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Sample records for antibody encephalitis temporal

  1. Human-like antibodies neutralizing Western equine encephalitis virus

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    Hülseweh, Birgit; Rülker, Torsten; Pelat, Thibaut; Langermann, Claudia; Frenzel, Andrè; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development of the first neutralizing antibodies against Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), a member of the genus Alphavirus. WEEV is transmitted by mosquitoes and can spread to the human central nervous system, causing symptoms ranging from mild febrile reactions to life-threatening encephalitis. WEEV has been classified as a biological warfare agent by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No anti-WEEV drugs are currently commercially available. Neutralizing antibodies are useful for the pre- and post-exposure treatment of WEEV infections. In this study, two immune antibody gene libraries were constructed from two macaques immunized with inactivated WEEV. Four antibodies were selected from these libraries and recloned as scFv-Fc, with a human Fc part. These antibodies bound WEEV specifically in ELISA with little or no cross-reaction with other alphaviruses. They were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All binders were suitable for the intracellular detection of WEEV particles. Neutralizing activity was determined in vitro. Three of the four antibodies were found to be neutralizing; about 1 ng/mL of the best antibody (ToR69–3A2) neutralized 50% of 5x104 TCID50/mL. Due to its human-like nature with a germinality index of 89% (VH) and 91% (VL), the ToR69–3A2 antibody is a promising candidate for future passive vaccine development. PMID:24518197

  2. Are Onconeural Antibodies a Clinical Phenomenology in Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis?

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    Hongliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs occur in patients with cancer and can cause clinical symptoms and signs of dysfunction of the nervous system that are not due to a local effect of the tumor or its metastases. Most of these clinical syndromes in adults are associated with lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC, lymphoma, and gynecological tumors. The finding of highly specific antibodies directed against onconeural antigens has revolutionized the diagnosis and promoted the understanding of these syndromes and led to the current hypothesis of an autoimmune pathophysiology. Accumulating data strongly suggested direct pathogenicity of these antibodies. The field of PNS has expanded rapidly in the past few years with the discovery of limbic encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65, the voltage (VGKC-gated potassium channel complex, the methyl (N-NMDA-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA (B receptors, and so forth. Despite this, the clinical spectrum of these diseases has not yet been fully investigated. The clinical importance of these conditions lies in their frequent response to immunotherapies and, less commonly, their association with distinctive tumors. This review provides an overview on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of PNS, with emphasis on the role of antibodies in limbic encephalitis.

  3. Potassium channel antibody-associated encephalopathy: a potentially immunotherapy-responsive form of limbic encephalitis.

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    Vincent, Angela; Buckley, Camilla; Schott, Jonathan M; Baker, Ian; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Detert, Niels; Clover, Linda; Parkinson, Abigail; Bien, Christian G; Omer, Salah; Lang, Bethan; Rossor, Martin N; Palace, Jackie

    2004-03-01

    Patients presenting with subacute amnesia are frequently seen in acute neurological practice. Amongst the differential diagnoses, herpes simplex encephalitis, Korsakoff's syndrome and limbic encephalitis should be considered. Limbic encephalitis is typically a paraneoplastic syndrome with a poor prognosis; thus, identifying those patients with potentially reversible symptoms is important. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-Ab) have recently been reported in three cases of reversible limbic encephalitis. Here we review the clinical, immunological and neuropsychological features of 10 patients (nine male, one female; age range 44-79 years), eight of whom were identified in two centres over a period of 15 months. The patients presented with 1-52 week histories of memory loss, confusion and seizures. Low plasma sodium concentrations, initially resistant to treatment, were present in eight out of 10. Brain MRI at onset showed signal change in the medial temporal lobes in eight out of 10 cases. Paraneoplastic antibodies were negative, but VGKC-Ab ranged from 450 to 5128 pM (neurological and healthy controls memory, with sparing of general intellect in all but two patients, and of nominal functions in all but one. Variable regimes of steroids, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin were associated with variable falls in serum VGKC-Abs, to values between 2 and 88% of the initial values, together with marked improvement of neuropsychological functioning in six patients, slight improvement in three and none in one. The improvement in neuropsychological functioning in seven patients correlated broadly with the fall in antibodies. However, varying degrees of cerebral atrophy and residual cognitive impairment were common. Over the same period, only one paraneoplastic case of limbic encephalitis was identified between the two main centres. Thus, VGKC-Ab-associated encephalopathy is a relatively common form of autoimmune, non-paraneoplastic, potentially

  4. Motor cortex and hippocampus are the two main cortical targets in LGI1-antibody encephalitis.

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    Navarro, Vincent; Kas, Aurélie; Apartis, Emmanuelle; Chami, Linda; Rogemond, Véronique; Levy, Pierre; Psimaras, Dimitri; Habert, Marie-Odile; Baulac, Michel; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Honnorat, Jérome

    2016-04-01

    Encephalitis associated with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein is increasingly recognized as an auto-immune disorder associated with characteristic tonic-dystonic seizures. The cortical or subcortical origin of these motor events is not clear. Some patients also present with different epileptic seizures and with cognitive impairment. The frequency of these features and their timing during the natural history of this encephalitis have not been fully described. We therefore reviewed data from 34 patients harbouring antibodies against LGI1 protein (21-81 years, median age 64) referred to the French Reference Centre for Neurological Paraneoplastic Syndrome. Three types of evidence suggested tonic-dystonic seizures were of cortical origin: (i) a slow, unilateral, frontal electroencephalographic wave, of duration ∼580 ms and amplitude ∼71 µV, preceded the contralateral tonic-dystonic seizures in simultaneous electroencephalographic and myographic records from seven of seven patients tested; (ii) 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose imaging revealed a strong hypermetabolism in primary motor cortex, controlateral to the affected limb, during encephalitis for five patients tested, as compared with data from the same patients after remission or from 16 control subjects; and (iii) features of polymyographic records of tonic-dystonic seizure events pointed to a cortical origin. Myoclonic patterns with brief, rhythmic bursts were present in three of five patients tested and a premyoclonic potential was identified in the cortex of one patient. Initially during encephalitis, 11 of 34 patients exhibited tonic-dystonic seizures (32%). Distinct epileptic syndromes were evident in 13 patients (38%). They were typically simple, focal seizures from the temporal lobe, consisting of vegetative symptoms or fear. At later stages, 22 of 32 patients displayed tonic-dystonic seizures (68%) and 29 patients presented frequent seizures (91%) including status epilepticus

  5. Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

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    Ke-Qin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to immunotherapy, but refused comprehensive tumor screening. The symptoms were aggravated again 4 months later. Workup showed antibodies to GABA-B receptors and tumor screening revealed SCLC. It highlights the importance of early screening of underlying tumor and anti-tumor treatment in paraneoplastic cases.

  6. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibodies in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Charite University Medicine Berlin, and other centers in Germany, Spain and the US performed a retrospective analysis of 44 patients with polymerase chain reaction-proven herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE for the presence of onconeuronal and synaptic receptor antibodies.

  7. Reversible limbic encephalitis with antibodies against the membranes of neurones of the hippocampus

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    Shimazaki, H; Ando, Y.; Nakano, I; Dalmau, J

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a patient with limbic encephalitis associated with an ovarian teratoma. An antibody against the membranes of neurones of the hippocampus was identified in both serum and CSF. Immunosuppressive treatments such as plasmapheresis and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin administration resulted in a rapid clinical recovery.

  8. Multiple autoimmune antibody limbic encephalitis: a case in a pregnant woman

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    Meha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is most commonly associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, among other neuronal cell surface receptors. Here, a case of a pregnant female with limbic encephalitis in the presence of multiple additional autoimmune antibodies is described. The patient was a 36-year-old female who presented with 4 days of confusion, hallucinations, hypersexuality, disinhibition, and pressured speech. The patient's work-up detected the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, and a yet uncharacterized neuronal autoantibody. The patient was also found to be pregnant. No evidence of ovarian or other pelvic malignancy was discovered. Symptomatic control was achieved with plasma exchange.

  9. Neutralization of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by heme-induced broadly reactive human monoclonal antibody

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    Nimesh Gupta; Mélissanne de Wispelaere; Maxime Lecerf; Manjula Kalia; Tobias Scheel; Sudhanshu Vrati; Claudia Berek; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Philippe Desprès; Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Dimitrov, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently domina...

  10. Autoantibodies to neuronal surface antigens in thyroid antibody-positive and -negative limbic encephalitis

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    Erdem Tuzun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid antibodies (Thy-Abs are frequently detected in various autoimmune disorders in coexistence with other systemic autoantibodies. In association with an encephalopathy, they are often taken as evidence of Hashimoto′s encephalitis (HE. However, the presence of Thy-Abs in a cohort of limbic encephalitis (LE patients and their association with anti-neuronal autoimmunity has not been explored. Patients and Methods : We investigated thyroid and anti-neuronal antibodies in the sera of 24 LE patients without identified tumors by cell-based assay and radioimmunoassay and evaluated their clinical features. Results : There was a female predominance in Thy-Ab-positive LE patients. Five of the eight Thy-Ab-positive patients and six of the 16 Thy-Ab-negative patients had antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR or undefined surface antigens on cultured hippocampal neurons. There were trends towards fewer VGKC antibodies (1/8 vs. 5/16, P = 0.159 and more NMDAR antibodies (2/8 vs. 1/16, P = 0.095 among the Thy-Ab-positive LE patients; antibodies to undefined surface antigens were only identified in Thy-Ab-positive patients (2/8 vs. 0/16, P = 0.018. There were no distinguishing clinical features between Thy-Ab-positive patients with and without neuronal antibodies. However, patients with anti-neuronal antibodies showed a better treatment response. Conclusion : Thy-Abs can be found in a high proportion of patients with non-paraneoplastic LE, often in association with antibodies to specific or as yet undefined neuronal surface antigens. These results suggest that acute idiopathic encephalitis patients with Thy-Abs should be closely monitored for ion-channel antibodies and it should not be assumed that they have HE.

  11. Surveys for Antibodies Against Mosquitoborne Encephalitis Viruses in California Birds, 1996-2013.

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    Reisen, William K; Wheeler, Sarah S

    2016-04-01

    From 1996 through 2013, 54,546 individual birds comprising 152 species and 7 orders were banded, bled, and released at four study areas within California, from which 28,388 additional serum samples were collected at one or more recapture encounters. Of these, 142, 99, and 1929 birds from 41 species were positive for neutralizing antibodies against western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), or West Nile virus (WNV) at initial capture or recapture, respectively. Overall, 83% of the positive serum samples were collected from five species: House Finch, House Sparrow, Mourning Dove, California Quail, and Western Scrub-Jay. Temporal data supported concurrent arbovirus surveillance and documented the disappearance of birds positive for WEEV in 2008 and SLEV in 2003 and the appearance of birds positive for WNV after its invasion in 2003. Results of these serosurveys agreed well with the host selection patterns of the Culex vectors as described from bloodmeal sequencing data and indicated that transmission of WNV seemed most effective within urban areas where avian and mosquito host diversity was limited to relatively few competent species. PMID:26974395

  12. Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Anti-γ-aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Antibodies: A Case Series from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Zhi Guan; Hai-Tao Ren; Xun-Zhe Yang; Qiang Lu; Bin Peng; Yi-Cheng Zhu; Xiao-Qiu Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR) in patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) was first described in 2010.We present a series of Han Chinese patients for further clinical refinement.Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients referred to the program of encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndrome of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were tested with indirect immunofluorescence.Clinical information of patients with anti-GABABR antibody positivity was retrospectively reviewed, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed.Results: All eighteen anti-GABABR antibody-positive cases had limbic syndromes, and electroencephalogram (EEG) or neuroimaging evidence fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of LE.Four patients had additional antibodies against Hu in serum and one had anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody in both sera and CSE Seventeen (17/18) patients presented with new-onset refractory seizure or status epileptics.Twelve (12/18) patients had memory deficits, 11 (11/18) patients had personality change, 7 (7/18) patients had disturbance of consciousness, and 3 (3/18) patients showed cerebellar dysfunction.One patient with LE had progressive motor and sensory polyneuropathy.Lung cancer was detected in 6 (6/18) patients.Ten (10/18) patients showed abnormality in bilateral or unilateral mediotemporal region on magnetic resonance imaging.Ten (10/18) patients had temporal lobe epileptic activity with or without general slowing on EEG.Seventeen patients received immunotherapy and 15 of them showed neurological improvement.Four patients with lung cancer died within 1-12 months due to neoplastic complications.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that most Han Chinese patients with anti-GABABR antibody-associated LE have prominent refractory epilepsy and show neurological improvement on immunotherapy.Patients with underlying lung tumor have a relatively poor prognosis

  13. Anti-NMDA-receptor antibody detected in encephalitis, schizophrenia, and narcolepsy with psychotic features

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    Tsutsui Ko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causative role of encephalitis in major psychotic features, dyskinesias (particularly orofacial, seizures, and autonomic and respiratory changes has been recently emphasized. These symptoms often occur in young females with ovarian teratomas and are frequently associated with serum and CSF autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR. Methods The study included a total of 61 patients from age 15 to 61 and was carried out between January 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2010. The patients were divided into the following three clinical groups for comparison. Group A; Patients with typical clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Group B; Patients with narcolepsy with severe psychosis. Group C; Patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders. Results Ten out of 61 cases were anti-NMDAR antibody positive in typical encephalitis cases (group A: 3 of 5 cases and cases in a broader range of psychiatric disorders including narcolepsy (group B: 3 of 5 cases and schizophrenia (group C: 4 of 51 cases. Conclusion In addition to 3 typical cases, we found 7 cases with anti-NMDAR antibody associated with various psychotic and sleep symptoms, which lack any noticeable clinical signs of encephalitis (seizures and autonomic symptoms throughout the course of the disease episodes; this result suggest that further discussion on the nosology and pathophysiology of autoimmune-mediated atypical psychosis and sleep disorders is required.

  14. A Special Electroencephalography Pattern Might Help in the Diagnosis of Antibody-positive Encephalitis

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    Li-Ping Mei; Li-Ping Li; Jing Ye; Yu-Ping Wang; Jun Zhao; Tong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Patterns observed with electroencephalography (EEG) for patients who have encephalitis are usually known as generalized nonspecific cerebral abnormalities.The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a special EEG pattern for patients with encephalitis and to explore features related to this special and uncommon pattern.Methods:EEG monitoring was performed for every patient aged > 15 years with encephalitis who was hospitalized between December 2011 and March 2014.Clinical characteristics and EEG recordings were collected and evaluated.Results:Fifty-two patients with encephalitis were enrolled in our study with a 2-h median EEG recording time,and extreme beta brushes (EBBs) occurred in 17 patients (32.7%).Its presence was not significant regarding gender,age,psychiatric medication use,EEG rhythmic disorganization (P > 0.05).Nevertheless,among the patients with EBBs,nine patients (52.9%) had epileptic seizures that had a significant detection rate (P < 0.05); moreover,the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum of 15 patients (88.2%) with EBBs was positive for antibodies (P < 0.05).Four patients (23.5%) who had EBB had corresponding regional distributions on neuroimaging scans.The EBBs completely correlated with the regional distributions of spike discharges for four patients.Conclusion:EBB is a special EEG pattern for patients with encephalitis,especially those with epileptic seizures or who have antibody-positive CSF/serum,and should be considered in clinical practice.

  15. High Grade Glioma Mimicking Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Complex Associated Antibody Limbic Encephalitis

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    Dilan Athauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE. This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  16. Are Onconeural Antibodies a Clinical Phenomenology in Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis?

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    Hongliang Zhang; Chunkui Zhou; Limin Wu; Fengming Ni; Jie Zhu; Tao Jin

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) occur in patients with cancer and can cause clinical symptoms and signs of dysfunction of the nervous system that are not due to a local effect of the tumor or its metastases. Most of these clinical syndromes in adults are associated with lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC), lymphoma, and gynecological tumors. The finding of highly specific antibodies directed against onconeural antigens has revolutionized the diagnosis and promot...

  17. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and other glutamate and GABA receptor antibody encephalopathies.

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    De Bruijn, Marienke A A M; Titulaer, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few year, antibodies to various central nervous system receptors, particularly the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, have been found to be associated with autoimmune neurologic disorders. The receptors include the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and GABA type A and B receptors (respectively GABAAR and GABABR). Compared to the previously described paraneoplastic antibodies directed at intracellular targets, the patients with receptor antibodies are often younger, they less frequently have malignancies, and they respond better to immunotherapy. Many of the patients have limbic encephalitis with amnesia, disorientation, seizures, and psychological or psychiatric symptoms, but those with NMDAR antibodies usually develop a more widespread form of encephalitis, often leading to a decrease in consciousness and requirement for long-term intensive care treatment. The autoantibodies bind directly to the synaptic or extrasynaptic receptors on the membrane surface, and have direct effects on signal transduction in central synapses. These conditions are very important to recognize as the symptoms and complications can be fatal when not treated in time, whereas with immunotherapy many patients recover considerably. PMID:27112679

  18. Epidemic characteristics and viral antibody level among healthy people of Japanese B encephalitis in Henan province in 2010

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    唐晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemic characteristics and viral antibody level among healthy people of Japanese B encephalitis (JE) in Henan province in 2010. Methods A total of 433 selected JE cases in Henan province in 2010 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological method

  19. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

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    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of economically impor...

  20. Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies.

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    Hua, Rong-Hong; Liu, Li-Ke; Chen, Zhen-Shi; Li, Ye-Nan; Bu, Zhi-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5)AIDITRK(11), (72)RDELNVL(78), (251)KSKHNRREGY(260), (269)DENGIVLD(276), and (341)DETTLVRS(348). Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays. PMID:23825668

  1. Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies.

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    Rong-Hong Hua

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5AIDITRK(11, (72RDELNVL(78, (251KSKHNRREGY(260, (269DENGIVLD(276, and (341DETTLVRS(348. Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  2. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  3. [Autoimmune encephalitis].

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    Davydovskaya, M V; Boyko, A N; Beliaeva, I A; Martynov, M Yu; Gusev, E I

    2015-01-01

    The authors consider the issues related to pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis. It has been demonstrated that the development of autoimmune encephalitis can be associated with the oncologic process or be of idiopathic character. The pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalitis is caused by the production of antibodies that directly or indirectly (via T-cell mechanism) damage exo-and/or endocellular structures of the nerve cells. The presence of antobodies to endocellular structures of neurons in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autoimmune encephalitis in the vast majority of cases (> 95%) indicates the concomitant oncologic process, the presence of antibodies to membranes or neuronal synapses can be not associated with the oncologic process. Along with complex examination, including neuroimaging, EEG, cerebrospinal fluid and antibodies, the diagnostic algorithm in autoimmune encephalitis should include the search for the nidus of cancer. The treatment algorithm in autoimmune encephalitis included the combined immunosupressive therapy, plasmapheresis, immunoglobulines, cytostatics as well as treatment of the oncologic process. PMID:26322363

  4. Monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus that can react with a nuclear antigen in mammalian cells.

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    Gould, E A; Chanas, A C; Buckley, A.; Clegg, C S

    1983-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M (IgM) class monoclonal antibody raised against Japanese encephalitis virus reacted with an epitope on the nonstructural virus protein P74 (NV4 in the old nomenclature) of several flaviviruses and also with an antigen present in the nuclei of a variety of mammalian cell types. This antigen had a characteristic granular distribution by immunofluorescence and may correspond to a polypeptide of molecular weight 56,000 seen in nitrocellulose transfers of sodium dodecyl sulfate-...

  5. Suspected rotavirus encephalitis.

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    H. Ushijima; Bosu, K; Abe, T.; Shinozaki, T

    1986-01-01

    A 9 month old boy with suspected rotavirus encephalitis developed infantile spasms and delayed psychomotor development. Anti-rotavirus antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and faeces were studied.

  6. Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

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    Sum Magdline; Wang Seok; Cardosa Mary; Tio Phaik

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, dengue viruses often co-circulate with other flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus, and due to the presence of shared antigenic epitopes it is often difficult to use serological methods to distinguish between previous infections by these flaviviruses. Results Convalescent sera from 69 individuals who were known to have had dengue or Japanese encephalitis virus infection were tested by western blotting against dengue, Japanese encephalitis and ...

  7. [Contributions of neuropsychology to anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis: a literature review].

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    Luna-Lario, P; Hernaez-Goni, P; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2016-05-01

    Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is an acute and severe neurological entity, which is more prevalent in young females and is associated to an underlying tumour. Since it leads to severe cognitive impairment, thought needs to be given to the contributions of neuropsychology to the diagnosis, development and treatment of the disease, which have received little attention from researchers to date. A review is conducted of the prior literature, evaluating the measurement of the cognitive symptoms (predominantly mnemonic and executive) associated to this disease. Valid, reliable neuropsychological instruments are proposed, and it is suggested that neuropsychological measures may be used as parameters to follow up these patients which help monitor their functionality in daily living once they have recovered from the acute phase. Similarly they can become a basis on which to assemble rehabilitation programmes that favour the accomplishment of personal autonomy and the patients' reintegration in the community. Nevertheless, we stress the need to include neuropsychologists and neuropsychiatrists in not only the detection but also the treatment of these patients so as to enable them to recover their personal independence and re-adapt to their natural settings. PMID:27113067

  8. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Salát, Jiří; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lipoldová, Marie; Demant, P.; Růžek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 77. E-ISSN 1742-2094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Flavivirus encephalitis * Neuroinflammation * Antibody production Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.902, year: 2013

  9. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains

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    Phelps Amanda L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use. Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being developed as therapeutics and are potential treatments for VEEV as they have been shown to be protective in the mouse model of disease. However, to be truly effective, the antibody should recognise multiple strains of VEEV and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies are rarely and only coincidentally isolated using classical hybridoma technology. Results In this work, methods were developed to reliably derive broadly reactive murine antibodies. A phage library was created that expressed single chain variable fragments (scFv isolated from mice immunised with multiple strains of VEEV. A broadly reactive scFv was identified and incorporated into a murine IgG2a framework. This novel antibody retained the broad reactivity exhibited by the scFv but did not possess virus neutralising activity. However, the antibody was still able to protect mice against VEEV disease induced by strain TrD when administered 24 h prior to challenge. Conclusion A monoclonal antibody possessing reactivity to a wide range of VEEV strains may be of benefit as a generic antiviral therapy. However, humanisation of the murine antibody will be required before it can be tested in humans. Crown Copyright © 2009

  10. Outcome of limbic encephalitis with VGKC-complex antibodies: relation to antigenic specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malter, M P; Frisch, C; Schoene-Bake, J C; Helmstaedter, C; Wandinger, K P; Stoecker, W; Urbach, H; Surges, R; Elger, C E; Vincent, A V; Bien, C G

    2014-09-01

    In limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies (Abs) to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC), the Abs are mainly directed to the VGKC-complex proteins, leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) or contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) or neither. Here, we relate the outcomes of VGKC-LE patients to the presence of Abs to LGI1, CASPR-2 or neither antigen (LGI1/CASPR-2-Ab(-)). Clinical, neuropsychology and MRI data were obtained from patient records for all LE patients from the Bonn Epilepsy Centre positive for VGKC-Abs by radioimmunoprecipitation assay between 2002 and 2011. Eighteen VGKC-LE patients were identified: nine patients (50 %) had LGI1-Abs, three (16 %) had CASPR-2-Abs; and six (33 %) were negative for both LGI1- and CASPR-2-Abs. At first assessment, the groups did not differ clinically or radiologically, but faciobrachial dystonic seizures were only observed in two LGI1-Ab(+) patients. All patients received monthly intravenous methylprednisolone (MP) pulses. At the most recent follow up (median 26 months), thirteen (72 %) were seizure-free, and seizure-freedom rates did not differ between the Ab groups. Hippocampal atrophy had developed in 7/9 LGI1-Ab(+) patients, but in none of the CASPR-2-Ab(+) or LGI/CASPR-2-Ab(-) patients (p = 0.003). While all subgroups improved, memory scores only normalized in six patients (33 %) and LGI1-Ab(+) patients were left with significantly poorer memory than the other two subgroups. Most VGKC-LE patients become seizure-free with pulsed monthly MP, but memory outcome is less favourable. Hippocampal atrophy and poor memory recovery is common in patients with LGI1-Abs and suggests permanent functional damage. More intense immunotherapies could improve outcomes in LGI1-Ab(+)-LE. PMID:24935858

  11. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  12. Reversible dementia: two nursing home patients with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Wesley; Romijn, Marloes D M; Hollander, Daan; Ter Bruggen, Jan P; van Marum, Rob J

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable cognitive and functional improvement enabling them to leave the psychogeriatric nursing homes they both were admitted to. Patients with VGKC-LE can have a major cognitive and functional improvement even after a diagnostic delay of more than 1 year. Medical practitioners who treat patients with unexplained cognitive decline, epileptic seizures, or psychiatric symptoms should be aware of LE as an underlying rare cause. PMID:26170033

  13. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Duck Plague Virus (DPV. The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.

  14. Auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena in a patient with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michael; Attarian, Hrayr; Raizer, Jeffrey; Kumthekar, Priya; Macken, Micheal P; Schuele, Stephan U; Gerard, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis involving anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-LE) has become increasingly recognised, with seizures and psychotic features, such as hallucinations being typical clinical manifestations. Though the literature supports auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena, there are no reported cases of these hallucinations correlating with electrographic seizure for this disease entity. Early recognition of auditory hallucinations as seizures could alter treatment and subsequently affect short-term outcomes in these patients. We report the case of a patient with auditory hallucinations and progressive cognitive decline, as well as serological evidence of VGKC antibodies, in whom ictal hallucinations were identified by continuous video-EEG monitoring. This case highlights the subtlety of this entity, in both clinical and electrographic detection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:24571022

  15. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats can generate human immunodeficiency virus-gp120 cross-reactive antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentiviruses display surprisingly disparate clinical manifestations in their specific hosts, share complex genetic structures, and exhibit extensive diversity, particularly in their envelope genes. The envelope protein, gp135, of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) has minimal primary sequence homology to gp120, the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nevertheless, they bear certain similarities in that they both possess five variable regions, both are heavily glycosylated, and both share short sequence motifs. We establish a further relationship and demonstrate that some goats, infected with CAEV, possess gp135-specific antibodies which cross-react with gp120 from several HIV strains, provided the protein is expressed in insect cells. We show that, although the cross-reactivity of these immunoglobulins depends on the level of glycosylation, nevertheless, some antibodies recognize the protein epitopes on gp120, at least some of which are linear in character. Further characterization of this unexpected cross-reaction will define its potential therapeutic utility

  16. Development of electrochemical immunosensors based on different serum antibody immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Hanh Nguyen, Thi Hong; Mai, Anh Tuan; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Khue Vu, Quang; Nga Phan, Thi

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development of electrochemical immunosensors based on human serum antibodies with different immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Human serum containing anti-JEV antibodies was used to immobilize onto the surface of silanized interdigitated electrodes by four methods: direct adsorption (APTES-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde (APTES-GA-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with anti-human IgG (APTES-GA-anti-HIgG-serum) and covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with a bioaffinity of protein A (APTES-GA-PrA-serum). Atomic force microscopy was used to verify surface characteristics of the interdigitated electrodes before and after treatment with serum antibodies. The output signal of the immunosensors was measured by the change of conductivity resulting from the specific binding of JEV antigens and serum antibodies immobilized on the electrodes, with the help of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody against JEV. The results showed that the APTES-GA-PrA-serum method provided the highest signal of the electrochemical immunosensor for detection of JEV antigens, with the linear range from 25 ng ml‑1 to 1 μg ml‑1, and the limit of detection was about 10 ng ml‑1. This study shows a potential development of novel electrochemical immunosensors applied for virus detection in clinical samples in case of possible outbreaks.

  17. Development of electrochemical immunosensors based on different serum antibody immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of electrochemical immunosensors based on human serum antibodies with different immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Human serum containing anti-JEV antibodies was used to immobilize onto the surface of silanized interdigitated electrodes by four methods: direct adsorption (APTES-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde (APTES-GA-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with anti-human IgG (APTES-GA-anti-HIgG-serum) and covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with a bioaffinity of protein A (APTES-GA-PrA-serum). Atomic force microscopy was used to verify surface characteristics of the interdigitated electrodes before and after treatment with serum antibodies. The output signal of the immunosensors was measured by the change of conductivity resulting from the specific binding of JEV antigens and serum antibodies immobilized on the electrodes, with the help of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody against JEV. The results showed that the APTES-GA-PrA-serum method provided the highest signal of the electrochemical immunosensor for detection of JEV antigens, with the linear range from 25 ng ml−1 to 1 μg ml−1, and the limit of detection was about 10 ng ml−1. This study shows a potential development of novel electrochemical immunosensors applied for virus detection in clinical samples in case of possible outbreaks

  18. Detection of West Nile virus genome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Javadi, A; Ataei, B;

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which circulates in birds, horses and humans. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis...

  19. Autoimmune Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leypoldt, Frank; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Bien, Christian G; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The term autoimmune encephalitis is used to describe a group of disorders characterised by symptoms of limbic and extra-limbic dysfunction occurring in association with antibodies against synaptic antigens and proteins localised on the neuronal cell surface. In recent years there has been a rapidly expanding knowledge of these syndromes resulting in a shift in clinical paradigms and new insights into pathogenic mechanisms. Since many patients respond well to immunosuppressive treatment, the r...

  20. Dengue encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Borawake; Parikshit Prayag; Atul Wagh; Swati Dole

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of dengue fever with features of encephalitis. The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed by the serum antibodies to dengue and the presence of a dengue antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid. This patient had characteristic magnetic resonance imaging brain findings, mainly involving the bilateral thalami, with hemorrhage. Dengue is not primarily a neurotropic virus and encephalopathy is a common finding in Dengue. Hence various other etiological possibilities were considered before c...

  1. Neutralizing antibody response of rabbits and goats to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Klevjer-Anderson, P; McGuire, T C

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with purified caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and examined for neutralizing activity. Analysis of virus-antiserum interaction at 37 degrees C demonstrated little loss of viral infectivity after incubation with heat-inactivated rabbit antiserum for 60 min. However, sensitization of virus (as assessed by the addition of complement) occurred almost immediately and was 95% complete after 10 min. The complement-dependent neutralizing activity was associated with the imm...

  2. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Lee

    Full Text Available After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV among high-risk age groups (≥40 years in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1% exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3% subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  3. Bivalent vaccine platform based on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) elicits neutralizing antibodies against JEV and hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Ryohei; Fujimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Mami; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Nakamura, Noriko; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Konishi, Eiji; Kato, Takanobu; Kohara, Michinori; Takeyama, Haruko; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Directly acting antivirals recently have become available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is no prophylactic vaccine for HCV. In the present study, we took advantage of the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) to develop antigens for use in a HCV vaccine. Notably, the surface-exposed JEV envelope protein is tolerant of inserted foreign epitopes, permitting display of novel antigens. We identified 3 positions that permitted insertion of the HCV E2 neutralization epitope recognized by HCV1 antibody. JEV subviral particles (SVP) containing HCV-neutralization epitope (SVP-E2) were purified from culture supernatant by gel chromatography. Sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 inhibited infection by JEV and by trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp) derived from multi-genotypic viruses, whereas sera from mice immunized with synthetic E2 peptides did not show any neutralizing activity. Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 neutralized HCVtcp with N415K escape mutation in E2. As with the SVP-E2 epitope-displaying particles, JEV SVPs with HCV E1 epitope also elicited neutralizing antibodies against HCV. Thus, this novel platform harboring foreign epitopes on the surface of the particle may facilitate the development of a bivalent vaccine against JEV and other pathogens. PMID:27345289

  4. Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis, Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome overlap in an asthma patient with negative anti-ganglioside antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chongyu; Wang Yuan; Jia Jianping; Ji Xunming; Fredrickson Vance; Ding Yuchuan; Sun Wei; Xu Jia; Sun Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (BBE), together with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) were considered to form a continuous clinical spectrum. An anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome has been proposed to underlie the common pathophysiology for the three disorders; however, other studies have found a positive anti-GM1 instead of anti-GQ1b antibody. Case presentation Here we report a 20-year-old male patient with overlapping BBE, MFS and GBS. The pat...

  5. Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Serum Antibodies to Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Diagnostic Tool for Successful Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; McGuire, Travis C.; Adams, D. Scott; Hutton, Melinda M.; Gavin, William G.; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-01-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Özyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGu...

  6. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; Marshall, Katherine L.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-01-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of bi...

  7. Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion serology using caprine and ovine lentiviral antigens for detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, D P; Evermann, J F; Shropshire, C; VanderSchalie, J; Bradway, D; Gezon, H M; Cheevers, W P

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for the detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was investigated with CAEV or ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) as the source of antigen. A total of 218 goat serum specimens were tested for anti-CAEV antibody by AGID and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV. In comparison with that of immunoprecipitation, the sensitivity of the CAEV AGID test was 0.91, and that of the OPPV AGID test ...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S.; R. D. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spati...

  9. Age affects quantity but not quality of antibody responses after vaccination with an inactivated flavivirus vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Stiasny

    Full Text Available The impairment of immune functions in the elderly (immunosenescence results in post-vaccination antibody titers that are significantly lower than in young individuals. It is, however, a controversial question whether also the quality of antibodies declines with age. In this study, we have therefore investigated the age-dependence of functional characteristics of antibody responses induced by vaccination with an inactivated flavivirus vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE. For this purpose, we quantified TBE virus-specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers in post-vaccination sera from groups of young and elderly healthy adults and determined antibody avidities and NT/ELISA titer ratios (functional activity. In contrast to the quantitative impairment of antibody production in the elderly, we found no age-related differences in the avidity and functional activity of antibodies induced by vaccination, which also appeared to be independent of the age at primary immunization. There was no correlation between antibody avidity and NT/ELISA ratios suggesting that additional factors affect the quality of polyclonal responses, independent of age. Our work indicates that healthy elderly people are able to produce antibodies in response to vaccination with similar avidity and functional activity as young individuals, albeit at lower titers.

  10. Herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early institution of therapy with acyclovir is essential for the successful outcome in herpes simplex encephalitis. Brain biopsy remains the only conclusive means of establishing the diagnosis, but many fear possible biobsy complications. Thus, therapy is often instituted when the diagnosis is clinically suspected, even though cerebral computed tomography and other diagnostic studies may be inconclusive. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) has proven to be a sensitive tool for diagnosing presumptive herpes simplex encephalitis. This case presentation demonstrates the superiority of cerebral NMR over computerized tomography for detecting early temporal lobe changes consistent with acute herpes simplex encephalitis

  11. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø;

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, a...

  12. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban K.; Tripathi, Nagesh K.; ,; Sannarangaiah, Santhosh; Saxena, Parag; Agarwal, Surekha; Sahni, Ajay K.; Singh, Sanjay P; Rathi, Arvind K.; Bhargava, Rakesh; Abhyankar, Ajay; Shailendra K Verma; Rao, Putcha V. Lakshmana; Sekhar, Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in Gorakhpur, India, from July through November 2005. The etiologic agent was confirmed to be Japanese encephalitis virus by analyzing 326 acute-phase clinical specimens for virus-specific antibodies and viral RNA and by virus isolation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates belonged to genogroup 3.

  13. A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo virus when administered up to 48 h after airborne challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the VH and VL domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies to Conformational Epitopes of the Surface Glycoprotein of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Potential Application to Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Antibodies in Goat Sera

    OpenAIRE

    Özyörük, Fuat; Cheevers, William P.; Hullinger, Gordon A.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda; Knowles, Donald P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79–63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromato...

  15. [Neurological syndromes, encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-06-01

    The remote effects of malignant tumors in most cases of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes(PNS)are mediated by autoimmune processes against antigens shared by the tumor cells and the nervous tissue(onconeural antigens). Onconeural (or paraneoplastic)antibodies are broadly categorized into two groups according to the location of the corresponding onconeural antigens, inside or on the surface of neurons. Antibodies established as clinically relevant diagnostic markers for PNS are designated as well-characterized onconeural antibodies (or classical antibodies)that target intracellular antigens(Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5,Ma2, and amphiphysin). They also serve as useful markers in detecting primary tumors. Recent identification of new antibodies as markers of subtypes of limbic encephalitis has also expanded the concept of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. These autoantibodies are directed to neuronal cell-surface antigens including neurotransmitter receptors(NMDA, AMPA, and GABAB receptors)and ion channels(VGKC). They are less frequently associated with cancer, so that they cannot be used as specific markers for PNS. Autoimmune limbic encephalitis with anti-neuronal cell surface antobodies and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with classical antibodies overlap in some clinical features but are pathophysiologically distinct. Classical antibodies are not simple tumor markers. They seem to be closely related to the disease mechanisms because specific intrathecal synthesis has been shown in PNS patients. However, attempts to produce an animal model of PNS by passive transfer of these antibodies have been unsuccessful, and there is no direct evidence demonstrating the pathogenic role of classical antibodies. Instead, some circumstantial evidence, including pathological studies showing extensive infiltrates of T cells in the CNS of the patients, supports the hypothesis that cytotoxic-T cell mechanisms cause irreversible neuronal damage. On the other hand, humoral immune

  16. Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis, Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome overlap in an asthma patient with negative anti-ganglioside antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chongyu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (BBE, together with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS were considered to form a continuous clinical spectrum. An anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome has been proposed to underlie the common pathophysiology for the three disorders; however, other studies have found a positive anti-GM1 instead of anti-GQ1b antibody. Case presentation Here we report a 20-year-old male patient with overlapping BBE, MFS and GBS. The patient had a positive family history of bronchial asthma and had suffered from the condition for over 15 years. He developed BBE symptoms nine days after an asthma exacerbation. During the course of illness, he had significantly elevated IgE levels in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Serologic analysis of antibodies against ganglioside complexes (anti-GDIa, anti-GDIb, anti-GM1, anti-GM2, anti-GM3, anti-GQIb and anti-GTIb antibodies showed negative results. Conclusions Since asthma has recently been related to autoimmune disease, our case supports an autoimmune mechanism underlying the clinical spectrum composed of BBE, MFS and GBS. However, contrary to a proposed anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome, we would suggest that pathogenesis of this clinical spectrum is not limited to anti-ganglioside antibodies.

  17. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that β2M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8+ T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice (μMT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected μMT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4+ T cells were higher in the CNS of μMT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in μMT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated μMT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8+ T cells

  18. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27056852

  19. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  20. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  1. A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo virus when administered up to 48 h after airborne challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Lyn M., E-mail: lmobrien@dstl.gov.uk; Goodchild, Sarah A.; Phillpotts, Robert J.; Perkins, Stuart D.

    2012-05-10

    Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the V{sub H} and V{sub L} domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.

