-dose x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Flood, J.F.; Makinodan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effects of psychological stress on the immune response in BALB/c mice recovering from exposure to a low dose of ionizing radiation. Mice were first subjected to conditioning training for 12 days, then exposed to 200 R, subjected to psychological stress for 14 days, and assessed for peak anti-sheep RBC response. The seven treatment groups included two unirradiated groups and five irradiated groups. Mice exposed to 200 R and then subjected to conditioned psychological stress responded less vigorously to antigenic stimulation than those of the other irradiated groups. The psychological stress imposed upon these mice did not influence the antibody-forming capacity of unirradiated mice. These results indicate that a psychological stress which did not affect the immunological activity of unirradiated mice can curtail the immunological recovery of mice exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

  20. Ablation of human colon carcinoma in nude mice by 131I-labeled monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody F(ab')2 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Pfister, C.; Fournier, K.; Prevel, F.; Schreyer, M.; Carrel, S.; Mach, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Pooled F(ab')2 fragments of three MAbs against distinct epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used for radioimmunotherapy of nude mice bearing a subcutaneous human colon carcinoma xenograft. 9-10 d after transplantation when tumor nodules were in exponential growth, 36 mice were treated by intravenous injection of different amounts of 131 I-labeled MAb F(ab')2. All 14 mice injected with a single dose of 2,200 (n = 10) or 2,800 microCi (n = 4) showed complete tumor remission. 8 of the 10 mice treated with 2,200 microCi survived in good health for 1 yr when they were killed and shown to be tumor free. Four of nine other mice treated with four fractionated doses of 400 microCi showed no tumor relapse for more than 9 mo. In contrast, all 15 mice injected with 1,600-3,000 microCi 131 I-control IgG F(ab')2 showed tumor growth retardation of only 1-4 wk, and 15 of 16 mice injected with unlabeled anti-CEA MAb F(ab')2 showed unmodified tumor progression as compared with untreated mice. From tissue radioactivity distributions it was calculated that by an injection of 2,200 microCi 131 I-MAb F(ab')2 a mean dose of 8,335 rad was selectively delivered to the tumor, while the tissue-absorbed radiation doses for the normal organs were: peripheral blood, 2,093; stomach, 1,668; kidney, 1,289; lung, 1,185; liver, 617; spleen, 501; small intestine, 427; large intestine, 367; bone, 337; and muscle, 198. These treatments were well tolerated since out of 19 mice with complete tumor remission only 4 required bone marrow transplantation and 17 were in good health for 6-12 mo of observation

  1. Protection against H5N1 by multiple immunizations with seasonal influenza vaccine in mice is correlated with H5 cross-reactive antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Anna; Roozendaal, Ramon; Theeuwsen, Jessica; Riahi, Sarra; Vaneman, Joost; Tolboom, Jeroen; Dekking, Liesbeth; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap; Radošević, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current seasonal influenza vaccines are believed to confer protection against a narrow range of virus strains. However, their protective ability is commonly estimated based on an in vitro correlate of protection that only considers a subset of anti-influenza antibodies that are typically

  2. Quantitative 89Zr immuno-PET for in vivo scouting of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in xenograft-bearing nude mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verel, I.; Visser, G.W.; Boellaard, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Eerd-Vismale, J.E.M. van; Snow, G.B.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Dongen, G.A.M.S. van

    2003-01-01

    Immuno-PET as a scouting procedure before radioimmunotherapy (RIT) aims at the confirmation of tumor targeting and the accurate estimation of radiation dose delivery to both tumor and normal tissues. Immuno-PET with (89)Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and (90)Y-mAb RIT might form such a

  3. B7h-expressing dendritic cells and plasma B cells mediate distinct outcomes of ICOS costimulation in T cell-dependent antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larimore Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. Results We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a corresponding increase in the concentration of antigen-specific high affinity serum IgG antibodies of all isotypes, without affecting the number of responding germinal center B cells. In contrast, ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells in DC-B7hTg mice contributed to germinal center formation and selectively increased IgG2a production without affecting the overall magnitude of antibody responses. Conclusions Using transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression, we have revealed distinct roles of ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells and B cells in the regulation of T cell-dependent antibody responses.

  4. Similarity of fine specificity of IgA-gliadin antibodies between patients with celiac disease and humanized α 1KI mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sánchez, Daniel; Champier, G.; Cuvillier, A.; Cogné, M.; Pekáriková, Aneta; Tlaskalová, Helena; Hoffmanová, I.; Drastich, P.; Mothes, T.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 7 (2011), 3092-3100 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200709; GA ČR GA310/07/0414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alpha 1KI mouse * IgA antibodies * celiac disease Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2011

  5. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Salát, Jiří; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lipoldová, Marie; Demant, P.; Růžek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 77 E-ISSN 1742-2094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Flavivirus encephalitis * Neuroinflammation * Antibody production Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.902, year: 2013

  6. Early antibiotic administration but not antibody therapy directed against IL-6 improves survival in septic mice predicted to die on basis of high IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Javadi, Pardis; Dipasco, Peter J; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    Elevated interleukin (IL)-6 levels correlate with increased mortality following sepsis. IL-6 levels >14,000 pg/ml drawn 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) are associated with 100% mortality in ND4 mice, even if antibiotic therapy is initiated 12 h after septic insult. Our first aim was to see whether earlier institution of antibiotic therapy could improve overall survival in septic mice and rescue the subset of animals predicted to die on the basis of high IL-6 levels. Mice (n = 184) were subjected to CLP, had IL-6 levels drawn 6 h later, and then were randomized to receive imipenem, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, beginning 6 or 12 h postoperatively. Overall 1-wk survival improved from 25.5 to 35.9% with earlier administration of antibiotics (P 14,000 pg/ml, 25% survived if imipenem was started at 6 h, whereas none survived if antibiotics were started later (P 14,000 pg/ml. These results demonstrate that earlier systemic therapy can improve outcome in a subset of mice predicted to die in sepsis, but we are unable to demonstrate any benefit in similar animals using targeted therapy directed at IL-6.

  7. Early antibiotic administration but not antibody therapy directed against IL-6 improves survival in septic mice predicted to die based upon high IL-6 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Javadi, Pardis; DiPasco, Peter J; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-01-01

    Elevated interleukin (IL)-6 levels correlate with increased mortality following sepsis. IL-6 levels >14,000 pg/ml drawn 6 hours following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) are associated with 100% mortality in ND4 mice, even if antibiotic therapy is initiated 12 hours after the septic insult. The first aim of this study was to see if earlier institution of antibiotic therapy could improve overall survival in septic mice and rescue the subset of animals predicted to die based upon high IL-6 levels. Mice (n=184) were subjected to CLP, had IL-6 levels drawn six hours later and then were randomized to receive imipenem, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, beginning six or twelve hours post-operatively. Overall one-week survival improved from 25.5% to 35.9% with earlier administration of antibiotics (p14,000 pg/ml, 25% survived if imipenem was started at 6 hours, while none survived if antibiotics were started later (p14,000 pg/ml. These results demonstrate that earlier systemic therapy can improve outcome in a subset of mice predicted to die in sepsis, but we are unable to demonstrate any benefit in similar animals using targeted therapy directed at IL-6. PMID:15947070

  8. The in vivo effects of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10 on the humoral immune response in young and aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, R.; Tielemans, M.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether age-related changes in the composition and functional properties of murine CD4+ T cells are reflected in vivo by a changed humoral response to influenza vaccine in aged mice. After the primary immunization, the titers of influenza-specific IgM, IgG1,

  9. Antibody proteases: induction of catalytic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabibov, A G; Friboulet, A; Thomas, D; Demin, A V; Ponomarenko, N A; Vorobiev, I I; Pillet, D; Paon, M; Alexandrova, E S; Telegin, G B; Reshetnyak, A V; Grigorieva, O V; Gnuchev, N V; Malishkin, K A; Genkin, D D

    2002-10-01

    Most of the data accumulated throughout the years on investigation of catalytic antibodies indicate that their production increases on the background of autoimmune abnormalities. The different approaches to induction of catalytic response toward recombinant gp120 HIV-1 surface protein in mice with various autoimmune pathologies are described. The peptidylphosphonate conjugate containing structural part of gp120 molecule is used for reactive immunization of NZB/NZW F1, MRL, and SJL mice. The specific modification of heavy and light chains of mouse autoantibodies with Val-Ala-Glu-Glu-Glu-Val-PO(OPh)2 reactive peptide was demonstrated. Increased proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies in SJL mice encouraged us to investigate the production of antigen-specific catalytic antibodies on the background of induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The immunization of autoimmune-prone mice with the engineered fusions containing the fragments of gp120 and encephalitogenic epitope of myelin basic protein (MBP(89-104)) was made. The proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies isolated from the sera of autoimmune mice immunized by the described antigen was shown. Specific immune response of SJL mice to these antigens was characterized. Polyclonal antibodies purified from sera of the immunized animals revealed proteolytic activity. The antiidiotypic approach to raise the specific proteolytic antibody as an "internal image" of protease is described. The "second order" monoclonal antibodies toward subtilisin Carlsberg revealed pronounced proteolytic activity.

  10. A replicating modified vaccinia tiantan strain expressing an avian-derived influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and cross-clade protective immunity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Xiao

    Full Text Available To combat the possibility of a zoonotic H5N1 pandemic in a timely fashion, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that would confer protection against homologous and heterologous human H5N1 influenza viruses. Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT as a vaccine vector, we constructed MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005. The immunogenicity profiles of both vaccine candidates were evaluated. Vaccination with MVTTHA-QH induced a significant level of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs against a homologous strain and a wide range of H5N1 pseudoviruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4. Neutralization tests (NT and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies inhibit the live autologous virus as well as a homologous A/Xingjiang/1/2006 and a heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/2004, representing two human isolates from clade 2.2 and clade 1, respectively. Importantly, mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine. However, MVTTHA-AH induced much lower levels of NT against its autologous strain. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the H5 gene from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 to construct an effective vaccine, when using MVTT as a vector, to prevent infections against homologous and genetically divergent human H5N1 influenza viruses.

  11. F1 hybrids of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains respond differently ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of C57BL/6 with SENCAR mice were more resistant to car- cinogenic .... After hybridization, the slides were washed in wash- .... After washing the excess unbound primary antibodies, the slide was incubated with secondary antibody solution consisting of goat anti- mouse secondary antibody labelled with Cy3 in TNT buffer.

  12. Novel Epstein-Barr virus-like particles incorporating gH/gL-EBNA1 or gB-LMP2 induce high neutralizing antibody titers and EBV-specific T-cell responses in immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth M; Foley, Joslyn; Tison, Timelia; Silva, Rute; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-03-21

    Previous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prophylactic vaccines based on the major surface glycoprotein gp350/220 as an immunogen have failed to block viral infection in humans, suggesting a need to target other viral envelope glycoproteins. In this study, we reasoned that incorporating gH/gL or gB, critical glycoproteins for viral fusion and entry, on the surface of a virus-like particle (VLP) would be more immunogenic than gp350/220 for generating effective neutralizing antibodies to prevent viral infection of both epithelial and B cell lines. To boost the humoral response and trigger cell-mediated immunity, EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), intracellular latency proteins expressed in all EBV-infected cells, were also included as critical components of the polyvalent EBV VLP. gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs were efficiently produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, an FDA-approved vehicle for mass-production of biologics. Immunization with gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs without adjuvant generated both high neutralizing antibody titers in vitro and EBV-specific T-cell responses in BALB/c mice. These data demonstrate that will be invaluable not only in preventing EBV infection, but importantly, in preventing and treating the 200,000 cases of EBV-associated cancers that occur globally every year.

  13. The Position of His-Tag in Recombinant OspC and Application of Various Adjuvants Affects the Intensity and Quality of Specific Antibody Response after Immunization of Experimental Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Krupka

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. The immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by Borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the Th1 immune response. Surface antigen OspC is involved in Borrelia spreading through the host body. Previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (His-tag OspC (rOspC could be attached onto liposome surfaces by metallochelation. Here we report that levels of OspC-specific antibodies vary substantially depending upon whether rOspC possesses an N' or C' terminal His-tag. This is the case in mice immunized: (a with rOspC proteoliposomes containing adjuvants MPLA or non-pyrogenic MDP analogue MT06; (b with free rOspC and Montanide PET GEL A; (c with free rOspC and alum; or (d with adjuvant-free rOspC. Stronger responses are noted with all N'-terminal His-tag rOspC formulations. OspC-specific Th1-type antibodies predominate post-immunization with rOspC proteoliposomes formulated with MPLA or MT06 adjuvants. Further analyses confirmed that the structural features of soluble N' and C' terminal His-tag rOspC and respective rOspC proteoliposomes are similar including their thermal stabilities at physiological temperatures. On the other hand, a change in the position of the rOspC His-tag from N' to C' terminal appears to affect substantially the immunogenicity of rOspC arguably due to steric hindrance of OspC epitopes by the C' terminal His-tag itself and not due to differences in overall conformations induced by changes in the His-tag position in rOspC variants.

  14. Responding to Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on responding to misbehavior.

  15. Construction of Rabbit Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha; Lee, Jong Seo; Shim, Hyunbo

    2018-01-01

    Rabbits have distinct advantages over mice as a source of target-specific antibodies. They produce higher affinity antibodies than mice, and may elicit strong immune response against antigens or epitopes that are poorly immunogenic or tolerated in mice. However, a great majority of currently available monoclonal antibodies are of murine origin because of the wider availability of murine fusion partner cell lines and well-established tools and protocols for fusion and cloning of mouse hybridoma. Phage-display selection of antibody libraries is an alternative method to hybridoma technology for the generation of target-specific monoclonal antibodies. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies from nonmurine species can readily be obtained by constructing immune antibody libraries from B cells of the immunized animal and screening the library by phage display. In this article, we describe the construction of a rabbit immune Fab library for the facile isolation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies. After immunization, B-cell cDNA is obtained from the spleen of the animal, from which antibody variable domain repertoires are amplified and assembled into a Fab repertoire by PCR. The Fab genes are then cloned into a phagemid vector and transformed to E. coli, from which a phage-displayed immune Fab library is rescued. Such a library can be biopanned against the immunization antigen for rapid identification of high-affinity, target-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Antibody response against Betaferon® in immune tolerant mice: involvement of marginal zone B-cells and CD4+ T-cells and apparent lack of immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Melody; van Beers, Miranda M C; Jiskoot, Wim; Kijanka, Grzegorz M; Boon, Louis; Schellekens, Huub; Brinks, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The immunological processes underlying immunogenicity of recombinant human therapeutics are poorly understood. Using an immune tolerant mouse model we previously demonstrated that aggregates are a major trigger of the antidrug antibody (ADA) response against recombinant human interferon beta (rhIFNβ) products including Betaferon®, and that immunological memory seems to be lacking after a rechallenge with non-aggregated rhIFNβ. The apparent absence of immunological memory indicates a CD4+ T-cell independent (Tind) immune response underlying ADA formation against Betaferon®. This hypothesis was tested. Using the immune tolerant mouse model we first validated that rechallenge with highly aggregated rhIFNβ (Betaferon®) does not lead to a subsequent fast increase in ADA titers, suggesting a lack of immunological memory. Next we assessed whether Betaferon® could act as Tind antigen by inactivation of marginal zone (MZ) B-cells during treatment. MZ B-cells are major effector cells involved in a Tind immune response. In a following experiment we depleted the mice from CD4+ T-cells to test their involvement in the ADA response against Betaferon®. Inactivation of MZ B-cells at the start of Betaferon® treatment drastically lowered ADA levels, suggesting a Tind immune response. However, persistent depletion of CD4+ T-cells before and during Betaferon® treatment abolished the ADA response in almost all mice. The immune response against rhIFNβ in immune tolerant mice is neither a T-cell independent nor a classical T-cell dependent immune response. Further studies are needed to confirm absence of immunological memory (cells).

  17. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  18. Fusion of hIgG1-Fc to 111In-anti-amyloid single domain antibody fragment VHH-pa2H prolongs blood residential time in APP/PS1 mice but does not increase brain uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, Maarten; Welling, Mick M.; Boogaard, Marlinde L. van den; Moursel, Laure Grand; Graaf, Linda M. van der; Buchem, Mark A. van; Maarel, Silvère M. van der; Weerd, Louise van der

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Llama single domain antibody fragments (VHH), which can pass endothelial barriers, are being investigated for targeting amyloid plaque load in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Contrary to conventional human or murine antibodies consisting of IgG or F(ab′)2 antibody fragments, VHH are able to effectively pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. However, in earlier in vivo studies, anti-amyloid VHH showed poor BBB passage due to their short serum half-lives. It would be of interest to develop a VHH based protein with elongated serum half-life to enhance BBB passage, allowing the VHH to more easily reach the cerebral amyloid deposits. Methods: To increase serum persistence, the Fc portion of the human IgG1 antibody (hinge plus CH2 and CH3 domains) was fused to the C-terminus of the VHH (VHH-pa2H-Fc). To determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profile of the fusion protein, the chelator p-SCN-Bz-DTPA was linked to the protein and thereafter labeled with radioactive indium-111 ( 111 In). Double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 and wild type littermates were injected with 20 μg VHH-pa2H-Fc-DTPA- 111 In (10-20 MBq). Pharmacokinetics of the tracer was determined in blood samples at 10 intervals after injection and imaging using microSPECT was performed. The biodistribution of the radioactivity in various excised tissues was measured at 48 h after injection. Results: We succeeded in the expression of the fusion protein VHH-pa2H-Fc in HEK293T cells with a yield of 50 mg/L growth medium. The fusion protein showed homodimerization – necessary for successful Fc neonatal receptor recycling. Compared to VHH-pa2H, the Fc tailed protein retained high affinity for amyloid beta on human AD patient brain tissue sections, and significantly improved serum retention of the VHH. However, at 48 h after systemic injection of the non-fused VHH-DTPA- 111 In and the VHH-Fc-DTPA- 111 In fusion protein in transgenic mice, the specific brain uptake of VHH-Fc-DTPA- 111 In

  19. [Study of anti-idiotype antibodies to human monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, R; Takahashi, N; Owaki, I; Kannagi, R; Endo, N; Morita, N; Inoue, M

    1992-02-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 (IgM, lambda), was generated, which reacted specifically with a major of glycolipid present in LS174T colon cancer cells. The glycolipid antigen which reacted with the ll-50 antibody was expected to four sugar residues from its TLC mobility, and it was ascertained that the glycolipid antigen which reacted with ll-50 antibody might be Lc4 antigen [Gal beta 1----3 GLcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4 Glc beta 1----1 Cer] judging from TLC immunostaining and ELISA when the reactivity of ll-50 antibody was tested using various pure glycolipids in 3-5 sugar residues as an antigen. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated ll-50 antibody. The serum of the Lc4 antigen recognized by ll-50 antibody was significantly higher in patients with malignant disorders than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). Three mouse monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3 and C5 (all IgG1), were generated by the immunization of BALB/c mice with ll-50 antibody. These anti-idiotype antibodies specifically bound to to human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 and had a significant inhibitory activity towards the binding of ll-50 antibody to the Lc4 antigen. This indicated that these anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5, were paratope-related anti-idiotype antibodies. G3, B3, and C5 were expected to define the nearest idiotope because they could mutually inhibit ll-50 antibody. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5. As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by C5 (Id-C5+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by B3 (Id-B3+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher

  20. Effect of the anti-IL-17 antibody on allergic inflammation in an obesity-related asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin; Hur, Jung; Kang, Ji Young; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sook Young

    2018-04-19

    The co-occurrence of obesity aggravates asthma symptoms. Diet-induced obesity increases helper T cell (TH) 17 cell differentiation in adipose tissue and the spleen. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin can potentially be used to treat asthma in obese patients by inhibiting interleukin 17 (IL-17) expression. This study investigated the combined effects of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 antibody treatment on allergic inflammation in a mouse model of obesity-related asthma. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice with or without ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Mice were administered the anti-IL-17 antibody, pravastatin, or both, and pathophysiological and immunological responses were analyzed. HFD exacerbated allergic airway inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HFD-OVA mice as compared to OVA mice. Blockading of the IL-17 in the HFD-OVA mice decreased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation compared to the HFD-OVA mice. Moreover, the administration of the anti-IL-17 antibody decreased the leptin/adiponectin ratio in the HFD-OVA but not the OVA mice. Co-administration of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 inhibited airway inflammation and AHR, decreased goblet cell numbers, and increased adipokine levels in obese asthmatic mice. These results suggest that the IL-17-leptin/adiponectin axis plays a key role in airway inflammation in obesity-related asthma. Our findings suggest a potential new treatment for IL-17 as a target that may benefit obesity-related asthma patients who respond poorly to typical asthma medications.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to Treponema Pallidum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. van de Donk; J.D.A. van Embden; M.F. van Olderen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThree successive fusions of mouse myeloma cells and spleen lymphocytes of a mouse immunized with Treponema Pallidum resulted in one hybridoma producing anti T. pallidum antibodies for each fusion. The mice were immunized with live pallidum cells respectively 1, 3 and 5 months before

  2. Age Dependence and Isotype Specificity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffael Nachbagauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza remains a major global health burden. Seasonal vaccines offer protection but can be rendered less effective when the virus undergoes extensive antigenic drift. Antibodies that target the highly conserved hemagglutinin stalk can protect against drifted viruses, and vaccine constructs designed to induce such antibodies form the basis for a universal influenza virus vaccine approach. In this study, we analyzed baseline and postvaccination serum samples of children (6 to 59 months, adults (18 to 49 years, and elderly individuals (≥65 years who participated in clinical trials with a recombinant hemagglutinin-based vaccine. We found that baseline IgG and IgA antibodies against the H1 stalk domain correlated with the ages of patients. Children generally had very low baseline titers and did not respond well to the vaccine in terms of making stalk-specific antibodies. Adults showed the highest induction of stalk-specific antibodies, but the elderly had the highest absolute antibody titers against the stalk. Importantly, the stalk antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA showed neutralizing activity in neutralization assays and protected mice in a passive-transfer model in a stalk titer-dependent manner. Finally, we found similar patterns of stalk-specific antibodies directed against the H3 and influenza B virus hemagglutinins, albeit at lower levels than those measured against the H1 stalk. The relatively high levels of stalk-specific antibodies in the elderly patients may explain the previously reported low influenza virus infection rates in this age group. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00336453, NCT00539981, and NCT00395174.

  3. Lettuce-produced hepatitis C virus E1E2 heterodimer triggers immune responses in mice and antibody production after oral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Paruch, Lisa; Dobrica, Mihaela-Olivia; Caras, Iuliana; Tucureanu, Catalin; Onu, Adrian; Ciulean, Sonya; Stavaru, Crina; Eerde, Andre; Wang, Yanliang; Steen, Hege; Haugslien, Sissel; Petrareanu, Catalina; Lazar, Catalin; Popescu, Costin-Ioan; Bock, Ralph; Dubuisson, Jean; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g. cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500 000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licensed vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of a HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here, we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology. The wild-type dimer (E1E2) and a variant without an N-glycosylation site in the E2 polypeptide (E1E2∆N6) were expressed, and appropriate N-glycosylation pattern and functionality of the E1E2 dimers were demonstrated. The humoral immune response induced by the HCV proteins was investigated in mice following oral administration of lettuce antigens with or without previous intramuscular prime with the mammalian HEK293T cell-expressed HCV dimer. Immunization by oral feeding only resulted in development of weak serum levels of anti-HCV IgM for both antigens; however, the E1E2∆N6 proteins produced higher amounts of secretory IgA, suggesting improved immunogenic properties of the N-glycosylation mutant. The mice group receiving the intramuscular injection followed by two oral boosts with the lettuce E1E2 dimer developed a systemic but also a mucosal immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of anti-HCV secretory IgA in faeces extracts. In summary, our study demonstrates the feasibility of producing complex viral antigens in lettuce, using plant transient expression technology, with great potential for future low-cost oral vaccine development. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and the Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immune events associated with protection in C57BL/6 mice immunized with anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking protective antigens shared between gamma-irradiated cercariae vaccine and human resistance model of Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Sherif H

    2010-01-01

    Immunoregulation is central for successful manipulation of schistosomiasis. Unlike schistosome vaccine development strategies that relied on direct selection of antigens from crude responses leading to selection of mildly protective antigens, the present study tested the utility of selection of potentially protective antigens encompassed rounds of immunoregulation via idiotypic network. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) were purified from sera of New Zealand white rabbits multiply immunized with gamma-irradiated cercariae of S. haematobium, using adult worm specific idiotypes (Ab1) purified from sera of subjects resistant to reinfection. Ab2 was used for immunization of C57BL/6 mice and consequences of immunization were monitored before and after challenge infection with S. haematobium. Results showed an increase of splenic T cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) upon immunization (average % stimulated cells 54.9 vs. 20.4, P anti-anti-ids (Ab3) reactivity against antigens of approximate molecular weight 40, 80 and 160 kDa of adult worms, which were also recognized by Ab1. However, in contrast to Ab1, Ab3 showed no surface binding to 3 hr schistosomula. Strikingly, mice immunized with Ab2 showed strong resistance to challenge infection (approximately 82% reduction in worm burden, P vaccine development strategy appears to filter out non-protective antigens. Indeed Ab3 recognizes much fewer numbers of antigens, which passed through two rounds of immune regulation. These antigens appear to represent a significant proportion of the protective response in the gamma-irradiated cercariae vaccine and human resistance model as well, providing the basis for an alternative vaccine for schistosomiasis.

  5. Therapeutic vaccine using a monoclonal antibody against a 70-kDa glycoprotein in mice infected with highly virulent Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; de Almeida, Sandro Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic granulomatous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi that comprise the Sporothrix complex. The latter are widely distributed in nature, developing a saprophytic mycelial form on plant debris and soil. Formerly, the S. schenckii species was thought to be the only species capable of causing sporotrichosis. However, in recent years, the existence of a group of highly genotypically and phenotypically variable species has been reported as etiologic agents of this mycosis. Recently, it has become important to study aspects such as virulence and the immune response against key members of the Sporothrix complex and to observe the presence of glycoprotein (gp) 70 and efficacy of the P6E7 monoclonal antibody against more virulent strains. The data presented here demonstrate that the strain isolated from a case of feline sporotrichosis, that is, strain 5110 (American Type Culture Collection MYA-4823) is the most virulent and the only one able to secrete gp70. This glycoprotein is apparently an important factor in the virulence of Sporothrix spp. because treatment with MAb P6E7 resulted in the reduction of fungal burden in the analyzed organs. Additional studies of the role of gp70 in modulating the immune response of the host are needed to understand the pathology of sporotrichosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in DNA and antibody of different lineages of mice infected by T. cruzi by perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    In the present work perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy was used to measured electric quadrupole interactions in DNA biomolecules of different mice lineages (A/J, C57BL/6, B6AF1, BXA1 e BXA2), samples of different isotypes of immunoglobulin G (IgG1, IgG2a e IgG2b) and active portions of complete and fragmented immunoglobulin responsible by the immune response. Electric quadrupole interactions were also measured in DNA nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine). PAC measurements were performed using 111 In → 111C d; 111mC d → 111 Cd; 111 Ag → 111 Cd; e 181 Hf → 181 Ta as probe nuclei, and carried out at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature, in order to investigate dynamic and static hyperfine interactions, respectively. The biomolecule samples were directly marked with the radioactive parent nuclei, whose atom link to a certain site in the biomolecules. The biological materials as well as the probe nuclei were chosen to investigate the possibility to use PAC spectroscopy to measure hyperfine parameters at nuclei from metallic elements bound to biomolecules (including the use of different probe nuclei produced in the decay of parent nuclei of four different metals) and also to study the behavior of different biomolecules by means of the measured hyperfine parameters. Results show differences in the hyperfine interactions of probe nuclei bound to the studied biomolecules. Such differences were observed by variations in the hyperfine parameters, which depend on the type of biomolecule and the results also show that the probe nuclei atom bound to the molecule in some cases and in others do not. (author)

  7. Immunisation against PCV2 structural protein by DNA vaccination of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Frimann, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The disease affects primarily 5-12-weeks-old pigs which might suggest that infection with PCV2 occurs when the level of maternal antibodies have declined to sub......-protective levels around weaning at 3-5-weeks of age. If immunoprophylaxis is to be effective, an immunisation method capable of breaking through maternal immunity must be employed. In this study, we have developed and investigated the potential of a DNA vaccination approach to be one such method. The gene encoding...... the capsid protein of PCV2 was cloned in a DNA vaccination plasmid and expression of capsid protein was demonstrated in vitro. Mice were gene gun vaccinated three timesand all mice responded serologically by raising antibodies against PCV2. The results suggest, that DNA based vaccination might offer...

  8. Uptake of 51Cr-SRBC in low- and high-responder mouse strains (C57BL/10ScSn/A/J mouse strains)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova, B.; Vetvicka, V.

    1984-01-01

    51 Cr-SRBC (sheep red blood cells) antigen clearance was studied in two strains of mice differing in the capacity to react with IgG antibody formation. In the B10 strain which is a poor IgG anti SRBC producer, before immunization 80.3% of the injected radioactivity was taken up by the liver, whereas after primary stimulation the uptake was only 31.1%. This value further decreases to 22.8% after secondary stimulation. The well IgG antibody producing A/J strain accumulated less antigen in the liver before immunization than the poorly responding strain (69.8%). On the 10th day after primary immunization a higher uptake of the radioactivity in the liver was shown than in the poor responder strain (53.8%) and this difference was even more pronounced after the secondary stimulation (49.6%). Interaction between peritoneal macrophages of the B10 and A/J strains before and after immunization with SRBC antigen was assessed from the formation of rosettes. Before immunization the low-responder strain B10 exhibited a three times higher level of rosette-forming macrophages (RFM), i.e. 6.1% than the high-responder strain A/J (2.0%). However, after immunization the RFM level in the A/J strain increased sevenfold (13.5%) whereas that in the low-responder strain B10 remained unaffected. These results suggested a role of macrophage population in the control of IgG antibody response. (author)

  9. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... and automated, the hybrid cells can be stored for many years in liquid nitrogen and antibodies production is homogeneous. The hybridoma method .... they may be modified to vehicle active molecules such as radio-isotopes, toxins, cytokines, enzyme etc. In these cases, the therapeutic effect is due to ...

  10. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ability of the highly evolved machinery of immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex ... to Pauling, if the structure of the antigen binding site of antibodies were to be produced in a random ..... where the immune system of the body is destructive, as in autoimmune disorders or after organ transplant.

  11. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While chemistry provides the framework for understanding the structure and function of biomolecules, the immune sys- tem provides a highly evolved natural process to generate one class of complex biomolecules – the antibodies. A combination of the two could be exploited to generate new classes of molecules with novel ...