  2. Assessment of antibodies against surface and outer membrane proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbková, L; Homola, L; Hlaváčová, A; Mikolášek, P; Bednářová, J; Čermáková, Z

    2016-09-01

    To examine evidence of positive antibodies against immunogenic proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with other tick-borne infections and to diagnose possible co-infections, 412 serum specimens were tested by immunoblotting using three specific Anaplasma antigens: surface proteins p44 and Asp62 and outer membrane protein A (OmpA). In total, 284 serum samples from children with Lyme borreliosis and 12 serum samples from children with tick-borne encephalitis were tested. Sera from patients with viral aseptic meningitis (n = 47) and from blood donors (n = 69) were used as controls. Among all serum specimens from patients with tick-borne infections submitted for this study, six samples (2·0%) showed positive IgM reactions and seven samples (2·4%) were IgG positive for A. phagocytophilum by immunoblot. Borderline reactivity was found in 30 samples (10·14%) for IgM and 36 samples (12·2%) for IgG. The difference between patients and blood donors was statistically significant for IgM (P = 0·006) and for IgG (P = 0·0007) antibodies. A statistically significant result was obtained for IgG (P = 0·02) but not for IgM between patients and children with aseptic meningitis. Immunoblot using three specific antigens provides novel information about the positivity of antibodies to A. phagocytophilum in children with other tick-borne infections. Taking into account clinical and laboratory findings of children despite antibody positivity, no case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis was demonstrated. PMID:27180603

  3. Rasmussen's Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, paralysis on one side of the body (hemiparesis), inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), and mental deterioration. Most individuals with Rasmussen’s ...

  4. Competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: diagnostic tool for successful eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; McGuire, Travis C; Adams, D Scott; Hutton, Melinda M; Gavin, William G; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-03-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Ozyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGuire, M. Hutton, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:44-51, 2001). Two hundred serum samples from goats in the United States were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA based on the immunoprecipitation (IP) of [(35)S]methionine-labeled viral antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA was defined as >33.2% inhibition of MAb 74A binding based on 2 standard deviations above the mean percent inhibition of 140 IP-negative serum samples. At this cutoff value, there were 0 of 60 false-negative sera (100% sensitivity) and 5 of 140 false-positive sera (96.4% specificity). Additional studies utilized IP-monitored cELISA to establish a CAEV-free herd of 1,640 dairy goats. PMID:12626453

  5. 河北省健康人群流行性乙型脑炎抗体水平调查%Survey on the Level of Japanese Encephalitis Antibody in Healthy Population in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚梅; 韩旭; 韩占英; 张艳波; 许永刚; 齐顺祥; 李琦

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解河北省流行性乙型脑炎健康人群抗体水平. 方法 在河北省4个市采用横断面研究,按整群抽样的方法,分6个年龄组,每个年龄组20人份,采集血清标本.应用间接法ELISA检测乙脑IgG抗体. 结果 河北省健康人群抗体阳性率为40.63%.不同年龄组人群乙脑抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义,不同地区间乙脑抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义. 结论 河北省健康人群乙脑抗体阳性率较低,特别是个别地区应警惕乙脑流行.要进一步抓好乙脑疫苗免疫接种工作,提高疫苗接种率和接种质量,提高人群免疫水平.%Objective To understand the level of Japanese encephalitis antibody among healthy people in Hebei Province. Methods Cross — sectional study and cluster sampling method were used in the study. Healthy individuals selected from four cities of Hebei Province were divided into six age - groups (each n = 20), then their sera specimens were collected. The indirect ELISA method was used to detect IgG antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus. Results The positive rate of antibody level to Japanese encephalitis virus in healthy population of Hebei Province was 40.63% . No statistically significant difference was found in the positive rate of antibody level to Japanese encephalitis virus among different age- groups, but there were statistically significant differences in the positive rates among different regions. Conclusions The positive rate of antibody level to Japanese encephalitis virus in healthy population of Hebei Province is lower, and hence, more attention should be paid to Japanese encephalitis epidemics, especially in some regions. It is essential to enhance the vaccine immunization work and improve the vaccination rate and inoculation quality so as to raise the population immunization level.

  6. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (subtypes IAB and VI in humans from General Belgrano Island, Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the detection of antibodies (immunoglobulin G for subtypes I and VI of VEE viruses complex (Togaviridae family in people from the General Belgrano island, Formosa province (Argentina. The prevalence of neutralizing (NT antibodies for subtype VI was from 30% to 70% and the prevalence of antibodies inhibitory of hemagglutination (HI was of 0% in the first and second inquiry respectively. For the subtype IAB the prevalence of NT antibodies was from 13% to 3.6%, similar to the prevalence total for both subtypes. HI antibodies were not detected in any inquiries for any subtype. It was observed that both subtypes circulate simultaneously, while subtype VI remains constant with some peaks, subtype I was found in low level.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) – findings on cross reactivity and longevity of TBEV antibodies in animal sera

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Kalthoff, Donata; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background By using animal sera as sentinels, natural TBEV foci could be identified and further analyses including investigations of ticks could be initiated. However, antibody response against TBEV-related flaviviruses might adversely affect the readout of such a monitoring. Therefore, the cross-reactivity of the applied TBEV serology test systems – enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) – as well as the longevity of TBEV antibody titres in sheep and go...

  8. Clinical characteristics of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 antibody-associated encephalitis%富亮氨酸胶质瘤失活1蛋白抗体脑炎的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺菲菲; 叶静; 徐文灯

    2016-01-01

    symptoms and were provided operated mechanical ventilation.Thirteen of 14 patients exhibited abnormalities in their brain magnetic resonance imaging,with lesions in temporal lobe and hippocampus.Six patients had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings,8 patients showed hyponatremia (serum Na+ < 135 mmol/L),while 5 patients co-existed with other autoantibodies.Screening for malignant tumors revealed normal findings.During 2 years follow-up,3 patients relapsed.Conclusions Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 antibody-associated encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis characterized by short-term memory loss,faciobrachial dystonic seizures and hyponatremia.Lesions in brain MRI always involve in temporal lobe and hippocampus.This disease can relapse and is seldom associated with tumor.

  9. Detection of serum antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus in sheep by using a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; Marshall, Katherine L; McGuire, Travis C; Hutton, Melinda M; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-09-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of binding of the anti-CAEV MAb GPB 74A by goat serum. The present study evaluated the CAEV cELISA for detection of antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in sheep. Three hundred thirty-two sera were randomly selected from 21,373 sheep sera collected throughout the United States to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) based on immunoprecipitation (IP) of [35S]methionine-labeled OPPV antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA test was defined as >20.9 percent inhibition (% I) of MAb 74A binding based on two standard deviations above the mean % I of 191 IP-negative sheep sera. At this cutoff, there were 2 of 141 false-negative sera (98.6% sensitivity) and 6 of 191 false-positive sera (96.9% specificity). Sensitivity and specificity values for IP-monitored AGID were comparable to those for cELISA for 314 of 332 sera with unambiguous AGID results. Concordant results by cELISA and IP resolved 16 of the 18 sera that were indeterminate by AGID. Additional studies evaluated cELISA by using 539 sera from a single OPPV-positive flock. Based on IP of 36 of these sera, there was one false-negative by cELISA among 21 IP-positive sera (95.5% sensitivity) and 0 of 15 false-positives (100% specificity). We conclude that the CAEV cELISA can be applied to detection of OPPV antibodies in sheep with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:12965917

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  11. 多重抗神经元抗体阳性的自身免疫性脑炎临床分析%Clinical analysis of autoimmune encephalitis with co-existence of multiple anti-neuronal antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海涛; 杨洵哲; 关鸿志; 高鑫雅; 彭斌; 朱以诚; 崔丽英

    2016-01-01

    antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors (including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR),contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2),α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR),leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1),and gamma-aminobutyric acid beta receptor (GABABR)).In those patients with positive antibodies,antibodies against intracellular neuronal antigens associated with paraneoplastic neurological symptoms were tested.Anti-aquaporin protein-4 (AQP4) antibody was tested depending on patients' clinical manifestations.Results Ten patients were detected combined with additional autoantibodies in 531 patients with positive antibodies related to autoimmune encephalitis.AntiHu antibody was positive in 5 patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis,in 1 of whom anti-NMDAR antibody was also identified;anti-AQP4 antibody was positive in 1 patient with relapsing anti-NMDAR encephalitis;anti-CASPR2 and anti-Yo antibodies were respectively positive in 2 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis;anti-CV2 and anti-Hu antibodies were respectively positive in 2 patients with anti-AMPAR encephalitis.Clinical presentation of all cases was consistent with typical encephalitis or limbic encephalitis.Brain stem was involved in 3 patients.Peripheral sensory neuropathy was present in 1 patient,while myalgia and fasciculation were present in 1 patient.Seven patients responded well to the immunotherapy.Tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 7 cases,including lung cancer in 5 cases,suspected thymoma in 1 case and highly suspected mediastinal tumor without pathological identification in 1 case.Conclusions Due to the pathological mechanism,co-existence of multiple autoantibodies affects clinical manifestations of patients and results in variation and overlap of them.The additional positivity of onconeuronal antibodies directs the search for occult tumor.

  12. Protection of mice against Japanese encephalitis virus group II strain infections by combinations of monoclonal antibodies to different antigenic domains on glycoprotein E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of at least three hemagglutination- inhibition-positive (HAI and virus-specific (Hs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to glycoprotein E (gpE of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV fully protected (100% mice against JEV strain 733913 infections (group 1. However, these representative epitopes are reported to have been lost on JEV group II strains. In the present study, therefore, the protective effect of various combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing antigenic epitopes other than Hs was studied on mice infections with JEV group II strains: JEV strains 641686 and 691004. MAbs used in the protective experiments were characterized as HAI-negative virus-specific (NHs and HAI-positive flavivirus cross-reactive (Hx. Additionally, one of the Hs MAbs (MAb Hs-3 was included in the experiments. Mice were first administered single MAbs or their combinations intraperitoneally and 24 h later, infected with the virus intracerebrally. Protection rates of 70-75% were obtained with a combination of four MAbs: MAbs NHs-1, Hx-1, Hx-3 and Hs-3. However, protection rates of only 20-40% were obtained with three MAbs but none was observed with single or two MAbs. There was, however, a substantial increase in mice survival. The protective effect of several combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing different antigenic epitopes might be due to the enhancement of binding within the same group and also between different MAb groups. The present results indicate that NHs and Hx epitopes should be incorporated with three Hs epitopes in a JEV vaccine that would have an added advantage, particularly in the flaviviral endemic areas with JEV strain variations.

  13. [Complicated febrile convulsion vs herpes-encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, M

    1993-01-01

    Since Acyclovir is available a sufficient treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis exists. Febrile convulsions may occur as the initial manifestation of an encephalitis, particularly of an HSV encephalitis. Within 25 months out of 151 children with febrile convulsions five children with complicated febrile convulsions were admitted at the pediatric department of Graz. In all children HSV antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative and the diagnosis of an HSV encephalitis was made by positive CSF HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, in any suspected case, i.e. in any case of a complicated febrile convulsion, CSF should be investigated including a HSV PCR to rapidly confirm or exclude HSV encephalitis. PMID:8386831

  14. [Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-08-01

    Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis (or anti-Ma2 encephalitis) is a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction. Anti-Ma2 antibodies detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients are highly specific for this disease entity and belong to a group of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies (or classical antibodies). The corresponding antigen, Ma2 is selectively expressed intracellularly in neurons and tumors as is the case with other onconeuronal antigens targeted by classical antibodies. However, in most cases the clinical pictures are different from those of classical PNS and this creates a potential risk of underdiagnosis. Although limbic dysfunction is the most common manifestation in patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis which is one of the major causes of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), it has been reported that less than 30% of the patients with anti-Ma2 LE exhibit clinical presentations typical of the classical description of LE. Of the remaining, many exhibit excessive daytime sleepiness, vertical ophthalmoparesis, or both associated with LE, because of frequent involvement of the diencephalon and/or upper brainstem. Anti-Ma2 LE can also be manifested as a pure psychiatric disturbance such as obsessive-compulsive disorder in a few cases. Some patients develop mesodiencephalic encephalitis with minor involvement of the limbic system, and some may manifest severe hypokinesis. About 40% of the patients with anti-Ma2 antibodies also have antibodies against different epitopes on Ma1, a homologue of Ma2. These patients may have predominant cerebellar and/or brainstem dysfunctions due to more extensive involvement of subtentorial structures. Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is outstanding among other PNS associated with classical antibodies in that the response rate to treatment is relatively high. While it can cause severe neurological deficits or death in a substantial

  15. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a new category of treatment-responsive encephalitis associated with 'anti-NMDAR antibodies', which are antibodies to the NR1/NR2 heteromers of NMDAR. The antibodies are detected in the CSF/serum of young women with ovarian teratoma, who typically develop schizophrenia-like psychiatric symptoms, usually preceded by fever, headache, or viral infection-like illness. After reaching the peak of psychosis, most patients developed seizures followed by an unresponsive/catatonic state, decreased level of consciousness, central hypoventilation frequently requiring mechanical ventilation, orofacial-limb dyskinesias, and autonomic symptoms. Brain MRI is usually unremarkable but focal enhancement or medial temporal lobe abnormalities can be observed. The CSF reveals nonspecific changes. Electroencephalography (EEG) often reveals diffuse delta slowing without paroxysmal discharges, despite frequent bouts of seizures. This is a highly characteristic syndrome evolving in 5 stages, namely, the prodromal phase, psychotic phase, unresponsive phase, hyperkinetic phase, and gradual recovery phase. The hyperkinetic phase is the most prolonged and crucial. This disorder is usually severe and can be fatal, but it is potentially reversible. Once patients overcome the hyperkinetic phase, gradual improvement is expected with in months and full recovery can also be expected over 3 or more years. Ovarian teratoma-associated limbic encephalitis (OTLE) was first reported in 1997 when this syndrome was reported independently in 1 Japanese girl and 1 woman, both of whom improved following tumor resection. In 2005, Dalmau and his research group first demonstrated antibodies to novel neuronal cell membrane antigens in 4 women with OTLE in a non-permeabilized culture of hippocampal neurons. Two years later, they identified conformal extracellular epitopes present in the NR1/NR2B heteromers of NMDAR, which are expressed in the hippocampus

  16. Natural course of LGI1 encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szots, Monika; Marton, Annamaria; Kover, Ferenc;

    2014-01-01

    . Follow-up brain MRI indicated early hippocampal sclerosis and global brain atrophy in one case characterized by more pronounced cognitive deficit. Memory and verbal fluency were affected most during the natural course of LGI1 encephalitis. LGI1 encephalitis had a monophasic course and spontaneously...... improved, suggesting that a relatively benign natural course may contribute to the favorable outcome observed after immunotherapy. Our data also indicate that LGI1 antibodies can be present in the sera without clinical disease activity....

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of the surface glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: potential application to competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies in goat sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyörük, F; Cheevers, W P; Hullinger, G A; McGuire, T C; Hutton, M; Knowles, D P

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79-63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromatography, whereas none reacted with denatured and reduced SU. All MAbs reacted in Western blots with purified CAEV-63 SU or the SU component of whole-virus lysate following denaturation in the absence of reducing agent, indicating that intramolecular disulfide bonding was essential for epitope integrity. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of SU abolished the reactivities of MAbs 74A and F7-299, whereas treatment of SU with N-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase (sialidase A) under nonreducing conditions enhanced the reactivities of all MAbs as well as polyclonal goat sera. MAbs 29A and F7-299 were cross-reactive with the SU of an independent strain of CAEV (CAEV-Co). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactivities of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs 16A and 29A with homologous CAEV-63 SU were MAb 74A. The reactivity of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A was blocked by sera from goats immunized with CAEV-63 SU or infected with CAEV-63. The reactivity of MAb 74A was also blocked by sera from goats infected with a CAEV-Co molecular clone, although MAb 74A did not react with CAEV-Co SU in Western blots. Thus, goats infected with either CAEV-63 or CAEV-Co make antibodies that inhibit binding of MAb 74A to CAEV-63 SU. A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection. PMID:11139194

  18. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  19. Medical image of the week: granulomatous amoebic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhury A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 64-year-old woman with history of deceased donor kidney transplantation presented with altered mental status. MRI of the brain showed new region of T2/FLAIR hyperintensity with restricted diffusion and slight cortical enhancement in the left middle temporal lobe (Figure 1, Panel A. Her neurological exam was notable for expressive aphasia and right-sided weakness. Initial diagnosis of ischemic stroke was further evaluated due to immunosuppressive status. Her CSF showed a WBC of 12 cells/microL with 80% lymphocytes, glucose 61 mg/dL, and protein 53 mg/dL. Follow up MRI showed progression of T2/FLAIR hyperintensity, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and peripheral patchy enhancement in the left anterior/medial temporal lobe and inferior frontal lobe suspicious for encephalitis (Figure 1, Panel B. Left temporal lobe biopsy revealed granulomatous encephalitis with microorganisms morphologically consistent with amoeba (Figure 2, and tissue cultures grew MRSA. Acanthamoeba species was confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC with antibody testing. ...

  20. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe disease. ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts of ...

  1. Results of the screening of Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus antibodies in human sera from eight districts collected two decades apart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, B.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Malý, M.; Daniel, M.; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 489-493. ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Serological survey * Tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.298, year: 2014

  2. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in Korea: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Soyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Jangsup; Byun, Jung-Ick; Kim, Tae-Joon; Shin, Yong-Won; Lee, Keon-Joo; Kim, Young-Su; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common type of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis and it often responds to treatment. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Korea. Methods Serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with encephalitis of undetermined cause were screened for anti-NMDAR antibodies using a cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay. The patients came from ...

  3. St. Louis Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Prevention Virus Transmission Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution Symptoms & Treatment Arboviral Diagnostic Testing Links & References Technical Fact Sheet Other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes Chikungunya Dengue Eastern Equine Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Malaria La Crosse ...

  4. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet See a list of ... Where can I get more information? What is meningitis? What is encephalitis? Infections, and less commonly other ...

  5. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Eastern Equine Encephalitis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Eastern Equine Encephalitis Home Frequently Asked Questions Prevention Virus Transmission ...

  6. [A Case of Acute Limbic Encephalitis with Sjögren's Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Hiroyuki; Nagasaka, Takamura; Tsuchiya, Mai; Onohara, Akiko; Takaki, Ryusuke; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior and disturbance of consciousness subsequent to several days with a cold. On admission, she was very confused, with incoherent speech, and an inability to recognize family faces. Diffusion weighted MRI showed high intensity signal change in the bilateral medial temporal lobes, including the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. Tests including various viral antibody titers provided no evidence of infection. Several neuronal antibodies including anti-VGKC and -NMDA receptor antibody were absent. Evidence of malignancy was not apparent. She was diagnosed with acute limbic encephalitis complicated by Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), due to the fact that she had a past history of SjS, elevation of anti-SS-A antibody, pleuritis and pericarditis. Her symptoms gradually improved after administration of steroids including pulse therapy; however, her amnesia remained for a long time. In diagnosing acute limbic encephalitis, we should consider SjS as an underlying disease, even though it is rare. (Received September 8, 2015; Accepted October 22, 2015; Published May 1, 2016). PMID:27156510

  7. [Fisher Syndrome and Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    Fisher syndrome has been regarded as a peculiar inflammatory neuropathy with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia, whereas Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis has been considered a pure central nervous system disease characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and consciousness disturbance. Both disorders share common features including preceding infection, albumin-cytological dissociation, and association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The discovery of anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies further supports the view that the two disorders represent a single disease spectrum. The lesions in Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis are presumably determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human peripheral and central nervous systems. Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is likely to represent a variant of Fisher syndrome with central nervous system involvement. PMID:26560952

  8. MRI of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in eight patients with herpes simplex meningoence phalitis were reviewed: 14 examinations were analysed. The most striking finding was high signal intensity in the temporal lobe(s) with the typical configuration known from CT. Meningeal enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration was clearly seen in four patients. Haemorrhagic changes are much better seen on MRI than on CT. When adequate motion control can be achieved, MRI becomes the examination of choice in the diagnosis and follow-up of herpes simplex encephalitis. Localized 1H MR spectroscopy also proved promising in the study of neuronal loss. (orig.)

  9. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds. PMID:23158650

  10. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  11. Identification and characterization of a virus-specific continuous B-cell epitope on the PrM/M protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: potential application in the detection of antibodies to distinguish Japanese Encephalitis Virus infection from West Nile Virus and Dengue Virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Xin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnose of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection from other flavivirus especially West Nile virus (WNV and Dengue virus (DV infection was greatly hindered for the serological cross-reactive. Virus specific epitopes could benefit for developing JEV specific antibodies detection methods. To identify the JEV specific epitopes, we fully mapped and characterized the continuous B-cell epitope of the PrM/M protein of JEV. Results To map the epitopes on the PrM/M protein, we designed a set of 20 partially overlapping fragments spanning the whole PrM, fused them with GST, and expressed them in an expression vector. Linear epitope M14 (105VNKKEAWLDSTKATRY120 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. By removing amino acid residues individually from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptide M14, we confirmed that the minimal unit of the linear epitope of PrM/M was M14-13 (108KEAWLDSTKAT118. This epitope was highly conserved across different JEV strains. Moreover, this epitope did not cross-react with WNV-positive and DENV-positive sera. Conclusion Epitope M14-13 was a JEV specific lineal B-cell epitpe. The results may provide a useful basis for the development of epitope-based virus specific diagnostic clinical techniques.

  12. Az LGI1-encephalitis hazánkban elsőként diagnosztizált esete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szőts, Mónika; Marton, Annamária; Illés, Zsolt; Bajzik, Gábor; Nagy, Ferenc

    with seizures and subacute history of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including psychosis and changes in memory, cognition, behaviour. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures can be observed, which are highly characteristic for LGI1 encephalitis. MRI shows medial temporal abnormalities in more than half of the...... cases. CSF evaluation is usually normal. Hyponatremia is frequently associated and may confuse the initial diagnosis. Early recognition and prompt initiation of immunotherapies are of great importance. The clinical improvements often correlate with the antibody levels. We present the case of a 64-year...

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Bilski, B.; Günther, G.

    Florida : CRC Press, 2013, s. 211-237. ISBN 9781466567207 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * neuroviral Infections * viruses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  14. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute encephalitis is the most commonly recognized clinical manifestation of JE virus infection. Milder forms of disease, ... in the United States—an inactivated Vero cell culture–derived vaccine, Ixiaro ( Table 3-06 ). Ixiaro is ...

  15. Expression and antibody preparation of nonstructural protein 1 for Japanese encephalitis virus from pigs%猪日本乙型脑炎病毒NS1基因的表达和抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈红霞; 韩秀杰; 赵凡凡; 张保新; 余风艳; 王晓杜

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in breeding pigs,has caused reproductive disorders,such as orchitis,stillbirths,and mummified fetuses,and has produced encephalitis in piglets.The NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) gene is associated with viral RNA packaging and replication and with viral anti-host immunity.NS1 protein were expressed by prokaryotic expression system and polyclonal antibodies of NS1 were prepared.In this study,the cDNA of JEV was synthesized from a viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The NS1 gene was cloned from cDNA by PCR and subcloned into pET-28(a) plasmid.The recombinant plasmid pET-28 (a)-JEV-NS1 was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).Next,the recombinant JEV-NS1 protein (whose molecular weight is 46 kDa) was expressed by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction.To improve the expression level of the recombinant JEV-NS1 protein,the 958-1 245 bp of the JEV-NS1 gene was truncated,and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for the analysis.Also,the protein was immunized into an Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse; then the mouse anti-JEV-NS1 antiserum was prepared; the antiserum specificity were detected with western-blotting.Results showed that the truncated JEV-NS1 expression was greatly increased and the SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed this.In addition,purification production of the recombinant protein was 85% of the total protein content.The antiserum of NS1 can specifically recognized the production of JEV infected cells.This study will assist in JEV-NS1 functional research and exploration of JEV pathogenic mechanism.%猪Sus scrofa domestica日本乙型脑炎病毒(Japanese encephalitis virus,JEV)是引起母猪繁殖机能障碍的重要病原之一,其NS1蛋白参与病毒复制和组装、调节宿主免疫反应功能.提取猪日本乙型脑炎上海分离株的基因组RNA,反转录合成cDNA,扩增该病毒的NS1

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex. (orig.)

  17. N-type calcium channel antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis: An unlikely cause of a common presentation ☆ ☆☆ ★

    OpenAIRE

    Finkel, Leslie; Koh, Sookyong

    2013-01-01

    We report, to our knowledge, the only known pediatric case with encephalopathy and significantly elevated titers of N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody (N-type VGCC). The patient, an 8th grader, was previously healthy and presented with a one-week history of confusion, aphasia, transient fever, headaches, and dizziness. An underlying autoimmune process was suspected because of inflammatory changes in the brain MRI and multiple focal electrographic seizures captured in the EEG in the...

  18. Correlations of Clusters of Non-Convulsive Seizure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Case With GAD65-Positive Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rachael; Rangaswamy, Rajesh; Peng, Yen-Yi

    2016-08-01

    With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient's clinical manifestations. The following is the thesis: systemic autoimmune disease, associated with the GAD65 antibody, gives rise to seizures, in particular, non-convulsive seizures. Temporal lobes happen to be the most susceptible sites to develop seizures. The greater part of these seizures can be non-convulsive and hard to recognize without electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The variable symptoms mirror the severity and locations of these seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormities in the bilateral hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary body correlate with the density of these seizures in the similar manner, which suggests it is secondary to post-ictal edema. PMID:27429684

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis -A case series

    OpenAIRE

    MANJU, Jyotir; Patil, Shruti; RAU, ATK

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) depends on the early and appropriate administration of specific antiviral therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 42 children with acute CNS infection, over a period of 18 months, of which 4 were positive for HSV antibodies. All four showed CSF pleocytosis, with mildly elevated protein and rising titers of antibodies to HSV in the CSF. All the 4 cases were started on i.v. acyclovir on day 1 and continued for a total duration of 14 days. The pati...

  20. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  1. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss, H; Leubner, J; Wenke, N K; Czirják, G Á; Szentiks, C A; Greenwood, A D

    2015-01-01

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut's encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut's cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed. PMID:26313569

  2. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A new addition to the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of "encephalitis" is caused by unknown agents. Of late, a new category of disorders, "autoimmune encephalitis," has been described, which present with features similar to viral encephalitides. A well-delineated and common entity among this group is the recently described anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE. Although this entity was initially described in young women harboring ovarian teratomas, it is now characterised as well in children and men. Approximately 60% of the patients have an underlying tumor, usually an ovarian teratoma. In 40% of the patients, no cause can be found (idiopathic NMDARE. NMDARE typically presents with psychiatric features followed by altered level of consciousness, severe dysautonomia, hyperkinetic movement disorders, seizures and central hypoventilation. Orofacial dyskinesias resulting in lip and tongue mutilation are quite common. Seizures, are common and may be difficult to treat. The disease can be confirmed by serum and cerebrospinal fluid anti-NMDAR antibodies. Titers of these antibodies can also guide response to treatment. Tumor removal is necessary if identified, followed by immunological treatment. Intravenous methylprednisolone and immunoglobulins aim to suppress/modulate immune response while plasma exchange attempts to remove antibodies and other inflammatory cytokines. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide aim to suppress antibody production. Recovery is slow and often with neurological deficits if treatment is delayed. With many distinctive clinical features, a specific antibody that aids diagnosis, and early effective treatment with commonly available drugs leading to good outcomes, NMDARE is a diagnosis that should be considered early in any case of "unexplained encephalitis."

  3. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  4. [18F]-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography Scan Should Be Obtained Early in Cases of Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwal, A.; Hantus, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a clinically challenging diagnosis with nonspecific neurological symptoms. Prompt diagnosis is important and often relies on neuroimaging. We present a case series of AE highlighting the importance of an early [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. Methods. Retrospective review of seven consecutive cases of autoimmune encephalitis. Results. All patients had both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET scans. Initial clinical presentations included altered mental status and/or new onset seizures. Six cases had serum voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibody and one had serum N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antibody. MRI of brain showed mesial temporal lobe hyperintensity in five cases of VGKC. The other two patients with VGKC or NMDA AE had restiform body hyperintensity on MRI brain or a normal MRI, respectively. Mesial temporal lobe hypermetabolism was noted in three cases on FDG-PET, despite initial unremarkable MRI. Malignancy workup was negative in all patients. Conclusion. A high index of suspicion for AE should be maintained in patients presenting with cognitive symptoms, seizures, and limbic changes on neuroimaging. In cases with normal initial brain MRI, FDG-PET can be positive. Additionally, extralimbic hyperintensity on MRI may also be observed.

  5. Type 1 diabetes and GAD65 limbic encephalitis: a case report of a 10-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Ema; Pinto, Joana; Caetano, Joana Serra; Pereira, Helena; Cardoso, Patrícia; Cardoso, Rita; Dinis, Isabel; Pereira, Cristina; Fineza, Isabel; Mirante, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder that may be difficult to recognize. Clinical features include memory impairment, temporal lobe seizures and affective disturbance. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus that presented with seizures, depressed mood and memory changes. The diagnosis of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mediated limbic encephalitis relied on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging lesions and high serological and cerebrospinal fluid GAD65-antibodies titers. High-dose steroidal therapy was started with clinical improvement. Relapse led to a second high-dose steroid treatment followed by rituximab with remission. A correlation between serum GAD65-antibodies levels and symptoms was found, demonstrating GAD65-antibodies titers may be useful for clinical follow-up and immunotherapy guidance. This report raises awareness of this serious neurological condition that may be associated with type 1 diabetes, underlining the importance of an early diagnosis and prompt treatment for a better prognosis. PMID:27115322

  6. Improved surveillance of Japanese encephalitis by detection of virus-specific IgM in desiccated blood specimens*

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D S; Chatiyanonda, K.; Anandrik, S.; Nakornsri, S.; Nisalak, A; Hoke, C H

    1985-01-01

    An IgM antibody-capture type enzyme-linked immunoassay (MAC ELISA) was compared with the haemagglutination inhibition method (HI) for establishing a laboratory diagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection using specimens of dried blood eluted from filter paper strips. Paired samples from 243 encephalitis patients, which had been obtained by mail through a national surveillance programme in Thailand, were tested. During the peak of the 1983 encephalitis epidemic, 72% of cases ...

  7. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Pareen; Boyd, Zachary [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Cully, Brent [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Raccoon roundworm encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection characterized by progressive neurological decline despite attempted therapy. Patients present with deteriorating neurological function, eosinophilia, and history of pica or geophagia resulting in ingestion of the parasite. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate nonspecific findings of progressive white matter inflammation and cortical atrophy. (orig.)

  8. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis: neuroradiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent viral encephalitis, as a rule with the starting point and centre within the temporal lobe. If untreated, HSE is usually fatal, thus diagnosis has to be established rapidly. Treatment with Acyclovir should begin as soon possible. As MRI is extremely sensitive in detecting the early inflammatory changes, it should be initially performed, especially as in the early stadium CT may be unspecific. We recommend the following examination protocol: coronar T1-weighted MR imaging before and after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine, coronar FLAIR sequence and axial T2-weighted imaging. The diagnostic proof is to show the evidence of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal liquor. (orig.)

  9. Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE. HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid-meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter and subcortical white matter with loss of gray, white differentiation in T2-weighted sequences. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in view of refractory intracranial hypertension. Decompressive surgery for HSE with refractory hypertension can positively affect patient survival, with good outcomes in terms of cognitive functions.

  10. Intrathecal-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies at low titers in autoimmune neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Chu, Kon; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Il; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-15

    Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad-Abs) are implicated in various neurological syndromes. The present study aims to identify intrathecal-specific GAD-Abs and to determine clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes. Nineteen patients had GAD-Abs in cerebrospinal fluid but not in paired serum samples. Neurological syndromes included limbic encephalitis, temporal lobe epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction, and stiff-person syndrome. Immunotherapy had beneficial effects in 57.1% of patients, and the patients with limbic encephalitis responded especially well to immunotherapy. Intrathecal-specific antibodies to GAD at low titers may appear as nonspecific markers of immune activation within the central nervous system rather than pathogenic antibodies causing neuronal dysfunction. PMID:26711563

  11. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, autoimmunity, and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-09-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently-discovered synaptic autoimmune disorder in which auto-antibodies target NMDARs in the brain, leading to their removal from the synapse. Patients manifest with prominent psychiatric symptoms - and in particular psychosis - early in the disease course. This presentation converges with long-standing evidence on multiple fronts supporting the glutamatergic model of schizophrenia. We review mechanisms underlying disease in anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and discuss its role in furthering our understanding of neural circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:25458857

  12. Unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han Moon Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Woo Ho [Sanggyo Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    To describe the brain CT and MR imaging findings of unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and CT and/or MR imaging findings of six patients with acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. CT (n=6) and MR imaging (n=6) were performed during the acute and/or convalescent stage of the illness. Brain CT showed brain swelling (n=2), low attenuation of both thalami (n=1) or normal findings (n=3). Initial MR imaging indicated that in all patients the thalamus was involved either bilaterally (n=5) or unilaterally (n=1). Lesions were also present in the midbrain (n=5), medial temporal lobe (n=4), pons (n=3), both hippocampi (n=3) the insular cortex (n=2), medulla (n=2), lateral temporal lobe cortex (n=1), both cingulate gyri (n=1), both basal ganglia (n=1), and the left hemispheric cortex (n=1). These CT or MR imaging findings of acute encephalitis of unknown etiology were similar to a combination of those of Japanese encephalitis and herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to document the specific causative agents which lead to the appearance of these imaging features, further investigation is required.

  13. Unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the brain CT and MR imaging findings of unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and CT and/or MR imaging findings of six patients with acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. CT (n=6) and MR imaging (n=6) were performed during the acute and/or convalescent stage of the illness. Brain CT showed brain swelling (n=2), low attenuation of both thalami (n=1) or normal findings (n=3). Initial MR imaging indicated that in all patients the thalamus was involved either bilaterally (n=5) or unilaterally (n=1). Lesions were also present in the midbrain (n=5), medial temporal lobe (n=4), pons (n=3), both hippocampi (n=3) the insular cortex (n=2), medulla (n=2), lateral temporal lobe cortex (n=1), both cingulate gyri (n=1), both basal ganglia (n=1), and the left hemispheric cortex (n=1). These CT or MR imaging findings of acute encephalitis of unknown etiology were similar to a combination of those of Japanese encephalitis and herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to document the specific causative agents which lead to the appearance of these imaging features, further investigation is required

  14. Postinfectious encephalitis (21 cases appended)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰宏林; 孙伟; 王文秋; 王德生

    2003-01-01

    Objective To report 21 cases of postinfectious encephatitis according to ICD-NA, postinfectious/parainfectious encephalitis is an independent disease.Methods Using the uniform criteria provided by The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we diagnosed postinfectious encephalitis among patients admitted to The First Hospital of Harbin Medical University and analyzed the characteristics of these cases. Results All the patients had histories of preceding infection, and most of them suffered from mental and conscious disorders. Adrenocortical hormone was effective.Conclusions Postinfectious encephalitis is an independent disease. According to this article, about 10% patients with encephalitis admitted to our hospital are postinfectious.

  15. Japanese Encephalitis Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshito

    1995-01-01

    On the ecological basis of vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis, measures of their control were examined from viewpoint of their practicability. It was concluded that chemical control is not of practical value, biological control is of limited effectiveness, and environmental control by source reduction is impossible. Instead, it was recommended to improve human living style so as to reduce the frequency of man/mosquito contact.

  16. The Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis: MRI Characterization of a Deceiving Neurological Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Establishing diagnostic MRI criteria for such a pathological entity to enable the oncologist to modify the treatment plan combating the neurological deficits from a different diagnostic prospective, hence improving the quality of life of cancer patients. Material and Methods: Sixty patients from the National Cancer Institute (Cairo University) diagnosed with different types of cancer at time interval of one year were included in the study pool. Twenty patients were known to have lung cancer, 15 patients with breast cancer, 10 patients with lymphoma and 15 patients with leukemia. No age or sex predilection. All patients performed cranial MRI before and after intravenous contrast media injection, backed by the clinical assumption of encephalopathy and wide spectrum of neurological symptoms as seizures, dementia and behavioral disorders. Some of the patients with positive MRI studies performed serological test to detect onco neuronal antibodies. The study was carried out from January till December 2007. Results: Thirty three patients’ revealed definite MRI signal abnormality involving the limbic system proper and further temporal lobes affection while five patients revealed mixed pattern of regional encephalitic changes including the cerebellum, frontal lobes and brain stem. The rest of the study group exhibited no signs of encephalitis. Conclusion: Specific MRI appearance could be traced in para neoplastic limbic encephalitis thus establishing diagnostic pattern for such entity that could help characterizing the disease with subsequent impact upon the treatment protocol resulting in regaining normal brain faculties and better life quality for such cancer patients

  17. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

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    A. Karimi MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE is a life threatening outcome of Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection of the central nervous system (CNS. HSVaccounts for 2-5 percent of all cases of encephalitis. One third of cases occur in those younger than 20 years old and one half in those older than 50 years old.Clinical diagnosis is recommended in the encephalopathic, febrile patients with focal neurological signs. However, the clinical findings are not pathogonomic because numerous other diseases of CNS can mimic HSE. Diagnosis should be confirmed based on medical history, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for protein and glucose contents, the cellular analysis and identifying the pathogens by serology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification .The diagnostic gold standard is the detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. But negative results need to be interpreted regarding thepatients clinical signs and symptoms and the time of CSF sampling. Spike and slow wave patterns is observed in Electroencephalogram (EEG.Neuroimaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is essential for evaluating the patients, which shows temporal lobe edema or hemorrhage.All patients with HSE should be treated by intravenous Acyclovir (10mg/kg q8hr for 14-21 days. After completing therapy, PCR of the CSF can confirmthe elimination of replicating virus, assisting further management of the patient.Keywords:Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Encephalitis, Children

  18. MRI Findings In Dengue Encephalitis

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    Ashraf V.V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological manifestations are rare in dengue fever. Two cases with encephalopathy and systemic features of dengue fever with abnormal CSF and MR imaging are reported. Striking MRI finding was bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions similar to those reported in Japanese encephalitis. This report highlights that MRI findings can be similar in dengue and Japanese encephalitis.

  19. Dengue encephalitis -a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.C.Bhattacharyya; Jagdish Prasad Agarwal

    2009-01-01

    Encephalitis is an uncommon manifestation of dengue fever.Here we present a 4 years old female child from Northeast Region of India who suffered from dengue encephalitis.To our knowledge,this is probably the first diagnosed case of dengue fever from this region.

  20. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no sig...

  1. GABAB Encephalitis: A Fifty-Two-Year-Old Man with Seizures, Dysautonomia, and Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Loftspring

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, subtype B (GABAB, are a known cause of limbic encephalitis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations attributable to this antibody is not well defined at the present time. Here we present a case of GABAB encephalitis presenting with encephalopathy, status epilepticus, dysautonomia, and acute heart failure. To our knowledge, heart failure and dysautonomia have not yet been reported with this syndrome.

  2. Diversity in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: case-based evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, J; Rocha, J.; Rodrigues, M.; Pereira, J.; Maré, R; Ferreira, C; Lourenço, E; Beleza, P

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) are identified in the form of immune-mediated encephalitis in which typical manifestations include neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, abnormal movements, dysautonomia and hypoventilation. The authors report two cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with different presentations and patterns of progression. The first patient presented with status epilepticus and later developed psychosis, pyramidal signs and diffuse encephalopathy. The secon...

  3. GABAB Encephalitis: A Fifty-Two-Year-Old Man with Seizures, Dysautonomia, and Acute Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Loftspring, Matthew C; Eric Landsness; Lindsey Wooliscroft; Robert Rudock; Sally Jo; Patel, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, subtype B (GABAB), are a known cause of limbic encephalitis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations attributable to this antibody is not well defined at the present time. Here we present a case of GABAB encephalitis presenting with encephalopathy, status epilepticus, dysautonomia, and acute heart failure. To our knowledge, heart failure and dysautonomia have not yet been reported with this syndrome.

  4. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  5. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  6. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

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    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  7. Surveillance of neutralization antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus in healthy population in Tongchuan city, Shaanxi province%陕西省铜川市健康人群流行性乙型脑炎中和抗体水平监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新利; 李悦玲; 赵巧玲; 曹莉; 王云婕

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解陕丙省铜川市健康人群流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)抗体水平,为有效防控乙脑提供参考依据.方法 采用整群随机抽样的方法,选择铜川市宜君县≤2岁、3~5岁、6~10岁、11~15岁、16~45岁、46~60岁和>60岁组共216人,用微量中和试验检测乙脑病毒中和抗体.结果 铜川市健康人群乙脑中和抗体阳性率为24.07%,抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)为1:3.04;≤2岁组人群抗体阳性率及GMT均最高,为63.33%和1:11.06,其他年龄组的抗体阳性率为6.45%~31.03%,抗体GMT为1:1.78~1:3.95.各年龄组抗体阳性率及GMT差异有统计学意义.结论 铜川市健康人群乙脑抗体阳性率及GMT均较低,具有引发乙脑流行的风险,应加强乙脑疫苗免疫接种工作,提高人群免疫覆盖率.%Objective To understand Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibody level in the heaIthy population in Tongchuan, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of Japanese encephalitis. Methods Totally 216 healthy people in 7 age groups ( ≤2.3 -5, 6 - 10, 11 - 15 , 16 - 45 , 46 - 60 and > 60 years old) were sampled by cluster random sampling in Yijun county of Tongchuan, and blood samples were taken from them to detect neutralization antibody (NA) to JEV by micro neutralization test. Results The positive rate of IEV NA (GMT) was 24.07%(1∶ 3.04) in the healthy population in Tongchuan. The positive rate (GMT) in age group ≤2 years old was highest (63.33%. 1∶11.06) , the positive rates and GMT in other age groups ranged from 6.45% to 31.03% and from 1∶1.78 to 1∶ 3.95 respectively. The differences on antibody levels between different age groups were statistical significant.Conclusion The TEV antibody positive rate and GMT were relatively low in the healthy population in Tongchuan,which might facilitate the epidemic of Japanese encephalitis. It is necessary to strengthen the Japanese encephalitis vaccinacion to increase the vaccination

  8. MRI in Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kalita, J. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Salwani, V. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gujral, R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the basal ganglia in one. The lesions were haemorrhagic in three of the four patients with lesions in the cortex, two of the three with lesions in the midbrain and cerebellum, but the pontine lesions were haemorrhagic in both patients. Spinal cord involvement was seen in one of the three patients who underwent MRI. In two patients MRI was repeated 3 years after the onset, showing marked reduction in abnormal signal; and all the lesions gave low signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially in endemic areas. (orig.)

  9. Limbic encephalitis following immunotherapy against metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Sharfaraz; Lavin, Timothy; Turan, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Novel immunotherapies are increasingly being used to treat malignant melanoma. The use of such agents has been associated with triggering autoimmunity. However, there has been a paucity in reports of limbic encephalitis associated with these immunotherapies. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death antigen (PD-1), is currently being trialled in the UK to treat malignant melanoma. We report a unique case of antibody-negative limbic encephalitis presenting 1 year after starting pembrolizumab, in the context of malignant melanoma. The patient presented with progressive cognitive decline. MRI of the brain revealed signal change within the limbic structures. Cerebrospinal fluid studies confirmed evidence of inflammation with raised white cell count and protein. We were able to prevent further progression of symptoms by stopping pembrolizumab and treating the patient instead with steroids. We advocate considering autoimmune neuroinflammation as a differential for neurological disorders presenting in patients receiving PD-1 antagonist treatment and immunotherapy in general. PMID:27009198

  10. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  11. Neuroleptic intolerance in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejuste, Florian; Thomas, Laure; Picard, Géraldine; Desestret, Virginie; Ducray, François; Rogemond, Veronique; Psimaras, Dimitri; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Groc, Laurent; Leboyer, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To precisely describe the initial psychiatric presentation of patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) to identify potential clues enhancing its early diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively studied the French Reference Centre medical records of every adult patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis to specify the patients' initial psychiatric symptoms leading to hospitalization in a psychiatric department and the reasons underlying the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Results: The medical records of 111 adult patients were reviewed. Psychiatric features were the initial presentation in 65 patients (59%). Among them, several psychiatric manifestations were observed, including visual and auditory hallucinations (n = 26, 40%), depression (n = 15, 23%), mania (n = 5, 8%), acute schizoaffective episode (n = 15, 23%), and eating disorder or addiction (n = 4; 6%). Forty-five patients (40% of total cohort) were first hospitalized in a psychiatric institution (91% women), with a median duration of stay of 9 days (range 0.25–239 days). Among them, 24 patients (53%) had associated discreet neurologic signs at the first evaluation, while 17 additional patients (38%) developed neurologic signs within a few days. Twenty-one patients (47%) were transferred to a medical unit for a suspicion of antipsychotic intolerance characterized by high temperature, muscle rigidity, mutism or coma, and biological results suggesting rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: Several psychiatric presentations were observed in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, although none was specific; however, patients, mostly women, also had discreet neurologic signs that should be carefully assessed as well as signs of antipsychotic intolerance that should raise suspicion for anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  12. In vitro neuronal network activity in NMDA receptor encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantzen Sabine U

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-NMDA-encephalitis is caused by antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and characterized by a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disturbances. It predominantly occurs in young women and is associated in 59% with an ovarian teratoma. Results We describe effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from an anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR encephalitis patient on in vitro neuronal network activity (ivNNA. In vitro NNA of dissociated primary rat cortical populations was recorded by the microelectrode array (MEA system. The 23-year old patient was severely affected but showed an excellent recovery following multimodal immunomodulatory therapy and removal of an ovarian teratoma. Patient CSF (pCSF taken during the initial weeks after disease onset suppressed global spike- and burst rates of ivNNA in contrast to pCSF sampled after clinical recovery and decrease of NMDAR antibody titers. The synchrony of pCSF-affected ivNNA remained unaltered during the course of the disease. Conclusion Patient CSF directly suppresses global activity of neuronal networks recorded by the MEA system. In contrast, pCSF did not regulate the synchrony of ivNNA suggesting that NMDAR antibodies selectively regulate distinct parameters of ivNNA while sparing their functional connectivity. Thus, assessing ivNNA could represent a new technique to evaluate functional consequences of autoimmune encephalitis-related CSF changes.

  13. Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and central nervous HHV-6B reactivation: Causality or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehusmann, Pitt; Widman, Guido; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Greschus, Susanne; Robens, Barbara K; Grote, Alexander; Becker, Albert J

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibody-related encephalopathies represent an important differential diagnosis in adult onset epilepsy. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old patient with new-onset epilepsy and psychotic syndrome, who underwent biopsy resection for etiological classification. MRI analysis and neuropathological examination showed a T-lymphocytic dominated encephalitis with involvement of the limbic system. An indirect immunohistochemistry approach identified autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebral spinal fluid and serum, which were confirmed by affinity purification / mass spectrometry analysis. Further examinations revealed evidence of chromosomally integrated human herpes virus type 6B (HHV-6B). However, astrocytic expression of HHV-6 lytic protein was detected by double immunofluorescence analysis. The cerebral expression of HHV-6 antigen, a clinical improvement under antiviral therapy as well as an initial finding of HHV-6 IgM antibodies strongly argue for an additional active HHV-6B infection. Review of the literature reveals singular reports of patients with GAD antibody-positive limbic encephalitis and central nervous system infections with HHV-6B. Since herpes simplex virus encephalitis has been recently reported as a trigger of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, it is tempting to speculate that HHV-6B infections may trigger a non-paraneoplastic form of limbic encephalitis in a parallel cascade. PMID:27431532

  14. Sequential analysis of CT findings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Tokumaru, Yukio; Ito, Naoki; Yamada, Tatsuo; Hirayama, Keizo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-09-01

    CT findings of six patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were analyzed sequentially. The initial change in CT scan in 3 cases was generalized cerebral edema instead of low density areas in the anterior temporal lobes, which have generally been known as the initial findings. Then, bilateral (5 cases) or unilateral (1 case) island-shaped low absorption areas in the insular cortex and the claustrum appeared within 10 days of onset in all 6 cases. These findings, especially the latter, seem to be characteristic of the acute stage and useful in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The low density areas, then, spread to the temporal lobes, rectal and cingulate gyri in the subacute stage (3 cases) and finally to the frontal and occipital lobes in the chronic stage (2 cases). In the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum, however, there were no low density areas. In 2 cases there was no progression of low density areas beyond those of the acute stage. In one case there were high density areas in the temporal lobes and parapontine cisterns bilaterally. This could correspond to the pathological findings in herpes simplex encephalitis. The improvement of CT findings (or arrest at the early stage) was noted in 2 cases in which the clinical state also improved. This might well be the effect of adenine arabinoside. The one case treated with cytosine arabinoside had extensive low density areas in CT and finally died. The importance of CT in the evaluation of adenine arabinoside therapy was stressed.

  15. Catatonic Syndrome in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Mathew, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a newly recognised autoimmune condition. With its typical clinical pattern, consistent association with the presence of auto antibodies and rapid improvement with immunotherapy, this condition is giving insights into the boundaries between psychiatry and other neurosciences, and is opening avenues for future research. In a young lady who presented with catatonia, we considered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, after ruling out other aetiologies. After a positive antibody test we treated her with immunotherapy. She showed gradual improvement in her psychotic and catatonic symptoms. Knowledge regarding the nature and function of NMDA receptors and pathophysiology of this particular encephalitis is important for psychiatric practice. The great opportunity for research in this area due to its association with psychotic disorders is evident but an appeal to temper the enthusiasm by considering the historical lessons learnt from Karl Jaspers’ critique of General Paresis of Insane, is in place. Catatonic syndrome has to be conceptualised broadly and should be recognised with a separate nosological position.

  16. MRI findings of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively analyzed the MR findings of 12 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) (8 months - 64 years old). MR imaging was performed on either a 0.5T (6 patients) or 2.0T (6 patients) superconducting unit with spin echo pulse sequences. The most common and characteristic MR finding consisted of non-hemorrhagic lesions in the cortices of the temporal lobes(12), and insular(6), either bilateral(7) or unilateral(5). The frontal lobe and cingulate gyrus were involved in 4 and 2 patients respectively. Petechial hemorrhage was found in 3 patients. Non-hemorrhagic lesions were shown as high signal intensities on proton and T2WI, and iso- or low signal intensities on T1WI. In conclusion, MR imaging findings described above appear to be characteristic of HSE and were found to be extremely valuable in the diagnosis of HSE

  17. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially. PMID:22277519

  18. Encephalitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals in the brain, to check for abnormal brain waves blood tests to confirm the presence of bacteria or viruses in the blood, and whether a person is producing antibodies (specific ... (the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) is checked for signs of ...

  19. CT images of infantile viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT scanning was undertaken in 40 patients with infantile viral encephalitis seen from 1977 to 1983. According to the pathogenic viruses, abnormal CT findings were detected most frequently in cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), followed by non-eruptive viral encephalitis, measles encephalitis, and rubella encephalitis in that order, which coincided well with neurological prognosis. Although CT findings lay within a normal range in cases of measles encephalitis, except a case in which cerebral ventricle was slightly dilated, the degree of consciousness disturbance was unfavorable and it persisted long. This revealed that there is no distinct correlation between the degree of consciousness disturbance and CT findings. Normal CT findings were detected in 13% of patients aged less than 5 years and 76.5% of patients aged 5 years or more. In many patients who had an attack of viral encephalitis at the age of 5 years or more, epileptic seizures occurred frequently, even though CT findings were normal. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayh HASHEMIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Hashemian S, Ashrafzadeh F, Akhondian J, Beiraghi Toosi M. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:107-110.  Abstract Many neurologic manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection have been documented, including encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These manifestations can occur alone or coincidentally with the clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis. EBV encephalitis is rare and is indicated as a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report a 10-year-old girl presented with fever, gait disturbance, and bizarre behavior for one week. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable. The diagnosis of EBV encephalitis was made by changes in titers of EBV specific antibodies and MRI findings. A cranial MRI demonstrated abnormal high signal intensities in the basal ganglia and the striatal body, especially in the putamen and caudate nucleus. EBV infection should be considered when lesions are localized to the basal ganglia.ReferencesFujimoto H, Asaoka K, Imiazumi T, Ayabe M, Shoji H, Kaji M. Epstein-Barr virus Infections of the Central Nervous System. Intern Med 2003; 42:33-40.Mathew AG, Parvez Y. Fulminant Epstein Barr virus encephalitis. Indian Pediatrics 2013; 50:418-419Kalita J, Maurya PK, Kumar B, Misra UK. Epstein Barr virus encephalitis: Clinical diversity and radiological similarity. Neurol India 2011; 59:605-7Baskin HJ, Hedlund G. Neuroimaging of Herpes Virus Infections in Children. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:949-63.Weinberg A, Li SH, Palmer M, Tyler K .Quantitative CSF PCR in Epstein-Barr Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System. Ann Neurol 2002; 52:543-8.Ono J, Shimizu K, Harada k, Mano T, Okada S. Characteristic MR Features of Encephalitis Caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Pediatr Radiol 1998; 28:569-70.Hausler M, Raamaekers T, Doenges M, Shweizer K ,Ritter K. Neurological Complications of Acute

  1. Neuronal autoantibodies in patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Bedia; Tektürk, Pınar; Tüzün, Erdem; Erdağ, Ece; Kınay, Demet; Yapıcı, Zuhal; Baykan, Betül

    2016-06-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare disease with unknown pathophysiology. To disclose whether anti-neuronal autoimmunity participates in the aetiology of RE, various neuronal autoantibodies (NAAbs) were investigated in sera of patients with RE and controls. The study included five patients who fulfilled the RE diagnostic criteria (clinical, EEG, and MRI findings) as the patient group, and 50 multiple sclerosis patients and 50 healthy subjects as the control groups. Sera were evaluated for various NAAbs by radioimmunoassay or cell-based assays. All sera were also screened for uncharacterized antibodies to neuronal cell surface or synapse antigens by indirect immunofluorescence using hippocampal cell cultures. The mean age at onset of seizures was 8.3±3.4 years (range: 4-13.5) and mean follow-up time was 11.2±5.4 years (range: 5-19). All patients had unihemispheric atrophy of the cerebral cortex and epilepsia partialis continua. Two of the patients had moderate cognitive impairment, while the others were severely affected, as shown by neuropsychological testing. NAAb positivity was not detected in any of the patients. Immune aetiology is thought to have a role in RE, but the responsible players have not yet been elucidated. Our extensive antibody screening in a small number of patients does not support the presence of antigen-specific anti-neuronal autoimmunity in RE pathophysiology. PMID:27248684

  2. Research of using HRP-SPA ELISA to detect Japanese B encephalitis antibody%HRP-SPA ELISA检测猪日本乙型脑炎病毒抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 张彦明; 李晓成

    2002-01-01

    将盐析法提纯的、用Hela细胞系增殖的猪日本乙型脑炎病毒Japanese B encephalitis(JEV)抗原包被酶标板,以HRP-SPA作为第二抗体,建立了检测JEV抗体的ELISA试验方法.结果表明,抗原的最适包被浓度为1∶800,待检血清最适稀释度为1∶50,HRP-SPA最佳工作浓度为1∶1 000,各步反应时间确定为5 min.交叉试验、阻断试验、重复性试验、敏感性试验证明本实验特异性强,重复性好,敏感性高.包被的病毒抗原经甲醛固定15 min即可进行正式试验.确定其测定标准为:S/N≥14.81为阳性,S/N<12.53为阴性,12.53≤S/N<14.81为可疑.

  3. Japanese encephalitis: current worldwide status*

    OpenAIRE

    Umenai, T.; Krzysko, R.; Bektimirov, T. A.; Assaad, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    The changing epidemiological and distribution patterns of Japanese encephalitis in various southern and east Asian countries are described. Immunization is considered to be the only practical way to control the infection. Several vaccines have been developed and two types of inactivated vaccine are now available for use in man.

  4. CT findings of Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Hiroshi; Toyomasu, Teruo; Fukada, Makiko; Nakashima, Kenichi; Kaji, Masaro; Kobayashi, Kenji

    1984-04-01

    In this study, CT findings of eight patients with Japanese encephalitis were analyzed. In principle, CT scans were done at the acute stage, within 3 weeks of the onset, and at the convalescent stage, after from 1 month to 1 year. The results may be divided into three groups: normal scans, low-density lesions, and ventricular abnormalities. 1) Normal scans: CT findings in Cases 1 and 5, showed no abnormalities, although patient 5 had clinically severe encephalitis. 2) Low-density lesions: In Case 3, a slight low-density area was observed in the bilateral thalami only at the acute stage. CT scans in Case 4, obtained 2 and 4 months after the onset, exhibited low-density areas in the bilateral thalami, the left basal ganglia, and the left substantia nigra. In Case 7, diffuse low-density areas in the white matter were found 3 months after the onset. 3) Ventricular abnormalities: CT in Case 2 revealed a moderate dilatation of the ventricular system, which probably suggests normal-pressure hydrocephalus. In 2 other cases, a narrowing or dilatation of the lateral ventricle was observed. The CT findings regarding Japanese encephalitis were discussed in comparison with those of other viral encephalitides, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis.

  5. Encephalitis Lethargica: An Autoimmune Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    Twenty patients (16 from 2-16 years old, mean 10.4 years; 4 from 17-69, mean 47.5 years) with an encephalitis lethargica (EL) syndrome resembling that reported in the 1916-1927 epidemic, and presenting between 1999 and 2002, are reported from Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, and other tertiary neurology centers in the UK.

  6. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with characteristic CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Shigehiro (Kumamoto Rosai Hospital (Japan)); Nakayama, Toshio; Yamanaga, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Ideta, Tooru

    1984-01-01

    CT scans of a 59-year-old woman, with serologically comfirmed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were studied sequentially from 9 days after onset. The initial findings in CT scan were low density areas in insular cortex, claustrum and hippocampus. The low density areas, then, spread to the temporal lobe, rectal and cingulate gyri and occipital lobe, according to clinical progression of the disease. However, these low density areas disappeared and changed into isodensity areas in 25-35 days after oneset, which then returned to low density areas again in 51 days after onset. Thes characteristic phenomenon resembled a ''fogging effect,'' which is frequently seen during the second or third week after onset of ischemic cerebral infarction. HSE is characterized pathologically by acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis. Though cerebral angiography was not performed in this case, these characteristic CT findings suggested that HSE may have been associated with vascular involvement.

  7. 皖北地区1~16岁儿童麻疹、风疹、流脑、乙脑抗体水平调查%Investigation of measles, rubella, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and Japanese encephalitis antibody levels among 1-16 years old children in Northern Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡标; 董朝阳; 武昌俊; 吴纳新; 何素冰; 刁慧敏; 江扬帆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate measles, rubella, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis (ECM) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels among 1-16 years old Children in Northern Anhui Province. Methods A total of 5 542 blood samples of healthy children were collected quantitatively and measles, rubella, ECM and JE IgG antibody levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Among the subjects detected, the positive rates of measles, rubella, ECM and JE IgG antibodies was 95.9% , 92.5% , 89.4% , 94.2% respectively. Conclusions Measles, rubella, ECM and JE IgG antibody levels of 1-16 years old children in Northern Anhui Province was relatively high, the firmer immune barrier to prevent children from measles virus ( MV), rubella virus ( RV), neisseria meningitis (NM) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was formed and obtained better effect on controlling the outbreak or epidemic of measles, rubella, ECM and JE.%目的 了解皖北地区儿童麻疹病毒IgG、风疹病毒IgG、A群流行性脑脊髓膜炎IgG和流行性乙型脑炎病毒IgG 4种免疫抗体水平.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,共采集1 ~16岁儿童手指血清样品5 542份,采用酶联免疫吸附试验法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)进行上述4种病毒IgG抗体水平监测.结果 在调查的5 542份有效样本中,麻疹病毒、风疹病毒、A群流行性脑脊髓膜炎和流行性乙型脑炎病毒IgG抗体阳性率分别为95.9%、92.5%、89.4%和94.2%.结论 皖北地区1~16岁儿童麻疹病毒IgG抗体、风疹病毒IgG抗体、A群流行性脑脊髓膜炎IgG抗体和流行性乙型脑炎病毒IgG抗体具有较高水平,形成了较牢固的免疫屏障,对控制上述4种传染病的暴发和流行起到了较好的作用.

  8. Regional impact of climate on Japanese encephalitis in areas located near the three gorges dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. METHODS: We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic factors of the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus for both the whole study area and for each individual region; linear regression models were conducted to examine the fluctuation of climatic variables over time during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2008, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis decreased throughout the entire city of Chongqing, with noticeable variations taking place in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The eastern region, which is closest to the Three Gorges Dam, suffered the highest incidence of Japanese encephalitis, while the western region experienced the lowest incidence. Linear regression models revealed that there were seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models indicated a significant positive association between temperature (with a lag of 1 and 3 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence, and a significant negative association between rainfall (with a lag of 0 and 4 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence. CONCLUSION: The spatial and temporal trends of Japanese encephalitis incidence that occurred in the City of Chongqing were associated with temperature and rainfall. Seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period were also observed. Additional studies that focus on long-term data collection are needed to validate the findings of this study and to further explore the effects of the Three Gorges Dam on Japanese

  9. Surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in villages near Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, T R; Rao, C V; Rajendran, R; Devaputra, M; Prasanna, Y; Hanumaiah; Gajanana, A; Reuben, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple dusk index was developed to monitor the density of recognized vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) based on hand catches around cattlesheds at dusk and parous rates. When used routinely in combination with sentinel animal studies for surveillance in villages with a high prevalence (46.2%) of neutralizing antibodies against JEV in children under 16 years, there was a peak in vector density and virus activity during the north-east monsoon period, October-December. The reasons for an unusual outbreak of cases of encephalitis during the summer months of 1984 are discussed. PMID:1653473

  10. Computer tomography in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT findings in six patients with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were analysed and compared with the literature. Thirty-four examinations were performed, 27 within the first 14 days of the illness. The early findings show three characteristic features: The CT may be entirely normal up to the fourth day. Consistent with clinical and E.E.G. findings there then develops a hypodense temporal lesion which, even at this stage, acts as an expanding lesion in half the patients. Between the sixth and eighth day there is frequently involvement of the contra-lateral temporal lobe, not as a continuation, but as a new lesion. At the same time, or after several days, there is involvement of the basal portions of the frontal lobes. In this late phase there may be necrosis in the basal ganglia, thalamus or other parts of the brain. The CT findings in this late phase are uniform and characteristic of the disease. For early diagnosis and treatment the early clinical, electrophysiological and neuro-radiological findings are important. A normal CT scan two days after the onset of clinical symptoms may be regarded as significant. (orig.)

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy and/or plasmapheresis in autoimmune encephalitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jessica L; Coebergh, Jan; Chandra, Brunda; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2016-08-16

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a poorly understood condition that can present with a combination of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, either of which may predominate. There are many autoantibodies associated with a variety of clinical syndromes - anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is the commonest. Currently, the most widely used therapy is prompt plasmapheresis and steroid treatment (and tumour resection if indicated), followed by second line immunosuppression if this fails. Given the growing awareness of autoimmune encephalitis as an entity, it is increasingly important that we consider it as a potential diagnosis in order to provide timely, effective treatment. We discuss several previously published case reports and one new case. These reports examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly those in whom psychiatric symptoms are especially debilitating and refractory to standard treatment. We also discuss factors predicting good outcome and possible mechanisms by which ECT may be effective. Numerous cases, such as those presented by Wingfield, Tsutsui, Florance, Sansing, Braakman and Matsumoto, demonstrate effective use of ECT in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients with severe psychiatric symptoms such as catatonia, psychosis, narcolepsy and stupor who had failed to respond to standard treatments alone. We also present a new case of a 71-year-old female who presented to a psychiatric unit initially with depression, which escalated to catatonia, delusions, nihilism and auditory hallucinations. After anti-NMDAR antibodies were isolated, she was treated by the neurology team with plasmapheresis and steroids, with a partial response. She received multiple sessions of ECT and her psychiatric symptoms completely resolved and she returned to her premorbid state. For this reason, we suggest that ECT should be considered, particularly in those patients who are non-responders to standard therapies. PMID

  12. Tick borne encephalitis without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stupica, Daša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Pečavar, Blaž; Bajrović, Fajko F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick borne encephalitis is the most frequent vector-transmitted infectious disease of the central nervous system in Europe and Asia. The disease caused by European subtype of tick borne encephalitis virus has typically a biphasic clinical course with the second phase presenting as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is considered a condition sine qua non for the diagnosis of neurologic involvement in tick borne encephalitis,...

  13. Imaging of cerebritis, encephalitis, and brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Tanya J; Hughes, Marion; Arabi, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurang V

    2012-11-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscess, pyogenic infection, and encephalitis. The role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and management of pyogenic brain abscess and its complications is reviewed. The imaging appearances of several common and select uncommon infectious encephalitides are reviewed. Common causes of encephalitis in immunocompromised patients, and their imaging appearances, are also discussed. When combined with CSF, serologic studies and patient history, imaging findings can suggest the cause of encephalitis. PMID:23122258

  14. Resolution of limbic encephalitis with detection and treatment of lung cancer: clinical-radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis may develop in the setting of an otherwise occult malignancy. In the case reported here, the neuropsychiatric syndrome resolved with treatment of the underlying, previously undiagnosed small-cell lung cancer, and MR imaging showed resolution of the characteristic temporal lobe signal abnormalities

  15. 乙型脑炎病毒SA14-14-2株和P3株单克隆抗体的制备及应用%Preparation and application of monoclonal antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus SA14-14-2 and P3 strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志军; 施金荣; 朱华松; 王平; 余模松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare and preliminarily apply the monoclonal antibody (McAb) against Japanese encephalitis (JEV) SA14-14-2 and P3 strains. Methods BALB mice were immunized with live attenuated JEV vaccine prepared with SA14-14-2 strain and P3 antigen respectively, and boosted crossly. The splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with SP2 / 0 cells, and positive hybridoma cells were screened by indirect ELISA. The clones negative for human serum albumin (HSA) but positive for JEV antibody were selected and subcloned for 2 times, based on which ascites was prepared and purified, and McAb and hybridoma were identified. Capture ELJSA method was developed with McAbs against SA14-14-2 strain and used for determination of JEV antibody, while competitive inhibition ELJSA and double antibody sandwich ELJSA methods for determination of JEV antigen content. Results After 3 times of fusion, four hybridoma cell strains secreting McAb against SA 14-14-2 strain and three hybridoma cell strains secreting McAbs against P3 strain were obtained, but no hybridoma cell strains secreting McAbs with common antigenic determinants of SA and P3 strains were obtained. All the McAbs secreted by the seven hybridoma cell strains were IgG1 with high specificity but without neutralizing activity. In the order of relative affinity, the McAbs against SA14-14-2 strain were 3D1, 5E3, 6H3 and 4F12, all of which recognized the same SA14-14-2 antigenic epitopes; while the McAbs against P3 strain were 1C7, 5H12 and 3C4, all of which recognized the same P3 antigenic epitopes. The tilers of McAbs prepared with the seven hybridoma cell strains 6 months after storage in liquid nitrogen and with those after continuous culture for 3 months in vitro were stable. By using McAb 5E3 against SA14-14-2 strain, the rapture ELJSA method for determination of JEV antibody as well as competitive inhibition ELJSA method and double antibody sandwich ELJSA methods for JEV antigen were developed. Conclusion The McAbs against

  16. Investigations on CXCL13 in Anti–N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leypoldt, Frank; Höftberger, Romana; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Armangue, Thaís; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Jahn, Holger; Rostásy, Kevin; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Meyer, Thomas; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Graus, Francesc; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune encephalitis affecting mainly young adults and children. The lack of suitable biomarkers of disease activity makes treatment decisions and identification of relapses challenging. OBJECTIVE To determine the levels of the B-cell–attracting C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether they can be used as biomarkers of treatment response and outcome. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of 167 patients consecutively diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis between May 1, 2008, and January 31, 2013. Concentration of CXCL13 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all available patients’ samples (272 CSF and 55 serum samples). Samples from 25 patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders and 9 with neuroborreliosis served as controls. Expression of CXCL13 in the brain biopsy of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was determined by immunohistochemistry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and elevated CXCL13 in CSF. RESULTS Compared with control individuals, 70% of patients with early-stage anti-NMDAR encephalitis had increased CXCL13 in CSF (>7 pg/mL; P 1047 pg/mL; P > .99). High concentration of CSF CXCL13 was associated with the presence of prodromal fever or headache (P = .01), limited response to therapy (P = .003), clinical relapses (P = .03), and intrathecal NMDAR-antibody synthesis (P < .001). Among patients with monophasic disease assessed 2 to 6 months after starting treatment, 10 of 15 with limited treatment response vs 0 of 13 with favorable response had increased CSF CXCL13 (specificity, 100%; 95% CI, 75–100 and sensitivity, 67%; 95% CI, 38–88; P = .02). Six of 12 patients had elevated CSF CXCL13 at relapse including 3 with previously normal levels. In brain

  17. Sequential analysis of CT findings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of six patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were analyzed sequentially. The initial change in CT scan in 3 cases was generalized cerebral edema instead of low density areas in the anterior temporal lobes, which have generally been known as the initial findings. Then, bilateral (5 cases) or unilateral (1 case) island-shaped low absorption areas in the insular cortex and the claustrum appeared within 10 days of onset in all 6 cases. These findings, especially the latter, seem to be characteristic of the acute stage and useful in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The low density areas, then, spread to the temporal lobes, rectal and cingulate gyri in the subacute stage (3 cases) and finally to the frontal and occipital lobes in the chronic stage (2 cases). In the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum, however, there were no low density areas. In 2 cases there was no progression of low density areas beyond those of the acute stage. In one case there were high density areas in the temporal lobes and parapontine cisterns bilaterally. This could correspond to the pathological findings in herpes simplex encephalitis. The improvement of CT findings (or arrest at the early stage) was noted in 2 cases in which the clinical state also improved. This might well be the effect of adenine arabinoside. The one case treated with cytosine arabinoside had extensive low density areas in CT and finally died. The importance of CT in the evaluation of adenine arabinoside therapy was stressed. (author)

  18. Imaging findings of neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT, MR, and diffusion-weighted initial and follow-up imaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis were assessed. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings in 12 patients (eight girls and four boys) with proven neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis with follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patterns of brain involvement and distribution of lesions were studied and the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to the imaging diagnosis of this disease was explored. A total of 24 CT and 22 MRI studies were performed with a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis can be multifocal or limited to only the temporal lobes, brainstem, or cerebellum. The deep gray matter structures were involved in 57% of patients, and hemorrhage was seen in more than half of the patients. CT images were normal or showed mild abnormalities in the early stages of the disease. Conventional MR images may be normal in the early stages of the disease. Lesions were initially seen only by diffusion-weighted imaging in 20% of the patients and this modality showed a substantially more extensive disease distribution in an additional 50% of patients. In 40% of patients, watershed distribution ischemic changes were observed in addition to areas of presumed direct herpetic necrosis. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis has a variable imaging appearance. Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important adjunct in the imaging evaluation of this disease. Watershed distribution ischemia in areas remote from the primary herpetic lesions may be seen. (orig.)

  19. Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vincent C.; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A.; Fremont, Daved H. (WU-MED)

    2012-03-13

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  20. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan.

  1. Clinical and imaging characteristics of 16 patients with autoimmune neuronal synaptic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kamble

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: All patients with anti-VGKC, anti-NMDA and anti-TPO antibody positivity presented with a triad of behavioral changes, impaired cognition and seizures. Mutism was a predominant symptom in patients with an anti-NMDA antibody positivity, which may help in the early identification of this disorder. MRI brain showed changes restricted to limbic structures in anti-NMDA and anti-VGKC antibody positivity. An early diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis is essential for a better outcome and for prevention of long-term sequel.

  2. Herpes simplex encephalitis: increased retention of Tc-99m HMPAO on acetazolamide enhanced brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an interesting case of herpes simplex encephalitis, which showed increased upta unilateral temporal cortex on brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO, but in bilateral tem cortex after acetazolamide administration. A 42-year-old man was admitted via emergency room, due to rapidly progressing hea disorientation and mental changes. On neurologic examination, neck stiffness and Kernig sign noted. CSF examination showed pleocytosis with lymphcyte predominance. MRI showed swelling bilateral temporal lobe with left predominance, suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis. Baseline/ Acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT were acquired consecutively at the same position IV administration of 740MBq and additional 1480 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO respectively. The temporal and inferior frontal cortex showed markedly increased perfusion on the baseline acetazolamide-enhanced SPECT images. The right temporal cortex showed normal uptake on the b SPECT images, and markedly increased uptake after acetazolamide administration, which seemed to the abundant vascularity at the acute inflammation site without marked brain damage. The fo brain perfusion SPECT after 6 months showed perfusion defect in left temporal cortex but norm perfusion in right temporal cortex. Therefore, we can conclude that baseline SPECT is helpful for the prediction of the prognosis acetazolamide SPECT for the evaluation of the extent of herpes simples encephalitis

  3. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis presenting as a neurological emergency: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Brijesh P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis remains a challenging clinical diagnosis with poor outcome if it is not recognized and treated early in the course of the disease. Case Presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and increasing confusion shortly after a lung biopsy that led to the diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer. She had a complicated hospital course, and had recurrent respiratory distress due to aspiration pneumonia, and fluctuating mental status and seizures that were refractory to anti-epileptic drug treatment. Routine laboratory testing, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, electroencephalogram, lumbar puncture, serum and cerebrospinal fluid tests for paraneoplastic antibodies, and chest computed tomography were performed on our patient. The diagnosis was paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in the setting of small-cell lung cancer with positive N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody titer. Anti-epileptic drugs for seizures, chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer, and intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids for paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis led to a resolution of her seizures and improved her mental status. Conclusion Early recognition of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and prompt intervention with immune therapies at the onset of presentation will probably translate into more favorable neurological outcomes.

  4. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eymard Homem Pitella

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  5. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......, fever, headache, and nausea were reported in less than 6% of children receiving inactivated vaccine compared to 0.6% of unvaccinated controls. One cluster-RCT compared the live-attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (widely used in China) with no intervention measuring adverse events. Fever was reported in 2...

  6. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  7. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  8. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in hamadan, iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sabouri Ghannad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis can cause a severe public health problem. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the medical laboratory results of patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV encephalitis.Diagnosis of encephalitis for these patients was firstly based on a clinical profile for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE, plus either a detected HSV1&2-DNA by PCR in CSF or brain neuro-imaging results.Molecular testing on CSF showed that 15 patients (15% had HSV infection, 5 patients (5% had Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV and one case was positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-RNA in CSF. The cause of encephalitis in 79 out of 100 patients (79% was unknown. The comparison of CSF analysis in HSV positives and negatives showed a significant increase of glucose and protein levels in HSV positives than negatives. The mortality rate was 46.6% (7/15 in patients with HSV encephalitis compared to 11.4% (10/85 in non-HSV encephalitis (P = 0.003.In the current study, 15% of cases were diagnosed as having HSV.

  9. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. The disorder, the diagnosis and the immunobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Harry E; Day, Gregory S; Dunn, Shannon; Fritzler, Marvin J; Prüss, Harald; De Souza, Claire; Doja, Asif; Mossman, Karen; Resch, Lothar; Xia, Chenjie; Sakic, Boris; Belbeck, Larry; Foster, Warren G

    2012-10-01

    Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a newly characterized syndrome with a progressive, predictable clinical course and the possibility of effective treatment. Accurate and timely diagnosis is critical to selection and implementation of treatments, and optimal patient outcomes. Outcomes are improved with early diagnosis via indirect immunofluorescence or cell-based assays, and the rapid and appropriate administration of immunosuppressant and anti-psychotic therapies. Three possible scenarios accounting for the immunopathogenesis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are presented, with the most probable one being that of paraneoplastic autoimmunity. Future efforts in this disorder should focus on elucidating the mechanisms that contribute to initiation of this antibody response, as well as exploring the role of tumors, infectious triggers and immune-reactivation. Finally, accessible tools need to be developed that allow for reliable identification of specific antibody markers against synaptic proteins. PMID:22440397

  10. Identification and isolation of Genotype-I Japanese Encephalitis virus from encephalitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Xiaoyan; Jiang Hongyue; Chen Weixin; Lv Zhi; Li Minghua; Zhai Yougang; Yuan Jun; Yu Deshan; Deng Zhang; Ye Xufang; Zhang Hailin; Fu Shihong; Wang Lihua; Cao Yuxi; Wang Huanyu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Historically, Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype III (GIII) has been responsible for human diseases. In recent years, JEV genotype I (GI) has been isolated from mosquitoes collected in numerous countries, but has not been isolated from patients with encephalitis. In this study, we report recovery of JEV GI live virus and identification of JEV GI RNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of encephalitis patients in JE endemic areas of China. Whole-genome sequencing and molecular phyl...

  11. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indrani Bhattacharyya; Srima Adhikary; Saiantani Mondal; Jayashree Konar; Nidhi Dawar; Asit Biswas; Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or...

  12. An Unusual Psychiatric Emergency: Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doyle

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of fatal herpes simplex virus (HSV encephalitis, presenting as a psychiatric emergency, is reported. The possibility of HSV encephalitis presenting mainly or solely with psychiatric symptoms is highlighted. HSV can cause a severe form of encephalitis which may present with mainly psychiatric symptoms in some cases. Early treatment with anti-viral agents can reduce mortality and morbidity, but accurate early diagnosis may be very difficult. HSV encephalopathy may mimic psychiatric illness and has been likened to syphilis as the great imitator. The case presented here should serve to raise awareness of the psychiatric features and the need to consider this diagnosis in patients with atypical behavioural disturbance.

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis : CSF Biomarkers of SIV Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissel, Stephanie J; Kofler, Julia; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Wiley, Clayton A

    2016-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis, and at necropsy. YKL40 CSF concentrations above 1122 ng/ml were found to be a specific and sensitive biomarker for the presence of encephalitis and were highly correlated with CSF viral load. Macaques that developed encephalitis had evidence of chronic CNS immune activation during early, asymptomatic, and end stages of infection. At the onset of encephalitis, CSF demonstrated a rise of neuroimmune markers associated with macrophage recruitment, activation and interferon response. CSF YKL40 concentration and viral load are valuable biomarkers to define the onset of encephalitis. Chronic CNS immune activation precedes the development of encephalitis while some responses suggest protection from CNS lentiviral disease. PMID:27059917

  14. Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Quaranta; Nunzio Bucci; Cristina Toni; Giulio Perugi

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early p...