  12. Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Te-hui W.; Wang, Shixia; Sakhatskyy, Pavlo V.; Mboudoudjeck, Innocent; Lawrence, John M.; Huang Song; Coley, Scott; Yang Baoan; Li Jiaming; Zhu Qingyu; Lu Shan

    2005-01-01

    Inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been tested as a candidate vaccine against the re-emergence of SARS. In order to understand the efficacy and safety of this approach, it is important to know the antibody specificities generated with inactivated SARS-CoV. In the current study, a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was established by immunizing Balb/c mice with the inactivated BJ01 strain of SARS-CoV isolated from the lung tissue of a SARS-infected Chinese patient. These mAbs could recognize SARS-CoV-infected cells by immunofluorescence analysis (IFA). Seven of them were mapped to the specific segments of recombinant spike (S) protein: six on S1 subunit (aa 12-798) and one on S2 subunit (aa 797-1192). High neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV were detected with two mAbs (1A5 and 2C5) targeting at a subdomain of S protein (aa 310-535), consistent with the previous report that this segment of S protein contains the major neutralizing domain. Some of these S-specific mAbs were able to recognize cleaved products of S protein in SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells. None of the remaining five mAbs could recognize either of the recombinant S, N, M, or E antigens by ELISA. This study demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV was able to preserve the immunogenicity of S protein including its major neutralizing domain. The relative ease with which these mAbs were generated against SARS-CoV virions further supports that subunit vaccination with S constructs may also be able to protect animals and perhaps humans. It is somewhat unexpected that no N-specific mAbs were identified albeit anti-N IgG was easily identified in SARS-CoV-infected patients. The availability of this panel of mAbs also provided potentially useful agents with applications in therapy, diagnosis, and basic research of SARS-CoV

  13. Age Dependence and Isotype Specificity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Izikson, Ruvim; Cox, Manon M; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-19

    Influenza remains a major global health burden. Seasonal vaccines offer protection but can be rendered less effective when the virus undergoes extensive antigenic drift. Antibodies that target the highly conserved hemagglutinin stalk can protect against drifted viruses, and vaccine constructs designed to induce such antibodies form the basis for a universal influenza virus vaccine approach. In this study, we analyzed baseline and postvaccination serum samples of children (6 to 59 months), adults (18 to 49 years), and elderly individuals (≥65 years) who participated in clinical trials with a recombinant hemagglutinin-based vaccine. We found that baseline IgG and IgA antibodies against the H1 stalk domain correlated with the ages of patients. Children generally had very low baseline titers and did not respond well to the vaccine in terms of making stalk-specific antibodies. Adults showed the highest induction of stalk-specific antibodies, but the elderly had the highest absolute antibody titers against the stalk. Importantly, the stalk antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed neutralizing activity in neutralization assays and protected mice in a passive-transfer model in a stalk titer-dependent manner. Finally, we found similar patterns of stalk-specific antibodies directed against the H3 and influenza B virus hemagglutinins, albeit at lower levels than those measured against the H1 stalk. The relatively high levels of stalk-specific antibodies in the elderly patients may explain the previously reported low influenza virus infection rates in this age group. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00336453, NCT00539981, and NCT00395174.) The present study provides evidence that titers of broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stalk-reactive antibodies increase with age, possibly due to repeated exposure to divergent influenza viruses. These relatively high levels of antistalk titers may be

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Liver Stage Infection and Transition to Stable Blood Stage Infection in Liver-Humanized and Blood-Humanized FRGN KO Mice Enables Testing of Blood Stage Inhibitory Antibodies (Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homolog 5 In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Foquet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The invention of liver-humanized mouse models has made it possible to directly study the preerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In contrast, the current models to directly study blood stage infection in vivo are extremely limited. Humanization of the mouse blood stream is achievable by frequent injections of human red blood cells (hRBCs and is currently the only system with which to study human malaria blood stage infections in a small animal model. Infections have been primarily achieved by direct injection of P. falciparum-infected RBCs but as such, this modality of infection does not model the natural route of infection by mosquito bite and lacks the transition of parasites from liver stage infection to blood stage infection. Including these life cycle transition points in a small animal model is of relevance for testing therapeutic interventions. To this end, we used FRGN KO mice that were engrafted with human hepatocytes and performed a blood exchange under immune modulation to engraft the animals with more than 50% hRBCs. These mice were infected by mosquito bite with sporozoite stages of a luciferase-expressing P. falciparum parasite, resulting in noninvasively measurable liver stage burden by in vivo bioluminescent imaging (IVIS at days 5–7 postinfection. Transition to blood stage infection was observed by IVIS from day 8 onward and then blood stage parasitemia increased with a kinetic similar to that observed in controlled human malaria infection. To assess the utility of this model, we tested whether a monoclonal antibody targeting the erythrocyte invasion ligand reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (with known growth inhibitory activity in vitro was capable of blocking blood stage infection in vivo when parasites emerge from the liver and found it highly effective. Together, these results show that a combined liver-humanized and blood-humanized FRGN mouse model infected with luciferase-expressing P. falciparum will be a

  15. Detecção de anticorpo anticoração em camundongos Balb/c imunizados com Streptococcus mutans Detection of heart-reactive antibody in Balb/c mice immunized with Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Vieira Pereira LEÃO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos para antígenos cardíacos foram analisados por ELISA em 14 soros de camundongos Balb/c hiperimunizados com Streptococcus mutans, inativado pelo formaldeído. Os níveis de anticorpos da classe IgG anticoração e antimiosina elevaram-se significativamente nos animais imunizados quando comparados com os controles, especialmente no grupo A, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos solúveis de S. mutans. Neste grupo, os resultados do "Western Blot" mostraram reatividade com miosina cardíaca e uma banda de 35 kDa. A análise histológica dos corações dos animais do grupo B, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos de superfície do microrganismo, demonstrou a presença de degeneração celular, tipo hidrópica e hialina e focos inflamatórios constituídos de linfócitos e macrófagos no miocárdio e pericárdio. Os resultados deste trabalho reforçam a hipótese da existência de mimetismo antigênico entre tecido cardíaco e S. mutans e chamam a atenção para o risco de desenvolvimento de anticorpos reativos com antígenos próprios induzidos por vacina anticárie com componentes estreptocócicos.Heart-reactive antibodies were examined by ELISA, in sera from 14 Balb/c mice immunized with Streptococcus mutans inactivated by treatment with formaldehyde. Anti-heart and anti-myosin IgG levels increased significantly in the sera from immunized mice, when compared with those of control sera, especially in the first group, inoculated with a new antigen preparation. This group displayed a notable reactivity with cardiac myosin and cardiac tissue proteins in Western-blotting, mainly with a 35 kDa peptide. The histological analysis of immunized animals’ cardiac tissue demonstrated the existence of cell injury and eosinophilia attributable to cellular hyaline change. The pericardium and the myocardium showed inflammatory infiltrate formed by lymphocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest the existence of molecular mimicry between S

  16. Chronic exposure in vivo to thyrotropin receptor stimulating monoclonal antibodies sustains high thyroxine levels and thyroid hyperplasia in thyroid autoimmunity-prone HLA-DRB1*0301 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jeffrey C; Gilbert, Jacqueline A; Meroueh, Chady; Snower, Daniel P; David, Chella S; Kong, Yi-chi M; Banga, J Paul

    2007-10-01

    We have examined the induction of autoimmunity and the maintenance of sustained hyperthyroidism in autoimmunity-prone human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR3 transgenic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice following chronic stimulation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) by monoclonal thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies (TSAbs). Animals received weekly injections over the course of 9 weeks of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with strong thyroid-stimulating properties. Administration of the mAbs KSAb1 (IgG2b) or KSAb2 (IgG2a), which have similar stimulating properties but different TSH-binding blocking activity, resulted in significantly elevated serum thyroxine (T(4)) levels and thyroid hyperplasia. After the first injection, an initial surge then fall in serum T(4) levels was followed by sustained elevated levels with subsequent injections for at least 63 days. Examination of KSAb1 and KSAb2 serum bioactivity showed that the accumulation of the TSAbs in serum was related to their subclass half-lives. The thyroid glands were enlarged and histological examination showed hyperplastic follicles, with minimal accompanying thyroid inflammation. Our results show that chronic in vivo administration of mAbs with strong thyroid-stimulating activity resulted in elevated T(4) levels, suggesting persistent stimulation without receptor desensitization, giving a potential explanation for the sustained hyperthyroid status in patients with Graves' disease. Moreover, despite the presence of HLA disease susceptibility alleles and the autoimmune prone NOD background genes, chronic stimulation of the thyroid gland did not lead to immune cell-mediated follicular destruction, suggesting the persistence of immunoregulatory influences to suppress autoimmunity.

  17. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  18. Female mice respond differently to costly foraging versus food restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Kristin A.; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Stavasius, Fanny; Demas, Gregory E.; Daan, Serge; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of foraging costs per food reward can be used to study the plasticity of physiological systems involved in energy metabolism. This approach is useful for understanding adaptations to natural variation in food availability. Earlier studies have shown that animals foraging on

  19. Resposta humoral, recuperação bacteriana e lesões histológicas em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para bons e maus produtores de anticorpos e Balb/c, frente à infecção por Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae Humoral immune response, bacterial recovery and time lesions in mice geneticaly selected for high and low antibody production and in outbreed Balb/c mice face to Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marinho

    2003-01-01

    among the kinetics of humoral immune response, the recovery of viable leptospiras and the intensity of the tissue lesions in mice selected for high (H and low (L production of antibodies (selection IV-A and in mice from the outbreed Balb/c line, inoculated with pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae. The H and L lines showed modifications in some steps of the immune response, mainly in relation to the macrophagic activity, representing extreme phenotypes found in heterogeneous natural populations. Mice were sacrificed in eight moments after the infection. Analysis of the results revealed that from the 7th day after the infection, on line H mice presented antibodies titles significantly higher as compared to the L line mice, maintaining the multispecific effect Balb/c line mice showed intermediate results between the two lines. Antibodies production worked as a limiting factor to the infection, because when a greater leptospiras recovery was obtained, at the initial phase of the infection, the titles of antibodies were elevated. Inflammatory and degenerative process led to similar lesions in the organs of infected mice. Only a variation in the degree of tissue compromising was observed according to the line. H line mice showed more extensive lesions than L and Balb/c lines mice. For the Balb/c line mice, the lesions were moderate. As a rule, H and Balb/c mice lines showed a Th2 profile of immune response, with higher indexes of antibody production and gravity of the lesions, while L line mice presented a Th1 profile of immune response.

  20. Development and Characterization of Canine Distemper Virus Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Hao, Liying; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Linxiao; Zhang, Jianpo; Deng, Junhua; Tian, Kegong

    2017-06-01

    Five canine distemper virus monoclonal antibodies were developed by immunizing BALB/c mice with a traditional vaccine strain Snyder Hill. Among these monoclonal antibodies, four antibodies recognized both field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus without neutralizing ability. One monoclonal antibody, 1A4, against hemagglutinin protein of canine distemper virus was found to react only with vaccine strain virus but not field isolates, and showed neutralizing activity to vaccine strain virus. These monoclonal antibodies could be very useful tools in the study of the pathogenesis of canine distemper virus and the development of diagnostic reagents.

  1. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  2. Antinucleosome antibodies as early predictors of lupus nephritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    nephritis were seropositive for at least one of the antinucleosome antibodies, while those without clinical or subclinical nephritis ... antibodies and may be detected long before lupus- prone mice produce pathogenic autoantibodies (Pre- .... The assay was carried out using an automated analyzer (Synchron Cx7 system)15.

  3. Functional Role for Humoral Antibodies in Leishmaniasis in Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    increases in phagocytosis by immune serum, as in rodent malaria (22, 23), have been shown. In Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice, enhanced protection...Protective effects of specific antibodies in Trypanosoma cruzi infections. J. Immunol. 116:755-760. 26. Kierszenbaum, F., and J.G. Howard. 1976...Mechanisms of resistance against experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection: the importance of antibodies and antibody-forming capacity in the Biozzi high

  4. Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    HN), BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified pet-44a-HN in adjuvant and their splenic lymphocytes were fused with myeloma SP2/0 cells. The hybridoma cell lines were screened for HN-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked ...

  5. Development and testing of responder : phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report documents the research project Development and Testing of Responder Phase III. Under previous research, a Responder system has been developed to provide relevant and timely information to first responders, allow responders to provid...

  6. Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

    1980-11-01

    Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

  7. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Pneumonia Virus of Mice in a Resistant and a Susceptible Mouse Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. T. Watkiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of infant bronchiolitis. The closely related pneumonia virus of mice (PVM causes a similar immune-mediated disease in mice, which allows an analysis of host factors that lead to severe illness. This project was designed to compare the immune responses to lethal and sublethal doses of PVM strain 15 in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Balb/c mice responded to PVM infection with an earlier and stronger innate response that failed to control viral replication. Production of inflammatory cyto- and chemokines, as well as infiltration of neutrophils and IFN-γ secreting natural killer cells into the lungs, was more predominant in Balb/c mice. In contrast, C57Bl/6 mice were capable of suppressing both viral replication and innate inflammatory responses. After a sublethal infection, PVM-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes was stronger early during infection and weaker at late time points in C57Bl/6 mice when compared to Balb/c mice. Furthermore, although the IgG levels were similar and the mucosal IgA titres lower, the virus neutralizing antibody titres were higher in C57Bl/6 mice than in Balb/c mice. Overall, the difference in susceptibility of these two strains appeared to be related not to an inherent T helper bias, but to the capacity of the C57Bl/6 mice to control both viral replication and the immune response elicited by PVM.

  8. The "I" in Extreme Responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabooter, E.; Millet, K.; Weijters, B.; Pandelaere, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of self-construal on extreme responding in six studies. The results show that people with an independent self-construal generally answer more extremely to survey items than those with an interdependent self-construal, especially when the items are self-relevant (Studies 1a

  9. The 1st step initiation essential for allergen-specific IgE antibody production upon the 2nd step: Induction of non-specific IgE+small B cells containing secondly-sensitized allergen-specific ones in mice firstly-sensitized with an allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannya, Natsuki; Ogita-Nakanishi, Hiromi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Kawata, Ryo; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2018-02-01

    There was a significant amount of non-specific, but not of allergen (e.g., papain, mite feces and four kinds of pollen)-specific, IgE antibodies (Abs) in the sera of normal mice. An i.n. injection of each allergen without adjuvant into mice caused an increase in total IgE Ab titers with a similar time course in the serum. However, the stage of initiation of allergy varied from allergen to allergen. Submandibular lymph node cells from normal mice contained papain-, but not mite feces- or pollen-specific IgE + cells and an i.n. injection of papain induced papain-specific IgE Abs in the serum. In contrast, one (i.n.) or two (i.n. and s.c) injections of mite feces induced neither mite feces-specific IgE + cells in the lymph nodes nor mite feces-specific IgE Abs in the serum. I.n. sensitization with cedar pollen induced cedar pollen-specific IgE + small B cells in the lymph nodes on Day 10, when non-specific IgE Ab titers reached a peak in the serum, implying induction of related allergen-specific IgE + small cells as well. In fact, a second (s.c.) injection of ragweed (or cedar) pollen into mice sensitized i.n. once with cedar (or ragweed) pollen, but not with mite feces, induced a large amount of ragweed (or cedar) pollen-specific IgE Abs in the serum. These results indicate that when firstly-sensitized non-specific IgE + small B cells in mouse lymph nodes include some secondly-sensitized allergen-specific ones, mice produce IgE Abs specific for the secondly-injected allergen. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Adjuvant treatment with dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies improves outcome of experimental pneumococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanmoentalib, E Soemirien; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Morgan, B Paul; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-08-15

    We compared adjunctive treatment with placebo, dexamethasone, anti-C5 antibodies, and the combination of dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. In this prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized trial, 96 mice were infected intracisternally with 10(7) CFU/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3, treated with intraperitoneal ceftriaxone at 20 h, and randomly assigned to intraperitoneal adjunctive treatment with placebo (saline), dexamethasone, anti-C5 antibodies, or dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies. The primary outcome was survival during a 72-h observational period that was analyzed with the log-rank test. Secondary outcome was clinical severity, scored on a validated scale using a linear mixed model. Mortality rates were 16 of 16 mice (100%) in the placebo group, 12 of 15 mice (80%) in the dexamethasone group, 25 of 31 mice (80%) in the anti-C5 antibody group, and 18 of 30 mice (60%) in the dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibody group (Fisher's exact test for overall difference, P = .012). Mortality of mice treated with dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies was lower compared to the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice (log-rank P = .039) and dexamethasone-treated mice (log-rank P = .040). Clinical severity scores for the dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibody-treated mice increased more slowly (0.199 points/h) as compared to the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice (0.243 points/h, P = .009) and dexamethasone-treated mice (0.249 points/h, P = .012). Modeling of severity data suggested an additive effect of dexamethasone and anti-C5 antibodies. Adjunctive treatment with dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies improves survival in severe experimental meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 3, posing an important new treatment strategy for patients with pneumococcal meningitis.

  11. Research Paper Polyclonal antibodies production against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to the injected ...

  12. KADAR ANTIBODI-TIROPEROKSIDASE DAN ANTIBODI-TIROGLOBULIN PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI DAERAH ENDEMlS GAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wibowo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid hormones play a critical role in human. Disorders of the thyroid gland result primary from autoimmune processes that either stimulate the over production of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroid or causes glandular destruction and hormones deficiency (hypothyroid. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD a common organ specific autoimmune disorder is seen mostly in women. AITD are complex disease that are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental trigger such dietary iodine. The development of antibodies to Thyroid peroxidase (TPO and Thyroglobulin (TG is the main hall mark of AITD. Method: 'Thirty respondents from were analyzed. The blood were collected for TSH, FreeT4, Tyroglobulin Antibody and Tyroperoxidase Antibody analyzed and DNA isolation. Circulating TSH, FreeT4, autoantibodies to TPO and TG are measured by ELISA. Result: 50% respondent in normal thyroid hormones and 50% in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid status. TPO antibodies  and thyroglobulin antibodies found in all of respondent with thyroid disorder. Conclusion: Antibodies to TPO and TG is seen in respondent with thyroid disorder   Keywords: AITD, TSH, FreeT4, TPO antibodies, TG antibodies.