  15. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis, an Underappreciated Disease in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Lasoff, Daniel R.; Corbett-Detig, Jimmy; Sell, Rebecca; Nolan, Matthew; Wardi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis is a novel disease discovered within the past 10 years. Antibodies directed at the NMDAR cause the patient to develop a characteristic syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients go on to develop autonomic dysregulation and often have prolonged hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays. There is little literature in the emergency medicine community regarding this disease process, so we report on a case we encountered in our emer...

  16. Hashimoto's encephalitis as a differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seipelt, M; Zerr, I.; Nau, R; Mollenhauer, B.; Kropp, S; Steinhoff, B; Wilhelm-Gossling, C; Bamberg, C; Janzen, R.; Berlit, P.; Manz, F; Felgenhauer, K; Poser, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—During an epidemiological study of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Germany, Hashimoto's encephalitis was encountered as a differential diagnosis, which has not yet been described in this context.
METHODS—The symptoms and findings of seven patients who fulfilled the criteria for "possible"Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are presented.
RESULTS—A Hashimoto's thyroiditis with antibodies against thyroglobulin or thyroid peroxidase, or both and a hypoechoic thyroid ultrasonog...

  17. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 protein antibody associated autoimmune encephalitis%富亮氨酸胶质瘤失活1蛋白抗体相关自身免疫性脑炎的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹为; 李丹; 贾清; 陈唯唯; 杨渊

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of leucine -rich glioma inactivated-1 ( LGIl) protein antibody associated autoimmune encephalitis ( Anti-LGI1 AE) .Methods: Report the clinical characteristics and therapeutic response of one case with anti-LGI1 AE and review of literatures .Results:A middle-aged woman was admit-ted to the hospital due to subacute onset of declination of recent-memory function , epilepsy as well as mood and sleep disor-der.Hyponatremia was noted.Blood and cerebrospinal fluid to the LGIl antibody was positive .MRI studies revealed abnor-mal signals at bilateral hippocampus , insular and its basal ganglia;MRS indicated the loss of neurons in the bilateral hippo-campus;PET-CT showed the increasing metabolism of bilateral caudate nucleus , putamen nucleus , amygdala and hippocam-pus.Intravenous steroid therapy achieved clinical cure .Conclusion:Anti-LGI1 AE has its characteristic clinical manifesta-tions and specific antibody .Steroid hormone therapy alone can obviously relieve clinical symptoms .In the later follow-up, the patient has further improvement and recovery .%目的:探讨富亮氨酸胶质瘤失活1蛋白( LGI1)抗体相关自身免疫性脑炎的临床特点、治疗及转归。方法:报道1例LGI1抗体相关自身免疫性脑炎的临床特点及治疗反应,结合文献分析该病的临床特点。结果:患者为中年女性,亚急性起病的近期记忆功能减退、癫痫、情绪和睡眠障碍;检验发现低钠血症;血和脑脊液LGI1抗体阳性;MRI示双侧海马、岛叶及基底节异常信号;MRS示双侧海马区神经元丢失;PET-CT示双侧尾状核、壳核、杏仁核及海马区代谢增高。经静脉类固醇激素治疗达到临床痊愈。结论:自身抗体相关免疫性脑炎有特征性临床表现、特异性抗体,在单一的激素冲击治疗后明显好转,后期随访中仍有进一步好转至基本痊愈。

  18. [Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, W; Helm, E B; Hopp, G; Stille, W; Fischer, P A

    1985-01-18

    Toxoplasmosis encephalitis developed in three male homosexuals with AIDS. Clinical symptoms of encephalitis began with a nonspecific organic mental syndrome. In two cases there developed late focal symptoms. There were light to moderately severe generalized EEG changes with additional focal signs. CSF findings and toxoplasmosis titres were not diagnostically altered. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple areas of decreased density in cortex and cerebellum. Administration of pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxydiazine to the three patients brought about clinical improvement within a few days and regression of abnormal CT changes within a few weeks of onset of treatment. One patient died after an encephalitis recurrence: autopsy demonstrated toxoplasma pseudocysts in immediate proximity to small necrotic foci in the brain. The possibility of toxoplasma encephalitis should be considered in AIDS patients who develop an organic mental syndrome. Often the diagnosis can only be made after response to a trial of toxoplasmosis treatment. PMID:3967592

  19. Influenza-Associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The role of influenza A and influenza B in acute childhood encephalitis and encephalopathy (ACE) was evaluated prospectively in all children admitted to the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, during an 11-year period from Jan 1994- Dec 2004.

  20. Neuropsychological Outcomes of Neonatal Herpes Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological outcome and the relation to neuroimaging findings are studied in a cohort of 9 children between 2.5 and 13 years of age with neonatal herpes encephalitis, examined at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.

  1. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs. PMID:26911997

  2. Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Meng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF samples. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive immunoglobulin M antibodies against JE virus, which were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients received detailed neurological examinations, relevant cerebrospinal fluid tests, and brain neuroimaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. Results: Prominent involvement in the hippocampus was observed in 10 patients on neuroimaging, in addition to classic involvement in the thalamus and basal ganglia. Lumbar puncture pressure was normal in 61 CSF samples. White cell count increased in 81.19% of CSF samples, 67.65% and 83.33% of CSF samples demonstrated normal chloride and glucose concentrations, respectively, and 82.52% of CSF samples demonstrated >0.4 g/L protein content. JE patients demonstrate mixed-cell reaction on cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the early phase, which subsequently mainly develop as mainly lymphocyte reaction or typical lymphocyte reaction. Conclusion: JE imaging is characterized by bilateral thalamic involvement, and the basal ganglia and hippocampus are also commonly affected. The mixed-cell reaction in JE lasts longer than in general viral encephalitis. This may facilitate the differential diagnosis of JE.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Secondary to Enterovirus Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    F. Marques; Brito, MJ; M. Conde; Pinto, M.; Moreira, A.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of children are infected by enteroviruses each year, usually exhibiting only mild symptoms. Nevertheless, these viruses are also associated with severe and life-threatening infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a 32-month-old patient with enteroviral encephalitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid, with unfavorable clinical course with marked developmental regression, autistic features, persistent stereotypes and aphasia. She experien...

  4. Relevance of Neuroinflammation and Encephalitis in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies indicate that children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis have brain pathology suggestive of ongoing neuroinflammation or encephalitis in different regions of their brains. Evidence of neuroinflammation or encephalitis in ASD includes: microglial and astrocytic activation, a unique and elevated proinflammatory profile of cytokines, and aberrant expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. A conservative estimate based on the research suggests that at least 69% of individuals with an ASD diagnosis have microglial activation or neuroinflammation. Encephalitis, which is defined as inflammation of the brain, is medical diagnosis code G04.90 in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision; however, children with an ASD diagnosis are not generally assessed for a possible medical diagnosis of encephalitis. This is unfortunate because if a child with ASD has neuroinflammation, then treating the underlying brain inflammation could lead to improved outcomes. The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the evidence of neuroinflammation/encephalitis in those with an ASD diagnosis and to address how a medical diagnosis of encephalitis, when appropriate, could benefit these children by driving more immediate and targeted treatments.

  5. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  6. Predictors of outcome in HSV encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarun D; Fugate, Jennifer E; Hocker, Sara; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Aksamit, Allen J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explore the clinical features, radiological findings, management and the factors influencing prognosis in PCR-confirmed herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients diagnosed with HSE at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, between January 1995 and December 2013. Only HSE cases confirmed by PCR were included. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with good (modified Rankin Scale of 0-2) or poor outcome (mRS of 3-6) at hospital discharge and 1-year follow-up. We identified 45 patients with HSE. Median age was 66 (IQR 53.5-78) years. HSE was caused by HSV-1 in 33 cases and by HSV-2 in 9. Nearly half had seizures upon admission or during hospitalization. The most common regions involved on MRI were the temporal lobe in 35 (87.5%), insula in 28 (70.0%), frontal lobe in 27 (67.5%) and thalamus in 11 (27.5%) patients. MRI pattern was quite homogeneous with HSV-1 infection, but much more heterogeneous with HSV-2. Good outcome at discharge and at 6-12 months was seen in 16 (35.6%) and 27 (65.9%) patients, respectively. On multivariate analyses, older age (p = 0.001), coma (p = 0.008), restricted diffusion on MRI (p = 0.005) and acyclovir started after the first day of admission (p = 0.050) were associated with poor outcome at discharge. Older age, development of coma, presence of restricted diffusion on brain MRI and delay in the administration of acyclovir portend poor outcome in HSE. Conversely, presence of seizures, focal neurological deficits, EEG abnormalities and location or extension of FLAIR/T2 abnormalities did not influence functional outcome. PMID:26568560

  7. Cognitive Impairments Preceding and Outlasting Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI can be the initial manifestation of autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE, a disorder that at times presents a diagnostic challenge. In addition to memory impairment, clinical features that might suggest this disorder include personality changes, agitation, insomnia, alterations of consciousness, and seizures. Once recognized, ALE typically responds to treatment with immune therapies, but long-term cognitive deficits may remain. We report two cases of patients with MCI who were ultimately diagnosed with ALE with antibodies against the voltage gated potassium channel complex. Months after apparent resolution of their encephalitides, both underwent neuropsychological testing, which demonstrated persistent cognitive deficits, primarily in the domains of memory and executive function, for cases 1 and 2, respectively. A brief review of the literature is included.

  8. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis without neurologic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of neurologic symptoms is rare in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). A 42-year-old woman presented with psychiatric features alone, such as Korsakoff syndrome and abortive type Kluver-Bucy syndrome. The diagnosis of HSE was confirmed by serologically elevated antibody titer. The patient underwent both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray computed tomography showed transient contrast enhancement and low density area confined to the lateral lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse areas with a high MRI signal intensity. Considering that the lack of neurologic features, as seen in the present HSE patient, may sometimes rule out the possibility of parenchymal disease, imaging modalities, especially MRI, may be of value in the detection of lesions for HSE. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author)

  10. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masaya [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author).

  11. MRI findings of recurrent herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the MRI findings of a 2-year-old boy with recurrent herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). At the age of 14 months, the patient developed a high fever that lasted over 1 week and he did not receive appropriate treatment. At 6 months after the fever, MRI showed marked atrophic changes in both deep temporal lobes with hyperintensity in the hippocampi and parahippocampal gyri. Thirteen months after the first episode of the fever, the patient was diagnosed with recurrent HSE by polymerase chain reaction assay of the CSF; MRI at this time revealed diffuse cortical swelling. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was noted in the occipito-parietal cortex bilaterally, the left thalamus, the subcortical white matter and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Recurrence of HSE may be more common in infants than previously thought. It is important to consider the possibility of recurrent HSE and to understand that MRI findings in HSV1 encephalitis in infants and young children appear to differ from those observed in neonates, older children and adults. (orig.)

  12. MRI findings of recurrent herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Aya M.; Kaji, Tatsumi; Kohyama, Shinya; Sakata, Ikuko; Kusano, Shoichi [Department of Radiology, National Defence Medical College, 3-2 Namiki-Cho, 359-8513, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan); Horiuchi, Katsuyuki [Department of Paediatrics, National Defence Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-10-01

    We report the MRI findings of a 2-year-old boy with recurrent herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). At the age of 14 months, the patient developed a high fever that lasted over 1 week and he did not receive appropriate treatment. At 6 months after the fever, MRI showed marked atrophic changes in both deep temporal lobes with hyperintensity in the hippocampi and parahippocampal gyri. Thirteen months after the first episode of the fever, the patient was diagnosed with recurrent HSE by polymerase chain reaction assay of the CSF; MRI at this time revealed diffuse cortical swelling. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was noted in the occipito-parietal cortex bilaterally, the left thalamus, the subcortical white matter and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Recurrence of HSE may be more common in infants than previously thought. It is important to consider the possibility of recurrent HSE and to understand that MRI findings in HSV1 encephalitis in infants and young children appear to differ from those observed in neonates, older children and adults. (orig.)

  13. Rare case of acute dengue encephalitis with correlated MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue encephalitis is extremely rare, with most patients showing no significant abnormality on neuroimaging (CT/MRI). We report one of the very few documented cases of dengue encephalitis, with abnormal signal intensities on all major sequences on brain MRI.

  14. Acute psychosis due to non-paraneoplastic anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis in a teenage girl: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramina, Sandra; Kevere, Laura; Bezborodovs, Nikita; Purvina, Santa; Rozentals, Guntis; Strautmanis, Jurgis; Viksna, Zane

    2015-12-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a disease occurring when antibodies produced by the body's own immune system attack NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the brain. Most anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases are associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. We analyze the case of a 15-year-old girl who was hospitalized in a child psychiatry clinic in Riga, Latvia, with de novo acute polymorphic psychotic disorder gradually progressing to a catatonic state. The patient received antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy with no beneficial effect. The council of doctors discussed differential diagnoses of schizophrenia-induced catatonia and the autoimmune limbic encephalitis-induced catatonic condition. When the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis was finally confirmed by repeated immunological assays (specific immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM in her blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid), and a paraneoplastic process was ruled out, she was started on immunomodulating therapy (methylprednisolone, Ig, plasmapheresis, rituximab), which changed the course of her disease. On immunomodulating treatment, her physical and mental health have gradually improved to almost complete reconvalescence. Psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis as a differential diagnosis in first-episode psychosis patients presenting with disorientation, disturbed consciousness, pronounced cognitive deficits, movement disorder, dysautonomia, or rapid deterioration, and test for specific IgG NR1 autoantibodies, even if there are no specific findings on routine neuroimaging, electroencephalography (EEG), or cerebrospinal fluid tests. PMID:26663628

  15. Dengue encephalitis with predominant cerebellar involvement: Report of eight cases with MR and CT imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNS dengue infection is a rare condition and the pattern of brain involvement has not been well described. We report the MR imaging (MRI) features in eight cases of dengue encephalitis. We retrospectively searched cases of dengue encephalitis in which imaging was performed. Eight cases (three men, five women; age range: 8-42 years) diagnosed with dengue encephalitis were included in the study. MR studies were performed on 3-T and 1.5-T MR clinical systems. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images and analysed the type of lesions, as well as their distribution and imaging features. All eight cases exhibited MRI abnormalities and the cerebellum was involved in all cases. In addition, MRI signal changes were also noted in the brainstem, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, insula, mesial temporal lobe, and cortical and cerebral white matter. Areas of susceptibility, diffusion restriction, and patchy post-contrast enhancement were the salient imaging features in our cohort of cases. A pattern of symmetrical cerebellar involvement and presence of microbleeds/haemorrhage may serve as a useful imaging marker and may help in the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis. (orig.)

  16. Dengue encephalitis with predominant cerebellar involvement: Report of eight cases with MR and CT imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, Vinay; Bhat, Maya; Prasad, Chandrajit; Gupta, A.K.; Saini, Jitender [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Aziz, Zarina [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Sharath [Apollo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Bangalore (India); Netravathi, M. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore (India)

    2014-11-01

    CNS dengue infection is a rare condition and the pattern of brain involvement has not been well described. We report the MR imaging (MRI) features in eight cases of dengue encephalitis. We retrospectively searched cases of dengue encephalitis in which imaging was performed. Eight cases (three men, five women; age range: 8-42 years) diagnosed with dengue encephalitis were included in the study. MR studies were performed on 3-T and 1.5-T MR clinical systems. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images and analysed the type of lesions, as well as their distribution and imaging features. All eight cases exhibited MRI abnormalities and the cerebellum was involved in all cases. In addition, MRI signal changes were also noted in the brainstem, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, insula, mesial temporal lobe, and cortical and cerebral white matter. Areas of susceptibility, diffusion restriction, and patchy post-contrast enhancement were the salient imaging features in our cohort of cases. A pattern of symmetrical cerebellar involvement and presence of microbleeds/haemorrhage may serve as a useful imaging marker and may help in the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis. (orig.)

  17. Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Vivek; Roy, Ujjawal; Panwar, Ajay; Raizada, Alpana

    2016-02-01

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE), caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavi-virus, is the most significant aetiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. It has resulted in epidemics of encephalitis in the Indian subcontinent. Here, we report a case of 36-year-old female who presented with a short history of fever and headache followed by altered sensorium. Funduscopic examination revealed Papilloedema. Pyogenic or viral meningoencephalitis along with complicated malaria were kept as initial differential diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain revealed involvement of posterior limb of internal capsule and bilateral thalami in the form of haemorrhagic encephalitis along with obstructive hydrocephalus. Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) serology (IgM ELISA) showed JE as the causative agent. Despite extensive literature search, we could not find a case of JE reported with hydrocephalus as a complication. This case highlights the typical and atypical features of JE including imaging findings and exemplifies the way, how diversely JE can present and would thus help in preparing management paradigms accordingly. PMID:27042509

  18. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: analysis of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui SU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study clinical features, diagnosis, therapy response and prognosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis.  Methods Three cases with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were reported. The clinical features, laboratory examinations, imaging, EEG and therapy response of 3 cases were retrospectively analyzed, and also related literatures were reviewed.  Results Two patients were young male and one patient was old female. Main symptoms included psychiatric symptoms in 3 cases (mania in 2 male patients and stupor in the female patient, epilepsy in 2 cases and respiratory failure in one case. The results of MRI examination revealed normal, while EEG examination showed abnormal in all cases. No tumor was detected in any of these patients. Lumbar puncture revealed normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure (3 cases, elevated white blood cell (WBC, 3 cases and protein quantification (one case. All cases were confirmed to have the disease by detection of anti-NMDAR antibodies in serum and CSF. One male patient got better after receiving immunotherapy with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, but psychiatric symptoms were left over. Another male patient had no response to the above treatment. But the female patient was improved without immunotherapy. All 3 cases were followed up for one year after being discharged. One male patient died by accident because of mental disorders. Another male patient showed no sign of relief. The female patient got mild personality and memory change.  Conclusions Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a new type of autoimmune encephalitis. It is characterized by fever, memory deficits, seizures, disturbance of consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction in males and females of all ages. This type of encephalitis is often associated with teratoma, and has a good response to immunotherapy. There is a certain correlation between progression and prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.013

  19. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. (author)

  20. Vector-free transmission and persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Meret E; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Nougairede, Antoine; Charrel, Remi N; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a main cause of severe viral encephalitis in humans, has a complex ecology, composed of a cycle involving primarily waterbirds and mosquitoes, as well as a cycle involving pigs as amplifying hosts. To date, JEV transmission has been exclusively described as being mosquito-mediated. Here we demonstrate that JEV can be transmitted between pigs in the absence of arthropod vectors. Pigs shed virus in oronasal secretions and are highly susceptible to oronasal infection. Clinical symptoms, virus tropism and central nervous system histological lesions are similar in pigs infected through needle, contact or oronasal inoculation. In all cases, a particularly important site of replication are the tonsils, in which JEV is found to persist for at least 25 days despite the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Our findings could have a major impact on the ecology of JEV in temperate regions with short mosquito seasons. PMID:26902924

  1. Mycotic encephalitis: predilection for grey matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaap, M.S. van der (Dept. of Child Neurology, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Valk, J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Jansen, G.H. (Dept. of Pathology, Subdivision of Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Kapelle, L.J. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Nieuwenhuizen, O. van (Dept. of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    In mycotic infections of the brain three patterns of abnormality may be observed: meningitis, granuloma, and encephalitis. The first two, consisting of diffuse meningeal enhancement and mass lesion respectively, can easily be visualised by CT or MRI, but are nonspecific. The third pattern has been described histopathologically; as the clinical picture is nonspecific and the diagnosis is often unsuspected, especially in immunocompetent patients, acquaintance with the characteristic CT and MRI patterns of mycotic encephalitis may help in establishing the correct diagnosis, with important therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  2. Mycotic encephalitis: predilection for grey matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mycotic infections of the brain three patterns of abnormality may be observed: meningitis, granuloma, and encephalitis. The first two, consisting of diffuse meningeal enhancement and mass lesion respectively, can easily be visualised by CT or MRI, but are nonspecific. The third pattern has been described histopathologically; as the clinical picture is nonspecific and the diagnosis is often unsuspected, especially in immunocompetent patients, acquaintance with the characteristic CT and MRI patterns of mycotic encephalitis may help in establishing the correct diagnosis, with important therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  3. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  4. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Japanese Encephalitis in Children Admitted with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gitali Kakoti; Prafulla Dutta; Bishnu Ram Das; Jani Borah; Jagadish Mahanta

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod borne viral disease. Children are most commonly affected in Southeast Asian region showing symptoms of central nervous system with several complications and death. The clinical characteristics and outcomes in pediatric JE patients hospitalized with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) are still poorly understood. A prospective study was conducted in pediatric ward of Assam Medical College Hospital to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of JE in ch...

  5. A case of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis in childhood

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    Ji Youn Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE is a rare disease diagnosed by specific clinical features such as 'progressive, relatively symmetric external ophthalmoplegia and ataxia by 4 weeks' and 'disturbance of consciousness or hyperreflexia' after the exclusion of other diseases involving the brain stem. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM, GD and GQ in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are sometimes informative for the diagnosis of BBE because of the rarity of positive findings in other diagnositic methods: brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, routine CSF examination, motor nerve conduction study, and needle electromyography. We report a rare case of childhood BBE with elevated anti-GM1 antibodies in the serum, who had specific clinical symptoms such as a cranial polyneuropathy presenting as ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial weakness; progressive motor weakness; altered mental status; and ataxia. However, the brain MRI, routine CSF examination, nerve conduction studies, electromyography, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were normal. BBE was suspected and the patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins.

  6. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

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    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98% infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Diagnosis. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. Prevention. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. Conclusion. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  7. PET Scan and Autoimmune Focal Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The value of the PET scan in the diagnosis of autoimmune focal encephalitis is reported in a 22-month-old girl who presented with involuntary movements, hemiparesis, and behavioral changes at Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Japan.

  8. Anorexia nervosa with herpes simplex encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    George, G. C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa appear to show an increased immunity to certain infections, as well as immunological deficiencies. This is the report of a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, a condition associated with lowered immunological defence mechanisms.

  9. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus distribution, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype 1, which shows a switch from genotype I I I incidence that started during the 1980s.

  10. Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

  11. A rat model for embolic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat model for embolic encephalitis. Methods: 63 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sterile and septic. The right external carotid artery (ECA) was catheterized after anesthesia and 300µl blood was aspired. The blood was mixed with 30...

  12. Brainstem Encephalitis and ADEM Following Mumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of brainstem encephalitis (BSE with fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis developed 1 week after bilateral parotitis and mumps in a 4 year-old female child and were followed by symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM within 20 days of recovery from BSE.

  13. Japanese encephalitis virus: from genome to infectome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unni, S. K.; Růžek, Daniel; Chhatbar, C.; Mishra, R.; Johri, M. K.; Singh, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), 312-321. ISSN 1286-4579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Japanese encephalitis * Neurotropic infection * Neuropathogenesis * Mosquito borne infections * Arboviral infections Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2011

  14. Neurophysiological changes in Japanese encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalita J

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is an encephalomyelitis involving cortex, subcortex, brainstem and spinal cord. There is paucity of studies on the neurophysiological evaluation in JE. This study aims at comprehensive evaluation of EEG, sensory and motor evoked potentials, nerve conduction and electromyography; and correlate these with clinical findings. Sixty five patients with JE diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and virological criteria were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation during the acute stage of illness. Cranial CT scan or MRI was carried out in all the patients. All the patients underwent 10 or 18 channel EEG, motor and sensory evoked potentials to both upper and lower limbs bilaterally as well as peroneal and sural nerve conductions and concentric needle EMG. Outcome, was defined at the end of 3 months into poor, partial and complete recovery. The patient′s age ranged between 2-65 years. There were 40 males and 25 female patients. Fifteen patients were less than 12 years of age. History of seizure was present in 31 patients. Quadriplegia was seen in 39 and hemiplegia in 8 patients. Muscle wasting was present in 16 patients and tendon reflexes were reduced in 12 and of mixed pattern in 14 patients. Cranial MRI revealed thalamic lesion in 38, basal ganglia in 21, substantia nigra in 30, pons in 5, cerebellum in 3 and cerebral cortex in 7 patients out of 57 patients. EEG revealed nonspecific theta to delta slowing in 45, alpha pattern coma in 5 and epileptiform discharges in 8 patients. EMG revealed fibrillations in 23 patients. Motor evoked potentials were abnormal in 34 out of 46 patients and revealed patchy and focal abnormalities comprising of unrecordable, prolonged and normal pattern. Somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal in 8 patients only. At 3 month, 26 patients had complete, 13 partial and 15 had poor outcome. Eight patients died in acute stage and 3 were lost to followup. MEP correlated with weakness

  15. Silent circulation of St. Louis encephalitis virus prior to an encephalitis outbreak in Cordoba, Argentina (2005.

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    Luis Adrian Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus is a complex zoonoses. In 2005, 47 laboratory-confirmed and probable clinical cases of SLEV infection were reported in Córdoba, Argentina. Although the causes of 2005 outbreak remain unknown, they might be related not only to virological factors, but also to ecological and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that one of the factors for SLE reemergence in Córdoba, Argentina, was the introduction of a new SLEV genotype (SLEV genotype III, with no previous activity in the area. In order to evaluate this hypothesis we carried out a molecular characterization of SLEV detections from mosquitoes collected between 2001 and 2004 in Córdoba city. A total of 315 mosquito pools (11,002 individuals including 12 mosquitoes species were analyzed. Overall, 20 pools (8 mosquitoes species were positive for SLEV. During this study, genotypes II, V and VII were detected. No mosquito pool infected with genotype III was detected before the 2005 outbreak. Genotype V was found every year and in the 8 sampled sites. Genotypes II and VII showed limited temporal and spatial activities. We cannot dismiss the association of genotype II and V as etiological agents during the outbreak. However, the silent circulation of other SLEV strains in Córdoba city before the 2005 outbreak suggests that the introduction of genotype III was an important factor associated to this event. Not mutually exclusive, other factors such as changes in avian hosts and mosquitoes vectors communities, driven by climatic and environmental modifications, should also be taken into consideration in further studies.

  16. Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments from a bacteriophage antibody display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Kulsoom, Huma; Lalani, Salima; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a mortality rate of more than 95%. Early diagnosis followed by aggressive treatment is a pre-requisite for successful prognosis. Current methods for identifying this organism rely on culture and microscopy, antibody-based methods using animals, or involve the use of molecular tools that are expensive. Here, we describe the isolation of antibody fragments that can be used for the unequivocal identification of B. mandrillaris. B. mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments were isolated from a bacteriophage antibody display library. Individual clones were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence. Four antibody clones showed specific binding to B. mandrillaris. The usefulness of phage antibody display technology as a diagnostic tool for isolating antibody fragments against B. mandrillaris antigens and studying their biological role(s) is discussed further. PMID:27055361

  17. A clinical case of pseudotumorous chronic parainfectious limbic encephalitis

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    N. A. Shnaider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parainfectous limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses of the Herpesviridae family is one of the forms of chronic herpes encephalitis characterized by limbic system dysfunction and a prolonged course with frequent exacerbations. There are two types of the course of the disease: latent autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE progressing to mesial temporal sclerosis and pseudotumorous granulomatous LE. The latter (inflammatory pseudotumor or granuloma is characterized by the formation of a polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate with the elements of fibrosis, necrosis, and a granulomatous reaction and by myofibroblast cells. This is a slowly growing benign pseudotumor that contains much more plasma cells than inflammatory ones. The diagnosis of pseudotumorous LE is difficult and requires the participation of a neurologist, an immunologist, an oncologist, and a neurosurgeon. Perfusion computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy give proof to the adequacy of the term inflammatory pseudotumor because it is histologically difficult to characterize the lesion as a tumor or inflammation. When a chronic lesion in the central nervous system is lately diagnosed, the prognosis of the disease may be poor and complicated by the development of resistant symptomatic focal epilepsy and emotional, volitional, and cognitive impairments. It was differentially diagnosed from brain tumors (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and mixed gliomas, ependymal, neuronal, neuroglial, and embryonal tumors, meningiomas, cholesteatomas, dermoid cysts, teratomas, and cysts, other reactive and inflammatory processes (leukemic infiltrations, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis, hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, vitamin A intoxication, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids and contraceptives. The authors describe a clinical case of the pseudotumorous course of chronic PILE in a 28-year-old woman

  18. Epidemiology of Emergent Madariaga Encephalitis in a Region with Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Initial Host Studies and Human Cross-Sectional Study in Darien, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittor, Amy Y.; Armien, Blas; Gonzalez, Publio; Carrera, Jean-Paul; Dominguez, Claudia; Valderrama, Anayansi; Glass, Greg E.; Beltran, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Wang, Eryu; Castillo, Alex; Moreno, Brechla; Weaver, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. A zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus), caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in Darien, Panama, where the genetically similar Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is endemic. We report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of MADV and VEEV ecology and epidemiology. Methods Small mammals were trapped in 42 sites in Darien, Panama, using Sherman traps, Tomahawk traps, and mist nets for bats. Blood was tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV. In addition, bird sera collected in 2007 in Chagres, Panama, were tested for MADV and VEEV neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was ascertained by RT-PCR. Human exposure to these two viruses was determined by IgG ELISA, followed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. To identify relevant risk factors for MADV or VEEV exposure, logistic regression analysis was performed, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the Akaike information criterion. Results The animal survey yielded 32 bats (16 species), 556 rodents (12 species), and 20 opossums (4 species). The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda) found abundantly in pasture and farms, had the highest MADV seroprevalence (8.3%). For VEEV, the shrub and forest-dwelling long-whiskered rice rat (Transandinomys bolivaris) had the highest seroprevalence (19.0%). Viremia was detected in one animal (Z. brevicauda). Of the 159 bird sera (50 species) tested, none were positive for either virus. In humans (n = 770), neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV were present in 4.8% and 31.5%, respectively. MADV seropositivity was positively associated with cattle ranching, farming, and fishing. Having VEEV antibodies and shrubs near the house diminished risk. Age, forest work, farming and fishing

  19. Immunogenicity of immunostimulating complexes of Japanese encephalitis virus in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunogenicity of immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus were studied in mice, rabbits and monkeys. Two doses of JE ISCOMs elicited a strong immune response in mice with an uniform distribution in IgG subclasses. Different time intervals between the two doses of ISCOMs led to similar titers of antibodies. Rabbits and monkeys immunized with ISCOMs developed strong neutralizing immune, response. Mice immunized with ISCOMs demonstrated cell-mediated immunity as evident by T cell proliferation and macrophage migration inhibition assays. (author)

  20. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  1. OUTCOMES OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS IN THE TOMSK REGION

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    T. S. Pinegina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the Tomsk Region. Patients conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. Revealed the prevalence of autonomic disorders in individuals who have had at different periods of tick-borne encephalitis, which is regarded as the effects of tick-borne infection. Residual effects of tick-borne encephalitis occurs mainly in the form of light paresis after suffering a focal forms. Among the chronic (progredient forms of tick-borne encephalitis often formed hyperkinetic options. Most of the study revealed the presence of precipitating factors that could have an influence on the outcome. Fundamental diffe rences in all-clinical and immunological analyses at patients with various outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis it wasn't noted. KEY WORDS: tick-borne encephalitis, Tomsk Region, the outcomes.

  2. Identification and isolation of Genotype-I Japanese Encephalitis virus from encephalitis patients

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    Gao Xiaoyan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV genotype III (GIII has been responsible for human diseases. In recent years, JEV genotype I (GI has been isolated from mosquitoes collected in numerous countries, but has not been isolated from patients with encephalitis. In this study, we report recovery of JEV GI live virus and identification of JEV GI RNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of encephalitis patients in JE endemic areas of China. Whole-genome sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the JEV isolate from the CSF samples was performed. The isolate in this study is highly similar to other JEV GI strains which isolated from mosquitoes at both the nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels. Phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic sequence showed that the isolate belongs to JEV GI, which is consistent with the phylogenetic analysis based on the pre-membrane (PrM and Glycoprotein genes. As a conclusion, this is the first time to isolate JEV GI strain from CSF samples of encephalitis patients, so continuous survey and evaluate the infectivity and pathogenecity of JEV GI strains are necessary, especially for the JEV GI strains from encephalitis patients. With respect to the latter, because all current JEV vaccines (live and inactivated are derived from JEV GIII strains, future studies should be aimed at investigating and monitoring cross-protection of the human JEV GI isolates against widely used JEV vaccines.

  3. Dengue encephalitis-A rare manifestation of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Ramapuram, John T; Chowta, Nityananda; Laxman, Mridula; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2014-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection to dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus. Neurological complications are not commonly seen in dengue. The neurological manifestations seen in dengue are encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dengue encephalitis is a rare disease. We report an interesting case of dengue encephalitis from Southern India. A 49-year-old gentleman presented with...

  4. Origin and Evolution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Tom; Ni, Haolin; Beasley, David W. C.; Ekkelenkamp, Miquel; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2003-01-01

    Since it emerged in Japan in the 1870s, Japanese encephalitis has spread across Asia and has become the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. Four genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are presently recognized (representatives of genotypes I to III have been fully sequenced), but its origin is not known. We have determined the complete nucleotide and amino acid sequence of a genotype IV Indonesian isolate (JKT6468) which represents the oldest lineage, compared it w...

  5. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  6. Successful Laparoscopic Resection of 7 mm Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Associated with Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated encephalitis. It has been predominantly described in young women and is commonly associated with an ovarian teratoma. We report a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis associated with a 7 mm ovarian teratoma that was completely resected by laparoscopic surgery. An 18-year-old woman suddenly presented with personality changes requiring her admission to the department of neurology. After that, she also showed involuntary movements, disturbance of consciousness, and central hypoventilation. As an abdominal image revealed the possibility of a right ovarian teratoma of 5×7 mm, a laparoscopic operation was performed. The macroscopic appearance of the right ovary did not show any abnormalities; nevertheless, we performed a partial resection of the right ovary, with reference to the image diagnosis, in order to spare the ovarian reserve. The 22×22 mm partially resected ovary contained an intact 5×7 mm cystic tumor. The pathological diagnosis was mature cystic teratoma with components of brain tissue. An anti-NMDAR-antibody test proved positive in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid 1 month after the surgery. From these results, she was diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. By the administration of cyclophosphamide in addition to the operation, she recovered drastically without any of the symptoms shown before.

  7. Early maternal death due to acute encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vidanapathirana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal death in an unmarried woman poses a medico-legal challenge. A 24-year-old unmarried schoolteacher, residing at a boarding place, had been admitted to hospital in a state of cardiac arrest. At the autopsy, mild to moderate congestion of subarachnoid vessels and oedema of the brain was noted. An un-interfered foetus of 15 weeks with an intact sac and placental tissues were seen. Genital tract injuries were not present. Histopathological examination showed diffuse perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells suggestive of viral encephalitis, considering the circumstances of death and the social stigma of pregnancy in this unmarried teacher, the possibility of attempted suicide by ingestion of a poison was considered. Abrus precatorius (olinda seeds commonly found in the area is known to produce acute encephalitis as well as haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and pulmonary congestion was also considered as a possible cause for this unusual presentation

  8. Computed tomography of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Referring to 9 patients of our own material we report on the pattern of distribution and the development of CT-changes in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Our cases include the outstanding findings of a primarily hemorrhagic HSE and an extensive calcification at the residual stage on the borderline of widespread tissue necrosis on a baby. With respect to literature we receive a quite homogenous picture, reflecting the crucial characteristics of the disease as known from neuropathology. (orig.)

  9. Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naveed A.

    2005-01-01

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a serious human disease with fatal consequences. With the mortality rate of more than 90%, it is not surprising that the majority of GAE infections are identified at the post-mortem stage. The most distressing aspect is that the high level of mortality is attributed to lack of awareness. Early diagnosis with aggressive treatment can lead to successful prognosis for the patient. Here, we describe a brief overview of the current understanding of the p...

  10. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ayan Kar; Dhanaraj, M.; Devaprasad Dedeepiya; Harikrishna, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal f...

  11. Periodic EEG complexes in infectious mononucleosis encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, D A; Weinkle, D J; Aminoff, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of periodic EEG complexes in patients with an acute viral encephalitis is generally held to suggest that infection is due to herpes simplex. We now report a patient with clinical and laboratory findings of infectious mononucleosis, and neurologic involvement manifested by lymphocyte meningitis, coma, seizures, aphasia, hemiparesis and hemianopsia. Serial EEGs showed periodic, predominantly left-sided slow wave complexes occurring every 4 to 5 seconds, which disappeared with clini...

  12. A rare case of dengue encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sachin; Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Soumik; Gadpayle, Adesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever has a variable clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, neurological complications, in general, are unusual. Dengue encephalopathy is not an unknown entity; however, dengue encephalitis, a direct neuronal infiltration by the dengue virus, is an extremely rare disease. Although dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotr...

  13. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  14. PET/CT in the evaluation of anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: what we need to know as a NM physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE), also known as limbic encephalitis (LE), is a treatable rare disorder characterized by personality changes, irritability, depression, seizures, memory loss and sometimes dementia. It is classified under paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) and produces antibodies against NR1 and NR2 subunits of glutamate aspartate receptor. It is thought to be closely related with malignancies like small cell lung cancer, ovarian teratoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma, apart from testis, breast and rarely gastric malignancies. Non-paraneoplastic encephalitis cases are the ones with no detectable malignancy and may be triggered by severe infection. As nuclear medicine physicians, we must be aware of the diverse presentation of ANMDARE or LE and should include a whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and not just brain PET/CT during imaging. We describe the first case of PET/CT in an idiopathic ANMDARE Indian adolescent girl. (author)

  15. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal...... testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds....

  16. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, a mimicker of acute infectious encephalitis and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis has become an increasingly recognized etiology of acute psychosis in young patients. The diverse constellation of symptoms allows for misdiagnosis as an infectious, psychological, or toxicological entity resulting in delays in treatment with increasing morbidity. We describe a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis that was a particular challenge to diagnose. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for anti-NMDAR and related neuroautoimmune syndromes, especially in young patients that present with acute mental status decline or dyskinesia.

  17. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a patient with a 7-year history of being diagnosed as schizophrenia: complexities in diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaohua Huang,1,2,4,* Yukun Kang,1,* Bo Zhang,1 Bin Li,1 Changjian Qiu,1 Shanming Liu,1 Hongyan Ren,1,2 Yanchun Yang,1 Xiehe Liu,1 Tao Li,1–3 Wanjun Guo1,21Mental Health Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Psychiatric Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Mental Health Education Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 4Mental Health Center, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR encephalitis is a form of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against the NR1 subunits of NMDARs. Although new-onset acute prominent psychotic syndromes in patients with NMDAR encephalitis have been well documented, there is a lack of case studies on differential diagnosis and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after a long-term diagnostic history of functional psychotic disorders. The present study reports an unusual case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The patient had been diagnosed with schizophrenia 7 years earlier, and was currently hospitalized for acute-onset psychiatric symptoms. The diagnosis became unclear when the initial psychosis was confounded with considerations of other neurotoxicities (such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Finally, identification of specific immunoglobulin G NR1 autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and greater effectiveness of immunotherapy over antipsychotics alone (which has been well documented in anti-NMDAR encephalitis indicated the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in this case. Based on the available evidence, however, the relationship between the newly diagnosed anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the seemingly clear, long-term history of schizophrenia in the preceding 7

  18. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: prevalence and risk factors in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, E; Hosri, C; Abi-Rizk, A

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Lebanon. The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom 952 goats, including the local breeds (Baladi and Damascene) and imported breeds (Alpine and Saneen), were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, 125 samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of 13.1% and in selected herds of 51.7%. The Bekaa region had the highest number of herds with seropositive goats (90% of herds); the level was lower in Mount Lebanon, the North and the South (54%, 34% and 33%, respectively). The prevalence in relation to the livestock production system was 70% in herds in intensive systems, 54% in semi-intensive systems and 45% in extensive systems. The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus. PMID:27044161

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  20. And cancer para neoplastic limbic encephalitis lung a purpose of a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Association Mutual Aid First, Montevideo, Uruguay. Para neoplastic syndromes (S P) are a number of clinical disorders associated Cancer diagnosis may precede the same and are not related to the direct effects of the primary tumor or its metastases but to the production of certain substances such as hormones and antibodies that act at distant sites. The neurological S P occurs in less than 1% of patients with cancer, showing more frequently in bronchial carcinoma (CBP) to small cells. Limbic encephalitis (EL) is a paraneoplastic disorder characterized by severe deficits cognitive and seizures. The diagnosis is often difficult, so it is imperative the participation of a multidisciplinary team. Diagnosis is based on clinical and MRI and onco specific neuronal antibodies. We report the case of a patient of 62 years who presented crises intense smoking repeated epileptic disorder accompanied by cognitive behavioral being in the hippocampal injury studies T2 hyperintense nodule guiding EL and pulmonary solid mediastinal lymphadenopathy. With the raise of limbic encephalitis CBP secondary paraneoplastic a biopsy is performed mediastinal lymphadenopathy that confirms the presence of small cell lung carcinoma metastatic node, starting onco specific treatment based chemoradiotherapy

  1. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, R A; Garcia, C Z; Liria, J; Barrera, R; Navarro, J C; Medina, G; Vasquez, C; Fernandez, Z; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    From 1997-1998, we investigated the possible continuous circulation of epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus suggested by a 1983 subtype IC interepizootic mosquito isolate made in Panaquire, Miranda State, Venezuela. The study area was originally covered by lowland tropical rainforest but has been converted into cacao plantations. Sentinel hamsters, small mammal trapping, mosquito collections, and human serosurveys were used to detect active or recent virus circulation. Six strains of subtype ID VEE virus were isolated from hamsters that displayed no apparent disease. Four other arboviruses belonging to group A (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), two Bunyamwera group (Bunyaviridae), and three Gamboa group (Bunyaviridae) arboviruses were also isolated from hamsters, as well as 8 unidentified viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis-specific antibodies were detected in 5 small mammal species: Proechimys guairae, Marmosa spp., and Didelphis marsupialis. Mosquito collections comprised of 38 different species, including 8 members of the subgenus Culex (Melanoconion), did not yield any virus isolates. Sera from 195 humans, either workers in the cacao plantation or nearby residents, were all negative for VEE virus antibodies. Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence. PMID:11425168

  2. The prevalence of Japanese-B-Encephalitis in different species in Indonesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendow I

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese-B-Encephalitis (JE is a zoonotic disease which is characterized by encephalitis, caused by JE virus. The situation of this disease has not been known in both animals and human in Indonesia. This paper reports serological finding using competitive - ELISA to evaluate 953 serum samples, comprised of chicken, ducks, cattle, goats, horses, dogs, pigs and human from different areas in Indonesia. The antibody against JE virus was detected in animals and human sera, with prevalence varied among species and location. Cattle showed the highest prevalence of reactor (51 % while pigs, dogs and horses had the lowest reactor (11%,12% and ]4%. The highest prevalence of reactor in cattle was found in North Sumatera (86% and the lowest was found in West Java (23%. In goat, the highest prevalence of reactor was found in West Kalimantan (59% and the lowest was detected in South Sulawesi (14%. Antibody against JE virus was also detected in chicken with the highest prevalence in North Sumatera and West Kalimantan (44% and the lowest was in South Sulawesi (36%. The highest percentage of reactor in pigs was detected in South Sulawesi (50% and the lowest was detected in West Kalimantan (2%. In human, the highest prevalence of reactor was found in West Kalimantan (30% and the lowest was fowld in Irian Jaya. This result provide more information for further research, therefor the JE cases in Indonesia and its social, economic and psychological impacts can be anticipated as earlyas possible.

  3. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Shi-Hong; WANG Huan-yu; Tang, Qing; Wang, Lin-Fa; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

  4. Alterations of Spinal Cord in Japanese B Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Masao

    1993-01-01

    The cytopathologic changes of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) are basically similar to those of other forms of arbovirus encephalitis. Because the entire central nervous system including the spinal cord is involved to varying degrees, the nomenclature of JBE should actually be Japanese B panencephalomyelitis.

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (IMOJEV®) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokephaibulkit, K; Houillon, G; Feroldi, E; Bouckenooghe, A

    2016-02-01

    JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur, France) is a live attenuated virus vaccine constructed by inserting coding sequences of the prM and E structural proteins of the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 virus into the genome of yellow fever 17D virus. Primary immunization with JE-CV requires a single dose of the vaccine. This article reviews clinical trials of JE-CV in children aged up to 6 years conducted in countries across South-East Asia. Strong and persistent antibody responses were observed after single primary and booster doses, with 97% of children seroprotected up to five years after booster vaccination. Models of long-term antibody persistence predict a median duration of protection of approximately 30 years after a booster dose. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of JE-CV primary and booster doses are comparable to other widely used childhood vaccines. PMID:26588242

  6. Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Tsouchnikas, Georgios; Zlatkovic, Juergen; Jarmer, Johanna; Strauß, Judith; Vratskikh, Oksana; Kundi, Michael; Stiasny, Karin; Heinz, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The antibody response to proteins may be modulated by the presence of preexisting antigen-specific antibodies and the formation of immune complexes (ICs). Effects such as a general increase or decrease of the response as well as epitope-specific phenomena have been described. In this study, we investigated influences of IC immunization on the fine specificity of antibody responses in a structurally well-defined system, using the envelope (E) protein of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus as a...

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 Encephalitis Mimicking Glioblastoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM often presents as a brain mass with encephalitis. In a patient with GBM, subsequent presentation with new onset encephalitis may be due to another GBM or Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis. We present a case of HSV-1 encephalitis mimicking GBM in a patient with previous GBM.

  8. Severe enterovirus 76-associated acute encephalitis syndrome complicated by myocarditis and successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Girish C Bhatt; Tanya Sharma; Komal P Kushwaha

    2012-01-01

    Acute viral encephalitis is known to be caused by a wide range of viruses including enteroviruses. Here, we describe two cases of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) from Japanese encephalitis endemic area diagnosed as enteroviral (EV 76) encephalitis with myocarditis. Intravenous immunoglobulin was given, following which, ejection fraction improved in both of them.

  9. Antiviral macrophage responses in flavivirus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashhurst, Thomas Myles; Vreden, Caryn van; Munoz-Erazo, Luis; Niewold, Paula; Watabe, Kanami; Terry, Rachael L; Deffrasnes, Celine; Getts, Daniel R; Cole King, Nicholas Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a major current and emerging threat, affecting millions of people worldwide. Global climate change, combined with increasing proximity of humans to animals and mosquito vectors by expansion into natural habitats, coupled with the increase in international travel, have resulted in significant spread and concomitant increase in the incidence of infection and severe disease. Although neuroinvasive disease has been well described for some viral infections such as Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), others such as dengue virus (DENV) have recently displayed an emerging pattern of neuroinvasive disease, distinct from the previously observed, systemically-induced encephalomyelopathy. In this setting, the immune response is a crucial component of host defence, in preventing viral dissemination and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). However, subversion of the anti-viral activities of macrophages by flaviviruses can facilitate viral replication and spread, enhancing the intensity of immune responses, leading to severe immune-mediated disease which may be further exacerbated during the subsequent infection with some flaviviruses. Furthermore, in the CNS myeloid cells may be responsible for inducing specific inflammatory changes, which can lead to significant pathological damage during encephalitis. The interaction of virus and cells of the myeloid lineage is complex, and this interaction is likely responsible at least in part, for crucial differences between viral clearance and pathology. Recent studies on the role of myeloid cells in innate immunity and viral control, and the mechanisms of evasion and subversion used by flaviviruses are rapidly advancing our understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms involved in flavivirus encephalitis and will lead to the development of therapeutic strategies previously not considered. PMID:24434318

  10. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Peru during 1970-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Madalengoitia, J; Flores, W; Acosta, M

    1975-04-01

    Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus has intermittently produced epidemics and equine epizootics on the dry Pacific coastal plain of Peru since at least the 1930's. However, evidence that the virus exists in the Amazon region of Peru to the east of the Andes mountains was not obtained until antibodies were found in human sera collected in 1965, and 10 strains of the virus were isolated in a forest near the city of Iquitos, Peru during February and March 1971. Eight strains came from mosquitoes and two from dead sentinel hamsters. Three hamsters exposed in forests near Iquitos developed VE virus antibodies suggesting that hamster-benign strains also exist there. Antibody tests of equine sera revealed no evidence that VE virus was actively cycling during the late 1950's or 1960's in southern coastal Peru, where equine epizootics had occurred in the 1930's and 1940's. In northern coastal Peru bordering Ecuador, antibodies were present in equine sera, presumably residual from the 1969 outbreak caused by subtype I virus, since neutralizing antibody titers were higher to subtype I virus than to subtypes III or IV. No VE virus was detected in this northern region during the dry season of 1970 by use of sentinel hamsters. The possibility is considered that VE epidemics and equine epizootics on the Pacific coast of Peru are caused by movements of virus in infected vertebrates traversing Andean passes or in infected vertebrates or mosquitoes carried in airplanes from the Amazon region. PMID:235838

  11. Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed A. Khan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE is a serious human disease with fatal consequences. With the mortality rate of more than 90%, it is not surprising that the majority of GAE infections are identified at the post-mortem stage. The most distressing aspect is that the high level of mortality is attributed to lack of awareness. Early diagnosis with aggressive treatment can lead to successful prognosis for the patient. Here, we describe a brief overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology of GAE, available diagnostic methods, possible therapeutic interventions and the causative agents.

  12. A case of suspected 'Bickerstaff's encephalitis' and its CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of suspected ''Bickerstaff's encephalitis'' was presented with special reference to the CT findings. A 4-year-old girl exhibited fever and nausea after the beginning of December, 1983, followed by unsteady gait on January 1, 1984. She was admitted to another hospital and diagnosed by means of a spinalfluid examination as having aseptic meningitis. Her symptoms subsided transiently, but then she began again to suffer recurrently from unsteady gait on January 27. After that she developed dysarthria and dysphagia, a disturbance of eye movement was observed, and she became lethargic and disoriented. On February 6, she was transferred to our hospital. Plain CT scan on admission revealed a low-density area on the left cerebellar peduncle and the inferior medial part of the left temporal lobe. Moreover, the low-density area was heterogenously enhanced with the contrast medium. Angiography showed no abnormal findings. Considering these CT findings, we suspected a pontine tumor. Four days after her admission, however, her symptoms and signs began rapidly to subside, and also the abnormal findings on the CT scan diminished gradually as the symptoms were relieved. On March 2, she was discharged without any neurological abnormality. (author)

  13. Astrocyte response to St. Louis encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Adriano Lara; Barros, Heber Leão Silva; de Mattos Silva Oliveira, Thelma Fátima; Chávez-Pavoni, Juliana Helena; Zanon, Renata Graciele

    2016-06-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), a flavivirus transmitted to humans by Culex mosquitoes, causes clinical symptoms ranging from acute febrile disorder to encephalitis. To reach the central nervous system (CNS) from circulating blood, the pathogen must cross the blood-brain barrier formed by endothelial cells and astrocytes. Because astrocytes play an essential role in CNS homeostasis, in this study these cells were infected with SLEV and investigated for astrogliosis, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I-dependent immune response, and apoptosis by caspase-3 activation. Cultures of Vero cells were used as a positive control for the viral infection. Cytopathic effects were observed in both types of cell cultures, and the cytotoxicity levels of the two were compared. Astrocytes infected with a dilution of 1E-01 (7.7E+08 PFU/mL) had a reduced mortality rate of more than 50% compared to the Vero cells. In addition, the astrocytes responded to the flavivirus infection with increased MHC-I expression and astrogliosis, characterized by intense glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and an increase in the number and length of cytoplasmic processes. When the astrocytes were exposed to higher viral concentrations, a proportional increase in caspase-3 expression was observed, as well as nuclear membrane destruction. SLEV immunostaining revealed a perinuclear location of the virus during the replication process. Together, these results suggest that mechanisms other than SLEV infection in astrocytes must be associated with the development of the neuroinvasive form of the disease. PMID:26975980

  14. Japanese Encephalitis: Estimating Future Trends in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metelka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited surveillance programs and lack of diagnostic laboratory testing capacity in many low and middle income Asian countries have made it difficult to validate epidemiological patterns and anticipate future changes in disease risk. In this study, we consider the case of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and examine how populations of human hosts and animal reservoirs are expected to change over the next three decades. Growth was modelled at the sub-national level for rural and urban areas to estimate where high-density, susceptible populations will potentially overlap with populations of the virus' amplifying host. High-risk areas based on these projections were compared to the current distribution of Japanese Encephalitis, and known immunization activities in order to identify areas of highest priority for concern. Results indicated that mapping JE risk factors at the sub-national level is an effective way to contextualize and supplement JE surveillance data. New patterns of risk factor change occurring in Southeast Asia were identified, including around major urban areas experiencing both urbanization and growth in pig populations. A hotspot analysis of pig-to-population ratio found a significant spatial cluster extending northward through Southeast Asia and interior China. Mapping forecasted changes in risk factors for JE highlights regions vulnerable to emerging zoonoses and may be an important tool for developing effecting transnational health policies.

  15. Enhanced immune responses against Japanese encephalitis virus using recombinant adenoviruses coexpressing Japanese encephalitis virus envelope and porcine interleukin-6 proteins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanyang; Wu, Rui; Liu, Kai; Yuan, Lei; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Ma, Xiaoping; Yan, Qigui; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-08-15

    Japanese encephalitis is a reproductive disorder caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in swine. Previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) may be a potential vaccine candidate because it can express JEV envelope epitopes and induce immune responses against JEV. Still, it will be necessary to develop an adjuvant that can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses to the recombinant antigen delivered by non-replicating Ad5. In this study, we investigated the systemic immune responses of BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant adenovirus expressing JEV envelope epitopes in combination with porcine interleukin-6 (rAdE-IL-6).The rAdE-IL-6 immunized group had the highest titers of anti-JEV antibody as detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as the highest levels of neutralizing antibody (1:75) as detected by a serum neutralization test. Similarly, higher concentrations of interferon-gamma (834.7pg/ml) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (229.7pg/ml) were detected in the rAdE-IL-6 group using an ELISA assay. These data indicate that immunized BALB/c induce a strong cellular response against rAdE-IL-6. Furthermore, after challenge with the virulent JEV SCYA201201 strain, the rAdE-IL-6 group generated an immune protective response 70% greater than that of the control group, indicating that rAdE-IL-6 induced a protective immune response against JEV challenge in mice. The results from this study demonstrated that IL-6 is a strong adjuvant that can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Furthermore, a recombinant adenovirus coexpressing JEV envelope epitopes and porcine IL-6 protein may be an effective vaccine in animals. PMID:27235810

  16. Findings of 99mTc-HMPAO Regional Cerebral Blood Flow SPECT in a Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is one of the fulminant necrotizing, often fatal sporadic form of the encephalitis caused by herpes simplex type I virus. Characteristically, there is early and almost constant involvement of one or both temporal lobes, although there are common additional areas of involvement. Appropriate early treatment following correct diagnosis by clinical findings, CSF study, EEG and several radiological studies including angiography, radionuclide studies, CT or MRI can reduce its mortality and severity of the sequelae. We report a case of HSE diagnosed by adjuvant study of 99mTc-HMPAO regional cerebral blood flow SPECT, which showed a marked increase in bitemporal cerebral blood flow in a 24-year-old man.

  17. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyomasu, Teruo; Nakashima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomie; Shida, Kenshiro (Ohmuta Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1982-10-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis.

  18. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis. (author)

  19. Inoculation of Plasmids Encoding Japanese Encephalitis Virus PrM-E Proteins with Colloidal Gold Elicits a Protective Immune Response in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zijiang; Wakita, Takaji; Yasui, Kotaro

    2003-01-01

    We established a simple and effective method for DNA immunization against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection with plasmids encoding the viral PrM and E proteins and colloidal gold. Inoculation of plasmids mixed with colloidal gold induced the production of specific anti-JEV antibodies and a protective response against JEV challenge in BALB/c mice. When we compared the efficacy of different inoculation routes, the intravenous and intradermal inoculation routes were found to elicit str...

  20. Silent Circulation of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Prior to an Encephalitis Outbreak in Cordoba, Argentina (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Luis Adrian; Albrieu Llinás, Guillermo; Vázquez, Ana; Tenorio, Antonio; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2012-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus is a complex zoonoses. In 2005, 47 laboratory-confirmed and probable clinical cases of SLEV infection were reported in Córdoba, Argentina. Although the causes of 2005 outbreak remain unknown, they might be related not only to virological factors, but also to ecological and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that one of the factors for SLE reemergence in Córdoba, Argentina, was the introduction of a new SLEV genotype (SLEV genotype III), with no previous act...

  1. Are anemia and blood group types related to Japanese encephalitis and dengue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue and Japanese encephalitis (JE are flaviviruses causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous studies had found an association between dengue infection and particular blood group antigen and also the susceptibility to aplastic anemia by dengue. Aims and Objective: The present study was conducted to find any association between dengue and JE immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody with blood group antigen or anemia. Methodology: The study was conducted in 2 slums of Delhi in 2013 in the interepidemic period. 5 mL blood from 239 samples were taken and processed for IgG levels of dengue and JE and rest used to test hemoglobin and blood group. Results and Discussion: No association has been found between blood group types and dengue IgG antibody positivity (P = 0.42 or JE IgG antibody positivity (P = 0.148. Nor did anemia established any association with dengue (P = 0.185 or JE IgG antibody (P = 0.277. IgG status of dengue and JE could be used as proxy markers of any past subclinical infection (includes clinically manifested cases also. Further studies in large settings and other areas could be done to validate the results. This was the first study of its kind in such settings.

  2. A preliminary randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for Japanese encephalitis in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Rayamajhi

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE virus (JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG's anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial.We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group died during treatment and two (placebo subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2, which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group.A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205.

  3. Combined HIV-CMV encephalitis presenting with brainstem signs.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, G N; Guiloff, R J; Scaravilli, F; Harcourt-Webster, J N

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of combined HIV-CMV encephalitis are described. One presented with a sixth nerve palsy and a tetraparesis, the other with an internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Pathologically brain stem involvement was predominantly due to CMV.

  4. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  5. Dengue encephalitis-A rare manifestation of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Madi; Basavaprabhu Achappa; John T Ramapuram; Nityananda Chowta; Mridula Laxman; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection to dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus. Neurological complications are not commonly seen in dengue. The neurological manifestations seen in dengue are encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dengue encephalitis is a rare disease. We report an interesting case of dengue encephalitis from Southern India. A 49-year-old gentleman presented with fever, altered sensorium and seizures. Dengue NS-1 antigen test was reactive. Dengue IgM was also positive. CSF PCR was negative for herpes simplex 1 & 2. Dengue encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever with altered sensorium, especially in countries like India where dengue is rampant.

  6. Rapid recovery from catastrophic paraneoplastic anti-NMDAR encephalitis secondary to an ovarian teratoma following ovarian cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Soontornpun, Atiwat; Pongsuvareeyakul, Tip; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-01-01

    This report is aimed to describe a life-threatening case of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis secondary to ovarian teratoma with rapid recovery in 1 day after the removal of the tumour. A 23-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, personality changes and seizure. After neurological assessment, limbic or herpes encephalitis was provisionally diagnosed and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir and steroids. The patient had progressive severe neurological symptoms, requiring prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. An anti-NMDAR antibody test revealed positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid at 3 weeks of admission. Pelvic ultrasound examination and CT scan revealed bilateral small ovarian teratomas. Bilateral ovarian cystectomy was performed by open surgery. The patient showed rapid improvement and no longer needed intubation 2 days after the operation. In conclusion, we described a catastrophic case of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis with delayed diagnosis but rapid recovery after ovarian cystectomy. This information can probably be helpful to neurologists and gynaecologists. PMID:27511754

  7. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as an Acute Psychotic Episode in a Young Woman: An Underdiagnosed yet Treatable Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikma Keller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR encephalitis is a recently identified autoimmune disorder with prominent psychiatric symptoms. Patients usually present with acute behavioral change, psychosis, catatonic symptoms, memory deficits, seizures, dyskinesias, and autonomic instability. In female patients an ovarian teratoma is often identified. We describe a 32-year-old woman who presented with acute psychosis. Shortly after admission, she developed generalized seizures and deteriorated into a catatonic state. Although ancillary tests including MRI, electroencephalogram, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis were unremarkable, the presentation of acute psychosis in combination with recurrent seizures and a relentless course suggested autoimmune encephalitis. The patient underwent pelvic ultrasound which disclosed a dermoid cyst and which led to an urgent cystectomy. Plasmapheresis was then initiated, yielding partial response over the next two weeks. Following the detection of high titers of anti-NMDAR antibodies in the CSF, the patient ultimately received second line immunosuppressive treatment with rituximab. Over several months of cognitive rehabilitation a profound improvement was eventually noted, although minor anterograde memory deficits remained. In this report we call for attention to the inclusion of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in the differential diagnosis of acute psychosis. Prompt diagnosis is critical as early immunotherapy and tumor removal could dramatically affect outcomes.

  8. A rat model for embolic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is the combined condition of infection and a systemic inflammatory response. Sepsis causes 10% of all deaths in the western world. The Gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of sepsis and the incidence of Gram positive sepsis is rising. Autopsy studies...... have recently shown that sepsis is a common cause of microabscesses in the brain, and that S. aureus is one of the most common organisms isolated from these abscesses. This raises the question whether the blood-brain barrier truly makes the brain an immune-privileged organ or not. This makes the brain...... is difficult to obtain tissue for further examination. This puts a hard demand on animal models of brain lesions in sepsis. We hereby present a novel animal model of embolic encephalitis. Our model introduces bacteria by an embolus to an area of brain necrosis and damage to the blood...

  9. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE) is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection. PMID:27065870

  10. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE) is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection. PMID:27065870

  11. Asymptomatic cerebellar atrophy after acute enteroviral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaszil, Edina; Kamondi, Anita; Csillik, Anita; Velkey, Imre; Szirmai, Imre

    2005-07-01

    We report on a 13-year-old male who had acute enteroviral encephalitis causing cerebellar symptoms at the age of 10 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormalities. Clinically he appeared to be recovered completely after 6 months. Twenty-three months after the recovery, MRI was performed because he presented with slight lower-limb and truncal ataxia experienced as lack of foot coordination while playing football or riding a bicycle. MRI demonstrated severe cerebellar atrophy. Clinically he recovered completely in 10 days. Only sophisticated electrophysiological methods revealed cerebellar dysfunction. The case provides evidence for the plasticity of cerebellar regulatory structures involved in the coordination of fine movements. It seems that in childhood the slow, isolated disintegration of cerebellar systems can be compensated for by upper thalamic or telencephalic connections, in a similar way to a congenital deficit of the cerebellum. PMID:15991870

  12. Focal epilepsy as a long term sequela of Parvovirus B19 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Concetta Ilenia; Costanzo, Carmela Maria; Franchina, Concetta; Castiglione, Giacomo; Giuliano, Loretta; Russo, Raffaela; Conti, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Scalia, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19), the etiological agent of the fifth disease, is associated with a large spectrum of pathologies, among which is encephalitis. Since it has been detected from the central nervous system in children or in immunocompromised patients, its causative role in serious neurological manifestations is still unclear. Here we report the case of an 18-year-old healthy boy who developed encephalitis complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The detection of PVB19 DNA in his serum and, subsequently, in his cerebrospinal fluid supports the hypothesis that this virus could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological complications. In addition, the detection of viral DNA and the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in serum, together with clinical findings such as skin rash, support the presence of a disseminated viral infection. In the presence of neurological disorders, especially when there are no specific signs, but seizures and rash are present, it is important to search for PVB19 both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Moreover, the introduction of the PVB19 DNA test into diagnostic protocols of neuropathies, especially those undiagnosed, could clarify the etiological agent that otherwise could remain unrecognized. PMID:27130981

  13. AGES AND SEX DEPENDENCE OF SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE IN THE PERSONS INOCULATED WITH TICKSBORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Leonova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Immunological efficiency of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE vaccine Encepur® Adult (Chiron Behring GmbH, Germany was studied according to the sex- and age stratification of inoculated persons. The group under observation consisted of 117 residents of Vladivostok, Russian Far East, 17 to 68 years old, in whom anti-TBE antibodies were not detectable. Vaccination was performed according to the classical schedule, i.e., 0 days-28 days-12 months. Specific immune response was evaluated before vaccination, a month after first inoculation, 1 month following second vaccination, 1 year after two inoculations, and a month after third vaccination. Total index of marked immunological protection reached 100% after the 3rd vaccination. The highest response rates were revealed in young subjects and women. It was shown that the male persons from young and mature age groups travel to the forest more commonly than females, as opposed to the appropriate groups at older ages. However, in the older age group we have reversed situation. These data substantiate application of the tick-borne encephalitis vaccine Encepur® Adult as an effective mean for TBE prevention in endemic areas of Russia, where different strains of TBE virus are encountered.

  14. An outbreak of Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Speer, Brian; Wellehan, James F X; Bradway, Daniel S; Wright, Lewis; Reavill, Drury; Barr, Bradd C; Childress, April; Shivaprasad, H L; Chin, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    A total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. Histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a Sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. By immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue cysts in muscle did not react with polyclonal antisera against Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum, or with a monoclonal antibody to S. neurona. Transmission electron microscopy on sarcocyst tissue cyst walls from 2 birds was morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis calchasi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of partial 18S ribosomal RNA from muscle tissue cysts and brain schizonts from 3 birds was consistent with a clade containing S. calchasi and Sarcocystis columbae but could not distinguish these closely related Sarcocystis species. However, PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 RNA segment in the brain from 2 birds and muscle from 2 birds specifically identified the isolates as S. calchasi. The current report documents that multiple psittacine species are susceptible intermediate hosts of S. calchasi, and that infection can cause encephalitis resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in psittacine aviaries. PMID:24081928

  15. Bilateral facial palsy as a manifestation of Japanese encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Rajesh; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality, prevalent mainly in South East nations. It is caused by group B arbovirus and transmitted with bite of infected culex mosquitoes. The clinical features described are: headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, convulsions and both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. In this submission, we described a 68-year-old man suffering from Japanese encephalitis, who presented with bilateral facial palsy with encephalitic...

  16. The Involvement of Microglial Cells in Japanese Encephalitis Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Thananya Thongtan; Chutima Thepparit; Duncan R. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective vaccines, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections remain a leading cause of encephalitis in many Asian countries. The virus is transmitted to humans by Culex mosquitoes, and, while the majority of human infections are asymptomatic, up to 30% of JE cases admitted to hospital die and 50% of the survivors suffer from neurological sequelae. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages that play key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses in th...

  17. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: past, present, and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wang H; Liang G

    2015-01-01

    Huanyu Wang,1,2 Guodong Liang1,21State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (SKLID), Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing People’s Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral ence...

  18. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic. PMID:19240010

  19. Repeated CT studies of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis during his entire clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We encountered a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis whose cerebral lesions were studied by repeated CT scannings during his entire clinical course. The purpose of this paper is to report the earliest lesions of the brain as revealed by CT scans. A 63-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of headache, nausea, fever, and disorientation. On admission, a physical examination showed a high fever, while a neurological examination revealed a stiff neck, a positive Kernig's sign, and disorientation. Laboratory examinations revealed a pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid. Electroencephalograms showed the so-called ''periodic sharp-and-slow-waves complex''. The complement fixation titer for herpes simplex virus was x32 in the serum and x128 in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. We treated him with adenine arabinoside and gamma-globulin, but the patient did not recover; rather, he died of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding three months later. Plain CT scans taken on the 12th day after the onset revealed a low-density area with signs of a slight mass in the region from the right island of Reil to the right uncus. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed an irregular enhancement in the low-density area. CT scans taken on the 19th day after the onset showed an extensive low-density area with a streak-like enhancement in the right temporal lobe, which is in aggreement with the findings reported by others as characteristic CT findings for herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to make an early diagnosis of a patient, we should pay attention to a low-density area with an irregular contrast enhancement in the region from the island of Reil to the uncus on a CT scan. (author)

  20. The effect of vaccination coverage and climate on Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Impoinvil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE is the leading cause of viral encephalitis across Asia with approximately 70,000 cases a year and 10,000 to 15,000 deaths. Because JE incidence varies widely over time, partly due to inter-annual climate variability effects on mosquito vector abundance, it becomes more complex to assess the effects of a vaccination programme since more or less climatically favourable years could also contribute to a change in incidence post-vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify vaccination effect on confirmed Japanese encephalitis (JE cases in Sarawak, Malaysia after controlling for climate variability to better understand temporal dynamics of JE virus transmission and control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monthly data on serologically confirmed JE cases were acquired from Sibu Hospital in Sarawak from 1997 to 2006. JE vaccine coverage (non-vaccine years vs. vaccine years and meteorological predictor variables, including temperature, rainfall and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI were tested for their association with JE cases using Poisson time series analysis and controlling for seasonality and long-term trend. Over the 10-years surveillance period, 133 confirmed JE cases were identified. There was an estimated 61% reduction in JE risk after the introduction of vaccination, when no account is taken of the effects of climate. This reduction is only approximately 45% when the effects of inter-annual variability in climate are controlled for in the model. The Poisson model indicated that rainfall (lag 1-month, minimum temperature (lag 6-months and SOI (lag 6-months were positively associated with JE cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first improved estimate of JE reduction through vaccination by taking account of climate inter-annual variability. Our analysis confirms that vaccination has substantially reduced JE risk in Sarawak but this benefit may be overestimated if

  1. Unusual Necrotizing Encephalitis in Raccoons and Skunks Concurrently Infected With Canine Distemper Virus and Sarcocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiski, S V; Sisó, S; Church, M E; Cartoceti, A N; Barr, B; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa.Sarcocystissp was confirmed via immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody toSarcocystis neurona The pathologic changes are similar to lesions in human AIDS patients infected withToxoplasma gondii. PMID:26374278

  2. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis without neurologic symptoms. A comparison between CT scan and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, N.; Tanaka, T.; Hiramoto, N.; Takazuka, K.; Komatsu, T.

    1987-03-01

    The lack of neurologic symptoms is rare in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). A 42-year-old woman presented with psychiatric features alone, such as Korsakoff syndrome and abortive type Kluver-Bucy syndrome. The diagnosis of HSE was confirmed by serologically elevated antibody titer. The patient underwent both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray computed tomography showed transient contrast enhancement and low density area confined to the lateral lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse areas with a high MRI signal intensity. Considering that the lack of neurologic features, as seen in the present HSE patient, may sometimes rule out the possibility of parenchymal disease, imaging modalities, especially MRI, may be of value in the detection of lesions for HSE.

  3. An enzyme immunoassay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus-induced chemotactic cytokine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Singh; Rajesh Kulshreshtha; Asha Mathur

    2000-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induces human peripheral blood monocytes to secrete a chemotactic cytokine [human macrophage-derived factor (hMDF)] which causes chemotaxis of neutrophils. The only known assay for hMDF cannot quantify its level in samples, so an enzyme immunoassay has been standardized for detection of hMDF and hMDF-specific antibodies in test samples. The reported enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was found to be sensitive (89%), specific (91%), accurate (92·2%) and reproducible and was able to detect a minimum concentration of 23 ng hMDF/ml in test samples. The chemotactic factor could be detected in JEV inoculated mouse sera and JEV infected culture fluids. Significant finding of the test was the detection of hMDF in sera of human cases of JE.

  4. The impact of eastern equine encephalitis virus on efforts to recover the endangered whooping crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Clark, G.G.; Watts, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), although never abundant in North America, became endangered primarily because of habitat modification and destruction. To help recovery, a captive propagation and reintroduction program was initiated at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in 1966. However, in 1984, 7 of 39 whooping cranes at PWRC died from infection by eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, an arbovirus that infects a wide variety of indigenous bird species, although mortality is generally restricted to introduced birds. Following identification of the aetiological agent, surveillance and control measures were implemented, including serological monitoring of both wild and captive birds for EEE viral antibody and assay of locally-trapped mosquitoes for virus. In addition, an inactivated EEE virus vaccine developed for use in humans was evaluated in captive whooping cranes. Results so far suggest that the vaccine will afford protection to susceptible birds.

  5. Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Misako; Hayama, Yoko; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2016-04-01

    A serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 in Japan. A total of 857 serum samples were collected from 113 herds in 28 prefectures and were analyzed for the presence of CAEV antibodies using agar gel immunodiffusion test. The seroprevalence of CAEV infection at the herd and animal levels was 15.0% (17/113) and 10.0% (86/857), respectively. Large farms with more than 10 goats and with animals for dairy and breeding purposes had higher seroprevalence (P<0.05). The results of this study provide useful information to consider effective control programs against CAEV infection in Japan. PMID:26498401

  6. Autoimmune encephalitis mimicking sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Tang; Wang, Ruo-Xi; Zhao, Wei; Tan, Qing-Che; Liu, Ruo-Zhuo; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Huang, Xu-Sheng; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies are most likely to be misdiagnosed as sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Our goal was to delineate patients who were initially suspected to have CJD but were later found to have AE. We performed a retrospective clinical review of cases of individuals and made a comparison between groups of patients diagnosed with sCJD and AE. Patients who had rapidly progressing dementia and focal neurological impairment, such as aphasia, gait disturbance, visual disturbance, and depression, at onset were diagnosed with sCJD, whereas epilepsy, hyponatremia and dysautonomia were strong hints for AE. Fluoroscope-positron emission tomography (PET) of patients with AE revealed variable metabolism and normative and long-term immunosuppression were less likely to relapse. PMID:27235341

  7. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked to an increased risk ...

  8. Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eliana G; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for the development of a safe DENV vaccine. Here we summarize current structural and mechanistic knowledge underlying these phenomena. We also review recent results demonstrating that the humoral immune response triggered during natural DENV infection is able to generate neutralizing antibodies binding complex quaternary epitopes only present on the surface of intact virions. PMID:26577689

  9. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Amy J; Martin, Denise A; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and TaqMan nucleic acid amplification assays for the rapid detection of North American eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viral RNAs from samples collected in the field and clinical samples. The sensitivities of these assays have been compared to that of virus isolation. While all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays provide rapid detection of viral RNAs comparable to the isolation of viruses in Vero cells, the TaqMan assays for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs are the most sensitive. We have shown these assays to be specific for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs by testing geographically and temporally distinct strains of EEE and WEE viruses along with a battery of related and unrelated arthropodborne viruses. In addition, all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays have been used to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs from mosquito and vertebrate tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs. PMID:12517876

  10. Prognostic significance of serum iron levels in cases of Japanese encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, M.; Prakash, V.; Mathur, A.; Chaturvedi, U. C.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-one children with acute laboratory confirmed Japanese encephalitis were studied. Serum iron concentrations were consistently low following Japanese encephalitis virus infection, with the levels being of prognostic significance.

  11. Mutation analysis of the fusion domain region of St. Louis encephalitis virus envelope protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immune response to flavivirus infections produces both species-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies. The presence of cross-reactive antibodies complicates serodiagnosis of flavivirus infections, especially secondary infections caused by a heterologous virus. A successful public health response to the growing global threat posed by flaviviruses necessitates the development of virus-specific diagnostic antigens. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein is the principle antigen stimulating protective immunity during infection. Using recombinant St. Louis encephalitis virus-like particles (VLPs), we have identified amino acid residues involved in flavivirus cross-reactive epitope determinants. Most significant among the residues studied are three highly conserved amino acids in the fusion peptide: Gly104, Gly106, and Leu107. Substitutions of these residues dramatically influenced VLP secretion and cross-reactive monoclonal antibody reactivity. These results provide critical insight into the antigenic structure of the flaviviral E protein and toward development of species-specific diagnostic antigens that should improve both flavivirus diagnosis and estimates of disease burden

  12. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV, eastern (EEEV, western (WEEV and Venezuelan (VEEV equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3% were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3% for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9% were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8% for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4% for EEEV, one (0.4% for WEEV and three (1.3% for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1% and three (3.4%, respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  13. Circulating antibody to myelin basic protein in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from multiple sclerosis patients with relapsing-remitting disease and normal subjects were tested for antibody to myelin basic protein by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. The results showed a marginally decreased titre in multiple sclerosis superimposed on a seasonal variation. There was no correlation with the clinical state of the patients. Results are discussed briefly in relation to humoral antibody function in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. (author)

  14. Development of a vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis: a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Japanese encephalitis (ICD 10: A83.0) is an important specific viral encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, a virus of the Flavivirus group. Millions of people, especially those in endemic areas of developing countries in Asia, are at high risk from this infection. Therefore proper management to deal with this virus is essential. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus. Supportive an...

  15. Modern features of varicella encephalitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Scripchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There was conducted a survey among 65 children aged from 1 year to 17 with varicella encephalitis. There was determined predominance of cerebellar forms of the disease, in 93,9%, that is characterized by the development of the light pyramidal disorders on the contrast to the cerebral that is characterized by the development of convulsivecomatose syndrome. It was determined that the disease is distinguished by the rareness of the detected changes on the MRI, 12,3% only. It was detected that the changes of the evoked potentials could be seen among all the patients and are characterized by the predominance demyelinating changes of the brainstem structures when having a cerebellar form and neuronal disorders of the cerebral hemisphere when having a cerebral form. The outcome of the cerebellar form is recovery in 100% of cases, and in cerebral – the development of epilepsy was detected in 50% and death in 25%.

  16. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis, and neuroimaging were analyzed. Patients were treated with doxycycline and followed-up. Results: Among 20 consecutive patients with AES, 6 (30% were due to scrub infection. They presented with acute onset fever, altered sensorium, seizures. "Eschar" was seen in 50% of patients. CSF done in two of them was similar to consistent with viral meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed cerebral edema, bright lesions in the putamen and the thalamus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Renal involvement was seen in all patients. All patients responded well to oral doxycycline. Conclusion: AES is not an uncommon neurological presentation following scrub typhus infection. It should be suspected in all patients with fever, altered sensorium, and renal involvement. Oral doxycycline should be started as early as possible for better outcomes.