  13. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  14. Sustained systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies by genetically modified skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noël, D; Pelegrin, M; Brockly, F

    2000-01-01

    In vivo production and systemic delivery of therapeutic antibodies by engineered cells might advantageously replace injection of purified antibodies for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. We report here...... that skin fibroblasts retrovirally transduced to express immunoglobulin genes can be used for sustained long-term systemic delivery of cloned antibodies in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, no anti- idiotypic response against the ectopically expressed model antibody used in this study was observed...

  15. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  17. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Sommerstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein's globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy.

  18. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Sahin, Mehmet; Bergthaler, Andreas; Igonet, Sebastien; ter Meulen, Jan; Rigo, Dorothée; Meda, Paolo; Rabah, Nadia; Coutard, Bruno; Bowden, Thomas A.; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein’s globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. PMID:26587982

  19. Treatment of mice with the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril does not interfere with the development of a specific cellular intestinal immune response to Eimeria falciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder, Svenja; Lucius, Richard; Greif, Gisela; Pogonka, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Immunity against Eimeria-infections is highly specific and it depends on cell-mediated effector mechanisms. Infections of BALB/c mice with 1,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria falciformis led to protection against challenge infections. Treatment with the anti-coccidium Toltrazuril, during primary infection, terminated the ongoing disease and did not interfere with the establishment of protective immunity against challenge infections. Mesenteric lymph node cells of infected, treated as well as non-treated and challenged BALB/c mice, showed a similar proliferation upon stimulation with parasite antigen. In contrast, neither cells of the Peyer's patches, intraepithelial lymphocytes, nor spleen cells responded to stimulation with parasite antigens. Cells from all compartments and of all investigated groups proliferated and released the cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-4 in response to the mitogen Concanavalin A. The number of cells releasing IFN-gamma or IL-4 was not dependent on the status of infection or previous treatment with Toltrazuril. The serum IgG response against total sporozoite antigens of individual mice showed that in addition, a systemic humoral response developed in infected mice, independent of a previous drug treatment, although the specific IgG antibody concentration was higher in non-treated mice. Thus, Toltrazuril does not impair the parasite specific intestinal cellular and systemic antibody response and does not prevent the development of protection against challenge infection.

  20. Human IgG repertoire of malaria antigen-immunized human immune system (HIS) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Sahi, Vincent; Huang, Jing; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-08-01

    Humanized mouse models present an important tool for preclinical evaluation of new vaccines and therapeutics. Here we show the human variable repertoire of antibody sequences cloned from a previously described human immune system (HIS) mouse model that possesses functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, namely HIS-CD4/B mice. We sequenced variable IgG genes from single memory B-cell and plasma-cell sorted from splenocytes or whole blood lymphocytes of HIS-CD4/B mice that were vaccinated with a human plasmodial antigen, a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP). We demonstrate that rPfCSP immunization triggers a diverse B-cell IgG repertoire composed of various human VH family genes and distinct V(D)J recombinations that constitute diverse CDR3 sequences similar to humans, although low hypermutated sequences were generated. These results demonstrate the substantial genetic diversity of responding human B cells of HIS-CD4/B mice and their capacity to mount human IgG class-switched antibody response upon vaccination. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  2. Switching clozapine responders to olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littrell, K H; Johnson, C G; Hilligoss, N M; Peabody, C D; Littrell, S H

    2000-12-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the management of severely ill patients with schizophrenia who have failed to respond adequately to standard drug treatment. The significant risk of agranulocytosis and seizure associated with clozapine has led to the restrictions in its use. Additionally, drug-induced sedation, sialorrhea, enuresis, and weight gain are often cited as problematic consequences of clozapine treatment. Our primary objective was to determine the effectiveness and safety of a method of slow cross-titration from clozapine to olanzapine among patients responsive to clozapine treatment but experiencing medication-induced adverse events. Changes in symptomatology, mood, subjective response, and safety were examined in 20 outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who converted from clozapine to olanzapine. Patients were considered clozapine-responsive as evidenced by improved social function and decreased symptoms with clozapine therapy; however, they were interested in alternative pharmacologic treatment because of clozapine-related side effects. Equivalent efficacy of olanzapine to clozapine was found in 90% of the patients (18/20) in the study group, without rehospitalization or suicidal behavior in any of the patients. Also notable was a reduction in drug-induced side effects and improved subjective response to pharmacotherapy. The successful conversion from clozapine to olanzapine has the potential to provide great benefits for the patient, including reducing drug-induced side effects while maintaining symptom control. These preliminary results suggest that further research on converting clozapine responders to olanzapine is warranted.

  3. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  4. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  5. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  6. Polyclonal Antibody Production for Membrane Proteins via Genetic Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Debra T; Robida, Mark D; Craciunescu, Felicia M; Loskutov, Andrey V; Dörner, Katerina; Rodenberry, John-Charles; Wang, Xiao; Olson, Tien L; Patel, Hetal; Fromme, Petra; Sykes, Kathryn F

    2016-02-24

    Antibodies are essential for structural determinations and functional studies of membrane proteins, but antibody generation is limited by the availability of properly-folded and purified antigen. We describe the first application of genetic immunization to a structurally diverse set of membrane proteins to show that immunization of mice with DNA alone produced antibodies against 71% (n = 17) of the bacterial and viral targets. Antibody production correlated with prior reports of target immunogenicity in host organisms, underscoring the efficiency of this DNA-gold micronanoplex approach. To generate each antigen for antibody characterization, we also developed a simple in vitro membrane protein expression and capture method. Antibody specificity was demonstrated upon identifying, for the first time, membrane-directed heterologous expression of the native sequences of the FopA and FTT1525 virulence determinants from the select agent Francisella tularensis SCHU S4. These approaches will accelerate future structural and functional investigations of therapeutically-relevant membrane proteins.

  7. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  8. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participating...... in a longitudinal survey. METHODS: We obtained prescription data on all individuals born in 1905 and living in Denmark when the Danish 1905 cohort study was initiated in 1998 (n = 3600) using the Danish National Prescription Registry. Drug use was assessed for complete responders, non-responders at baseline......, and partial responders (i.e., dropouts) in the 4-month period preceding each wave of the study (1998, 2000, 2003, and 2005), that is, as the cohort aged from 92-93 to 99-100 years. RESULTS: Complete responders, non-responders, and partial responders used a similar number of drugs at baseline, on average 4...

  9. Neurofilament light as an immune target for pathogenic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Fabiola; van der Star, Baukje J; Boomkamp, Stephanie D; Kipp, Markus; Boon, Louis; Bosca, Isabel; Raffel, Joel; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; van der Valk, Paul; Stephenson, Jodie; Barnett, Susan C; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunization with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light (NF-L), a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, although antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease. To address this, we examined the pathogenic role of antibodies directed to NF-L in vitro using spinal cord co-cultures and in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and optic neuritis animal models of multiple sclerosis. Here we show that peripheral injections of antibodies to NF-L augmented clinical signs of neurological disease in acute EAE, increased retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis and induced neurological signs following intracerebral injection into control mice. The pathogenicity of antibodies to NF-L was also observed in spinal cord co-cultures where axonal loss was induced. Taken together, our results reveal that as well as acting as reliable biomarkers of neuronal damage, antibodies to NF-L exacerbate neurological disease, suggesting that antibodies to NF-L generated during disease may also be pathogenic and play a role in the progression of neurodegeneration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radioimmunodetection of human melanoma tumor xenografts with human monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomibuchi, Makoto; Saxton, R.E.; Lake, R.R.; Katano, Mitsuo; Irie, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A human IgM monoclonal antibody has been established that defines a tumor-associated membrane antigen expressed on human melanoma cells. The antigen has been identified as the ganglioside GD2. In this paper, the authors describe the potential usefulness of the human monoclonal antibody for radioimaging. Nude mice bearing tumors derived from a human melanoma cell line were used as a model. Antibody activity was degradated significantly after labeling with 131 I by the use of a modified chloramine-T method. After testing various concentrations, labeled antibody of a specific activity of 2.8μCi/μg produced the best results. Balb/c nude mice bearing a GD2-positive M14 melanoma cell line were injected with 10-30μg of labeled antibody, and its radiolocalization in different organs and in the whole body were evaluated. The best tumor image was obtained on Day 6. The labeled antibody uptake ratio between tumor and muscle was 9.2:1; the ratio between tumor and liver was 1.4:1. These studies represent the first report of experimental tumor imaging with human monoclonal antibody. Human monoclonals will probably prove to be superior reagents for tumor imaging in melanoma patients if the problem of anti-body radiolysis is resolved. (author)

  11. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a 125 I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals

  12. Influence of antidrug antibodies on plectasin efficacy and pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hoiby, Niels

    2009-01-01

    of plectasin were assessed through immunization studies. In mice treated for 5 days with one to two daily subcutaneous doses of plectasin, no antibody response was observed. If the animals were immunized again, after a rest period, low levels of antibodies developed in approximately half the animals....... Additionally, mice were immunized with plectasin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Ninety-two percent of these mice developed ADAs after repeated immunizations, with two-thirds having high levels of antibodies. An agar diffusion bioassay showed that sera from animals immunized with plectasin did...... not inhibit the efficacy of the drug, while hyperimmune sera from animals in which an immune response was provoked by immunization with plectasin in FIA reduced the efficacy of plectasin at the lowest concentration tested. Studies in the murine peritonitis model showed an excellent efficacy of plectasin...

  13. Sublingual immunotherapy in sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildsgaard, Jens; Brimnes, Jens; Jacobi, Henrik; Lund, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated immunologic changes induced by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), but the definitive mechanism of action needs further investigation. To study the immunologic response induced by SLIT in sensitized mice. Timothy grass (Phleum pratense)-sensitized mice received SLIT for 2, 4, or 6 weeks at 3 different concentrations, including a buffer control. Serum samples and washes of the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]) and the nasal passages (nasal lavage [NAL]) were analyzed for allergen-specific antibodies. T cells were isolated from the spleen and cervical lymph nodes for the analysis of proliferation and cytokine production. Sublingual immunotherapy in sensitized mice resulted in a 30-fold increase in antigen specific IgA levels in BAL and NAL fluid compared with buffer-treated mice, whereas antigen specific IgE was undetectable in BAL and NAL fluid in animals treated with SLIT. Furthermore, IgA levels were proportional to the dose and duration of SLIT. Levels of specific IgA in serum correlated with levels in BAL and NAL fluid. Serum IgA levels were proportional to the duration of allergen exposure to the oral mucosa. Conversely, no changes in serum levels of IgE and IgG were induced by SLIT. Proliferation of T cells was increased in mice treated with SLIT compared with nontreated mice. High levels of IgA in serum and in BAL and NAL fluid of mice treated with SLIT demonstrate that SLIT induces a mucosal, nonallergic response in sensitized mice.

  14. Natural and man-made V-gene repertoires for antibody discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, William J. J.; Almagro, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety, and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of humans, mice, and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity, and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process. PMID:23162556

  15. Radiolabeled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, offer the potential for the specific nuclear imaging of malignant and benign diseases in man. If this imaging potential is realized, they may also have a large role in cancer treatment. This paper reviews: (1) what monoclonal antibodies are and how they differ from polyclonal antibodies, (2) how they are produced and radiolabeled, (3) the results of preclinical and clinical trials in cancer imaging, including the utility of SPECT and antibody fragments, (4) the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of benign diseases, (5) alternate routes of antibody delivery, (6) the role of these agents in therapy, and (7) whether this technology ''revolutionizes'' the practice of nuclear radiology, or has a more limited complementary role in the imaging department

  16. Recent Progress towards Engineering HIV-1-specific Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer, and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody engineering technologies have been explored to generate the better neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms. Thus, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit rational antibody combination or engineered antibodies (eAbs as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. It has been reported that inclusion of fusion-neutralizing antibodies in a set of bNAbs could improve their overall activities and neutralizing spectrum. Here we review several routes for engineering bNAbs, such as design and generation of bispecific antibodies, specific glycosylation of antibodies to enhance antiviral activity, and variable region specific modification guided by structure and computer, as well as reviewing antibody-delivery technologies by non-viral vector, viral vector and human HSPCs transduced with a lentiviral construct. We also discuss the optimized antiviral activities and benefits of these strategy and potential mechanisms.

  17. Tissue tropisms, infection kinetics, histologic lesions, and antibody response of the MR766 strain of Zika virus in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiecki, Anna B; Mayton, E Handly; Dutuze, M Fausta; Goupil, Brad A; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Del Piero, Fabio; Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2017-04-18

    The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia. We further evaluated infection-induced lesions via histopathology and visualized viral antigen via immunohistochemical labeling. We also investigated the antibody response of recovered animals to both the MR766 and a strain from the current outbreak (PRVABC59). We demonstrate that the IRF3/7 DKO mouse is a susceptible, mostly non-lethal model well suited for the study of infection kinetics, pathological progression, and antibody response. Infected mice presented lesions in tissues that have been associated with ZIKV infection in the human population, such as the eyes, male gonads, and central nervous system. In addition, we demonstrate that infection with the MR766 strain produces cross-neutralizing antibodies to the PRVABC59 strain of the Asian lineage. This model provides an additional tool for future studies into the transmission routes of ZIKV, as well as for the development of antivirals and other therapeutics, and should be included in the growing list of available tools for investigations of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

  18. BALB/c mice immunized with a combination of virus-like particles incorporating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) envelope glycoproteins gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL induced comparable serum neutralizing antibody activity to UV-inactivated KSHV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Anne K; Ye, Peng; Phelps, Meredith; Arivudainambi, Ganapathiram T; Tison, Timelia; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-05-23

    Infection with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is estimated to account for over 44,000 new cases of Kaposi sarcoma annually, with 84% occurring in Africa, where the virus is endemic. To date, there is no prophylactic vaccine against KSHV. KSHV gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL glycoproteins, implicated in the virus entry into host cells, are attractive vaccine targets for eliciting potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against virus infection. We incorporated gpK8.1, gB, or gH/gL on the surface of virus-like particles (VLPs) and characterized these VLPs for their composition, size, and functionality. To determine which viral glycoprotein(s) elicit the most effective serum-nAbs, we immunized BALB/c mice with gpK8.1, gB, or gH/gL VLPs individually or in combination. Neutralizing antibody assay revealed that sera from mice immunized with the VLPs inhibited KSHV infection of HEK-293 cells in a dose-dependent manner. As a single immunogen, gpK8.1 VLPs stimulated comparable nAb activity to that of UV-inactivated KSHV (UV-KSHV). In contrast, UV-KSHV stimulated higher titers of nAb compared to gB (p = 0.0316) or gH/gL (p = 0.0486). Mice immunized with the combination of gB and gH/gL VLPs had a better nAb response than those immunized with either gB (p = 0.0268), or gH/gL (p = 0.0397) as single VLP immunogens. Immunization with any VLP combination stimulated comparable nAb activity to UV-KSHV serum. Our data provide the first evidence that KSHV gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL glycoproteins can be incorporated onto the surface of VLPs and used as prophylactic vaccine candidates, with potential to prevent KSHV infection.