  17. Serological screening of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) among Malaysian encephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayan, Ravindran; Khairullah, Nor Shahidah; Tze Ming, Ho

    2004-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection of the central nervous system and is caused by tick bites, usually after travel to rural or forested areas. The disease is prevalent in Scandinavia, Western Europe, Central Europe and the former Soviet Union and East Asia including Japan. In Malaysia, so far there are no reported cases of TBE. In the present time, many illnesses have been attributed to traveling to other parts of the world. Thus it is important to carry out TBE prevalence study to determine whether the virus is present among Malaysian population. Samples (sera and CSF) from patients admitted to major MOH hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis but is IgM negative for JE, were tested for TBEV IgM ELISA and TBEV IgG ELISA (DRG, Germany). Out of the 600 samples screened for TBEV IgG, all were non-reactive. In addition, out of the 100 samples screened for TBEV IgM, all the samples were also non-reactive. Our results indicate that currently TBE is not present in the Malaysian population. Among the reasons for this could be lack of the infection agent, absence of the suitable vector or subjects selected for the study did not fit the criteria of possible exposure to TBE infections. Hence we recommend that for any future study, the selection of subjects should include those who returned from tick-infested forested areas. PMID:16493408

  18. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Show Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr...affic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Authors Kim WK, Corey S, Alvarez X, Williams K

  19. [The outbreak of an epidemic of tick-borne encephalitis in Kielec province induced by milk ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszczyk, I; Tarnowska, H; Zabicka, J; Gut, W

    1997-01-01

    Outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) was reported between May 14 and June 20 1995 in Busko Zdrój in Kielce Province. Drinking fresh (unboiled) goat's milk from private breeding was probable reason of the outbreak. 63 person drank goat's milk from the same source; 15 were hospitalized with neurological symptoms, 33 persons had an influenza-like symptoms and were treated in out-patient department (27) or healed spontaneously (6), and 15 persons were healthy. TBE virus antibodies were found in CSF of all 15 persons with neuroinfection syndromes. IgM and IgG against TBE virus were present in sera of 15 hospitalized patients and 20 patients with influenza like-syndromes. Antibodies to TBE virus were detected in serum of one of 19 goats from the breeding farm confirming the source of TBE virus infection. PMID:9562785

  20. Electroencephalographic and computed X-ray tomographic findings in 99 Japanese cases of herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki; Tamura, Masato; Otani, Sugishi.

    1988-10-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEG) and computed tomograms (CT) obtained from 99 Japanese patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Abnormal findings of EEG were seen in 89 patients (99 %). Focal abnormality, which was frequently detected in the first EEG recording, was seen in 68 patients (76 %). Periodic synchronous discharge was observed in 25 patients (28 %). There were abnormal findings on CT in 88 patients (81 %). Low and high density areas were seen in 64 patients (73 %) and 26 patients (37 %), respectively, with the most frequent site being the temporal lobe. Mass effect was demonstrated in 33 patients (37 %). Electroencephalography detected the abnormal findings earlier than CT during the early stage of HSE in many instances. There was concordance between EEG and CT in the detection of HSE lesions in 45 patients (58 %). (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Antiviral activity of luteolin against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Suhong; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-07-15

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of family Flaviviridae, is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE). JEV is one of the most important causative agents of viral encephalitis in humans, and this disease leads to high fatality rates. Although effective vaccines are available, no effective antiviral therapy for JE has been developed. Hence, identifying effective antiviral agents against JEV infection is important. In this study, we found that luteolin was an antiviral bioflavonoid with potent antiviral activity against JEV replication in A549 cells with IC50=4.56μg/mL. Luteolin also showed extracellular virucidal activity on JEV. With a time-of-drug addition assay revealing that JEV replication was inhibited by luteolin after the entry stage. Overall, our results suggested that luteolin can be used to develop an antiviral drug against JEV. PMID:27126774

  2. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis presenting as cerebellar hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Shyam; Agarwal, Amit; Zacharia, Thomas; Labib, Samuel; Yousef, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the human herpesvirus family and is ubiquitously found in the adult human population. The most common clinical manifestation of EBV is the syndrome of infectious mononucleosis. Central nervous system involvement by EBV is rare, with very few cases of EBV encephalitis reported in the literature. The majority of these cases report cerebral cortical changes on magnetic resonance imaging. We present a rare case of EBV encephalitis in a young patient with meningitis-like symptoms and cerebellar hemorrhage on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26475484

  3. Prevention, diagnosis, and management of Japanese encephalitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar R.

    2014-01-01

    Rashmi Kumar Department of Pediatrics, King George Medical University, Lucknow (UP), India Abstract: Japanese encephalitis is the single largest cause of viral encephalitis in the world today. It is caused by a Flavivirus whose natural cycle occurs in mosquito and vertebrate hosts (ardeid birds and pigs) and man is an incidental dead-end host. It tends to occur in outbreaks in poor rural regions of Asia where rice growing and pig rearing are a way of life. The illness has three stages &n...

  4. Encephalitis Surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Karen C; Glaser, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Encephalitis is a devastating illness that commonly causes neurologic disability and has a case fatality rate >5% in the United States. An etiologic agent is identified in definition and diagnostic evaluation of this condition. Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The recognition of a possible relationship between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid paralysis with myelitis underscores the need for ongoing vigilance for emerging causes of neurologic disease. PMID:26295485

  5. An Unusual Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Boyapati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 65-year-old man with an acute alteration in mental state that was initially diagnosed as a functional psychiatric condition. After extensive workup, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was detected in the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and he responded rapidly to treatment with acyclovir. The case illustrates the importance of actively excluding organic causes in such patients, the need to have a low threshold of suspicion for HSV encephalitis, and the central role of CSF PCR testing for the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis, even in the absence of CSF biochemical abnormalities.

  6. Case Report: Magnetic resonance imaging in rabies encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations or when the history of animal bite is not forthcoming. We report the MRI findings in a case of furious rabies encephalitis and describe the utility of diffusion imaging in its diagnosis

  7. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  8. Subacute herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis as an initial presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple sclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corman Lourdes C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis presents acutely in patients who are immunocompetent. We report what we believe to be the first published case of a subacute course of herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in a patient with asymptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukemia who subsequently developed multiple sclerosis. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of fever blisters presented to the emergency department with a history of left temporal headache for four weeks, and numbness of the left face and leg for two weeks. A complete blood count revealed white blood cell count of 11,820 cells/mL, with an absolute lymphocyte count of 7304 cells/mL. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 6 white blood cells/μL, 63 red blood cells/μL, 54 mg glucose/dL, and 49 mg total protein/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed meningoencephalitis and bilateral ventriculitis. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus type 1 was positive, and the patient's symptoms resolved after ten days of treatment with parenteral aciclovir. Incidental findings on peripheral blood smear and flow cytometry testing confirmed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. One month later, she developed bilateral numbness of the hands and feet; a repeat cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus type 1 at this time was negative. A repeat magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an expansion of the peri-ventricular lesions, and the cerebrospinal fluid contained elevated oligoclonal bands and myelin basic protein. A brain biopsy revealed gliosis consistent with multiple sclerosis, and the patient responded to treatment with high-dose parenteral steroids. Conclusion Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis is a rare presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our patient had an atypical, subacute course, presumably due to immunosuppression from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This unusual

  9. Study on DNA Immunization by Recombinants Encoding Japanese Encephalitis Virus prME and E Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国和; 赵桂珍; 窦晓光; 乔光彦; 周子文

    2003-01-01

    To study the expression characteristic of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prME and E proteins and the efficacy of DNA immunization by different recombinant plasmids containing JEV prME (2001 bp) and E (1500 bp) genes, tworecombinants ( pJME and pJE) containing JEV prME and E genes fused with FLAG were constructed and then transfected into HepG2 and COS-1 cells by lipnsome fusion. The expression feature of FLAG-prME (about 72 kDa) and FLAG-E (about 54 kDa) proteins in transfected cells were analyzed by Western blot and two antibody systems (anti-FLAG and anti-E).BALB/c mice were immunized with 100 μg of two kinds of recombinants by intramuscular injection, and JEV JaGAr-01strains ( 105 PFU/100 μl)were given to BALB/c mice by intraperioneal injection 3 wk after twice DNA immunization by a lethal virus challenge. BALB/c mice were observed for 21 days after challenge. 80% plaque reduction neutralization test was performed to titrate neutralization antibody before and after viral challenge. It was found that the expression of proteins associated with pJME and pJE was determined in transfected cells with anti-FLAG and a new protein of 11 kDa was detected inHepG2 and COS-1 cells transfected with pJME. Only E (53 kDa) protein was identified as transfected with pJME using antiE. Higher level of neutralization antibodies and the efficacy of protective immunity were induced with pJME immunization,and were similar to those induced by inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, but were better than those induced with pJE.It concludes that the expression level from prM to E proteins of JEV is different in vitro, and the in vitro expression efficiency of pJME was better than that of piE. FLAG-prME protein expressed by pJME could be cleaved by peptidase from host.The efficacy of DNA immunization is correlated to the expression characterization of related proteins expressed in vitro.

  10. REACTOGENITY OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE ENCEPUR ADULT AND IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Leonova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The comprehensive clinical-immunological characteristic of a tick-borne encephalitis vaccine En-cepur Adult (Germany, which was studied on a group of residents of Far East of Russia was discussed. Reactogenity in 32,4% of vaccinees was characterized by minor clinical manifestations and was due to the reaction to specific vaccine albumin. Expression of immune response (mean geometric titers was evaluated in a neutralization test. A group with the reactogenity showed higher geometric mean antibody titers (1:182 compared with a group without the reactogenity (1:97.All of vaccinees with various levels (high, middle, low of specific immune response had an increased quantity of CD20+ and CD25+ lymphocytes. We showed a difference in immunologic reactivity of people with high and low levels of specific antibody response. As compared with a low level group the group with a high level of specific response showed significantly higher quantity of lymphocytes and their subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD45RA+ as well as higher levels of IgM, IgG.We conclude that vaccine Encepur Adult (Germany possesses a high immunologic activity. It is recommended to use this vaccine as a safe and effective specific preventive remedy in TBE endemic areas.

  11. Epidemiology of Japanese–B– encephalitis infection in pigs in Riau and North Sumatera Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology study on Japanese-B-Encephalitis (JE was conducted in Riau and North Sumatera Provinces. A total of 190 pig sera from Riau Province and 164 pig sera from North Sumatera were tested using competitive ELISA (C-ELISA to detect antibodies against JE virus. Insect collection was also conducted using several methods near pig farms in those provinces and identified into species to gain more information on its role to distribute JE infection. Serological results indicated that 70% pig in Sumatera and 94% pig in Riau had antibodies against JE virus. The highest prevalence of reaktor was detected in pig of more than 4 months age in both Provinces. The results of insect collection showed that Culex tritaeniorchynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus were the most dominant species in both provinces. Based on serological testing, indicated that JE virus infected pig in Sumatera and Riau Provinces, and higher reactor was obtained in older pig. Culex tritaeniorchynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus were the dominant insect species in both provinces, hence those species had a possibility to play an important role of JE transmission.

  12. Childhood Sjögren syndrome presenting as acute brainstem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoriko; Takenouchi, Toshiki; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Ohara, Kentaro; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dry mouth and eyes, known as sicca symptoms. The exact spectrum of neurological involvement, especially of the central nervous system, in childhood Sjögren syndrome has not been well defined. We report a girl who presented with acute febrile brainstem encephalitis. In retrospect, she had exhibited a preceding history of recurrent conjunctivitis and strong halitosis that could be considered as sicca symptoms. The histopathology results of a minor salivary biopsy, the presence of anti-SSA/Ro antibody, and keratoconjunctivitis confirmed the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome. Commonly observed features in previously reported patients with childhood Sjögren syndrome and central nervous system complications have included fever at the time of neurologic presentation, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, abnormal neuroimaging, and positivity for several specific antibodies. In children presenting with unknown acute febrile encephalopathy, Sjögren syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially when sicca symptoms are present. PMID:26006751

  13. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs. PMID:26992736

  14. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann AP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea P Mann,1 Elena Grebenciucova,2 Rimas V Lukas21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, 2Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAObjective: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R encephalitis is a new autoimmune disorder, often paraneoplastic in nature, presenting with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Diagnosed serologically, this disorder is often responsive to immunosuppressant treatment. The objective of this review is to educate clinicians on the challenges of diagnosis and management of this disorder.Materials and methods: A review of the relevant literature on clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and recommended management was conducted using a PubMed search. Examination of the results identified articles published between 2007 and 2014.Results: The literature highlights the importance of recognizing early common signs and symptoms, which include hallucinations, seizures, altered mental status, and movement disorders, often in the absence of fever. Although the presence of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies confirms diagnosis, approximately 15% of patients have only positive cerebrospinal fluid titers. Antibody detection should prompt a search for an underlying teratoma or other underlying neoplasm and the initiation of first-line immunosuppressant therapy: intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis, or a combination thereof. Second-line treatment with rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be implemented if no improvement is noted after 10 days. Complications can include behavioral problems (eg, aggression and insomnia, hypoventilation, catatonia, and autonomic instability. Those patients who can be managed outside an intensive care unit and whose tumors are identified and removed typically have better rates of remission and functional outcomes.Conclusion: There is an increasing need for clinicians of different specialties, including

  15. Computed tomography in young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors. (orig.)

  16. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  17. Japanese encephalitis and vaccines: past and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese encephalitis virus is the main cause of encephalitis in Asia. The vectors are mosquitoes. Every year 30,000 to 50,000 cases and 10,000 deaths from Japanese encephalitis are reported, and estimates go up to 100,000 cases. No effective antiviral therapy exists to treat this flavivirus infection. For prophylaxis vaccines are available. In Asia numerous vaccines are used regionally. The production of the only vaccine that was internationally licensed, JE-VAX, was ceased in 2005. Therefore a shortage of Japanese encephalitis vaccines might occur before new generation vaccines based on cell cultures will be available. An inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine based on the Beijing-1 strain is developed in Japan by Biken and Kaketsuken. Another promising vaccine candidate is the inactivated whole-virus vaccine IC-51 (Strain SA14-14-2) by the Austrian company Intercell. The third interesting vaccine candidate being in the late stages of clinical trials is the genetically engineered, chimeric and live-attenuated vaccine ChimeriVaxtrade mark-JE by the UK/USA-based company Acambis. The new vaccines in the pipeline show promising results and market licensures are expected in the near future. Showing excellent tolerability, these vaccines will not only be used in the population living in endemic areas where the risk of infection is extremely high, but also for travellers and military personnel. PMID:19066766

  18. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637. ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013

  19. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  20. Toscana virus encephalitis following a holiday in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jane C; Khatamzas, Elham; Misbahuddin, Anjum; Hart, Rachel; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Breen, David P

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of Toscana virus encephalitis. This emerging pathogen is among the three most common causes of meningoencephalitis in Europe during the warm season, yet remains under-recognised. Doctors should consider Toscana virus infection in patients presenting with neurological symptoms who have a relevant exposure history during the summer months. PMID:26647398

  1. Vaccine-Associated Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus and Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The case of an immunocompetent 3 and half-year-old girl who developed encephalitis and herpes zoster ophthalmicus 20 months after immunization with varicella-zoster virus vaccine is reported from Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece, and University College, London, UK.

  2. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  3. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  4. Measles Inclusion-Body Encephalitis: Neuronal Phosphorylated Tau Protein is Present in the Biopsy but not in the Autoptic Specimens of the Same Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderna, Emanuela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Morbin, Michela; Cacciatore, Francesca; Spinello, Sonia; Godani, Massimiliano; Zoia, Riccardo; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Tauopathies are sporadic or familial neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau in neurons and glial cells and include encephalitis related to measles virus such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We describe a 45-year-old woman, with a history of lymphoma treated with immunosuppressant therapy who underwent an open biopsy of the right frontal cortex for a suspect of encephalitis, and died 4 days later. The neuropathological assessment on the bioptic sample revealed edema, severe gliosis and microglial activation, with lymphomonocytic perivascular cuffing and neurons containing both nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinofilic inclusions that ultrastructurally appeared as tubular and curvilinear non-membrane-bound 12-18 nm structures, leading to the diagnosis of measles inclusion-bodies encephalitis. The biopsy specimen showed several cortical neurons with intense perikaryal immunoreactivity for anti-tau antibodies recognizing phosphorylated epitopes while on autoptic specimens no phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity was detected. Our findings suggest that in specific conditions biopsy-derived human tau may be phosphorylated at sites that may result not phosphorylated in autopsy-derived specimens, most likely caused by post-mortem dephosphorylation. PMID:26462994

  5. A novel immunochromatographic test applied to a serological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus on pig farms in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Woon Cha

    Full Text Available Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8% and specificity (97.7% when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8% were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A

    2016-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JEDetect(™)MAC-ELISA (JEDetect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JEDetectwith positive results were subsequently tested by the DENDetect(™)MAC-ELISA (DENDetect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JEDetectand DENDetectand were classified as JE- (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JEDetectand DENDetectincreased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  7. Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), No1 Yersin St., Hanoi (Viet Nam); International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hanh, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van Chung, Pham; Anh, Dang Duc; Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), No1 Yersin St., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tuan, Mai Anh, E-mail: tuanma-itims@mail.hut.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we describes different methods to immobilize Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies in human serum onto the interdigitated surface of a microelectrode sensor for optimizing electrochemical detection: (1) direct covalent binding to the silanized surface, (2) binding to the silanized surface via a cross-linker of glutaraldehyde (GA), (3) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via goat anti-human IgG polyclonal antibody and (4) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via protein A (PrA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy are used to verify the characteristics of antibodies on the interdigitated surface after the serum antibodies immobilization. The analyzed results indicate that the use of protein A is an effective choice for immobilization and orientation of antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors. This study provides an advantageous immobilization method of serum containing antiviral antibodies to develop electrochemical biosensors for preliminary screening of viruses in clinical samples from outbreaks.

  8. Identification and properties of proteases from an Acanthamoeba isolate capable of producing granulomatous encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll Edward L; Lightfoot Mary; Goldsworthy Graham; Alsam Selwa; Sissons James; Khan Naveed

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba is often a fatal human disease. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Acanthamoeba encephalitis remain unclear. In this study, the role of extracellular Acanthamoeba proteases in central nervous system pathogenesis and pathophysiology was examined. Results Using an encephalitis isolate belonging to T1 genotype, we observed two major proteases with approximate molecular weights of 150 KD and 130 KD on SDS-PAG...

  9. Cognitive inferences in fossil apes (Primates, Hominoidea): does encephalization reflect intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, David M

    2010-01-01

    Paleobiological inferences on general cognitive abilities (intelligence) in fossil hominoids strongly rely on relative brain size or encephalization, computed by means of allometric residuals, quotients or constants. Th is has been criticized on the basis that it presumably fails to reflect the higher intelligence of great apes, and absolute brain size has been favored instead. Many problems of encephalization metrics stem from the decrease of allometric slopes towards lower taxonomic level, thus making it difficult to determine at what level encephalization metrics have biological meaning. Here, the hypothesis that encephalization can be used as a good neuroanatomical proxy for intelligence is tested at two different taxonomic levels. A significant correlation is found between intelligence and encephalization only at a lower taxonomic level, i.e. on the basis of a low allometric slope, irrespective of whether species data or independent contrasts are employed. This indicates that higher-level slopes, resulting from encephalization grade shifts between subgroups (including hylobatids vs. great apes), do not reflect functional equivalence, whereas lower-level metrics can be employed as a paleobiological proxy for intelligence. Thus, in accordance to intelligence rankings, lower-level metrics indicate that great apes are more encephalized than both monkeys and hylobatids. Regarding fossil taxa, encephalization increased during hominin evolution (particularly in Homo), but during the Miocene a significant shift towards higher encephalization (and inferred enhanced cognitive abilities) must have been also involved in the emergence of the great-ape-and-human clade (Hominidae). This is confirmed by the modern great-ape-like degree of encephalization displayed by the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus, which contrasts with the rather hylobatid-like degree of the stem hominoid Proconsul. The similarly low encephalization of Oreopithecus might result from secondary reduction

  10. Evaluation of antiviral activity of essential oil of Trachyspermum Ammi against Japanese encephalitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumen Roy; Pratibha Chaurvedi; Abhay Chowdhary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Japanese encephalitis is a leading form of viral encephalitis, prevalent mostly in South Eastern Asia caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted by the mosquitoes of the Culex sp. The disease affects children and results in 50% result in permanent neuropsychiatric disorder. There arises a need to develop a safe, affordable, and potent anti-viral agent against JEV. This study aimed to assess the antiviral activity of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi: Umbellifereae) es...

  11. Limbic encephalitis as the presenting symptom of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: another cancer to search?

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Renata Barbosa; de Lucena, Adson Freitas; Maia, Fernanda Martins; Marinho, Antônia Rosivalda Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a syndrome characterised by irritability, depression, sleeping disturbance, convulsion, hallucination and short-period memory loss that is commonly associated with a malignancy even if there is no evidence of it by the time of presentation. Most reported cases of limbic encephalitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome are associated with small-cell lung cancer and lymphoma. This article is a case report of a patient with limbic encephalitis associated with an oesophageal adeno...

  12. Some patients with advanced malignancies also have reversible catatonia or limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Martin Alisky

    2015-01-01

    Two potentially treatable disorders, paraneoplastic catatonia and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, may be hidden within the presentation of end stage cancer patients, because catatonia and limbic encephalitis usually feature severely altered mental status, confusion, anorexia, and minimal responsiveness that are also common with people dying of cancer. If catatonia and limbic encephalitis are correctly diagnosed and treated, there should be definite and dramatic improvement that would tran...

  13. Phylogeny and Homologous Recombination in Japanese Encephalitis Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiao-xue; Cong Ying-ying; Wang Xin; Ren Yu-dong; Ren Xiao-feng; Lu Ai-guo; Li Guang-xing

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant causative agent of arthropod-borne encephalitis and what is less clear that the factors cause the virus wide spread. The objective was to confirm whether the homologous recombination imposed on JEV. The phylogenetic and homologous recombination analyses were performed based on 163 complete JEV genomes which were recently isolated. They were still separated into five genotypes (GI-GV) and the most of recently isolated JEVs were GI rather than GIII in Asian areas including mainland China. Two recombinant events were identified in JEV and the evidence of the recombination was observed between China and Japan isolates that partitioned into two distinct subclades, but still the same genotype (GIII). Our data further suggested that most of the nucleotides in JEV genome were under negative selection; however, changes within codon 2 316 (amino acid NS4b-44) showed an evidence of the positive selection.

  14. Microglia retard dengue virus-induced acute viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Chih-Peng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Jhan, Ming-Kai; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice. In microglia-depleted mice, the DENV infection-mediated expression of antiviral cytokines and the infiltration of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was abolished. DENV infection prompted the antigen-presenting cell-like differentiation of microglia, which in turn stimulated CTL proliferation and activation. These results suggest that microglial cells play a key role in facilitating antiviral immune responses against DENV infection and acute viral encephalitis. PMID:27279150

  15. Encephalization in hominids: evidence for the model of punctuationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, M A

    1983-01-01

    A progressive enlargement of the hominid brain started 3-2 million years ago, probably from a gracile australopithecine form. Since then, three major transitions in degree of encephalization have taken place, leading to modern Homo sapiens. In the present study it is shown that these transitions must have occurred in rapid bursts, interspersed with long periods of little or no evolutionary change (stasis). This stepwise mode of encephalization is in accordance with the model of punctuated evolutionary change. A further inquiry has been made into the size of the cerebral cortex of hominids and into the number of cortical neurons based on estimates which were derived from allometric equations in extant mammals. PMID:6405974

  16. Encephalitis in the clinical spectrum of dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharaj Aravinthan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are common worldwide. Clinical manifestations form a broad spectrum, and include uncomplicated dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Encephalopathy has been well reported and has classically been thought to result from the multisystem derangement that occurs in severe dengue infection; with liver failure, shock, and coagulopathy causing cerebral insult. However, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotropism, suggesting that, in a proportion of cases, there may be an element of direct viral encephalitis. Understanding the pathophysiology of dengue encephalopathy is crucial toward developing a more effective management strategy. This review provides an overview of the clinical spectrum of dengue infection, and examines evidence supporting the existence of dengue encephalitis.

  17. Acanthamoeba encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba is a rare cause of encephalitis yet is associated with high mortality. Treatment protocols vary greatly and generally include combination therapy across a wide spectrum of antiinfective classes. Case Description: A 63-year-old male who underwent renal transplantation presented 6 months after transplantation with depressed level of consciousness. Imaging of the head with computerized tomography showed an enhancing lesion suspicious for brain abscess. Biopsy of the lesion showed Acanthamoeba cysts. The patient was treated with sulfadiazine, fluconazole, flucytosine, azithromycin, and miltefosine but without success. We review recently published cases of Acanthamoeba encephalitis with an emphasis on treatment protocols and outcomes. Conclusion: Free-living protozoans such as Acanthamoeba are ubiquitous in the environment and should be suspected in immunosuppressed persons who present with central nervous system findings and brain abscess. Biopsy is critical to establish the etiology so that appropriate combination therapy can be deployed.

  18. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. PMID:10600742

  19. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Kelen Patrick T; Downs Joni A; Stark Lillian M; Loraamm Rebecca W; Anderson James H; Unnasch Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV...

  20. Contrast enhancement of the gyri in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis was examined by computer tomography. Both cerebral hemispheres showed contrast enhancement of the gyri. The cause of this is considered. The increased contrast medium accumulation in the affected areas is probably due to the marked vascular proliferation which can be demonstrated anatomically, and to the rapid escape of contrast from the capillaries into the interstitial spaces. The findings of other authors, which differ somewhat, are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shristi Ghimire; Santosh Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV). JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might ...

  2. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis with substantia nigra involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is a usually benign systemic viral illness common in children. Many studies described nervous system manifestations of infectious mononucleosis with a wide spectrum of neurologic deficits. Neurologic complications of EBV are seen in both acute and reactivate infection. Herein, we describe a patient diagnosed by acute EBV encephalitis with substantia nigra involvement and excellent clinical recovery.

  3. Disgust and fear recognition in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprengelmeyer, R.; A. P. Atkinson; Sprengelmeyer, A; Mair-Walther, J.; Jacobi, C.; Wildemann, B.; Dittrich, W.H.; Hacke, W

    2010-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PNLE) affects limbic portions of the brain associated with recognition of social signals of emotions. Yet it is not known whether this perceptual ability is impaired in individuals with PNLE. We therefore conducted a single case study to explore possible impairments in recognising facially, vocally, and bodily expressed emotions, using standardised emotion recognition tests. Facial expression recognition was tested with two forced-choice emotion-labelling t...

  4. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493. ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  5. Rabies and African bat lyssavirus encephalitis and its prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Warrell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Unlike any other human infection, encephalitis caused by dog rabies virus is always fatal. Rabies and other lyssaviruses have been found in unexpected places, and human disease, especially paralytic rabies, has gone unrecognized. Evidence is emerging that rabies-related bat lyssaviruses are enzootic across Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, but none has been detected in the Americas. The epidemiology and origins of African lyssaviruses are discussed. Ideal rabies prophyla...

  6. Phenytoin toxicity presenting as acute meningo-encephalitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin can produce significant dose-related toxicity because of its zero order pharmacokinetics and is an important issue in pediatric emergency medicine. It is important to differentiate phenytoin toxicity manifesting with symptoms like fever, vomiting, seizures, ataxia masquerading as acute meningo-encephalitic illness, more so at centers where facilities to measure serum phenytoin levels are not available. Here we describe two children with phenytoin toxicity, presenting to the emergency department with features suggestive of acute meningo-encephalitis.

  7. Seasonal Forecast of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Transmission, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Jonathan F Day; Stieglitz, Marc; Zebiak, Stephen; Cane, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. For disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. We present a seasonal forecast of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission in Indian River County, Florida. We derive an empirical relationship between modeled land surfa...

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of cultured mouse macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290. ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophages * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009

  9. Neuropathogenesis of Japanese Encephalitis in a Primate Model

    OpenAIRE

    Myint, K S; Kipar, A.; Jarman, R.G.; Gibbons, R.V.; Perng, G C; Flanagan, B; Mongkolsirichaikul, D; Van Gessel, Y; Solomon, T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for which there is no treatment. In addition to direct viral cytopathology, the inflammatory response is postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis. Our goal was to determine the contribution of bystander effects and inflammatory mediators to neuronal cell death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Material from a macaque model was used to characterize the inflammatory response and cytopathic effects of JE virus...

  10. Anti-NMDAR limbic encephalitis- a clinical curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    Kattepur, Abhay K; Patil, Darshan; Shankarappa, Amarendra; Swamy, Shivananda; Chandrashekar, Nayakanur Shankarappa; Chandrashekar, Pushpa; Prabhu, Shailesh; Gopinath, Kodaganur Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes are rarely the first manifestation of an underlying cancer. A high index of suspicion is thus needed to diagnose such conditions. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is one such entity which is well described in association with small cell lung cancers, testicular germ cell tumors, breast cancers and ovarian tumors. This article describes the entity being associated with an ovarian tumor. Case A 36-year-old female presented with abnormal behavio...

  11. MR and CT imaging patterns in post-varicella encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.F. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Larsen, M.B. [Div. of Neurology, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Byrd, S.E. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Radkowski, M.A. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Palka, P.S. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Allen, E.D. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to determine the patterns of cerebral involvement on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in post-varicella encephalitis. Four children between the ages of 2 and 11 years presented over a 5-year period with a diagnosis of post-varicella encephalitis. Their imaging studies and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. The medical histories of all four children were noncontributory except for recent bouts of chickenpox 1 week to 3 months prior to hospitalization. Three children presented with parkinsonian manifestations. Bilateral, symmetric hypodense, nonenhancing basal ganglia lesions were found on CT. These areas showed nonenhancing low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images on MR. One child presented with diffuse, multiple gray and white matter lesions of similar imaging characteristics; some lesions, however, did enhance. This child had no gait disturbances. Post-varicella encephalitis can produce two patterns of dramatic CT and MR findings. With an appropriate history and clinical findings, varicella as a cause of bilateral basal ganglia or diffuse cerebral lesions can be differentiated from other possible etiologies which include trauma, anoxia, metabolic disorders and demyelinating diseases. (orig.)

  12. Improvement of advanced postvaccinal demyelinating encephalitis due to plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rogalewski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Rogalewski1, Jörg Kraus3, Martin Hasselblatt2, Christoffer Kraemer1, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz11Department of Neurology; 2Institute of Neuropathology, University of Muenster, Germany, 3Paracelsus Private Medical University and Salzburger Landesklinken, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Department of Neurology, Salzburg, AustriaAbstract: We report a case of acute demyelinating encephalitis that occurred after viral vaccination against hepatitis A-, hepatitis B-, and poliovirus and vaccination against bacterial toxins of diphtheria and tetanus. After different diagnosis had been excluded, we diagnosed postvaccinal demyelinating encephalitis and started treatment with high dose intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by peroral application in decreasing dosages for three weeks. A few days after the treatment with methylprednisolone had been finished, the patient’s medical condition deteriorated again. Thus, we initiated plasma exchange at an advanced state of illness, which led to significant continuous improvement. The role of plasma exchange is discussed controversially, in particular the issue of timing. We report a case that shows improvement due to plasmapheresis several weeks after symptom onset.Keywords: ADEM, vaccination, encephalitis, plasmapheresis, demyelination, plasma exchange

  13. Bispecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontermann, Roland E; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies and simultaneously address different antigens or epitopes. BsAbs with 'two-target' functionality can interfere with multiple surface receptors or ligands associated, for example with cancer, proliferation or inflammatory processes. BsAbs can also place targets into close proximity, either to support protein complex formation on one cell, or to trigger contacts between cells. Examples of 'forced-connection' functionalities are bsAbs that support protein complexation in the clotting cascade, or tumor-targeted immune cell recruiters and/or activators. Following years of research and development (R&D), the first bsAb was approved in 2009. Another bsAb entered the market in December 2014 and several more are in clinical trials. Here, we describe the potentials of bsAbs to become the next wave of antibody-based therapies, focusing on molecules in clinical development. PMID:25728220

  14. HHV-6 encephalitis may complicate the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Detection by qualitative multiplex PCR and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazawa, Natsuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Naoki; Yoto, Yuko; Nojima, Masanori; Yasui, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Norio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Viral reactivation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cause various complications especially viral encephalitis. In this prospective study, we investigated the correlation of post-HSCT viral reactivation in blood with CNS dysfunction. We employed a multiplex PCR that detects 13 kinds of viruses as a first-line screening test and real-time PCR for subsequent quantitative evaluation. Five hundred ninety-one whole blood samples were collected from 105 patients from before until 42 days after HSCT. Seven patients developed CNS dysfunction such as altered consciousness. In six of the seven, the multiplex PCR test detected HHV-6 DNA in at least one sample. In contrast, DNA from other viruses, such as CMV, EBV, HHV-7, adenovirus, and HBV was never detected in any of the seven patients throughout the study period. Quantitative measurement of whole blood HHV-6 DNA levels demonstrated four of the six HHV-6 DNA loads were elevated at successive time points during the CNS dysfunction. In addition, the virus DNA peaks were temporally associated with the development of CNS dysfunction. CSF was tested in two of the four patients and high HHV-6 DNA levels comparable to those in whole blood were confirmed in both. These four patients were, thus, suspected to have developed HHV-6 encephalitis, a rate of 3.8% in the study population. Our results suggest that early diagnosis of probable HHV-6 encephalitis can be improved by confirming high HHV-6 DNA load in blood. PMID:26241219

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Akkoc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae.

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. PMID:27213062

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. PMID:27213062

  18. The Three Subtypes of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Induce Encephalitis in a Natural Host, the Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonteri, Elina; Kipar, Anja; Voutilainen, Liina; Vene, Sirkka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Lundkvist, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infects bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in nature, but the relevance of rodents for TBEV transmission and maintenance is unclear. We infected colonized bank voles subcutaneously to study and compare the infection kinetics, acute infection, and potential viral persistence of the three known TBEV subtypes: European (TBEV-Eur), Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE). All strains representing the three subtypes were infective and highly neurotropic. They ...

  19. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  20. [Tick-borne encephalitis (FSME)--how great is the danger really?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, M; Wild, B; Reisinger, E C

    2003-04-10

    Tick-borne encephalitis is a neurotropic viral disease transmitted by ticks, and occasionally by the drinking of milk. Its incidence in Central and Eastern Europe has increased sharply, supposedly due--among other things--to climate warming and changes in leisure activities. The probability of contracting the disease following viral infection is about 30%. Some 70% of victims manifest a biphasic course with two fever peaks. Some 10% will have lasting, sometimes severe, neurological deficits, and 1 to 2% will die. The diagnosis is based on confirmed exposure to ticks in a high-risk area, a tick bite within the previous three weeks, clinical symptomatology, infected CSF, and FSME-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum. Causal treatment is not possible, but the disease can be effectively avoided by prophylactic (anti-exposure) measures and vaccination. The vaccines currently available in Germany are highly effective and well tolerated, and a vaccine for children became available in 2002. Medical counselling of travellers should give consideration to vaccination against the condition--in particular for destinations in the south east or east of Europe. PMID:15104266

  1. Inhibition of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection by Flavivirus Recombinant E Protein Domain Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Fan; Yi Liu; Xuping Xie; Bo Zhang; Zhiming Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the human pathogens including yellow fever virus,dengue virus and West Nile virus.There are currently no effective antiviral therapies for all of the flavivirus and only a few highly effective vaccines are licensed for human use.In this paper,the E protein domain Ⅲ (DⅢ) of six heterologous flaviviruses (DENV1-4,WNV and JEV) was expressed in Escherichia coli successfully.The proteins were purified after a solubilization and refolding procedure,characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.Competitive inhibition showed that all recombinant flavivirus DⅢ proteins blocked the entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells.Further studies indicated that antibodies induced by the soluble recombinant flavivirus DⅢ partially protected mice against lethal JEV challenge.These results demonstrated that recombinant flavivirus DⅢ proteins could inhibit JEV infection competitively,and immunization with proper folding flavivirus DⅢ induced cross-protection against JEV infection in mice,implying a possible role of DⅢ for the cross-protection among flavivirus as well as its use in antigens for immunization in animal models.

  2. The prM-independent packaging of pseudotyped Japanese encephalitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As noted in other flaviviruses, the envelope (E protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV interacts with a cellular receptor and mediates membrane fusion to allow viral entry into target cells, thus eliciting neutralizing antibody response. The formation of the flavivirus prM/E complex is followed by the cleavage of precursor membrane (prM and membrane (M protein by a cellular signalase. To test the effect of prM in JEV biology, we constucted JEV-MuLV pseudotyped viruses that express the prM/E protein or E only. The infectivity and titers of JEV pseudotyped viruses were examined in several cell lines. We also analyzed the neutralizing capacities with anti-JEV sera from JEV-immunized mice. Even though prM is crucial for multiple stages of JEV biology, the JEV-pseudotyped viruses produced with prM/E or with E only showed similar infectivity and titers in several cell lines and similar neutralizing sensitivity. These results showed that JEV-MuLV pseudotyped viruses did not require prM for production of infectious pseudotyped viruses.

  3. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  4. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert YL Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged in the subcellular localization of viral particles in Golgi. More importantly, accumulation of intracellular virions was observed in the KDELR knocked down cells, indicating that the KDELR protein mediated the intracellular trafficking of JE viral particles. Altogether, we demonstrated that intracellular trafficking of JE assembled viral particles was mediated by the host ER-Golgi retrieval system prior to exit by the secretory pathway.

  5. Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures: Pathological findings and a new therapeutic approach using tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Iwasaki, Masaki; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is characterized by prolonged severe seizures and a high-grade fever. We experienced a boy with severe AERRPS with frequent partial seizures that exhibited right-side predominance. The patient required the continuous intravenous administration of many antiepileptic drugs and respirator management for several months. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin administration were only temporarily effective. The MRI and EEG showed the abnormality in the left occipital lobe. Although occipital lobectomy was performed, his seizures continued. His cerebrospinal fluid exhibited elevated protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels, and was positive for anti-glutamate receptor ε2 antibodies. Pathological examination showed infiltration of many neutrophilic leukocytes, T cells, and microglia in the area exhibiting severe spongiosis. We thought that the exaggerated microglia and T-cell responses were related to the pathogenesis of the patient's seizures, and we therefore initiated treatment with tacrolimus. As a result, many of the daily seizure clusters were ameliorated, and the patient was discharged. We attempted to discontinue the tacrolimus twice, but the patient's seizure clusters recurred each time. This is the first case report of the pathological findings of AERRPS and showing an effective therapeutic approach using tacrolimus. Tacrolimus may be an effective immunosuppressant, especially for patients with severe AERRPS. PMID:26906012

  6. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is...

  7. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  8. Continued persistence of increased Subacute Sclerosing Pan Encephalitis cases in India, 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Choudhry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: Sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE is a neurological disorder caused due to persisting mutated measles virus. It involves loss of cerebral function, paralysis, dementia and deterioration of motor functions. There has been lack of reports on SSPE from India. Thus, the present study is an attempt to know the epidemiology of SSPE in measles patients from India. MATERIALS & METHODS: 360 serum-cerebrospinal fluid(CSF pairs received from patients clinically suspected of SSPE, were referred to National Centre for Disease Control(NCDC from Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and were tested for the presence of Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against measles, between January 2010 – April 2012. Demographic details were analysed using Microsoft Excel and Epi Info 7.0.9.34 software. RESULTS: Out of 360 serum-CSF pairs, 226 (i.e. 62.78% gave positive results for IgG antibody against measles. The sex ratio of female v/s male was 1: 2.73 (2010, 1: 3.77 (2011 and 1: 3.83 (2012. The age of onset of SSPE was between 0-12 years, comprising 65.48%. The next predominant age group was 13-24 years comprising of 31.41%, followed by the age group, 25-37 years. Majority of the positive samples were obtained from All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, Delhi (56/226-24.77% and the maximum cases as well as the maximum positives were obtained during October- January. CONCLUSION: The risk of acquiring SSPE is mainly in the age group of 0-12 years. A gap in the measles vaccine is evident from the data and needs to be filled up. We also need to look into the measles vaccine regimen of our country and see what best suits, in order to minimize the SSPE squeal.

  9. Pseudo-piano playing motions and nocturnal hypoventilation in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: response to prompt tumor removal and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akiko; Iizuka, Takahiro; Urano, Yoshiaki; Arai, Masahide; Hara, Atsuko; Hamada, Junichi; Hirose, Ryuichi; Dalmau, Josep; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Tumor resection is recommended in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, however it is often difficult during an early stage of the disease. We report here the efficacy of early tumor removal in a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This 21-year-old woman was admitted to another hospital with rapidly progressive psychiatric symptoms, a decreased level of consciousness, and seizures. Abdominal CT showed a pelvic mass. On day 1 of admission to our center, she developed hypoventilation requiring mechanical support. She had orofacial dyskinesias with well-coordinated, pseudo-piano playing involuntary finger movements. Based on these clinical features, she was immediately scheduled for tumor resection on day 3. While awaiting surgery, she began to receive high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. After tumor removal, she received plasma exchange, followed by intravenous immunoglobulin and additional high-dose methylprednisolone. Two weeks after tumor removal, she started following simple commands and progressive improvement, although she remained on mechanical ventilation for 10 weeks due to nocturnal central hypoventilation. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in serum/CSF were detected. Pathological examination showed immature teratoma with foci of infiltrates of B- and T-cells. Early tumor resection with immunotherapy facilitates recovery from this disease, but central hypoventilation may require long mechanical support. Non-jerky elaborate finger movements suggest antibody-mediated disinhibition of the cortico-striatal systems. PMID:21422691

  10. Association of Enterovirus 71 encephalitis with the interleukin-8 gene region in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lin, Aiwei; Yu, Chengwen; Zhang, Zhaofang; Xu, Daoyan; Hu, Wei; Liu, Liyan; Wang, Shaoning; Nie, Xiuzhen; Sun, Wenhui; Gai, Zhongtao; Chen, Zongbo

    2015-06-01

    The study was performed in 36 Chinese patients with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis and 141 patients with EV71-related hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) without encephalitis. Genotyping was determined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients with EV71 encephalitis had a significantly higher frequency of interleukin-8 (IL-8)-251TT genotype than patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (55.6% vs 31.2%, p = 0.023). The frequency of IL-8-251T alleles was significantly higher among patients with EV71 encephalitis than in patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (72.2% vs 58.9%, odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2, p = 0.038). There were significant differences in gender, age, fever days, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and blood glucose concentration and IL-8 levels among genotypes of IL-8-251A/T in EV71-infected patients, but no significant differences in alanine or aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase-myocardial isozyme and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with EV71 encephalitis. These findings suggest that the IL-8-251T allele is associated with susceptibility to EV71 encephalitis in Chinese patients. PMID:25751776

  11. Human pegivirus detected in a patient with severe encephalitis using a metagenomic pan-virus array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridholm, Helena; Østergaard Sørensen, Line; Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Nielsen, Henrik; Sellebjerg, Finn; Bengård Andersen, Åse; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-04-01

    We have used a metagenomic microarray to detect genomic RNA from human pegivirus in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from a patient suffering from severe encephalitis. No other pathogen was detected. HPgV in cerebrospinal fluid during encephalitis has never been reported before and its prevalence in cerebrospinal fluid needs further investigation. PMID:26872326

  12. Activity Patterns of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Free Ranging Birds during a Human Encephalitis Outbreak in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Luis Adrián; Quaglia, Agustín Ignacio; Konigheim, Brenda Salomé; Boris, Analia Silvana; Aguilar, Juan Javier; Komar, Nicholas; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2016-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (Flavivirus) is a reemerging arbovirus in the southern cone of South America. In 2005, an outbreak of SLEV in central Argentina resulted in 47 human cases with 9 deaths. In Argentina, the ecology of SLEV is poorly understood. Because certain birds are the primary amplifiers in North America, we hypothesized that birds amplify SLEV in Argentina as well. We compared avian SLEV seroprevalence in a variety of ecosystems in and around Córdoba city from 2004 (before the epidemic) and 2005 (during the epidemic). We also explored spatial patterns to better understand the local ecology of SLEV transmission. Because West Nile virus (WNV) was also detected in Argentina in 2005, all analyses were also conducted for WNV. A total of 980 birds were sampled for detection of SLEV and WNV neutralizing antibodies. SLEV seroprevalence in birds increased 11-fold from 2004 to 2005. Our study demonstrated that a high proportion (99.3%) of local birds were susceptible to SLEV infection immediately prior to the 2005 outbreak, indicating that the vertebrate host population was primed to amplify SLEV. SLEV was found distributed in a variety of environments throughout the city of Córdoba. However, the force of viral transmission varied among sites. Fine scale differences in populations of vectors and vertebrate hosts would explain this variation. In summary, we showed that in 2005, both SLEV and to a lesser extent WNV circulated in the avian population. Eared Dove, Picui Ground-Dove and Great Kiskadee are strong candidates to amplify SLEV because of their exposure to the pathogen at the population level, and their widespread abundance. For the same reasons, Rufous Hornero may be an important maintenance host for WNV in central Argentina. Competence studies and vector feeding studies are needed to confirm these relationships. PMID:27564679

  13. Clinical and prognostic features among children with acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal; a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES is commonly seen among hospitalized Nepali children. Japanese Encephalitis (JE accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases. Although poor prognostic features for JE have been identified, and guide management, relatively little is reported on the remaining three-quarters of AES cases. Methods Children with AES (n = 225 were identified through admission records from two hospitals in Kathmandu between 2006 and 2008. Patients without available lumbar puncture results (n = 40 or with bacterial or plasmodium infection (n = 40 were analysed separately. The remaining AES patients with suspected viral aetiology were classified, based on positive IgM antibody in serum or cerebral spinal fluid, as JE (n = 42 or AES of unknown viral aetiology (n = 103; this latter group was sub-classified into Non-JE (n = 44 or JE status unknown (n = 59. Bad outcome was defined as death or neurological sequelae at discharge. Results AES patients of suspected viral aetiology more frequently had a bad outcome than those with bacterial or plasmodium infection (31% versus 13%; P = 0.039. JE patients more frequently had a bad outcome than those with AES of unknown viral aetiology (48% versus 24%; P = 0.01. Bad outcome was independently associated in both JE and suspected viral aetiology groups with a longer duration of fever pre-admission (P = 0.007; P = 0.002 respectively and greater impairment of consciousness (P = 0.02; P Conclusions Nepali children with AES of suspected viral aetiology or with JE frequently suffered a bad outcome. Despite no specific treatment, patients who experienced a shorter duration of fever before hospital admission more frequently recovered completely. Prompt referral may allow AES patients to receive potentially life-saving supportive management. Previous studies have indicated supportive management, such as fluid provision, is associated with better outcome in JE. The lower weight and higher

  14. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  15. Unusual progression of herpes simplex encephalitis with basal ganglia and extensive white matter involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Manabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year old male with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE showing unusual progression and magnetic resonance (MR findings. The initial neurological manifestation of intractable focal seizure with low-grade fever persisted for three days, and rapidly coma, myoclonic status, and respiratory failure with high-grade fever emerged thereafter. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for HSV-1 DNA. In the early stage, MR images (MRI were normal. On subsequent MR diffusion-weighted (DW and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images, high-intensity areas first appeared in the left frontal cortex, which was purely extra-temporal involvement, and extended into the basal ganglia, then the white matter, which are relatively spared in HSE. Antiviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy did not suppress the progression of HSE, and finally severe cerebral edema developed into cerebral herniation, which required emergency decompressive craniectomy. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the white matter detected perivascular infiltration and destruction of basic structure, which confirmed non specific inflammatory change without obvious edema or demyelination. The present case shows both MR and pathological findings in the white matter in the acute stage of HSE.

  16. Voltage gated potassium channel antibodies positive autoimmune encephalopathy in a child: A case report and literature review of an under-recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE associated with voltage gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-Abs in children is more common than previously thought and is not always paraneoplastic. Non-neoplastic, autoimmune LE associated with VGKC-Abs has been described recently. However, only few case reports in children as the disease is predominantly described in the adult population. It is likely that this type of autoimmune encephalitis is currently under-diagnosed and hence, under-treated, especially in children. We present a 13-year-old previously fit and healthy African girl diagnosed with LE and we reviewed the literature for its current management.

  17. Preparation and Comparison of Three Different Adjuvant Inactivated Vaccines of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Swine%猪乙型脑炎病毒3种灭活疫苗的制备及免疫效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔进平; 赵明秋; 张学涛; 李银光; 李姗姗; 刘薇; 陈金顶

    2011-01-01

    The oil-emulsion,propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines of Japanese encephalitis virus GZ0409-31 strain from swine were prepared and compared by sterility and safety test. Mice immunized with these inactivated vaccines displayed effective immune protection that testifies their safety. The groups of mice immunized with the oil-emulsion and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines had higher antibody titer until 90 days post inoculation whereas the group of mice immunized with attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine had lower antibody titer. In addition the level of IFN-γwas higher in the group of mice immunized with attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine than those groups with inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines. The group of mice immunized with 603 nanometer inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines expressed higher level of IFN-γthan those other inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Mouse immunized with the oil-emulsion ,propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines could be protected from the infection of GZ0409-31 Japanese encephalitis virus with 100% protection rate in case of oil-emulsion and 603 nanometer inactivated vaccines immunized groups but remained 70% in propolis inactivated vaccines immunized groups. The attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine also provided 100% (10/10) protection rate. The oil propolis and 603 nanometer inactivated GZ0409-31 Japanese encephalitis vaccines were prepared and found to be safe and effective.%以GZ0409-31株乙脑强毒株作为抗原与白油佐剂、蜂胶佐剂、603纳米佐剂制备灭活疫苗,并对疫苗做了无菌检验和安全检验,灭活疫苗接种小鼠后均未出现不良反应,安全性良好.将制备的乙脑灭活疫苗免疫小鼠,并且与市售乙脑弱毒活苗作对比.结果显示,白油佐剂灭活苗组和603纳米佐剂灭活苗组在第90d抗体效价还维持在较高的水平,同期的弱毒活苗组抗体较低;弱毒活苗组IFN-γ含量较灭活苗

  18. Inflammatory monocytes and the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Rachael L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monocytes are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to sites of infection and inflammation in many models of human diseases, including those of the central nervous system (CNS. Ly6Chi/CCR2hi inflammatory monocytes have been identified as the circulating precursors of brain macrophages, dendritic cells and arguably microglia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Alzheimer’s disease; stroke; and more recently in CNS infection caused by Herpes simplex virus, murine hepatitis virus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. The precise differentiation pathways and functions of inflammatory monocyte-derived populations in the inflamed CNS remains a contentious issue, especially in regard to the existence of monocyte-derived microglia. Furthermore, the contributions of monocyte-derived subsets to viral clearance and immunopathology are not well-defined. Thus, understanding the pathways through which inflammatory monocytes migrate to the brain and their functional capacity within the CNS is critical to inform future therapeutic strategies. This review discusses some of the key aspects of inflammatory monocyte trafficking to the brain and addresses the role of these cells in viral encephalitis.

  19. DETECTION OF A NEUTROPHIL CHEMOTACTIC FACTOR IN JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS PATIENTS

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    Aditi Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE one of the most common cause of acute encephalitis in tropical regions, has generated much public anxiety in India. An early influx of macrophages followed by neutrophils at the site of injury in different organs in humans and mice has previously been reported. It correlated with production of a neutrophil chemotactic protein derived from macrophages. In the present study out of a total of 324 acute encephalitic patients, admitted in Gandhi memorial and associated hospitals, Lucknow, 121 patients with one or more indicators of JE virus infection were included. Significant pleocytosis (mean TLC value of 126+52 cells / mm3 in CSF and leucocytosis (>11,000 cells/mm3 in peripheral blood was observed at the time of admission. The leucocytosis increased significantly during second week in 67% of patients. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture done on alternate days was tested for chemotactic activity (hMDF, which was observed to be highest in second week of illness. The direct detection of hMDF in circulation by dot blot was positive in 92% of acute serum samples, with negligible (12.5% reactivity for convalescent sera. A correlation between the hMDF levels and severity of illness has also been observed.

  20. Toltrazuril does not show an effect against pigeon protozoal encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, P; Gruber, A D; Lierz, M

    2015-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi causes a severe neurologic disease in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) named pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Recently, the parasite has also been reported in psittacines causing a virtually identical disease with fatal outcome. So far, an etiological treatment of S. calchasi infections in pigeons or psittacines is unknown. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the anticoccidian drug toltrazuril against S. calchasi and the influence of the timepoint of treatment. Therefore, nine domestic pigeons were inoculated with 400 S. calchasi sporocysts and treated with toltrazuril (25 mg/kg) in groups of three pigeons each at dpi 10/11 and dpi 40/41 and on two consecutive days at the onset of neurologic signs. After euthanasia at dpi 73, tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscles were examined by histology and S. calchasi-specific real-time PCR. All pigeons independent of the group developed neurologic signs from dpi 49 onwards. Histology identified sarcocysts in the skeletal muscles and a granulomatous encephalitis in the brains. The relative amount of S. calchasi DNA was on a comparable level in all pigeons. Consequently, toltrazuril was demonstrated to be not effective against S. calchasi with the applied treatment regime. Longer treatment periods or agents other the toltrazuril may be considered for further investigations. So far, preventive measures like roofing of aviaries for prevention of infection and regular disinfection remain the most important factor in the control of S. calchasi infections. PMID:25648444

  1. Cytokine Immunopathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS. Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema.

  2. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, K.; Sakazaki, Hiromi; Murakami, Seiko; Yonezawa, Sumiko [Department of Paediatrics, Izumi Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiji [Dept. of Radiology, Izumi Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Seto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Katsuji; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu [Dept. of Paediatrics, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Ryosuke [Children`s Medical Centre, Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. Neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 16 refs.

  3. Diagnosis of Swine Encephalitis%猪乙型脑炎病的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀春; 刁富花

    2012-01-01

    猪乙型脑炎又称流行性乙型脑炎、日本脑炎,是由流行性乙型脑炎病毒引起的一种急性、人畜共患的自然疫源性传染病.作者对某养殖户的病死猪进行临床症状观察,病理剖检及实验室诊断,通过病毒分离及鉴定,确诊病死猪为乙型脑炎病毒感染.鉴于养殖户中该病的存在及对养猪业的危害,建议加强对猪乙型脑炎病的诊断及监控.%Swine encephalitis also known as epidemic encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis,caused by an epidemic of acute viral encephalitis,the natural foci of zoonotic diseases. The paper introduced a pig farm. The clinical symptoms and pathological lesions and laboratory diagnosis were observed, and swine encephalitis was detected by virus isolation culture and RT-PCR, the final diagnosis result was swine encephalitis. Because the existence of the disease and the harm fulness to the pig industry, the diagnosis and monitoring of swine encephalitis should be strengthening.

  4. Inhibitory axons are targeted in hippocampal cell culture by anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Rogemond

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2, also known as CNTNAP2, is a cell adhesion molecule that clusters voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv1.1/1.2 at the juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons and may regulate axonal excitability. As a component of the Kv1 complex, Caspr2 has been identified as a target in neuromyotonia and Morvan syndrome, but also in some cases of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. How anti-Caspr2 autoimmunity is linked with the central neurological symptoms is still elusive. In the present study, using anti-Caspr2 antibodies from seven patients affected by pure limbic encephalitis, we determined that IgGs in the cerebrospinal fluid of four out seven patients were selectively directed against the N-terminal Discoïdin and LamininG1 modules of Caspr2. Using live immunolabeling of cultured hippocampal neurons, we determined that serum IgGs in all patients strongly targeted inhibitory interneurons. Caspr2 was highly detected on GAD65-positive axons that are surrounding the cell bodies and at the VGAT-positive inhibitory presynaptic contacts. Functional assays indicated that LE autoantibodies may induce alteration of Gephyrin clusters at inhibitory synaptic contacts. Next, we generated a Caspr2-Fc chimera to reveal Caspr2 receptors on hippocampal neurons localized at the somato-dendritic compartment and post-synapse. Caspr2-Fc binding was strongly increased on TAG-1-transfected neurons and conversely, Caspr2-Fc did not bind hippocampal neurons from TAG-1-deficient mice. Our data indicate that Caspr2 may participate as a cell recognition molecule in the dynamics of inhibitory networks. This study provides new insight into the potential pathogenic effect of anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies in central hyperexcitability that may be related with perturbation of inhibitory interneuron activity.

  5. Infection of human endothelial cells by Japanese encephalitis virus: increased expression and release of soluble HLA-E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetank

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a single stranded RNA virus that infects the central nervous system leading to acute encephalitis in children. Alterations in brain endothelial cells have been shown to precede the entry of this flavivirus into the brain, but infection of endothelial cells by JEV and their consequences are still unclear. Productive JEV infection was established in human endothelial cells leading to IFN-β and TNF-α production. The MHC genes for HLA-A, -B, -C and HLA-E antigens were upregulated in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, the endothelial-like cell line, ECV 304 and human foreskin fibroblasts upon JEV infection. We also report the release/shedding of soluble HLA-E (sHLA-E from JEV infected human endothelial cells for the first time. This shedding of sHLA-E was blocked by an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP. In addition, MMP-9, a known mediator of HLA solubilisation was upregulated by JEV. In contrast, human fibroblasts showed only upregulation of cell-surface HLA-E. Addition of UV inactivated JEV-infected cell culture supernatants stimulated shedding of sHLA-E from uninfected ECV cells indicating a role for soluble factors/cytokines in the shedding process. Antibody mediated neutralization of TNF-α as well as IFNAR receptor together not only resulted in inhibition of sHLA-E shedding from uninfected cells, it also inhibited HLA-E and MMP-9 gene expression in JEV-infected cells. Shedding of sHLA-E was also observed with purified TNF-α and IFN-β as well as the dsRNA analog, poly (I:C. Both IFN-β and TNF-α further potentiated the shedding when added together. The role of soluble MHC antigens in JEV infection is hitherto unknown and therefore needs further investigation.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies having single specificity for a given antigen site (epitope). The development of hybridoma technology and the relative ease by which MAbs can be prepared has revolutionized many aspects of serological applications in diagnosis and differentiation of disease producing agents. The property of monospecificity offers advantages in diagnostic applications over polyclonal sera in that tests can be defined exactly with regard to the antigen detected and the affinity of reaction between the given antigenic site and the monoclonal reagent. In addition, MAbs offer better possibilities for test standardization, because the same reagent can be used in different laboratories. Such an MAb can be supplied by a central laboratory or 'grown' from hybridoma cells, ensuring that the resultant product is identical from laboratory to laboratory and that the part of the test involving the MAb reaction is the same. The methodologies for inoculation regimes, mice, cloning methods, selection of fusion partners, etc., have been validated extensively in developed country laboratories. The decision to establish a MAb production facility must be examined on a strict cost-benefit basis, since it is still expensive to produce a product. There are many MAbs available that should be sought to allow exploitation in developing tests. If a production facility is envisaged, it should produce reagents for national needs, i.e. there should be a clear problem oriented approach whereby exact needs are defined. In the field of veterinary applications, MAbs are the central reagent in many immunoassays based on the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The development of specific tests for diagnosing diseases is dominated by MAbs and has been fuelled by a strong research base, mainly in developed countries allied to developing countries through the study of related diseases. Thus, there are very many assays dependent on MAbs, some of which form the basis of

  7. Japanese Encephalitis in Guizhou Province, 1971-2010%1971-2010年贵州省流行性乙型脑炎流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮莉萍; 张丽; 刘铭; 蒋凤; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    or unknown immunization history accounted for 89. 7% , 80. 0% , 81. 7% and 72. 3% in all of the target children cases in each year from 2007 to 2010. Conclusion It was showed that the control of Japanese encephalitis in 2004 -2010 in Guizhou province was effective. Vaccination had not change the disease's seasonal variation and distribution of age. Monitoring on Japanese encephalitis should be strengthed to improve the timely coverage rate of the routine immunization as well as the immunization quality and the supplementary immunization could be enhanced to improve the coverage rate of Japanese encephalitis vaccination among children and their antibody level.

  8. MRI findings in a remitting-relapsing case of Bickerstaff encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of remitting-relapsing Bickerstaff encephalitis is reported. The article focuses on its imaging findings and their significance when a clinical differentiation between Bickerstaff encephalitis and Miller-Fisher syndrome is attempted. Signs and symptoms may occasionally overlap. However, because Miller-Fisher syndrome is related to the peripheral nervous system and Bickerstaff encephalitis is a central disease, the recognition of brain stem hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images, which are hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, could be a reliable tool when the clinical diagnosis is unclear. (orig.)

  9. A case report on paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with astrocytoma - An unknown entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeshwari S Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalitis is a multifocal inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS that is associated with remote neoplasias. The most common malignancy associated with it is bronchial carcinoma, typically small cell carcinoma of lung. It has never been described in association with intracranial neoplasm. We present and discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of paraneoplastic encephalitis with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs in a 55-year-old man. He was thoroughly investigated and biopsy revealed presence of astrocytoma with changes of paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  10. The three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus induce encephalitis in a natural host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonteri, Elina; Kipar, Anja; Voutilainen, Liina; Vene, Sirkka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Lundkvist, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infects bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in nature, but the relevance of rodents for TBEV transmission and maintenance is unclear. We infected colonized bank voles subcutaneously to study and compare the infection kinetics, acute infection, and potential viral persistence of the three known TBEV subtypes: European (TBEV-Eur), Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE). All strains representing the three subtypes were infective and highly neurotropic. They induced (meningo)encephalitis in some of the animals, however most of the cases did not present with apparent clinical symptoms. TBEV-RNA was cleared significantly slower from the brain as compared to other organs studied. Supporting our earlier findings in natural rodent populations, TBEV-RNA could be detected in the brain for up to 168 days post infection, but we could not demonstrate infectivity by cell culture isolation. Throughout all time points post infection, RNA of the TBEV-FE was detected significantly more often than RNA of the other two strains in all organs studied. TBEV-FE also induced prolonged viremia, indicating distinctive kinetics in rodents in comparison to the other two subtypes. This study shows that bank voles can develop a neuroinvasive TBEV infection with persistence of viral RNA in brain, and mount an anti-TBEV IgG response. The findings also provide further evidence that bank voles can serve as sentinels for TBEV endemicity. PMID:24349041

  11. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis as a cause of new onset of seizures in a patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voutsas Vasileios

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The etiology of seizure disorders in lung cancer patients is broad and includes some rather rare causes of seizures which can sometimes be overlooked by physicians. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rather rare cause of seizures in lung cancer patients and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of seizure disorders in this population. Case presentation This case report describes the new onset of seizures in a 64-year-old male patient receiving chemotherapy for a diagnosed stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma. After three cycles of therapy, he was re-evaluated with a chest computed tomography which showed a 50% reduction in the tumor mass and in the size of the hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Twenty days after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy, the patient was admitted to a neurological clinic because of the onset of self-limiting complex partial seizures, with motionless stare and facial twitching, but with no signs of secondary generalization. The patient had also recently developed neurological symptoms of short-term memory loss and temporary confusion, and behavioral changes. Laboratory evaluation included brain magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain, serum examination for 'anti-Hu' antibodies and stereotactic brain biopsy. Based on the clinical picture, the patient's history of lung cancer, the brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and the results of the brain biopsy, we concluded that our patient had a 'definite' diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and he was subsequently treated with a combination of chemotherapy and oral steroids, resulting in stabilization of his neurological status. Despite the neurological stabilization, a chest computed tomography which was performed after the 6th cycle showed relapse of the disease in the chest. Conclusion Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rather rare cause of new onset of seizures in patients with

  12. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  13. 抗N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体脑炎患者临床特点分析%Clinical analysis in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 陈向军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis and the significance of anti-NMDAR antibody assay in clinical diagnosis.Methods Sixty-two patients were divided into 3 groups of encephalitis,encephalopathy and other central nervous system diseases based on their affliction. Anti-NMDAR antibody was detected by transfected cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The clinical features,laboratory tests,treatment and prognosis of NMDAR encephalitis were analyzed.Results Anti-NMDAR antibody was positive in serum and (or) cerebrospinal fluid of 9 patients (9/32,28% ) from encephalitis group.The positive rate of anti-NMDAR antibody in cerebrospinal fluid was higher than that in serum of these patients.Among them,5 patients with higher antibody titer had impaired blood-brain barrier.No tumor was detected in these 9 patients.The most predominant symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis include fever,psychiatric disturbances,seizures,dystonia and autonomic dysfunction.Brain MRI and electroencephalography were also abnormal. Patients were responsive to early immunotherapy. Conclusion Detection of the anti-NMDAR antibody may be important for early diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis.%目的 探讨抗N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体(N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor,NMDAR)脑炎的临床特征与抗NMDAR抗体在诊断该病中的意义.方法 选择62例各种病因的脑炎、脑病及其他中枢神经系统疾病患者,采用转染细胞间接免疫荧光法检测其血清及脑脊液抗NMDAR抗体,同时对该病的临床表现、实验室检查、治疗及预后进行分析.结果 28%(9/32)的临床诊断脑炎病例组患者血清或脑脊液抗NMDAR抗体为阳性.脑脊液抗体的阳性率高于血清,其中5例抗体滴度较高的患者伴有血脑屏障破坏.这些患者均未发现肿瘤,临床上以发热、精神异常、癫痫、肌张力障碍与自主

  14. Monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The ability to produce and exploit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized many areas of biological sciences. The unique property of an mAb is that it is a single species of immunoglobulin (IG) molecule. This means that the specificity of the interaction of the paratopes on the IG, with the epitopes on an antigenic target, is the same on every molecule. This property can be used to great benefit in immunoassays to provide tests of defined specificity and sensitivity, which improve the possibilities of standardization. The performance of assays can often be determined relating the actual weight of antibody (hence the number of molecules) to the activity. Often the production of an mAb against a specific epitope is the only way that biological entities can be differentiated. This chapter outlines the areas involving the development of assays based on mAbs. The problems involved address include the physical aspects of mAbs and how they may affect assay design and also the implications of results based on monospecific reagents. Often these are not fully understood, leading to assays that are less than satisfactory, which does not justify the relatively high cost of preparing and screening of mAbs. There are many textbooks and reviews dealing with the preparation of mAbs, the principles involved, and various purification and manipulative methods for the preparation of fragments and conjugation. There has been little general information attempting to summarize the best approaches to assay design using mAbs. Much time can be wasted through bad planning, and this is particularly relevant to mAbs. A proper understanding of some basic principles is essential. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss all aspects, but major areas are highlighted. PMID:19219589

  15. Clinical profile and outcome of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES patients treated in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhjung J Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute encephalitis syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was thought to be a major cause for acute encephalitis syndrome, more non-Japanese encephalitis virus cases are reported. The outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome is variable. Our study was designed to study the clinical profile and outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome managed in tertiary care center in central Nepal. Methods: The record of patients admitted with diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome,from January 2010 to December 2010 in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH was reviewed. They were classified clinically as meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. The clinical details and reports of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Total of 85 cases of meningitis and encephalitis were identified. Mean age was 19.18 years. Fifty-six (65.9% patients were males and 29 (34.1% were females. Sixty (70.58% patients had meningitis, 8 (9.41% had encephalitis, and 17 (20.0% had meningoencephalitis. JE serology was positive in 4 patients (4.7%. Seventy-two (84.7% patients made full recovery and were discharged from hospital. Thirteen (15.3% patients left against medical advice (LAMA. Conclusion: Acute encephalitis syndrome is still a major public health problem in Nepal. Few of these patients have Japanese Encephalitis. There is a trend towards improved outcome because of availability of improved health services. However, financial constraint remains a challenge in management of acute encephalitis syndrome. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 31-37 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9685

  16. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  17. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  18. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  19. Mimicry of a 21.5 kDa myelin basic protein peptide by a Maedi Visna virus polymerase peptide does not contribute to the pathogenesis of encephalitis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Watt, N J; Torsteinsdottir, S; Carnegie, P R

    1996-12-01

    Epitope mimicry is the theory that an infectious agent such as a virus causes pathological effects via mimicry of host proteins and thus elicits a cross-reactive immune response to host tissues. Weise and Carnegie (1988) found a region of sequence similarity between the pol gene of the Maedi Visna virus (MVV), which induces demyelinating encephalitis in sheep, and myelin basic protein (MBP), which is known to induce experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) in laboratory animals. In this study, cross-reactions between sera raised in sheep against synthetic peptides of MVV (TGKIPWILLPGR) and 21.5 kDa MBP (SGKVPWLKPGR) were demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) immunoprobing. The antibody responses of MVV-infected sheep were investigated using ELISA against the peptides, and MBP protein, immunoprobing of the peptides on TLC plates and Western blotting against MBP. Slight significant reactions to the 21.5 kDa MBP peptide (P plates. On the Western blots, eight of the 23 sheep with Visna had serum reactivity to MBP. This slight reaction to MBP in MVV-infected sheep is of interest because of the immune responses to MBP evident in multiple sclerosis and EAE, but its relevance in Visna is limited since no correlation with disease severity was observed. The cell-mediated immune responses of MVV-infected sheep against similar peptides was assessed. The peptides did not stimulate proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes of MVV-infected sheep. Since the MVV peptide was not recognised by antibodies or T lymphocytes from MVV-infected and encephalic sheep, it was concluded that epitope mimicry of this 21.5 kDa MBP peptide by the similar MVV pol peptide was not contributing to the immunopathogensis of Visna. The slight antibody response to MBP and the MBP peptide can be attributed to by-stander effects of the immunopathology of MVV-induced encephalitis. PMID:9014312

  20. Purification of the envelope glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus by glass wool column chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Simizu, B

    1980-01-01

    Glass wool column chromatography was used for separation of the two glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus. Cross-contamination of each protein separated was confirmed to be negligible by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  1. Principle of Laboratory Diagnosis and Epidemiological Surveillance on Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Akira

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory diagnoses on viral infection are indispensable in order to obtain precise information on the disease agents, including dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Such information is indispensable for proper clinical case management, epidemiology, and strategy to control viral diseases.

  2. Prognosis of Japanese encephalitis patients with dystonia compared to those with parkinsonian features only

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, U; J Kalita

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A number of movement disorders have been reported in Japanese encephalitis (JE). The prognostic significance of these movement disorders, however, has not been evaluated. The present study reports the prognostic significance of parkinsonian features and dystonia in JE.

  3. Encephalitis in a child with H1N1 infection: First case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications have been described with seasonal influenza infection. We report encephalitis manifesting as seizures in a child with confirmed H1N1 infection. Treatment with oseltamivir was started. Child was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  4. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  5. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  6. Absence of seizures in Rasmussen encephalitis with active inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Debopam; Gokden, Murat; Albert, Gregory W

    2016-06-01

    Severe focal motor epilepsy is considered a clinical hallmark of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). The authors report a 6-year-old girl with progressive right sided hemiparesis, loss of language skills, left sided hemispheric atrophy, and brain pathologic features characteristic for RE. The patient did not experience seizures over a 2year period after symptom onset and for several months during follow-up. This report expands the clinical spectrum of RE and suggests that seizures are not a universal symptom of RE. Our patient's quite remarkable neurologic deficits along with active inflammation in the absence of epilepsy supports that, at least in some individuals, unilateral hemispheric progressive inflammation can occur without active seizure activity. PMID:26775150

  7. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shristi Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV. JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future.

  8. Encephalitis herpes simplex: aural rehabilitation following bilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J J; Melley, C C; Karam, D B

    1983-10-01

    Aural rehabilitation is a critical and often neglected aspect of a hearing-impaired patient's total rehabilitation. This case description illustrates the need for implementation of aural rehabilitation services. A 59-year-old woman exhibited bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss following the onset of encephalitis herpes simplex. Auditory amplification attempts were unsuccessful. Aural rehabilitation was initiated immediately, and she was seen for lipreading and vibrotactile stimulation training. Goals progressed from identification of single words within a category to phonemic recognition. Vibrotactile stimulation was used to facilitate environmental awareness. Therapy goals reflected the patient's increased motivation to communicate within her environment. This patient's communicative status is viewed on a continuum: from success in individual treatment goals, extending to successful communication within the structure of the entire rehabilitation setting, and finally to functional communication within her home environment. PMID:6625883

  9. Establishment of the 3rd national standard for lot release testing of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmi; Moon, Hyungsil; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Do Keun; Chung, Hye Joo; Park, Yong Keun; Oh, Ho Jung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, 2 inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines from Nakayama-NIH and Beijing-1 strain have been utilized to date. The 1(st) national standard for lot release testing of the JE vaccine was established in 2002. The 2(nd) national standard, established in 2007, is currently in use for JE vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) potency testing. However, the supply of this standard is expected to be exhausted by 2015, necessitating the establishment of a new national standard with quality equivalent to that of the existing standard. Quality control tests were performed to verify that the new standard candidate material was equivalent to that of the 2(nd) national standard, proving its appropriateness for potency testing of JE vaccine. In addition, based on the results of a collaborative study conducted among 4 institutions including Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the potency of the new national standard material was determined to be 2.69 neutralizing-antibody titer (log10) per vial. Therefore, the newly established national standard material is expected to be used for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine lot release in Korea. PMID:26890572

  10. Comparison of immune responses of brown-headed cowbird and related blackbirds to West Nile and other mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies to delineate competent avian hosts critical for viral amplification. We compared the host competence of four taxonomically related blackbird species (Icteridae) after experimental infection with WNV and with two endemic, mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), and St, Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV). We predicted differences in disease resistance among the blackbird species based on differences in life history, because they differ in geographic range and life history traits that include mating and breeding systems. Differences were observed among the response of these hosts to all three viruses, Red-winged Blackbirds were more susceptible to SLEV than Brewer's Blackbirds, whereas Brewer's Blackbirds were more susceptible to WEEV than Red-winged Blackbirds. In response to WNV infection, cowbirds showed the lowest mean viremias, cleared their infections faster, and showed lower antibody levels than concurrently infected species. Brown-headed Cowbirds also exhibited significantly lower viremia responses after infection with SLEV and WEEV as well as coinfection with WEEV and WNV than concurrently infected icterids. We concluded that cowbirds may be more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses because they experience heightened exposure to a variety of pathogens of parenting birds during the course of their parasitic life style.

  11. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalopathies and Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Thouin, Anaïs; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. The diseases are not invariably cancer-related and are therefore different from the classical paraneoplastic neurological diseases that are associated with, but not caused by, Abs to intracellular proteins. Most importantly, the new antibody-associated diseases almost invariably respond to immunotherapies with considerable and sometimes complete recovery, and there is convincing evidence of their pathogenicity in the relatively limited studies performed so far. Treatments include first-line steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasma exchange, and second-line rituximab and cyclophosphamide, followed in many cases by steroid-sparing agents in the long-term. This review focuses mainly on N-methyl D-aspartate receptor- and voltage-gated potassium channel complex-related Abs in adults, the clinical phenotypes, and treatment responses. Pediatric cases are referred to but not reviewed in detail. As there have been very few prospective studies, the conclusions regarding immunotherapies are based on retrospective studies. PMID:26692392

  12. Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Schuh

    Full Text Available The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is the most important etiologic agent of epidemic encephalitis worldwide, and is primarily maintained between vertebrate reservoir hosts (avian and swine and culicine mosquitoes. There are five genotypes of JEV: GI-V. In recent years, GI has displaced GIII as the dominant JEV genotype and GV has re-emerged after almost 60 years of undetected virus circulation. JEV is found throughout most of Asia, extending from maritime Siberia in the north to Australia in the south, and as far as Pakistan to the west and Saipan to the east. Transmission of JEV in temperate zones is epidemic with the majority of cases occurring in summer months, while transmission in tropical zones is endemic and occurs year-round at lower rates. To test the hypothesis that viruses circulating in these two geographical zones are genetically distinct, we applied Bayesian phylogeographic, categorical data analysis and phylogeny-trait association test techniques to the largest JEV dataset compiled to date, representing the envelope (E gene of 487 isolates collected from 12 countries over 75 years. We demonstrated that GIII and the recently emerged GI-b are temperate genotypes likely maintained year-round in northern latitudes, while GI-a and GII are tropical genotypes likely maintained primarily through mosquito-avian and mosquito-swine transmission cycles. This study represents a new paradigm directly linking viral molecular evolution and climate.

  13. Experimental Infection of Potential Reservoir Hosts with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Naomi L Forrester; Travassos Da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus...

  14. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Puri Raj K; Bhattacharya Bhaskar; Sharma Anuj; Maheshwari Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated...

  15. A case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis due to ovarian mature teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Heon Kim; hye Young Kim; Young Tak Im; Sang Ook Nam; Young Mi Kim

    2010-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, a remote effect of cancer without nervous system metastasis, is rare, especially in childhood. Here, we report a case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with an ovarian mature teratoma in an adolescent girl. The 15-year-old girl developed neuropsychiatric symptoms, memory loss, seizures, and unconsciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were normal, while single photon emission computed tomog...

  16. Infection and injury of human astrocytes by tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Bílý, Tomáš; Elsterová, Jana; Langhansová, Helena; Salát, J.; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, Pt 11 (2014), s. 2411-2426. ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * human Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.183, year: 2014

  17. Acquired heterotopic ossification in hips and knees following encephalitis: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianghong; Jie, Shuo; Liu, Tang; ZHANG, Xiangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a rare and potentially detrimental complication of soft-tissue trauma, amputations, central nervous system injury (traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord lesions, tumors, encephalitis), vasculopathies, arthroplasties and burn injury, characterized by lamellar bone growth in non-osseous tissues such as the muscle and the joint capsule. Heterotopic ossification associated with encephalitis is rare and the occurrence of excessive, symptomatic heterotopi...

  18. First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; Bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal

    2016-08-18

    In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after treatment with Japanese B encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-Yoken and Beijing strains).

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtaki, E; Matsuishi, T; Hirano, Y; Maekawa, K

    1995-01-01

    Seven children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after treatment with Japanese B encephalitis vaccine (JBEV) (Nakayama-Yoken strain 1968-88 and Beijing strain 1989-93) were identified by mailed questionnaires and by compilation of previously published case reports. It was considered that encephalomyelitis might have been related to vaccine treatment as the vaccine is derived from mouse brain tissue infected with Japanese B encephalitis virus, a potentially cross reactive antige...

  20. Investigation of Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission in Hanam, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, A.; Whitehead, S.; Anders, K. L.; Hoa, L. N. M.; Mai, L. Q.; Thai, P. Q.; Yen, N. T.; Duong, T. N.; Thoang, D. D.; Farrar, J.; Wertheim, H; Simmons, C.; Hien, N. T.; Horby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a large dengue epidemic that struck Hanoi in 2009 also affected a nearby semirural area. Seroconversion (dengue virus-reactive immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was high during 2009 compared with 2008, but neutralization assays showed that it was caused by both dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infections. The findings highlight the importance of continued Japanese encephalitis virus vaccination and dengue surveillance.