  19. Synergy between vascular targeting agents and antibody-directed therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedley, R. Barbara; El-Emir, Ethaar; Flynn, Aiden A.; Boxer, Geoffrey M.; Dearling, Jason; Raleigh, James A.; Hill, Sally A.; Stuart, Sam; Motha, Reeya; Begent, Richard H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor heterogeneity necessitates the use of combined therapies. We have shown that combining antibody-directed therapy with antivascular agents converts a subcurative to a curative treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate, by radioluminographic and microscopic techniques, the regional effects of the two complementary therapies. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing colorectal tumors were injected with 125 I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody, and images were obtained for antibody distribution and modeling studies using radioluminography. For therapy studies, the mice were given radioimmunotherapy alone ( 131 I-A5B7 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody), the antivascular agent combretastatin A-4 3-0-phosphate (200 mg/kg), or both. Extra mice were used to study the regional tumor effects of these therapies over time: relevant histochemical procedures were performed on tissue sections to obtain composite digital microscopic images of apoptosis, blood vessels, perfusion, hypoxia, and morphology. Results: Antibody distribution, modeling, and immunohistochemistry showed how radioimmunotherapy (7.4 MBq/40 μg antibody) effectively treated the outer, well-oxygenated tumor region only. Combretastatin A-4 3-0-phosphate treated the more hypoxic center, and in doing so altered the relationship between tumor parameters. Conclusion: The combined complementary therapies produced cures by destroying tumor regions with different pathophysiologies. Relating these regional therapeutic effects to the relevant tumor parameters microscopically allows optimization of therapy and improved translation to clinical trials

  20. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube. Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  1. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  2. Utility of Humanized BLT Mice for Analysis of Dengue Virus Infection and Antiviral Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Dorner, Marcus; Marukian, Svetlana; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N.; Rice, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of a potentially life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The lack of a small animal model that mimics the symptoms of DENV infection in humans has slowed the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of therapies and vaccines. Here, we investigated the use of humanized “bone marrow liver thymus” (BLT) mice as a model for immunological studies and assayed their applicability for preclinical testing of antiviral compounds. Human immune system (HIS) BLT-NOD/SCID mice were inoculated intravenously with a low-passage, clinical isolate of DENV-2, and this resulted in sustained viremia and infection of leukocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. In addition, DENV infection increased serum cytokine levels and elicited DENV-2-neutralizing human IgM antibodies. Following restimulation with DENV-infected dendritic cells, in vivo-primed T cells became activated and acquired effector function. An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of DENV decreased the circulating viral RNA when administered simultaneously or 2 days postinfection, simulating a potential treatment protocol for DENV infection in humans. In summary, we demonstrate that BLT mice are susceptible to infection with clinical DENV isolates, mount virus-specific adaptive immune responses, and respond to antiviral drug treatment. Although additional refinements to the model are required, BLT mice are a suitable platform to study aspects of DENV infection and pathogenesis and for preclinical testing of drug and vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE PMID:24335303

  3. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    : Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug-, and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents, which may indicate more unfavourable health behaviours among non-respondents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...

  5. IgM antibodies against dsDNA in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Torsten

    2008-06-01

    IgG antibodies against dsDNA are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) glomerulonephritis. In contrast, glomerulonephritis is rare in SLE patients with IgM antibodies against dsDNA. Therefore, a possible protective effect of IgM antibodies has been studied in more detail. In murine models of SLE, the lack of secreted IgM was associated with more severe glomerulonephritis. In more recent studies, the treatment of lupus-prone mice with a murine IgM monoclonal antibody against dsDNA prevented renal damage. Furthermore, the clearance of pathogenic immune complexes may be improved by IgM. Therefore, IgM antibodies against dsDNA are indeed protective and may be a new treatment modality of lupus nephritis in humans.

  6. Poly(I:C) adjuvant strongly enhances parasite-inhibitory antibodies and Th1 response against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (42-kDa fragment) in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Rezvani, Niloufar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Gholami, Atefeh; Babaeekhou, Laleh

    2018-04-01

    Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 42 (PfMSP-1 42 ) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants. Therefore, in the current study, poly(I:C), as a potent Th1 inducer adjuvant, was evaluated to improve the immunogenicity of recombinant PfMSP-1 42 , when compared to CFA/IFA, as reference adjuvant. Poly(I:C) produced high level and titers of anti-PfMSP-1 42 IgG antibodies in which was comparable to CFA/IFA adjuvant. In addition, PfMSP-1 42 formulated with poly(I:C) elicited a higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (23.9) and IgG2a/IgG1 (3.77) with more persistent, higher avidity, and titer of IgG2a relative to CFA/IFA, indicating a potent Th1 immune response. Poly(I:C) could also help to induce anti-PfMSP-1 42 antibodies with higher growth-inhibitory activity than CFA/IFA. Altogether, the results of the current study demonstrated that poly(I:C) is a potent adjuvant that can be appropriate for being used in PfMSP-1 42 -based vaccine formulations.

  7. Antibodies Against Melanin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... Departments of Internal Medicine and Anatomical Pathology, University of Stellenbosch and MRC. Pigment Metabolism Research Unit, ... at the production of antibodies against natural melanoprotein. and a consideration of our negative .... the random polymerization of several monomers, antibody formed ...

  8. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  9. Intranasal coadministration of Cholera toxin with amoeba lysates modulates the secretion of IgA and IgG antibodies, production of cytokines and expression of pIgR in the nasal cavity of mice in the model of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Lopez-Reyes, Israel; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Rodriguez-Cortes, Antonio Yahve; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Miliar-Garcia, Angel; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2014-11-01

    The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ∼65 and ∼74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-α compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccine Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Skurnik, David; Kropec, Andrea; Roux, Damien; Theilacker, Christian; Huebner, Johannes; Pier, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides (CP) and poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) antigens interfere in protection. Active immunization of mice failed to overcome interference. Natural nonprotective antibodies to PNAG in normal human serum may prevent effective vaccination against S. aureus CP antigens.

  11. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against native and disassembled human catalase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, E. A.; Ofman, R.; Middelkoop, E.; de Boer, M.; Wanders, R. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Catalase isolated from human erythrocytes was used to immunise mice, in order to generate hybridomas producing specific monoclonal antibodies to the enzyme. Hybridomas secreting anti-(catalase) antibodies were identified by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using either

  12. Antibody administration in experimental influenza increases survival and enhances the effect of oseltamivir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourroy, Brit Naldahl Jessen; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2012-01-01

    and treatment of a number of infectious diseases. In this experimental study anti-influenza antibodies were passively administrated to mice, subsequently they were infected with influenza virus and treated with oseltamivir. The aim was to investigate, if anti-influenza antibodies influenced the out come...... be considered in the in control of influenza....

  13. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.

    1983-01-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy

  14. Monoclonal antibodies: Principles and applications of immmunodiagnosis and immunotherapy for hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tabll, Ashraf; Abbas, Aymn T; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; Wahid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem worldwide. Early detection of the infection will help better management of the infected cases. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of mice are predominantly used for the immunodiagnosis of several viral, bacterial, and parasitic antigens. Serological detection of HCV antigens and antibodies provide simple and rapid methods of detection but lack sensitivity specially in the window phase between the infection and antibody development. Human mAb are ...

  15. Isolation from a polyvalent antivenom of antibodies to a myotoxin in Bothrops asper snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonte, Bruno; Mata, Eugenia; Gutiérrez, José María

    1985-01-01

    Antibodies against Bothrops asper rmyotoxin were purified from a polyvalent antivenom by affinity chromatography . These antibodies neutralized most of the myotoxic activity of crude B. asper venom, as judged by histologic evaluation of skeletal muscle and determination of plasma creatine kinase levels in mice. When tested by immunoelectrophoresis, purified antibodies formed two superimposed bands of precipitation against an homogenous by SDS-PAGE analysis) preparation of B. asper myotoxin...

  16. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with multiple epitopes on the human insulin receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Soos, M A; Siddle, K; Baron, M D; Heward, J M; Luzio, J P; Bellatin, J; Lennox, E S

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies for the human insulin receptor were produced following immunization of mice with IM-9 lymphocytes and/or purified placental receptor. Four separate fusions yielded 28 antibodies, all of which reacted with receptor from human placenta, liver and IM-9 cells. Some antibodies cross-reacted to varying degrees with receptor from rabbit, cow, pig and sheep, but none reacted with rat receptor. At least 10 distinct epitopes were recognized as indicated by species specificity and ...

  17. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  18. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  19. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  20. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Soluble Rat Lung Guanylate Cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Harvey; Lewicki, John; Murad, Ferid

    1981-07-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) EC 4.6.1.2] have been produced by fusing spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with SP-2/0 myeloma cells. The antibodies were detected by their ability to bind immobilized guanylate cyclase and by immunoprecipitation of purified enzyme in the presence of second (rabbit anti-mouse) antibody. After subcloning by limiting dilution, hybridomas were injected intraperitoneally into mice to produce ascitic fluid containing 2-5 mg of antibody per ml. The four antibodies obtained had titers of between 1:1580 and 1:3160 but were detectable at dilutions greater than 1:20,000. Soluble guanylate cyclase from several rat tissues were crossreactive with the four monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the soluble enzyme from different rat tissues is antigenically similar. The antibodies also recognized soluble lung enzyme from rat, beef, and pig, while enzyme from rabbit was not crossreactive and mouse enzyme was recognized by only one of the antibodies. Particulate guanylate cyclase from a number of tissues had only minimal crossreactivity with the antibodies. Immunoprecipitated guanylate cyclase retained catalytic activity, could be activated with sodium nitroprusside, and was inhibited by cystamine. None of the antibodies were inhibitory under the conditions examined. These antibodies will be useful probes for the study of guanylate cyclase regulation and function under a variety of physiological conditions.

  1. Production and Characterization of HCG Poly clonal Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    To prepare a radioimmunoassay system for measuring hcg hormone, the anti-hcg polyclonal antibodies must be firstly prepared. The present study was aimed to produce and characterize the anti-hcg polyclonal antibodies. The anti hcg polyclonal Antibes which were produced by immunizing five Balb/c mice with a highly purified β-hcg hormone. A complete Freunds adjuvant was used for the first injection while incomplete Freunds adjuvant was used for the following boosters. Blood spots were obtained from the immunized mice and tested for the presence of antibodies. At the end of the immunization schedule, the mice was exposed to anesthesia using ether then dissected and the blood samples were collected from the heart. The serum (antisera) was separated from the blood containing anti-hcg polyclonal antibodies. The produced antibodies were purified then immobilized onto the surface of magnetic particles to prepare the solid phase anti-hcg magnetic particles. The characterization parameters include accuracy, parallelism, sensitivity, specificity and comparison studies between the prepared system and the commercial used one, were performed. Also, the labeling of hcg hormone with 1251 was performed using chloramine-T method. The obtained results indicated that the produced solid phase of polyclonal anti-hcg for measuring the hcg hormone was good, accurate, sensitive, specific and highly correlated with that of the commercial method

  2. Radiosensitivity of antibody responses and radioresistant secondary tetanus antitoxin responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, R.; Terres, G.; Cottier, H.; Hess, M.

    1976-01-01

    Primary tetanus antitoxin responses were increasingly repressed in mice when gamma radiation doses of 100 to 400 rads were delivered by whole-body exposure prior to immunization with fluid tetanus toxoid (FTT). Nearly normal secondary antitoxin responses were obtained in mice exposed to 600 rads of gamma radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation with FTT. A rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on days 1 to 3 was followed by relative radioresistance on day 4 after the booster injection of toxoid. Studies on lymphoid cellular kinetics in popliteal lymph nodes after injection of 3 H--thymidine ( 3 H--TdR) and incorporation of 3 H--L-histidine into circulating antitoxin were carried out. Analysis of tritium radioactivity in antigen--antibody precipitates of serums 2 hr after injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after the booster in nonirradiated controls and about day 12, i.e., 8 days after irradiation, in experimental mice. The shift from radiosensitivity to relative radioresistance was attributed to a marked peak of plasma-cell proliferation in the medulla of lymph nodes on day 3. Many medullary plasma cells survived and continued to proliferate after exposure to radiation. Germinal centers were destroyed by radiation within 1 day. Since antibody formation continued after exposure to radiation and after the loss of germinal centers, this supports the view that germinal-center cells were involved more in the generation of memory cells than in antibody synthesis

  3. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the organophosphate pesticide azinphos-methyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, WT; Harvey, D; Jones, SD; Ryan, GB; Wynberg, H; TenHoeve, W; Reynolds, PHS

    1995-01-01

    2-(2-Mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl,2-sulphide) methoxyacetic acid has been synthesized and used to prepare an azinphos hapten and protein conjugates. Monoclonal antibodies of high affinity against the pesticide azinphos-methyl were prepared from mice immunized with the

  4. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioimaging of human ovarian carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1987-01-01

    Human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice were radioimaged using a well-characterized antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (CA 125) and three transplantable human ovarian carcinoma tumor lines: NIH:OVCAR 3, NIH:OVCAR 5, and NIH:OVCAR 9. Radioiodinated monoclonal antibody OC125 was used in these studies. In order to establish the optimal conditions for imaging, tumor/blood ratios were determined. Gamma scintigraphy of nude mice bearing subcutaneous transplants of human ovarian carcinomas 3-4 days after 131 I-OC125 administration demonstrated selective localization of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by these tumors without need for any background subtraction techniques

  6. Defense Technology Opportunities for First Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Rodney; Bedard, Louis; Derrah, Scott; Boucher, Robert

    2004-01-01

    For this study, the US and Canadian governments assessed the potential for technology transfer of five technologies, which were developed to meet military requirements, to civilian first responders...

  7. Dual role of Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Anne Belperron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ-/- mice harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88-/- mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ-/-MyD88-/- mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC, Xcr1 (Gpr5, IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  8. Produksi dan Karakterisasi Antibodi Monoklonal Anti-Cysticercus cellulosae (PRODUCTION AND CHRACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST CYSTICERCUS CELLULOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a monoclonal antibody against- Cysticercus cellulosae and itscharacterization. Samples antigen prepared from T. solium larvae (C. cellulosae was then used to immunizeBalb/c. The immune response of mice assessed by ELISA test, then the lymphocytes of mice used for theproduction of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb. Origin lymphocytes of mice that produce antibodies againstC. cellulosae antigen, fused with myeloma cells (NS1. Results fusion of two cells produces hybrid cellscalled hybridomas; cells are then screened by ELISA test. Hybridoma cells that produce only MoAb, usedto produce large quantities in vitro. Characterization of MoAb against-C.cellulosae was tested by usingELISA and Western blotting. Mice were immunized with C.cellulosae antigen showed an immune responseproducing antibodies to C.cellulosae. Based on the results of fusion, produced a total of 51 hybridoma cellclones and after being screened, only three clones of hybridoma cells that produced MoAb against–C.cellulosae. MoAb produced, named after the hole where the growth of the ELISA micro plate, the BE6,BE7, and EE9. Characteristics of this MoAb capable of tracking cellulosae of fluid larvae and recognizeantigen protein bands with molecular weight 78kDa.

  9. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  10. Introduction of five potentially metabolizable linking groups between 111In-cyclohexyl EDTA derivatives and F(ab')2 fragments of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody--II. Comparative pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in human colorectal carcinoma-bearing nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Chauvet, A; Gestin, J F; Mease, R C; Sai-Maurel, C; Thédrez, P; Slinkin, M; Meinken, G E; Srivastava, S C; Chatal, J F

    1993-08-01

    The five linker-containing immunoconjugates described in the preceding paper were labeled with 111In and tested for their biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and immunoscintigraphic imaging properties in tumor-xenografted nude mice. The results were compared with DTPADA and CDTAMA for reference. Results showed that, for immunoscintigraphy, the derivatives in decreasing order of effectiveness were: aliphatic (tumor/liver > 4.5 and tumor/kidney > 6.5 at 96 h), thioether (tumor/liver > 3 and tumor/kidney > 1.2 at 24 h), ethylene glycol succinate (tumor/liver > 1.7 and tumor/kidney > 0.5 at 24 h) and disulfide (tumor/liver > 0.5 and tumor/kidney > 0.6 at 96 h). Pharmacokinetic results were complementary with those of the biodistribution studies and provide a basis for the study of in vivo metabolic mechanisms of linker-immunoconjugates. Indium-111-labeled linker-immunoconjugates appear promising for tumor imaging with better contrast than what is obtained with the use of the conventional 111In-DTPA dianhydride chelate.

  11. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide......-antibody interface and the antibody intraface.the microenvironment and ecology of Acaryochloris and Prochloron, and in this thesis we attempted to further describe the distribution, growth characteristics and adaptive/regulatory mechanisms of these two cyanobacteria, both in their natural habitat and under defined...

  12. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Bouloumié A 2004 From blood monocytes to adipose tissue-resident macrophages: induction of diapedesis by human mature adipocytes. Diabetes 53 1285–1292. Daley JM, Thomay AA, Connolly MD, Reichner JS and Albina JE. 2008 Use of Ly6G-specific monoclonal antibody to deplete neutrophils in mice. J. Leukoc.

  13. Mechanisms of protection against rotavirus in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L

    1996-09-01

    Immune responses following either natural or experimental rotavirus infection provide protection against subsequent rotavirus illnesses, and the mechanisms involved have been examined in humans and animals. In adult volunteers challenged with human rotaviruses, protection has been shown to correlate with serum and intestinal antibodies; however, titers of no specific antibody could be used reliably as a marker of protection, including neutralizing antibody to the challenge virus. Studies in children confirmed these general associations between antibody titers and protection, but the serotype specificity of antibody and its role in protection remained unclear. Studies in mice suggested antibody, CD8 cells, and a third, undetermined, factor as mediators of protection. Antibody appeared to be most important, both in resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infection, but its activity was not serotype specific. CD8 cells helped resolve rotavirus infection but were less important in protection against reinfection. The third factor remains to be identified.

  14. Natural antibodies in normal human serum inhibit Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnik, David; Kropec, Andrea; Roux, Damien; Theilacker, Christian; Huebner, Johannes; Pier, Gerald B

    2012-11-01

    Vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Hemophilus influenzae type b induce functional opsonic or bactericidal antibodies to surface capsular polysaccharides (CP). Targeting the comparable Staphylococcus aureus CP seems logical, but to date such efforts have failed in human trials. Studies using immunization-induced animal antibodies have documented interference in opsonic and protective activities of antibodies to CP by antibodies to another S. aureus cell surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). Here we evaluated whether natural antibody to PNAG in normal human serum (NHS) had a similar deleterious effect. Functional and/or protective activities of antibody to S. aureus CP and PNAG antigens in patients with bacteremia, in mice immunized with combinations of CP and PNAG conjugate vaccines, and in serum samples of healthy subjects with natural antibody to PNAG, to which immunization-induced animal antibodies to CP antigens were added, were evaluated. Antibodies to PNAG and CP that mutually interfered with opsonic killing of S. aureus were detected in 9 of 15 bacteremic patients. Active immunization of mice with combinations of PNAG and CP conjugate antigens always induced antibodies that interfered with each other's functional activity. Non-opsonic natural antibodies to PNAG found in NHS interfered with the functional and protective activities of immunization-induced antibody to CP antigens during experimental infection with S. aureus. Both immunization-induced animal antibodies and natural antibodies to PNAG in NHS interfere with the protective activities of immunization-induced antibody to S. aureus CP5 and CP8 antigens, representing potential barriers to successful use of CP-specific vaccines.

  15. Evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera made from Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Murshid Alam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Generally, polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic, especially in young children.Here we report the evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera (OSP:TThc made from V. cholerae O1 Ogawa O-Specific Polysaccharide-core (OSP and recombinant tetanus toxoid heavy chain fragment (TThc. We immunized mice intramuscularly on days 0, 21, and 42 with OSP:TThc or OSP only, with or without dmLT, a non-toxigenic immunoadjuvant derived from heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli.We detected significant serum IgG antibody responses targeting OSP following a single immunization in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without adjuvant. Anti-LPS IgG responses were detected following a second immunization in these cohorts. No anti-OSP or anti-LPS IgG responses were detected at any time in animals receiving un-conjugated OSP with or without immunoadjuvant, and in animals receiving immunoadjuvant alone. Responses were highest following immunization with adjuvant. Serum anti-OSP IgM responses were detected in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without immunoadjuvant, and in mice receiving unconjugated OSP. Serum anti-LPS IgM and vibriocidal responses were detected in all vaccine cohorts except in mice receiving immunoadjuvant alone. No significant IgA anti-OSP or anti-LPS responses developed in any group. Administration of OSP:TThc and adjuvant also induced memory B cell responses targeting OSP and resulted in 95% protective efficacy in a mouse lethality cholera challenge model.We describe a protectively immunogenic cholera conjugate in mice. Development of a cholera conjugate vaccine could assist in inducing long-term protective immunity, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  16. Radioimmunoimaging of tumors with a pantumor antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.; Chen, F.; Taylor, O.R.; Epstein, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The TNT-1 antibody was developed to bind intracellular nuclear antigens that are accessible only in degenerative or necrotic cells. Since about 50% of tumor cells are in various stages of cell degeneration or death, this antibody could serve as a pantumor antibody for tumor detection. After intravenous injection of 10 μg of TNT-1F(ab')2 fragments labeled with 20 μCi of I-131, serial images were obtained at 1 and 4 hours and daily for 6 days in mice bearing various human tumors. Accumulation of TNT-1 was imaged in a necrotic tumor as early as 4 hours after injection and because more intense at 48 hours. The tumor-muscle ratio was as high as 29:1. Intense accumulation was noted in the necrotic tumor, about nine times that of healthy tumor. In conclusion, TNT-1, a pantumor antibody, can detect necrotic tumors in animal models. It may be an ideal imaging agent for cancer detection

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Parodis

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204 or without (n = 294 LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous, before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes. Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8. Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all, but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are

  18. Novel monoclonal antibodies to study tissue regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly G; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Taylor, Matthew R; Munday, Roma K; Hubert, Amy; King, Ryan S; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2015-01-21

    Planarians are an attractive model organism for studying stem cell-based regeneration due to their ability to replace all of their tissues from a population of adult stem cells. The molecular toolkit for planarian studies currently includes the ability to study gene function using RNA interference (RNAi) and observe gene expression via in situ hybridizations. However, there are few antibodies available to visualize protein expression, which would greatly enhance analysis of RNAi experiments as well as allow further characterization of planarian cell populations using immunocytochemistry and other immunological techniques. Thus, additional, easy-to-use, and widely available monoclonal antibodies would be advantageous to study regeneration in planarians. We have created seven monoclonal antibodies by inoculating mice with formaldehyde-fixed cells isolated from dissociated 3-day regeneration blastemas. These monoclonal antibodies can be used to label muscle fibers, axonal projections in the central and peripheral nervous systems, two populations of intestinal cells, ciliated cells, a subset of neoblast progeny, and discrete cells within the central nervous system as well as the regeneration blastema. We have tested these antibodies using eight variations of a formaldehyde-based fixation protocol and determined reliable protocols for immunolabeling whole planarians with each antibody. We found that labeling efficiency for each antibody varies greatly depending on the addition or removal of tissue processing steps that are used for in situ hybridization or immunolabeling techniques. Our experiments show that a subset of the antibodies can be used alongside markers commonly used in planarian research, including anti-SYNAPSIN and anti-SMEDWI, or following whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments. The monoclonal antibodies described in this paper will be a valuable resource for planarian research. These antibodies have the potential to be used to better understand

  19. Anti-idiotypic antibody-induced protection against Clostridium perfringens type D.

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, D A; Shuttleworth, A D; Williamson, E D; Kelly, D C

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (BALB/c mouse) with specificity for a neutralizing epitope on the epsilon-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens type D was used to raise anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) in different strains of mice and rabbits. These were purified and used in cross-immunization studies to induce anti-(anti-idiotype). All strains of mice and rabbits immunized with BALB/c-derived anti-Id showed a high-titer antibody response directed towards the active site of the toxin. This prote...

  20. Mobile-Only Web Survey Respondents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.; Toepoel, V.; amin, alerk

    2016-01-01

    Web surveys are no longer completed on just a desktop or laptop computer. Respondents increasingly use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones to complete web surveys. In this article, we study how respondents in the American Life Panel complete surveys using varying devices. We show that

  1. Resilience among first responders | Pietrantoni | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine hundred and sixty-one first responders filled out an on-line questionnaire, containing measure of sense of community, collective efficacy, self-efficacy and work-related mental health outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction). Results. First responders reported high level of compassion ...

  2. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The paper investigates the socio economic assessment of urban forestry respondents' income in Okitipupa, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and these were administered to 200 urban forestry respondents. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics viz: age, gender, ...

  3. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  4. Anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Kehoe, John [Saint Davids, PA; Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-09-15

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  5. Bifunctional antibodies for radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatal, J F; Faivre-Chauvet, A; Bardies, M; Peltier, P; Gautherot, E; Barbet, J

    1995-04-01

    In two-step targeting technique using bifunctional antibodies, a nonradiolabeled immunoconjugate with slow uptake kinetics (several days) is initially injected, followed by a small radiolabeled hapten with fast kinetics (several hours) that binds to the bispecific immunoconjugate already taken up by the tumor target. In patients with colorectal or medullary thyroid cancer, clinical studies performed with an anti-CEA/anti-DTPA-indium bifunctional antibody and an indium-111-labeled di-DTPA-TL bivalent hapten showed that tumor uptake was not modified compared to results for F(ab')2 fragments of the same anti-CEA antibody directly labeled with indium-111, whereas the radioactivity of normal tissues was significantly reduced (3- to 6-fold). The fast tumor uptake kinetics (several hours) and high or very high tumor-to-normal tissue ratios obtained with the bifunctional antibody technique are favorable parameters for efficient radioimmunotherapy.

  6. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...

  7. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    viruses. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from cotton rats immunized 28 days previously with influenza A/PR/8/34 or influenza A/Wuhan...lymphocytes (CTL) were responsible. However, more recent studies in mice demonstrate that antibodies also contribute to this immune response. We...the lungs of immunized mice after challenge with a heterosubtypic virus (Schulman and Kilbourne1965). These authors observed that mice previously

  8. Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Blood Group A-Transgenic Mouse Model of ABO-Incompatible Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Bruce; Fisicaro, Nella; Wang, Szu-I; Kratochvil, Annetta; Labonte, Katrina; Tao, Kesheng; Pearcey, Jean; Marshall, Thuraya; Mengel, Michael; Sis, Banu; Fan, Xiaohu; dʼApice, Anthony J F; Cowan, Peter J; West, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) organ transplantation is performed owing to unremitting donor shortages. Defining mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection, accommodation, and tolerance of ABOi grafts is limited by lack of a suitable animal model. We report generation and characterization of a murine model to enable study of immunobiology in the setting of ABOi transplantation. Transgenesis of a construct containing human A1- and H-transferases under control of the ICAM-2 promoter was performed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. A-transgenic (A-Tg) mice were assessed for A-antigen expression by histology and flow cytometry. B6 wild-type (WT) mice were sensitized with blood group A-human erythrocytes; others received passive anti-A monoclonal antibody and complement after heart transplant. Serum anti-A antibodies were assessed by hemagglutination. "A-into-O" transplantation (major histocompatibility complex syngeneic) was modeled by transplanting hearts from A-Tg mice into sensitized or nonsensitized WT mice. Antibody-mediated rejection was assessed by morphology/immunohistochemistry. A-Tg mice expressed A-antigen on vascular endothelium and other cells including erythrocytes. Antibody-mediated rejection was evident in 15/17 A-Tg grafts in sensitized WT recipients (median titer, 1:512), with 2 showing hyperacute rejection and rapid cessation of graft pulsation. Hyperacute rejection was observed in 8/8 A-Tg grafts after passive transfer of anti-A antibody and complement into nonsensitized recipients. Antibody-mediated rejection was not observed in A-Tg grafts transplanted into nonsensitized mice. A-Tg heart grafts transplanted into WT mice with abundant anti-A antibody manifests characteristic features of antibody-mediated rejection. These findings demonstrate an effective murine model to facilitate study of immunologic features of ABOi transplantation and to improve potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Radioimmunoimaging of experimental gliomas using radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaessner, H.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution and tumour uptake of radiolabelled (131 I) glioma-seeking monoclonal antibodies (14 AC1) and their F(ab') 2 fragments were investigated in nude mice having received glioma transplants. Radioimmunoimaging by external scintigraphy at 48 and 96 hours pointed to a superior tumour localisation by the fragments that was clearly related to the dose. Wholebody determinations of the biokinetic behaviour led to the following results: Faster clearance anc more ready elimination from the blood pool for the fragments, preferential uptake in the tumour; intact antibodies; binding in the liver, spleen and lungs. The study confirmed the value of fragments of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of tumours and pointed to the possibility of using intact monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radioisotopes and cytotoxic drugs within the scope of therapeutic programmes. (TRV) [de

  10. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated coagulation factor IX prevents inhibitor formation and fatal anaphylaxis in hemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Moghimi, Babak; LoDuca, Paul A; Singh, Harminder D; Hoffman, Brad E; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-13

    To address complications of pathogenic antibody or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in protein replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia or other inherited protein deficiencies, we have developed a prophylactic protocol using a murine hemophilia B model. Oral delivery of coagulation factor IX fused with cholera toxin beta-subunit (with or without a furin cleavage site; CTB-FFIX or CTB-FIX), expressed in chloroplasts (up to 3.8% soluble protein or 0.4 mg/g leaf tissue), bioencapsulated in plant cells, effectively blocked formation of inhibitory antibodies (undetectable or up to 100-fold less than controls). Moreover, this treatment eliminated fatal anaphylactic reactions that occurred after four to six exposures to intravenous F.IX. Whereas only 20-25% of control animals survived after six to eight F.IX doses, 90-93% of F.IX-fed mice survived 12 injections without signs of allergy or anaphylaxis. Immunostaining confirmed delivery of F.IX to Peyer's patches in the ileum. Within 2-5 h, feeding of CTB-FFIX additionally resulted in systemic delivery of F.IX antigen. This high-responder strain of hemophilia B mice represents a new animal model to study anaphylactic reactions. The protocol was effective over a range of oral antigen doses (equivalent to 5-80 microg recombinant F.IX/kg), and controlled inhibitor formation and anaphylaxis long-term, up to 7 months (approximately 40% life span of this mouse strain). Oral antigen administration caused a deviant immune response that suppressed formation of IgE and inhibitory antibodies. This cost-effective and efficient approach of antigen delivery to the gut should be applicable to several genetic diseases that are prone to pathogenic antibody responses during treatment.

  11. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  12. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  13. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  14. Transcriptomic profiles of high and low antibody responders to smallpox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R B; Oberg, A L; Ovsyannikova, I G; Haralambieva, I H; Grill, D; Poland, G A

    2013-01-01

    Despite its eradication over 30 years ago, smallpox (as well as other orthopox viruses) remains a pathogen of interest both in terms of biodefense and for its use as a vector for vaccines and immunotherapies. Here we describe the application of mRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling to understanding immune responses in smallpox vaccine recipients. Contrary to other studies examining gene expression in virally infected cell lines, we utilized a mixed population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in order to capture the essential intercellular interactions that occur in vivo, and would otherwise be lost, using single cell lines or isolated primary cell subsets. In this mixed cell population we were able to detect expression of all annotated vaccinia genes. On the host side, a number of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, complement factors and intracellular signaling molecules were downregulated upon viral infection, whereas genes encoding histone proteins and the interferon response were upregulated. We also identified a small number of genes that exhibited significantly different expression profiles in subjects with robust humoral immunity compared with those with weaker humoral responses. Our results provide evidence that differential gene regulation patterns may be at work in individuals with robust humoral immunity compared with those with weaker humoral immune responses.

  15. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  16. Defining the antibody cross-reactome directed against the influenza virus surface glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Hirsh, Ariana; Margine, Irina; Iida, Sayaka; Barrera, Aldo; Ferres, Marcela; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Bouvier, Nicole M; Ito, Kimihito; Medina, Rafael A; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Infection with influenza virus induces antibodies to the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and these responses can be broadly protective. To assess the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses, we sequentially infected mice, guinea pigs and ferrets with divergent H1N1 or H3N2 subtypes of influenza virus. We measured antibody responses by ELISA of an extensive panel of recombinant glycoproteins representing the viral diversity in nature. Guinea pigs developed high titers of broadly cross-reactive antibodies; mice and ferrets exhibited narrower humoral responses. Then, we compared antibody responses after infection of humans with influenza virus H1N1 or H3N2 and found markedly broad responses and cogent evidence for 'original antigenic sin'. This work will inform the design of universal vaccines against influenza virus and can guide pandemic-preparedness efforts directed against emerging influenza viruses.

  17. Defining the antibody cross-reactome against the influenza virus surface glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Hirsh, Ariana; Margine, Irina; Iida, Sayaka; Barrera, Aldo; Ferres, Marcela; Albrecht, Randy A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Bouvier, Nicole M.; Ito, Kimihito; Medina, Rafael A.; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Summary Influenza virus infections induce antibodies against the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and these responses can be broadly protective. To test the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses, mice, guinea pigs and ferrets were sequentially infected with divergent H1N1 or H3N2 viruses. Antibody responses were measured by ELISA against an extensive panel of recombinant glycoproteins representing the viral diversity in nature. Guinea pigs developed high titers of broadly cross-reactive antibodies; mice and ferrets exhibited narrower humoral responses. Then, we compared antibody responses after H1N1 or H3N2 infections in humans and found markedly broad responses and cogent evidence for original antigenic sin. This work will inform universal influenza vaccine design and can guide pandemic preparedness efforts against emerging influenza viruses. PMID:28192418

  18. Utility of humanized BLT mice for analysis of dengue virus infection and antiviral drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Dorner, Marcus; Marukian, Svetlana; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N; Rice, Charles M; Ploss, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of a potentially life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The lack of a small animal model that mimics the symptoms of DENV infection in humans has slowed the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of therapies and vaccines. Here, we investigated the use of humanized "bone marrow liver thymus" (BLT) mice as a model for immunological studies and assayed their applicability for preclinical testing of antiviral compounds. Human immune system (HIS) BLT-NOD/SCID mice were inoculated intravenously with a low-passage, clinical isolate of DENV-2, and this resulted in sustained viremia and infection of leukocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. In addition, DENV infection increased serum cytokine levels and elicited DENV-2-neutralizing human IgM antibodies. Following restimulation with DENV-infected dendritic cells, in vivo-primed T cells became activated and acquired effector function. An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of DENV decreased the circulating viral RNA when administered simultaneously or 2 days postinfection, simulating a potential treatment protocol for DENV infection in humans. In summary, we demonstrate that BLT mice are susceptible to infection with clinical DENV isolates, mount virus-specific adaptive immune responses, and respond to antiviral drug treatment. Although additional refinements to the model are required, BLT mice are a suitable platform to study aspects of DENV infection and pathogenesis and for preclinical testing of drug and vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Infection with dengue virus remains a major medical problem. Progress in our understanding of the disease and development of therapeutics has been hampered by the scarcity of small animal models. Here, we show that humanized mice, i.e., animals engrafted with components of a human immune system, that were infected with a patient-derived dengue virus strain developed clinical symptoms of the disease and mounted

  19. Development of scoring functions for antibody sequence assessment and optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seeliger

    Full Text Available Antibody development is still associated with substantial risks and difficulties as single mutations can radically change molecule properties like thermodynamic stability, solubility or viscosity. Since antibody generation methodologies cannot select and optimize for molecule properties which are important for biotechnological applications, careful sequence analysis and optimization is necessary to develop antibodies that fulfil the ambitious requirements of future drugs. While efforts to grab the physical principles of undesired molecule properties from the very bottom are becoming increasingly powerful, the wealth of publically available antibody sequences provides an alternative way to develop early assessment strategies for antibodies using a statistical approach which is the objective of this paper. Here, publically available sequences were used to develop heuristic potentials for the framework regions of heavy and light chains of antibodies of human and murine origin. The potentials take into account position dependent probabilities of individual amino acids but also conditional probabilities which are inevitable for sequence assessment and optimization. It is shown that the potentials derived from human sequences clearly distinguish between human sequences and sequences from mice and, hence, can be used as a measure of humaness which compares a given sequence with the phenotypic pool of human sequences instead of comparing sequence identities to germline genes. Following this line, it is demonstrated that, using the developed potentials, humanization of an antibody can be described as a simple mathematical optimization problem and that the in-silico generated framework variants closely resemble native sequences in terms of predicted immunogenicity.

  20. Cooperativity Enables Non-neutralizing Antibodies to Neutralize Ebolavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Howell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug combinations are synergistic when their combined efficacy exceeds the sum of the individual actions, but they rarely include ineffective drugs that become effective only in combination. We identified several “enabling pairs” of neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-ebolavirus monoclonal antibodies, whose combination exhibited new functional profiles, including transforming a non-neutralizing antibody to a neutralizer. Sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies 2G4 or m8C4 enabled non-neutralizing antibody FVM09 (IC50 >1 μM to exhibit potent neutralization (IC50 1–10 nM. While FVM09 or m8C4 alone failed to protect Ebola-virus-infected mice, a combination of the two antibodies provided 100% protection. Furthermore, non-neutralizers FVM09 and FVM02 exponentially enhanced the potency of two neutralizing antibodies against both Ebola and Sudan viruses. We identified a hotspot for the binding of these enabling antibody pairs near the interface of the glycan cap and GP2. Enabling cooperativity may be an underappreciated phenomenon for viruses, with implications for the design and development of immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

  1. Site-specifically radioiodinated antibody for targeting tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, D.W.; Ultee, M.E.; Belinka, B.A. Jr.; Coughlin, D.J.; Alvarez, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    Labeling of an antibody site specifically through its carbohydrate regions preserves its antigen-binding activity. Previously site-specific labeling studies have conjugated antibodies with metallic radioisotopes or drugs. We now report site-specific labeling with a new radioiodinated compound, 2-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-methylbenzoyl hydrazide, whose synthesis we described earlier. The compound is reacted with aldehyde groups produced by specific oxidation of the carbohydrate portion of the antibody with sodium m-periodate. Optimized conjugation conditions give good recovery of active antibody containing 10 groups per molecule. The conjugate is stable in solution for at least several weeks at both 4 and -70 degrees C. When injected into nude mice bearing LS174T human cancer xenografts, the conjugate of B72.3 antibody localizes well to tumor tissue, with low uptake by other organs. This biodistribution is similar to that of conjugate prepared by using solid-phase chloramine-T (Iodohead). There are only two significant differences. First, the carbohydrate conjugate is much less susceptible to dehalogenation, and thus shows much less thyroid uptake. Secondly, the biological half-life of the carbohydrate conjugate was about half that of the chloramine-T one. This could be due primarily to lysis of the hydrazine bond through which the antibody is attached to the compound, which would then be excreted rapidly by itself. The new reagent will be especially useful for antibodies which either cannot be labeled by chloramine-T methods, or whose activity is impaired by them

  2. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Holly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fcγ receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

  3. Clinical prospective study with radioiodinated monoclonal antibodies directed against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Douillard, J.Y.; Kremer, M.; Curtet, C.; Le Mevel, B.; Saccavini, J.C.; Maurel, C.; Aubry, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic application of three monoclonal antibodies are studied: an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody designated as 202 and two monoclonal antibodies, designated as 17-1A and 19-9, which recognize different antigens associated with gastrointestinal carcinomas. The complementary specificity of these antibodies was determined by an immuno-histochemical study and the scintigraphic detection parameters by a radiopharmacokinetic study in colic-tumour-bearing nude mice. On the basis of a prospective study, the value of immunoscintigraphy was compared with conventional methods such as ultrasonography and computed tomography for localization of recurrences of colorectal cancers. (UK)

  4. [Radiolabeled antibodies for cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The first treatment ever by radio-immunotherapy (RIT) was performed by William H. Beierwaltes in 1951 and was a success. Fifty years later, the main question is to find ways of extending the success of radiolabelled anti-CD20 antibodies in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to other forms of cancer. Solid tumours are much more radioresistant than lymphomas, but they respond to RIT if the lesions are small. Clinical situations of residual or minimal disease are thus the most likely to benefit from RIT in the adjuvant or consolidation settings. For disseminated disease, like leukemias or myelomas, the problem is different: beta- particles emitted by the radioactive atoms classically used for cancer treatment (iodine-131 or yttrium-90) disperse their energy in large volumes (ranges 1 mm to 1 cm) and are not very effective against isolated cells. Advances in RIT progress in two directions. One is the development of pretargeting strategies in which the antibody is not labelled but used to provide binding sites to small molecular weight radioactivity vectors (biotin, haptens). These techniques have been shown to increase tumour to non-target uptake ratios and anti-tumour efficacy has been demonstrated in the clinic. The other approach is the use of radionuclides adapted to the various clinical situations. Lutetium-177 or copper-67, because of the lower energy of their emission, their relatively long half-life and good gamma emission, may significantly improve RIT efficacy and acceptability. Beyond that, radionuclides emitting particles such as alpha particles or Auger electrons, much more efficient to kill isolated tumour cells, are being tested for RIT in the clinic. Finally, RIT should be integrated with other cancer treatment approaches in multimodality protocols. Thus RIT, now a mature technology, should enter a phase of well designed and focused clinical developments that may be expected to afford significant therapeutic advances.

  5. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  7. Interferon gamma modulation of disease manifestation and the local antibody response to alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Victoria K; Griffin, Diane E

    2016-11-01

    Infection of mice with Sindbis virus (SINV) produces encephalomyelitis and provides a model for examination of the central nervous system (CNS) immune response to alphavirus infection. Clearance of infectious virus is accomplished through a cooperative effort between SINV-specific antibody and IFN-γ, but the regulatory interactions are poorly understood. To determine the effects of IFN-γ on clinical disease and the antiviral immune response, C57BL/6 mice lacking IFN-γ (Ifng-/-) or IFN-γ receptor (Ifngr1-/-) were studied in comparison to WT mice. Maximum production of Ifng mRNA and IFN-γ protein in the CNS of WT and Ifngr1-/- mice occurred 5-7 days after infection, with higher levels of IFN-γ in Ifngr1-/- mice. Onset of clinical disease was earlier in mice with impaired IFN-γ signalling, although Ifngr1-/- mice recovered more rapidly. Ifng-/- and Ifngr1-/- mice maintained body weight better than WT mice, associated with better food intake and lower brain levels of inflammatory cytokines. Clearance of infectious virus from the spinal cords was slower, and CNS, but not serum, levels of SINV-specific IgM, IgG2a and IgG2b were lower in Ifngr1-/- and Ifng-/- mice compared to WT mice. Decreased CNS antiviral antibody was associated with lower expression of mRNAs for B-cell attracting chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL13 and fewer B cells in the CNS. Therefore, IFN-γ signalling increases levels of CNS pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to clinical disease, but synergistically clears virus with SINV-specific antibody at least in part by increasing chemokine production important for infiltration of antibody-secreting B cells into the CNS.

  8. Dissecting the hemagglutinin head and stalk-specific IgG antibody response in healthcare workers following pandemic H1N1 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Sarah M; Krammer, Florian; Lartey, Sarah; Bredholt, Geir; Wood, John; Skrede, Steinar; Cox, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, neutralising antibodies that are directed to the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) head domain are measured as surrogate correlates of protection against influenza. In addition to neutralization, hemagglutinin-specific antibodies may provide protection by mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). During the 2009 pandemic, vaccination induced HA-specific antibodies that were mostly directed to the conserved HA stalk domain. However, the protective role of these antibodies has not been investigated in detail. We quantified the HA head and stalk-specific antibodies, their avidity, ability to neutralise virus and activate natural killer cells in an ADCC assay. We analyzed sera obtained from 14 healthcare workers who had low hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres at 3 months after pandemic H1N1 vaccination as well as from 22 controls. Vaccination resulted in a HA stalk dominant antibody response in both low responders and controls. Revaccination of low responders, 5 months later, resulted in a boost in antibodies, with HA head-specific antibodies dominating the response. Comparative analysis of head and stalk antibody avidities revealed that stalk-specific antibodies were qualitatively superior. Furthermore, stalk-specific antibodies mediated virus neutralization and had significantly higher ADCC activity than head-specific antibodies. Despite the head and stalk-specific antibodies being lower in low responders, they had comparable antibody avidity, ADCC functionality and neutralising capacity to those of controls who had high HI titres post-vaccination. Thus, our study has demonstrated that HA stalk-specific antibodies may have an important role in protection through neutralization and ADCC in low responders who do not maintain seroprotective HI antibodies.

  9. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  10. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook

    1979-01-01

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  11. Localization of tumors in vivo by scintigraphic identification of Clostridium butyricum using 131I-labelled antibodies and F(ab')2-antibody fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.; Mehnert, W.H.; Schmidt, H.E.; Altenbrunn, H.J.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1979-01-01

    Tumor-bearing mice injected with clostridial spores show enrichment and germination of the spores within the tumor. 131 I-labelled anti-Clostridium-antibodies and anti-Clostridium-F(ab') 2 -fragments were used for a possible localization of tumors in vivo by scintiscanning. The application of the antibody revealed increased radioactivity in the tumors of mice pretreated with spores as well as in animals without pretreatment. In using F(ab') 2 -fragments instead of total antibody neither the apparently unspecific increase of radioactivity in not pretreated mice nor the specific fixation of labelled F(ab') 2 -fragments to clostridial rods in the tumors of pretreated animals could be demonstrated. The results are discussed with respect to further investigation

  12. Kinetics of intralymphatically delivered monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.; Geatti, O.; Liebert, M.; Beers, B.; Jackson, G.; Laino, L.; Kronberg, S.; Wilson, B.S.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) administration subcutaneously (sq), so that preferential uptake is to the lymphatics, holds significant promise for the detection of lymph node metastases. Only limited information is available about clearance rates of intralymphatically administered MoAbs. I-131 labeled intact IgG (225.28S), F(ab's)2 (225.28S) or IgM (FT162) were administered sq to anesthetized Balb/C mice. Eight mice were studied with each MoAb, 4 with a foot-pad injection, 4 with an anterior abdominal injection. Gamma camera images were collected into a computer, over the first 6 hrs after injection with the animals anesthetized and immobile. Animals were then allowed to move about freely. Additional images were then acquired out to 48 hrs. Regions of interest wre selected over the injection site and the kinetics of antibody egress determined. Clearance rates from local sq injection sites are influenced by motion and somewhat by location. The class and fragment status of the MoAb appear relatively less important in determining clearance rates from sq injections than they are in determining whole-body clearance after iv injections. Additional studies using Fab fragments and additional monoclonals will be useful in extending these observations

  13. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  14. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  15. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021. We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  16. Protective immunization with B16 melanoma induces antibody response and not cytotoxic T cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarzotti, M.; Sriyuktasuth, P.; Klimpel, G.R.; Cerny, J.

    1986-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice immunized with three intraperitoneal injections of syngeneic, irradiated B16 melanoma cells, became resistant to B16 tumor challenge. Immunized mice had high levels of serum antibody against a membrane antigen of B16 cells. The B16 antigen recognized by the anti-B16 sera formed a major band of 90 KD in gel electrophoresis. The anti-B16 antibody was partially protective when mixed with B16 cells and injected into normal recipient mice. Surprisingly, B16 resistance mice were incapable of generating cytotoxic T cells (CTL) specific for the B16 tumor. Both spleen and lymph node cell populations from immunized mice did not generate B16-specific CTL. Allogeneic mice (DBA/2 or C3H) were also unable to generate B16-specific CTL: however, alloreactive CTL produced in these strains of mice by immunization with C57BL/6 lymphocytes, did kill B16 target cells. Interestingly, spleen cells from syngeneic mice immunized with B16 tumor produced 6-fold more interleukin-2 (IL-2) than normal spleen cells, in vitro. These data suggest that immunization with B16 tumor activates a helper subset of T cells (for antibody and IL-2 production) but not the effector CTL response

  17. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  18. Neurotoxic Antibodies against the Prion Protein Do Not Trigger Prion Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Frontzek

    Full Text Available Prions are the infectious agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, progressive, inexorably lethal neurological diseases. Antibodies targeting the globular domain (GD of the cellular prion protein PrPC trigger a neurotoxic syndrome morphologically and molecularly similar to prion disease. This phenomenon raises the question whether such antibodies induce infectious prions de novo. Here we exposed cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS to the neurotoxic antibody, POM1. We then inoculated COCS homogenates into tga20 mice, which overexpress PrPC and are commonly utilized as sensitive indicators of prion infectivity. None of the mice inoculated with COCS-derived lysates developed any signs of disease, and all mice survived for at least 200 days post-inoculation. In contrast, all mice inoculated with bona fide prions succumbed to TSE after 55-95 days. Post-mortem analyses did not reveal any signs of prion pathology in mice inoculated with POM1-COCS lysates. Also, lysates from POM1-exposed COCS were unable to convert PrP by quaking. Hence, anti-GD antibodies do not catalyze the generation of prion infectivity. These data indicate that prion replication can be separated from prion toxicity, and suggest that anti-GD antibodies exert toxicity by acting downstream of prion replication.

  19. CD47 limits antibody dependent phagocytosis against non-malignant B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sandra; Turman, Sean; Lekstrom, Kristen; Wilson, Susan; Herbst, Ronald; Wang, Yue

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of CD47 in protecting malignant B cells from antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Combined treatment of anti-CD47 and -CD20 antibodies synergistically augment elimination of tumor B cells in xenograft mouse models. This has led to the development of novel reagents that can potentially enhance killing of malignant B cells in patients. B cell depleting therapy is also a promising treatment for autoimmune patients. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether or not CD47 protects non-malignant B cells from ADCP. We show that CD47 is expressed on all B cells in mice, with the highest level on plasma cells in bone marrow and spleen. Although its expression is dispensable for B cell development in mice, CD47 on B cells limits antibody mediated phagocytosis. B cell depletion following in vivo anti-CD19 treatment is more efficient in CD47-/- mice than in wild type mice. In vitro, both naïve and activated B cells from CD47-/- mice are more sensitive to ADCP than wild type B cells. Lastly, we show in an ADCP assay that blocking CD47 can enhance anti-CD19 antibody mediated phagocytosis of wild type B cells. These results suggest that in addition to its already demonstrated benefit in cancer, targeting CD47 may be used as an adjunct in combination with B cell depletion antibodies for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  1. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you have a higher chance of developing thyroid disease in the future. Antithyroid microsomal antibodies may be ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. Weiss RE, Refetoff S. Thyroid function testing. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and ... Lupus Read more ...

  2. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    determine their targets on the cell. The newly discovered antibodies will then be engineered for utility as new highly specific drugs and diagnostics in...are from the aldo-keto reductase family (AKRs). Remarkably, 3 of the top 10 genes with induction in the mesenchymal TES2b cells Figure 1. Amino

  3. Monoclonal antibodies in haematopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignani, F.; Martelli, M.F.; Mason, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Oncogene (c-myc, c-myb) amplification in acute myelogenous leukaemia; Ultrastructural characterization of leukaemic cells with monoloclonal antibodies; Origin of B-cell malignancies; Immunohistology of gut lymphomas; and Spurious evidence of lineage infidelity in monocytic leukaemia.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  5. Adjuvant treatment with dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies improves outcome of experimental pneumococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasanmoentalib, E. Soemirien; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Morgan, B. Paul; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    We compared adjunctive treatment with placebo, dexamethasone, anti-C5 antibodies, and the combination of dexamethasone plus anti-C5 antibodies in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. In this prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized trial, 96 mice were infected intracisternally with 10(7)

  6. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Wilson, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  7. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with multiple epitopes on the human insulin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soos, M A; Siddle, K; Baron, M D; Heward, J M; Luzio, J P; Bellatin, J; Lennox, E S

    1986-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies for the human insulin receptor were produced following immunization of mice with IM-9 lymphocytes and/or purified placental receptor. Four separate fusions yielded 28 antibodies, all of which reacted with receptor from human placenta, liver and IM-9 cells. Some antibodies cross-reacted to varying degrees with receptor from rabbit, cow, pig and sheep, but none reacted with rat receptor. At least 10 distinct epitopes were recognized as indicated by species specificity and binding competition experiments. All of these epitopes appeared to be on extracellular domains of the receptor as shown by binding of antibodies to intact cells. In some cases the epitopes were further localized to alpha or beta subunits by immunoblotting. Several antibodies inhibited binding of 125I-insulin to the receptor, some had no effect on binding, and others enhanced the binding of 125I-insulin. It is concluded that these antibodies will be valuable probes of receptor structure and function.

  9. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery...

  10. Responding to Loneliness: Counseling the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, M. Honore

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a group on "Responding to Loneliness" for the elderly. Focuses on building positive self-esteem; learning social and personal skills; managing stress and anxiety; developing problem-solving strategies; and building a social network. (Author/JAC)

  11. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  12. Responding with Care to Students Facing Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to trauma--which many experts view as include ongoing life stressors like poverty, parents divorcing, death of a family member, or drug abuse in the home--is prevalent among school-aged children. Teachers know that facing trauma impedes students' ability to focus and learn, but it can be challenging to keep responding caringly to a…

  13. Editorial: How to respond to reviewers' comments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soji, Zimkhitha

    Is the content and writing satisfactory enough to make it worth reviewing? Not adequately addressing concerns raised by the reviewers and/or editors does not help the peer-review and publishing processes. Poor judgement when responding to reviewers'/editors' comments often produces a undesirable outcome. Merely ...

  14. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  15. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  16. Responding to Misinformation about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.; Estow, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined responses to climate change misinformation and messages designed to counter misinformation. Participants (N = 406) first responded to a social media post denying the existence of global warming and then were randomly assigned to read one of three responses to the original post (correction, collaboration, control). Participants…

  17. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  18. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  19. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with monoclonal antibodies to glycine receptor-α1. Ten glycine receptor antibody positive samples were also identified in a retrospective cohort of 56 patients with stiff person syndrome and related syndromes. Glycine receptor antibodies are strongly associated with spinal and brainstem disorders, and the majority of patients have progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. The antibodies demonstrate in vitro evidence of pathogenicity and the patients respond well to immunotherapies, contrasting with earlier studies of this syndrome, which indicated a poor prognosis. The presence of glycine receptor antibodies should help to identify a disease that responds to immunotherapies, but these treatments may need to be sustained, relapses can occur and maintenance immunosuppression may be required. PMID:24951641

  20. Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 μg of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10 4 times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected

  1. Serum Antibodies Protect against Intraperitoneal Challenge with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether anticolonization factor antigen I (CFA/I fimbriae antibodies (Abs from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC can protect against various routes of challenge, BALB/c mice were immunized with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector expressing CFA/I fimbriae. Vaccinated mice elicited elevated systemic IgG and mucosal IgA Abs, unlike mice immunized with the empty Salmonella vector. Mice were challenged with wild-type ETEC by the oral, intranasal (i.n., and intraperitoneal (i.p. routes. Naïve mice did not succumb to oral challenge, but did to i.n. challenge, as did immunized mice; however, vaccinated mice were protected against i.p. ETEC challenge. Two intramuscular (i.m. immunizations with CFA/I fimbriae without adjuvant conferred 100% protection against i.p. ETEC challenge, while a single 30 μg dose conferred 88% protection. Bactericidal assays showed that ETEC is highly sensitive to anti-CFA/I sera. These results suggest that parenteral immunization with purified CFA/I fimbriae can induce protective Abs and may represent an alternative method to elicit protective Abs for passive immunity to ETEC.

  2. Magnetic Purification of Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar Laxman

    This work aimed at the development of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody purification and at the evaluation of their performance in Magnetic fishing and in a newly developed hybrid technology Magnetic Aqueous Two Phase Systems. Magnetic materials were produced by coprecipitation and solvothermal approaches. Natural polymers such as dextran, extracellular polysaccharide and gum Arabic were employed for coating of iron oxide magnetic supports. Polymer coated magnetic supports were then modified with synthetic antibody specific ligands,namely boronic acid, a triazine ligand (named 22/8) and an Ugi ligand (named A2C7I1). To optimize the efficacy of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody magnetic fishing, various solutions of pure and crude antibody solutions along with BSA as a non-specific binding protein were tested. The selectivity of magnetic nanoparticle for antibody, IgG, was found effective with boronic acid and ligand 22/8. Magnetic supports were then studied for their performance in high gradient magnetic separator for effective separation capability as well as higher volume handling capability. The magnetic materials were also supplemented to aqueous two phase systems, devising a new purification technology. For this purpose, magnetic particles modified with boronic acid were more effective. This alternative strategy reduced the time of operation,maximized separation capability (yield and purity), while reducing the amount of salt required. Boronic acid coated magnetic particles bound 170 +/- 10 mg hIgG/g MP and eluted 160 +/- 5 mg hIgG/g MP, while binding only 15 +/- 5 mg BSA/g MP. The affinity constant for the interaction between hIgG and APBA_MP was estimated as 4.9 x 105 M-1 (Ka) with a theoretical maximum capacity of 492 mg hIgG adsorbed/g MP (Qmax). APBA_MPs were also tested for antibody purification directly from CHO cell supernatants. The particles were able to bind 98% of IgG loaded and to recover 95% of pure IgG (purity greater than 98%) at extremely

  3. Novel Evidence-Based Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furie, Richard A.; Petri, Michelle A.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Stohl, William; Chatham, W. Winn; Strand, Vibeke; Weinstein, Arthur; Chevrier, Marc R.; Zhong, John; Freimuth, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe a new systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Responder Index (SRI) based on the belimumab phase II SLE trial and demonstrate its potential utility in SLE clinical trials. Methods Data from a 449-patient randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3 doses of belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo plus standard of care therapy (SOC) over a 56-week period were analyzed. SELENA-SLEDAI and BILAG SLE disease activity instruments, SF-36 Health Survey, and biomarker analyses were used to create a novel SRI. Response to treatment in a subset of SLE patients (n=321) who were serologically active (ANA ≥1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA antibody ≥30 IU) at baseline was retrospectively evaluated using the SRI. Results SRI response is defined as: 1) ≥4-point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score; 2) no new BILAG A or no more than 1 new BILAG B domain score; and 3) no deterioration from baseline in the Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) by ≥0.3 points. In serologically active patients, addition of belimumab to SOC resulted in a response in 46% of patients at week 52 compared with 29% for the placebo patients (P=0.006). SRI responses were independent of baseline autoantibody subtype. Conclusion Evidence-based evaluation of a large randomized, placebo-controlled trial in SLE resulted in the ability to define a robust responder index based on improvement in disease activity without worsening of the overall condition or the development of significant disease activity in new organ systems. PMID:19714615

  4. Neutralizing antibodies obtained in a persistent immune response are effective against deleterious effects induced by the Thalassophryne nattereri fish venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Komegae, Evilin Naname; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira; Fonseca, Luiz Alberto; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2007-06-01

    Thalassophryne nattereri envenoming represents a great cost to North and Northeast Brazilian communities in terms of public healths, leisure and tourism. Victims rapidally develop symptoms as pain, local swelling, erythema followed by intense necrosis that persist for long days. The aim of this work was tested the immune competence of neutralizing antibodies in pre-immunized mice against principal toxic activities induced by venom. During the primary antibody response in mice, an elevation of IgG antibody levels was only observed on day 28. After boosting, high antibody levels were detected between days 49 and 70, with a 12-fold increase in IgG level over control values at day 49. We confirmed the in vitro neutralizing capacity of T. nattereri anti-venom against toxic effects and thereafter we show that neutralizing antibodies obtained in a persistent immune response are more effective, inclusive against edematous reaction. After boosting during the secondary response mice with high antibody levels do not present any alterations in venule or arteriole after topical application of venom on cremaster muscle. In addition, CK activity diminished in these mice with high neutralizing antibody levels corroborating the attenuation of the myonecrotic effect by venom. In addition, we determined the presence of high IgG antibodies levels in patients 6 months after injury by T. nattereri. In conclusion, the presence of neutralizing antibodies against to T. nattereri venom in the serum of pre-immunized mice could change the outcome of lesion at site of posterior envenoming. Antigen-specific antibodies of high affinity in consequence to specific immune response, dependent of T lymphocyte activation, could minimize the symptoms of intense and immediate inflammatory reaction caused by T. nattereri venom. These finding prompt us to the possibility of development of immune therapeutic strategies using specific anti-venom as an efficient intervention for protecting human victims.

  5. Clinical use of antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Hoer, Gustav; Cox, P.H.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies as tumour specific carrier molecules for therapeutic agents or as in vivo diagnostic reagents when labelled with radionuclides or NMR signal enhancers is attracting more and more attention. The potential is enormous but the technical problems are also considerable requiring the concerted action of many different scientific disciplines. This volume is based upon a symposium organised in Frankfurt in 1990 under the auspices of the European Association of Nuclear Medicines' Specialist Task Groups on Cardiology and the Utility of Labelled Antibodies. It gives a multidisciplinary review of the state of the art and of problems to be solved as well as recording the not inconsiderable successes which have been booked to date. The book will be of value as a reference to both clinicians and research scientists. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy produces clinical durable response in 25-30% of recurrent glioblastoma patients. This group of patients has shown improved survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression associated with response...... and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.Methods: Recurrent glioblastoma patients who had biomarker-accessible tumor tissue surgically removed both before bevacizumab treatment and at time of progression were included. Patients were grouped into responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 14). Gene......-responders 1 gene was significantly differentially expressed. In responders, this approach revealed 256 significantly differentially expressed genes (72 down-and 184 up-regulated genes at the time of progression). Genes differentially expressed in responders revealed a shift towards a more proneural and less...

  7. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... for a circulating and newer strain of avian influenza, and would aid in combating the disease in a pandemic situation, in which production time matters ... India; Indian Immunologicals Ltd, Hyderabad, India; Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India- ...

  8. Production of yam mosaic virus monoclonal antibodies in mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    mail: angelaeni@gmail.com. economically important viruses infecting yam. YMV has been reported to be widespread in all yam producing countries around the world (Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996;. Kenyon et al., 2001; Lebas, ...

  9. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... 1Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru. Technological University ... 3Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New. Delhi, India ..... Biesova Z, Miller MA, Schneerson R, Shiloach J, Green KY,. Robbins JB and Keith JM 2009 ...

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin B6 contents on antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, T; Okada, M; Matsui, A; Hanba, J; Murata, E; Katunuma, N

    2000-01-01

    When mice were placed on diets extreme deficient in vitamin B6, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgE, IgG1, IgG2a) were significantly suppressed, and alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver was also significantly decreased. In the case of pyridoxine excess (6 mg% = about ten times standard amount) in a 70% casein diet, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions were also considerably suppressed. These responses were weaker in a low casein (5%) or normal casein (20%) diet than in a 70% casein diet. The administration of high doses of pyridoxine (6 mg%) resulted in the suppression of hepatic cathepsin B activity. Therefore, we conclude that ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgG1, IgE) were suppressed by pyridoxine excess diet (6 mg%), because hepatic cathepsin B activity was suppressed by the excess pyridoxine in diet.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to apolipoprotein AI: generation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falero, G; Rodriguez, I; Rojas, A

    1993-01-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with apolipoprotein (apo AI)--high density lipoprotein (HDL) conjugate. By polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of isolated spleen cells with the myeloma cell line P3 X63 Ag8 6.5.3, three different hybridomas were obtained and characterized. Two of them were found to secrete antibodies of the IgG2a subclass, whereas the third produced antibodies of the IgG1 type. Binding capacities to 125I-apo AI and 125I-HDL were higher than 90% in all cases. The isolated antibodies recognize independent epitopes on the apo AI molecule and bind isolated HDL and serum-HDL with different affinities.

  12. Identification and evaluation of nextgeneration PTM-specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Nina Emilia

    selectionprocess needs to exclude cross-reactive or suboptimal binders at an early stage to avoid problemsin the downstream evaluation process.In this thesis, a microarray screening assay is described. This assay combines an antibody and anantigen microarray for high content screening of multiple single......-chain fragment variable (scFv)clones. Two different analyses are performed on the same microarray. There is no need for anypurification or enrichment before screening. In the first analysis, the ability of the individualscFv clone to bind to the soluble form of the antigens is evaluated. Favouring selection.......In subsequent project, a new antibody library was constructed from the heavy chain variabledomain of G2-D11 and random light chains domains from immunized mice. Using this antibodylibrary and our screening assay, we could select a number of antibodies specific for the Tnantigenon a peptide from the CD43 protein...

  13. Effect of immune reconstitution on resistance to Brugia pahangi in congenitally athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L; Sodeman, W A

    1983-06-01

    The dichotomy of resistance to Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) between nonsusceptible, euthymic C3H/HeN mice, heterozygotic for the "nu" gene (+/nu), and susceptible, congenitally-athymic "nude" (nu/nu) C3H/HeN mice, suggests that resistance is thymus-dependent. To test this hypothesis, the effect of syngeneic neonatal thymus grafts and neonatal thymus cell suspensions on recovery of worms at day 40 PI, and responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) were examined in reconstituted nudes. Nude recipients of a thymus graft 7 or 14 wk before subcutaneous inoculation with 50 infective larvae (L3) yielded no worms and responded strongly to Con A. Serum from these mice reacted in two lines of identity with serum from similarly-infected heterozygotes by double radial immunodiffusion against an adult worm saline extract. Nude recipients of a thymus 2 days or 3 wk before inoculation harbored an average of three or two worms, respectively. Intravenous injection of nude recipients with 10(7) or 10(8) neonatal thymus cells seven weeks before inoculation was less effective in conferring resistance to B. pahangi and responsiveness to Con A. Complete resistance to B. pahangi could be adoptively transferred to nude mice by 10(8) spleen cells obtained from infection-primed heterozygotes and injected intravenously on the day of larval inoculation. The same numbers of worms were significantly reduced. less effective when injected 3 wk before inoculation, although numbers of worms were significantly reduced. Passive transfer of primed heterozygote serum, containing high titers of antibodies to adult worm and larval antigens, failed to protect nude recipients against a larval inoculum in the absence of cellular reconstitution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)