  1. Japanese encephalitis--an important cause of acute childhood encephalopathy in Lucknow, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Mathur, A.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Sharma, S.; Saksena, P. N.; Chaturvedi, U. C.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-six randomly selected children between 6 months and 12 years of age admitted with acute unexplained encephalopathy over a one year period were examined for evidence of Japanese encephalitis. One or more indicators of the infection were present in 36 (41.8%). Viral isolation from brain tissue was possible in 2 of 12 patients and from cerebrospinal fluid in 19 out of 62 patients. Serological evidence of probable Japanese encephalitis was found in 21 out of 36 patients. Japanese encephali...

  2. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R; Pant, Ganesh R; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. PMID:26956778

  3. First documented case of imported tick-borne encephalitis in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaunhuri, A.; Růžek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2013), s. 93-96. ISSN 0918-2918 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * viral encephalitis * travel medicine * flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.967, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imj.12017/pdf

  4. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an important differential diagnosis in psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Helen

    2012-02-01

    We present four cases of confirmed anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis; three presented initially with serious psychiatric symptoms and the other developed significant psychiatric symptoms during the initial phase of illness. Brain biopsy findings of one patient are also described. Psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in patients presenting with psychosis and additional features of dyskinesias, seizures and catatonia, particularly where there is no previous history of psychiatric disorder.

  5. Susceptibility of the Aotus nancymaae owl monkey to eastern equine encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Benjamin J.; Weaver, Scott C.; Paessler, Slobodan; Brining, Douglas; Salazar, Milagros; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arthropod-borne virus associated with life-threatening encephalitis in humans, equines, birds and many other domestic animals. To investigate the suitability of the Aotus nancymaae New World owl monkey as a viable animal model for EEE candidate vaccine testing we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation and PCR to evaluate pathogenesis and immunity in infected animals. Monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously (SQ) or intranasally (IN) ...

  6. Acute Transverse Myelitis (Ascending Myelitis) as the Initial Manifestation of Japanese Encephalitis: A Rare Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney Ankur Nandan; Kumar Nilesh; Behera Dibyaranjan; Tiwari Ashutosh; Anand Ravi; Anand Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis, an inflammatory brain disease prevalent in Southeast Asia, usually presented with fever, headache, convulsions, brain stem signs with pyramidal and extrapyramidal features, and altered sensorium. Acute transverse myelitis, as the initial manifestation of Japanese encephalitis, is an unusual manifestation and is seldom reported. We hereby report a case of 13-year-old adolescent boy who presented to us with fever and acute onset paraparesis with urinary retention initiall...

  7. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Sejvar, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of encephalitis among solid organ transplant recipients may be multifactorial; the disease can result from infectious or noninfectious etiologies. During 2002–2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated several encephalitis clusters among transplant recipients. Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, i...

  8. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    OpenAIRE

    Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain–body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal...

  9. Expression of particulate-form of Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein in a stably transfected Drosophila cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, a member of the family Flaviviridae, is an important mosquito-borne human pathogen. Its envelope glycoprotein (E is the major determinant of the pathogenicity and host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the feasibility of producing recombinant JEV E protein in the virus-free Drosophila expression system. Results The coding sequence for the signal sequence of premembrane and E protein was cloned into the Drosophila expression vector pAc5.1/V5-His. A Drosophila cell line S2 was cotransfected with this construct as well as a plasmid providing hygromycin B resistance. A cell line expressing the JEV E protein was selected by immunofluoresence, confocal microscopy, and western blot analysis using three different monoclonal antibodies directed against JEV E protein. This cell line was stable in the yield of JEV E protein during two months in vitro maintenance in the presence of hygromycin B. The results showed that the recombinant E protein had an expected molecular weight of about 50 kilodalton, was immunoreactive with all three monoclonal antibodies, and found in both the cytoplasm and culture supernatant. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation analysis revealed that the secreted E protein product was in a particulate form. It migrated to the sucrose fraction with a density of 1.13 g/ml. Balb/c mice immunised with the sucrose fraction containing the E protein particles developed specific antibodies. These data show that functioning JEV E protein was expressed in the stable S2 cell line. Conclusion The Drosophila expression system is a more convenient, cheaper and safer approach to the production of vaccine candidates and diagnostic reagents for JEV.

  10. Clinical, radiological and neurophysiological spectrum of JEV encephalitis and other non-specific encephalitis during post-monsoon period in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra U

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the spectrum of encephalitis during the post-monsoon period in a tertiary care centre of India. Methods: Clinical, neurophysiological and radiological features of patients with encephalitis are reported in this communication. The patients were subjected to clinical examination, CT or MRI scan, EEG, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in both upper and lower limbs bilaterally and concentric needle electromyography. The laboratory studies for Japanese encephalitis (JE comprised virus isolated, IgM capture ELISA, mercaptoethanol test and hemagglutination inhibition titre in paired sera against JE virus. Patients were classified into JEV encephalitis and non-specific encephalitis. On the basis of radiological features, they were classified into group I (thalamic or basal ganglia involvement, group II (brainstem involvement only and group III (normal MRI. The outcome was defined into poor (bedridden, partial (dependent for daily activities and complete (independent recovery at the end of 3 months. Results: Out of 26 patients (Age 7-70 years, mean 24.8 years, laboratory evidences of JEV infection was present in 14 patients and one patient had herpes simplex encephalitis. The patients with JEV encephalitis had more severe illness as evidenced by lower GCS score, higher frequency of anterior horn cell involvement, movement disorders and more extensive MRI changes. The EEG and MEP changes were also more frequently abnormal in the JEV group. On radiology, 15 patients had thalamic or basal ganglia involvement (group I, 3 isolated midbrain involvement (group II and 8 had normal MRI (group III. Laboratory evidence consistent with JE were present in 11 out of 12 patients in group I and 3 out of 8 in group III, however, there was no laboratory evidence of JE virus infection in patients with isolated brainstem involvement. There was overlap in the neurologic and systemic manifestations in all the 3 radiological groups as well as in the

  11. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with acute psychosis in a preteenage girl: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maggina Paraskevi; Mavrikou Mersini; Karagianni Stavroula; Skevaki Chrysanthi L; Triantafyllidou Antigoni; Voudris Constantinos; Katsarou Eustathia; Stamogiannou Lela; Mastroyianni Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare, newly defined autoimmune clinical entity that presents with atypical clinical manifestations. Most patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis develop a progressive illness from psychosis into a state of unresponsiveness, with catatonic features often associated with abnormal movements and autonomic instability. This is the first report of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephal...

  12. A case of pneumonitis and encephalitis associated with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection after bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, T; Okada, F; Ando, Y.; Honda, K.; Ogata, M; Goto, K.; Kadota, J; Mori, H

    2010-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-associated encephalitis or pneumonitis has been reported in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Several MRI studies in patients with HHV-6-associated encephalitis have been presented. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies describing thin-section CT imaging in patients with HHV-6-associated pneumonitis have been reported. Here we describe a case of HHV-6-associated encephalitis and pneumonitis that developed after bone marrow transplantatio...

  13. Herpes simplex encephalitis with onset of acute headache simulating subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oana, Katsumaro (Hachinohe Red Cross Hospital, Aomori (Japan)); Tomita, Yukio; Kubo, Naohiko; Kanaya, Haruyuki

    1983-12-01

    On examination in our clinic, he showed alert consciousness, with nuchal rigidity and left weakness. A lumbar puncture showed an opening pressure of 125 mm H/sub 2/O, xanthochromic in nature, and the cerebrospinal fluid contained 40 white cells per cubic millimeter, mostly lymphocytes, though the total protein and glucose contents were normal. Blood, general, and chemical examinations showed a normal white-cell count and increasing titers of GPT (420), GOT (203), and LDH (723). A computed-tomographic scan of the brain on the day of admission revealed bilateral frontal and right temporal abnormal low-density areas, greater on the right side, and contrast enhancement in the bilateral frontal and right paraventricular regions. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a marked hypervascularity in the bilateral frontal regions in the arterial phase. A diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was made on the basis of the clinical course and the angiographic and computed-tomographicscan findings. On the day of admission, the patient vomited once. On the third hospital day, he complained of a headache and became somnolent. After that, a mild fever continued for two weeks. On the eleventh hospital day, he occasionally vomited after a headache. On the fifteenth hospital day, a repeat spinal tap was performed with an opening pressure of 150 mm H/sub 2/O. The total white blood cell count was 25/cu mm. On the twenty-fourth hospital day, the headache and vomiting disappeared, and the fever also subsided. He was discharged about two months later with minimal mental abnormality.

  14. Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamic systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via email, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, an...

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  16. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology. PMID:27236550

  17. Early detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus spatial distribution and activity in the province of Trento, northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapaola Rizzoli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available New human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE have recently been recorded outside the recognised foci of this disease, i.e. in the province of Trento in northern Italy. In order to predict the highest risk areas for increased TBE virus activity, we have combined cross-sectional serological data, obtained from 459 domestic goats, with analysis of the autumnal cooling rate based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface temperature (LST data. A significant relationship between finding antibodies against the virus in serum (seroprevalence in goats and the autumnal cooling rate was detected, indicating that the transmission intensity of the virus does not only vary spatially, but also in relation to climatic factors. Virus seroprevalence in goats was correlated with the occurrence of TBE in humans and also with the average number of forestry workers’ tick bites, demonstrating that serological screening of domestic animals, combined with an analysis of the autumnal cooling rate, can be used as early-warning predictors of TBE risk in humans.

  18. Two paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes: limbic encephalitis and palmar fasciitis in a patient with small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lazarev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is characterized by a relatively high rate of autoimmune phenomena. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE is an autoimmune syndrome in which a non-neural tumor containing an antigen normally present in the nervous system precipitates an antibody attack on neural tissues. Patients with PLE usually present with rapidly progressive short-term memory deficits, confusion or even dementia. Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS is another autoimmune syndrome characterized by rheumatologic manifestations, especially involving the palms of the hands. We report a case of a 59-year old woman who presented with worsening neurological symptoms of two-week duration, and later coma. The combined clinical, serological, and imaging studies suggested a diagnosis of PLE. A chest computed tomographic scan showed a 1.2 cm-diameter mass in the upper lobe of the left lung that was surgically removed and showed SCLC. Following surgery, neurological symptoms rapidly improved, allowing the patient to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. While in remission for both SCLC and PLE, the patient developed pain, soft-tissue swelling, and stiffness in both palms, suggesting the diagnosis of PFPAS. Five months following the diagnosis of palmar fasciitis, SCLC relapsed with mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. This case report underlines the continuous interaction of SCLC with the immune system, expressed by coexistence of two rare paraneoplastic diseases, PLE, and PFPAS, in a patient with SCLC. While symptoms related to PLE preceded the initial diagnosis of SCLC, other symptoms related to PFPAS preceded relapse.

  19. DC-SIGN Increases Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang, Ali Zohaib, Gong Chen, Jing Ye and Shengbo Cao*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV is a mosquito borne flavivirus that infects macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs during in vivo replication. The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR have been reported to act as cell attachment factors for diverse array of pathogens. In this study, the effect of these lectins on JEV infection was investigated after the generation of 293T-SIGN (R cell lines expressing DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR receptors. It was observed that only DC-SIGN but not the DC-SIGNR can act as a viral attachment factor in case of JEV infection. The infection to cells expressing DC-SIGN was efficiently blocked by anti-DC-SIGN and mannan molecules. It was also found that insect derived JEV has higher affinity for DC-SIGN as compare to the mammalian derived JEV. These results initially suggest that DC-SIGN could act as viral attachment receptors (VAR for JEV and enhance JEV infection.

  20. Antioxidants: potential antiviral agents for Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zehua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Zongtao; Tian, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is prevalent throughout eastern and southern Asia and the Pacific Rim. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. Despite the importance of JE, little is known about its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of viral infections has led to increased interest in its role in JEV infections. This review focuses mainly on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of JEV infection and the antiviral effect of antioxidant agents in inhibiting JEV production. First, this review summarizes the pathogenesis of JE. The pathological changes include neuronal death, astrocyte activation, and microglial proliferation. Second, the relationship between oxidative stress and JEV infection is explored. JEV infection induces the generation of oxidants and exhausts the supply of antioxidants, which activates specific signaling pathways. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of a variety of antioxidants as antiviral agents, including minocycline, arctigenin, fenofibrate, and curcumin, was studied. In conclusion, antioxidants are likely to be developed into antiviral agents for the treatment of JE. PMID:24780919

  1. Estimating the burden of Japanese encephalitis virus and other encephalitides in countries of the mekong region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tarantola

    Full Text Available Diverse aetiologies of viral and bacterial encephalitis are widely recognized as significant yet neglected public health issues in the Mekong region. A robust analysis of the corresponding health burden is lacking. We retrieved 75 articles on encephalitis in the region published in English or in French from 1965 through 2011. Review of available data demonstrated that they are sparse and often derived from hospital-based studies with significant recruitment bias. Almost half (35 of 75 of articles were on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV alone or associated with dengue. In the Western Pacific region the WHO reported 30,000-50,000 annual JEV cases (15,000 deaths between 1966 and 1996 and 4,633 cases (200 deaths in 2008, a decline likely related to the introduction of JEV vaccination in China, Vietnam, or Thailand since the 1980s. Data on dengue, scrub typhus and rabies encephalitis, among other aetiologies, are also reviewed and discussed. Countries of the Mekong region are undergoing profound demographic, economic and ecological change. As the epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis (JE are transformed by vaccination in some countries, highly integrated expert collaborative research and objective data are needed to identify and prioritize the human health, animal health and economic burden due to JE and other pathogens associated with encephalitides.

  2. Pathogenic spectrum of suspected Japanese encephalitis cases in Shanghai ,2010%2010年上海市疑似流行性乙型脑炎患者的病原谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兆奎; 滕峥; 俞雪莲; 王嘉瑜; 朱奕奕; 何懿; 周欣; 张曦; 吴凡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the pathogenic spectrum of suspected Japanese encephalitis cases in Shanghai. Methods A total of 93 serum samples and 103 cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from 145 suspected Japanese encephalitis cases during May-October 2010 to detect viral nucleic acid and IgM antibodies of common encephalitis viruses by using real-time PCR and ELISA. The detected viruses included Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), enteric virus (EV), cytomegalovirus ( CMV), herpes simplex virus ( HSV), varicellla-zoster virus ( VZV). Measles virus (MV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) , mumps virus (MuV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Results A total of 100 samples were detected to be positive either in viral nucleic acid detection or in IgM antibody detection, the positive rate was 68. 97% (100/145). Among these 100 patients, 49 (33. 79% ) were infected with EV, 22 (15. 17% ) were infected with HSV, 11 (7. 59% ) were infected with JEV, 5 (3.45% ) were infected with CMV, 3 (2. 07% ) were infected with MuV, and 10 (6. 90% ) were co-infected with two or more viruses; No VZV, MV, RSV and WNV were detected. Conclusion The major pathogens in suspected Japanese encephalitis cases were EV, HSV and JEV in Shanghai in 2010. The study results indicated that the surveillance and differential diagnosis of viral encephalitis should be strengthened even in the high incidence season of Japanese encephalitis to provide clinical information for diagnosis and treatment of the disease as well as scientific evidence for the disease control and prevention.%目的 了解上海市疑似流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)患者的病原谱构成.方法 将2010年5 - 10月收集的145例疑似乙脑患者的93份血清、103份脑脊液标本采用实时荧光PCR(real-time PCR)法和酶联免疫吸附试验(ELIAS)检测常见脑炎病毒核酸和病毒lgM抗体.检测病毒包括乙脑病毒(JEV)、肠道病毒(EV)、巨细胞病毒(CMV)、单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)、水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV

  3. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Tan; P.T. Qui; D.Q. Ha; N.B. Hue; L.Q. Bao; B.V. Cam; T.H. Khanh; T.T. Hien; N.V.V. Chau; T.T. Tram; V.M. Hien; T.V.T. Nga; C. Schultsz; J. Farrar; H.R. van Doorn; M.D. de Jong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at

  4. 日本脑炎流行病学和疫苗研制%Japanese Encephalitis Epidemiology and Vaccine Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Oya

    2002-01-01

    @@ Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is widely spread in the east and southeast part of Asia and number of human cases are estimated approximately 20000 annually in the world. The epidemic area is expanding recently as a newly emerging disease in the Oceanic countries.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of CCL2-2510 and susceptibility to enterovirus 71 encephalitis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-liang; Li, Ji-an; Chen, Zong-bo

    2014-09-01

    The study was performed in 36 Chinese patients with enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis and 141 patients with EV71-related hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) without encephalitis. Genotyping was done by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients with EV71 encephalitis had a significantly higher frequency of the CCL2-2510GG genotypes when compared to patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (66.7% vs. 41.8%, p=0.028). The frequency of CCL2-2510G alleles was also significantly higher among the patients with EV71 encephalitis than among patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis (79.2% vs. 64.9%, OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.1-3.8, P=0.023). Significant differences were found in gender, age, fever days, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, blood glucose concentration, and CCL2 level among genotypes of CCL2-2510A/G in EV71-infected patients, but no significant differences were found in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or creatine kinase myocardial isozyme levels or in cerebrospinal fluid evaluations (except monocytes) in patients with EV71 encephalitis. These findings suggest that the CCL2-2510G allele is associated with susceptibility to EV71 encephalitis in Chinese patients. PMID:24788844

  6. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic and...

  7. A Bayesian approach to estimate the accuracy of "in-house" ELISA assay to measure rabies antibodies from compulsory vaccinated dogs and cattle

    OpenAIRE

    AHC Nogueira; Silva, C.; Gomes, MR; ACG Rosa; MCR Luvizotto; TC Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Rabies is a vaccine-preventable disease that causes acute encephalitis in mammals, and it is still a significant public health problem in numerous countries. Infected dogs represent the main vectors involved in human rabies. Additionally, cattle rearing close to geographic areas where vampire bats are found presents an important connection with rural epidemiology. We applied two "in-house" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methodologies, considered alternatives to measure antibodies f...

  8. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome? Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody ... weeks or months. This condition is called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). People who have APS also are at ...

  9. Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis: Survival of a Child With Severe Meningoencephalitis and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Paul; Burke, Christopher; McCrossin, David; Campbell, Robert; Cherian, Sarah; Shahab, Mohammad Shekeeb; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Nourse, Clare

    2014-03-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, which is frequently fatal. There are few reports of survival in children. A 4-year-old child developed severe meningoencephalitis with multiple intracranial ring-enhancing lesions. Empiric therapy was commenced after a biopsy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response. Molecular testing and indirect immunofluorescence later confirmed the diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis. Diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis is often delayed. The literature is reviewed with particular reference to reported survival. Prompt tissue diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common features among survivors. In previous reports, miltefosine was not used to treat children, but it was well tolerated in this case and should be considered as a therapeutic option. PMID:26624913

  10. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting as atypical anorexia nervosa: an adolescent case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelhoff, David; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Weschke, Bernhard; Bachmann, Christian J; Wagner, Christiane; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Winter, Sibylle

    2015-11-01

    Since 2007, more than 600 patients have been diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, with almost 40 % of those affected being children or adolescents. In early phases of the illness, this life-threatening disease is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, obsessions, hallucinations or delusions. Consequently, a high percentage of patients receive psychiatric diagnoses at first, hindering the crucial early diagnosis and treatment of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report on a 15-year-old girl initially presenting with pathological eating behaviour and significant weight loss resulting in an (atypical) anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. Her early course of illness, diagnostic process, treatment and short-term outcome are described. This case report aims to raise awareness about the association between anorectic behaviour and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams in child and adolescent services. PMID:25663428

  11. Gait Disturbance as the Presenting Symptom in Young Children With Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Sun, Lisa R; Klein, Jessica L; Baranano, Kristin W; Pardo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    This case series demonstrates a novel clinical phenotype of gait disturbance as an initial symptom in children sleep patterns followed by progression to motor dysfunction, dyskinesias, and seizures. Because this condition can present initially with vague symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are often delayed. Although nearly 40% of all reported patients are walking and slurred speech, suggestive of cerebellar ataxia, and 3 had inability to bear weight on a unilateral lower extremity, resulting in unsteady gait. Two of these children had seizures at the time of hospital presentation. All developed classic behavioral changes, insomnia, dyskinesias, or decreased speech immediately before or during hospitalization. When seen in the setting of other neurologic abnormalities, gait disturbance should raise the concern for anti-NMDAR encephalitis in young children. The differential diagnosis for gait disturbance in toddlers and key features suggestive of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are reviewed. PMID:27531146

  12. Laboratory testing of specimens from patients with viral encephalitis from some regions of Gansu%甘肃省部分地区病毒性脑炎标本的实验室检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建祥; 高续明; 于德山

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the viral etiology of viral encephalitis in Gansu by decting IgM antibody in the clinical samples of patients from some regions of Gansu by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of 209 patients with viral encephalitis or meningitis were collected from five regions of Gansu and were stored at -70℃. Enzyme -linked immunosorbent assays were used for detection of IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, herps simplex virus, mumps virus, varicella - zoster virus,respiratory syncytial virus. Results: IgM antibody was detected in 154 of 209(73.7% ) cases, the most common pathogen was Japanese encephalitis virus ( 16.7% ), followed by respiratory syncytial virus ( 15.8% ), Mumps ( 13.4% ), coxsackievirus ( 9. 6% ), echovirus ( 9. 1% ), herps simplex virus (8.1%), varicella- -zoster virus( 1.0% ). Conclusion: According to the study ,Japanese encephalitis was the important encephalitis in Gansu, Respiratory syncytial virus was another important pathogen. Mumps and coxsackievirus were also important pathogens.%目的:初步了解甘肃省病毒性脑炎的病原种类及其分布特征.方法:用ELISA方法对2006年-2009年甘肃省5个地、州、市送检的209例临床诊断为病毒性脑炎患者的急性期血清和脑脊液标本,检测乙脑病毒IgM抗体,然后对乙脑IgM抗体阴性的所有血清、脑脊液标本检测其它6种常见病毒IgM抗体.结果:经血清学及脑脊液检测,209例患者中的154例(73.7%)检测出病毒特异性IgM抗体,构成顺序为乙脑病毒(16.7%)、呼吸道合胞病毒(15.8%)、腮腺炎病毒(13.4%)柯萨奇病毒(9.6%)、埃可病毒(9.1%)、单纯疱疹病毒(8.1%)、水痘-带状疱疹病毒(1.0%).结论:乙脑病毒及呼吸道合胞病毒是甘肃省病毒性脑炎的主要病原体,腮腺炎病毒次之,柯萨奇病毒、埃可病毒、单纯疱疹病毒也是重要的抗原.

  13. Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent

  14. The antibody mining toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput ...

  15. The Prognostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Viral Encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, U.K.; Kalita, J.; Srivastav, A.; Pradhan, P.K. (Depts. of Neurology and Nuclear Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

    2008-09-15

    Background: There is a paucity of studies evaluating the prognostic role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) changes in viral encephalitis. Purpose: To study MRI and SPECT changes in patients with viral encephalitis, and to correlate these changes with clinical findings and outcome. Material and Methods: During 1997-2006, 31 encephalitis patients (aged 2-60 years; nine females, 22 males) underwent both MRI and SPECT studies. Their demographic and clinical data and 6-month outcome were recorded. For the diagnosis of encephalitis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were carried out. Cranial MRI was done on a 1.5 T scanner, and 99mTc ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) SPECT using a gamma camera. Outcome was defined at 6 months as complete, partial, or poor recovery. Results: 19 patients had Japanese encephalitis (JE), one had herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), and 11 had nonspecific encephalitis. Movement disorders were present in 21, parkinsonian features in 19, and dystonia in 16 patients. MRI was abnormal in 20 patients, and revealed thalamic involvement in 17, basal ganglia in eight, brainstem in 11, and cortical in two. SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in 22 patients, which was cortical in 11, thalamic in 10, basal ganglia in six, and midbrain in one. Cortical involvement was more frequently found by SPECT and brainstem involvement by MRI. Outcome of encephalitis did not differ in the different groups of encephalitis and MRI changes. Conclusion: MRI and SPECT show a spectrum of findings in encephalitis, but these do not correlate with 6-month outcome

  16. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  17. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  18. Epidemiology of infectious encephalitis, differences between a prospective study and hospital discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S; Mailles, A; Stahl, J P

    2013-11-01

    The French epidemiology of infectious encephalitis has been described in a 2007 prospective study. We compared these results with available data (demographic features, causative agents, case-fatality ratio) obtained through the French national hospital discharge 2007 database (PMSI), in order to evaluate it as a surveillance tool for encephalitis. Causative agents were identified in 52% of cases in the study, and 38% in PMSI (P PMSI than in the study (Listeria: 2% vs. 5%, P = 0·001; Mycobacterium: 2% vs. 8%, P PMSI data, we suggest that PMSI may be used as a basic surveillance tool at a limited cost. PMID:23168268

  19. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  20. State-of-the-Art Microbiologic Testing for Community-Acquired Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polage, Christopher R; Cohen, Stuart H

    2016-05-01

    Meningitis and encephalitis are potentially life-threatening diseases with a wide array of infectious, postinfectious, and noninfectious causes. Diagnostic testing is central to determining the underlying etiology, treatment, and prognosis, but many patients remain undiagnosed due to suboptimal testing and lack of tests for all pathogens. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology, barriers to diagnosis, and current best tests for meningitis and encephalitis in developed countries. We end with a brief discussion of new test methods, such as multiplex panel-based tests and metagenomic sequencing, which are likely to alter diagnostic strategies for these conditions in the near future. PMID:26888896

  1. Status Epilepticus Due to Severe HHV-6 Encephalitis in an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Chordia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 after stem cell transplantation occurs frequently. It is associated with clinical manifestations varying from nonspecific symptoms such as fevers or rash, to severe life threatening complications including post-transplantation limbic encephalitis. We report a case of severe HHV-6 encephalitis with viremia in an allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplant recipient who presented with status epilepticus unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy.  With intravenous ganciclovir and supportive care, the patient’s condition improved. Awareness of HHV-6 infection in stem cell transplant recipients may help with early diagnosis and improved outcome.

  2. Evidence of a pathogenic role for CD8+ T cells in anti-GABAB receptor limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombeck, Kristin S.; Bönte, Kathrin; Mönig, Constanze; van Loo, Karen M.; Hartwig, Marvin; Schwindt, Wolfram; Widman, Guido; Lindenau, Matthias; Becker, Albert J.; Glatzel, Markus; Elger, Christian E.; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.; Lohmann, Hubertus; Gross, Catharina C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the cellular autoimmune response in patients with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor antibody–associated limbic encephalitis (GABAB-R LE). Methods: Patients underwent MRI, extensive neuropsychological assessment, and multiparameter flow cytometry of peripheral blood and CSF. Results: We identified a series of 3 cases of nonparaneoplastic GABAB-R LE and one case of paraneoplastic GABAB-R LE associated with small cell lung cancer. All patients exhibited temporal lobe epilepsy, neuropsychological deficits, and MRI findings typical of LE. Absolute numbers of CD19+ B cells, CD138+ CD19+ plasma cells, CD4+ T cells, activated HLADR+ CD4+ T cells, as well as CD8+ T cells and HLADR+ CD8+ T cells did not differ in peripheral blood but were elevated in CSF of patients with GABAB-R LE compared to controls. Augmented absolute numbers of CD138+ CD19+ plasma cells and activated HLADR+ CD8+ T cells in CSF corresponded to higher overall neuropsychological and memory deficits in patients with GABAB-R LE. A histologic specimen of one patient following selective amygdalohippocampectomy revealed perivascular infiltrates of CD138+ plasma cells and CD4+ T cells, whereas cytotoxic CD8+ T cells were detected within the brain parenchyma in close contact to neurons. Conclusion: Our data suggest a pathogenic role for CD8+ T cells in addition to the established role of plasma cell–derived autoantibodies in GABAB-R LE. PMID:27213174

  3. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Locus That Encodes the Latency-Associated Transcript Enhances the Frequency of Encephalitis in Male BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Clinton; Inman, Melissa; Peng, Weiping; Henderson, Gail; Doster, Alan; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Angeletti, Anisa Kaenjak

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the leading cause of virus-induced encephalitis; however, the viral genes that regulate encephalitis have not been well characterized. In this study, we tested whether the LAT (latency-associated transcript) locus regulates the frequency of encephalitis in male or female mice. Male BALB/c mice are more susceptible to HSV-1-induced encephalitis than age-matched female BALB/c mice. Deletion of LAT coding sequences reduced the frequency of encephalitis. A r...

  4. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, 67Ga and 131I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  5. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  6. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and III infection associated with acute Encephalitis in Patients of West Bengal, India, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Arindam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is the sole etiologic agent of Japanese Encephalitis (JE; a neurotropic killer disease which is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide with prime public health concern. JE was first reported in the state of West Bengal, India in 1973. Since then it is being reported every year from different districts of the state, though the vaccination has already been done. Therefore, it indicates that there might be either partial coverage of the vaccine or the emergence of mutated/new strain of JEV. Considering this fact, to understand the JEV genotype distribution, we conducted a molecular epidemiological study on a total of 135 serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples referred and/or collected from the clinically suspected patients with Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES, admitted in different district hospitals of West Bengal, India, 2010. Findings JEV etiology was confirmed in 36/135 (26.6% and 13/61 (21.3% 2–15 days’ febrile illness samples from AES cases by analyzing Mac-ELISA followed by RT-PCR test respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene sequences of 13 isolates showed the emergence of JEV genotype I (GI, co-circulating with genotype III (GIII. Conclusion This study represents the first report of JEV GI with GIII, co-circulating in West Bengal. The efficacy of the vaccine (derived from JEV GIII strain SA-14-14-2 to protect against emerging JEV GI needs careful evaluation. In future, JE outbreak is quite likely in the state, if this vaccine fails to protect sufficiently against GI of JEV.

  7. Co-positivity of anti-dengue virus and anti-Japanese encephalitis virus IgM in endemic area:co-infection or cross reactivity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaleshwar Prasad Singh; Sakshi Shrivastav; Desh Deepak Singh; Amita Jain; Gitika Mishra; Parul Jain; Nidhi Pandey; Rachna Nagar; Shikha Gupta; Shantanu Prakash; Om Prakash; Danish Nasar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report high co-positivity of anti-dengue virus(DV) and anti-Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV)IgM in an area endemic for both the viruses and to discuss the possibilities of co-infection.Methods:Serum samples from the patients who presented with fever, suspected central nervous system infection and thrombocytopenia, were tested for anti-DVIgM and anti-JEVIgM antibodies.Conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was done for detection ofDVRNA andJEVRNA.Results:Of1410 patient sera tested for anti-DV and anti-JEV antibodies,129(9.14%) were co-positive for both.This co-positivity was observed only in those months when anti-JEVIgM positivity was high.Titers of both anti-DVIgM and anti-JEV IgM were high in most of the co-positive cases.Among these129 co-positive cases,76 were tested by conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for both flaviviruses, of which eight cases were co-positive forDV andJEV.Conclusions:Co-infection with more than one flavivirus species can occur in hyperendemic areas.

  8. 贵州猪乙型脑炎血清流行病学的调查%Serological Investigation on Swine Japanese Encephalitis in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华莹; 李基棕

    2012-01-01

    为了解贵州省规模养猪场乙型脑炎(JE)的流行情况,为该病的诊断、预防和控制提供参考,应用乳胶凝集试验(LAT)对9个地区216个规模养猪场的2 906份血清进行检测.结果表明:查出阳性血清1 239份,占受检血清的42.6%,以黔南州(74.9%)和贵阳市(66.7%)的血清阳性率较高;133个猪场检测出阳性血清,阳性场率为61.6%,以贵阳市(92.3%)和遵义市(93.5%)的猪场阳性率较高.结论:贵州省猪群存在JE感染,且感染率较高,应采取积极的防治措施.%To grasp the infected situation of swine Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Guizhou, 2 906 serum samples were collected from 216 large-scale pig farms in nine areas for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies using latex agglutination test (LAT). The results showed that 1239 serum samples were positive, accounting for 42. 6%. The high JE infection rate (74. 9%, 66. 7%) in swine was recorded in Guiyang and Qiannan. The positive rate of large-scale pig farms was 61. 6%, and Guiyang (92. 3%)and Zunyi(93. 5%) were the highest. Therefore, swine JE infection in Guizhou was widespread, active countermeasures should be taken to prevent and cure swine JE.

  9. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K.; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  10. Metoclopramide-induced oculogyric crisis presenting as encephalitis in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    Jayavardhana Arumugam; A M Vijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Drug-related dystonic reactions are not uncommon and often misdiagnosed as encephalitis, seizures, tetanus, tetany, etc. Eliciting thorough history is important to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatments as these are potentially reversible reactions. Metoclopramide-induced oculogyric crisis is described in this case report.

  11. Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Kawashima, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    Reports of neurologic manifestations of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection have been on the rise. Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy is the most common, accounting for 38.8% of total B19-associated neurological manifestations. To date, 34 children with B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy have been reported, which includes 21 encephalitis and 13 encephalopathy cases. Ten (29%) were immunocompromised and 17 (39%) had underlying diseases. Fever at the onset of disease and rash presented in 44.1% and 20.6% of patients, respectively. Neurological manifestations include alteration of consciousness occurred in all patients, seizures in 15 (44.1%) patients, and focal neurologic signs in 12 (35.3%) patients. Anemia and pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurred in 56.3% and 48.1% of patients, respectively. Serum Anti-B19 IgM (82.6%) and CSF B19 DNA (90%) were positive in the majority of cases. Some patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and/or steroids, although an accurate evaluation of the efficacy of these treatment modalities cannot be determined. Nineteen (57.6%) patients recovered completely, 11 (33.3%) patients had some neurological sequelae and 3 (8.8%) patients died. Although the precise pathogenesis underlying the development of B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy is unclear, direct B19 infection or NS1protein of B19 toxicity in the brain, and immune-mediated brain injuries have been proposed. PMID:26566485

  12. Serological survey of domestic animals for tick-borne encephalitis and Bhanja viruses in northeastern Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Doležálková, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 135, 3-4 (2009), s. 267-271. ISSN 0378-1135 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme EC(XE) GOCE-2003-010284 EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Bhanja virus * Cattle * Horse * Sheep * Hungary Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2009

  13. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in a Patient with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Postherpetic Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Jorge; Igartua Laraudogoitia, Jon; Montes Ros, Milagrosa

    2016-07-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a neuroimmunologic disorder that has been increasingly diagnosed during the past 5 years. It provokes a predictable syndrome treated with several immunomodulatory agents, such as corticosteroids and/or biologics. We managed a child with this disease who developed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as a direct infectious complication of the use of rituximab. PMID:27093160

  14. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). METH...

  15. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  16. Sensitivity of Three Cell Lines to Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infectivity Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daji, Hu; Morita, Kouichi; Igarashi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    Comparative sensitivity test on three established cell lines for the plaque formation of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus showed that the highest infectivity was recorded on Vero, followed by BHK21 and then Hep-2 cell lines. The result indicated that these cell lines possess different sensitivity to JE virus in the early stage of infection.

  17. Reduced Amount of Japanese Encephalitis Viral RNA in the Infected Cells Treated with Human Interferon Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Daji, Hu; TANAKA Mariko; Morita, Kouichi; Igarashi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the amount of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific positive sense RNA was found to be reduced in the infected Hep-2 cells treated with human interferon beta at 1,000 IU/ml in the medium compared with untreated specimens.

  18. Susceptibility of a North American Culex quinquefasciatus to Japanese encephalitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that is transmitted by Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. The endemic transmission cycle involves domestic pigs and avian species that serve as amplification hosts; humans are incidental hosts that cannot devel...

  19. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations is not...

  20. Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, S. A.; Rochester, W.

    2001-01-01

    Backtrack simulation analysis indicates that wind-blown mosquitoes could have traveled from New Guinea to Australia, potentially introducing Japanese encephalitis virus. Large incursions of the virus in 1995 and 1998 were linked with low-pressure systems that sustained strong northerly winds from New Guinea to the Cape York Peninsula.

  1. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  2. Human activities predominate in determining changing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randolph, S. E.; Anda, P.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Bormane, A.; Egyed, L.; Ferenczi, E.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Gern, L.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kazimírová, M.; Kondrusik, M.; Pfister, K.; Rizzoli, A.; Vasilenko, V.; Vladimirescu, A.; Žygutiene, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 27 (2010), s. 24-31. ISSN 1560-7917 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme(XE) GOCE-2003-010284 EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19606

  3. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Anna J; Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  4. Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis Due to Balamuthia mandrillaris in New Mexico: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindyck, Talia N; Dvorscak, Lauren E; Hart, Blaine L; Palestine, Michael D; Gallant, Joel E; Allen, Sarah E; SantaCruz, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). We report a case in an individual with a history of alcohol abuse, cocaine use, and ditch water exposure. This is the first reported case of GAE due to B mandrillaris in New Mexico. PMID:25734132

  5. Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis Due to Balamuthia mandrillaris in New Mexico: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pindyck, Talia N.; Dvorscak, Lauren E.; Hart, Blaine L.; Palestine, Michael D.; Gallant, Joel E.; Allen, Sarah E; SantaCruz, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). We report a case in an individual with a history of alcohol abuse, cocaine use, and ditch water exposure. This is the first reported case of GAE due to B mandrillaris in New Mexico.

  6. Fabrication of oligonucleotide microarray for the detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI YAN ZHANG; WEN LI MA; XIAO MING ZHANG; WEN LING ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    A low-density oligonucleotide microarray was used for the detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), combining with restriction display PCR labeling method. The hybridization targets were amplified from 6 plasmids containing several JEV gene fragments. Corresponding oligonucleotide probe spots were detected unambiguously. We claim that the oligonucleotide microarray technology is feasible and may have potential for clinical laboratory application.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis associated with consumption of raw goat milk, Slovenia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudopisk, Neda; Korva, Miša; Janet, Evgen; Simetinger, Marjana; Grgič-Vitek, Marta; Gubenšek, Jakob; Natek, Vladimir; Kraigher, Alenka; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2013-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) developed in 3 persons in Slovenia who drank raw milk; a fourth person, who had been vaccinated against TBE, remained healthy. TBE virus RNA was detected in serum and milk of the source goat. Persons in TBE-endemic areas should be encouraged to drink only boiled/pasteurized milk and to be vaccinated. PMID:23697658

  8. Etiological and molecular-epidemiological analysis on enterovirus associated encephalitis in Zhejiang,2008-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严菊英

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of enterovirus associated encephalitis(EAE)in Zhejiang,2008—2012.Methods Cerebrospinal fluid and stool specimens were collected from suspected EAE patients,who were admitted to our hospitals.RD and Hep-2 cell lines were used to isolate

  9. Efficacy of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the treatment of enterovirus 71 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyou; Wang, Jiwen; Yao, Guo; Shi, Baohai

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the treatment of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis. To determine whether high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy should be used, 80 cases of pediatric patients with EV71 encephalitis were randomly divided into steroid pulse therapy group and non-steroid pulse therapy group and their clinical information was compared using statistic analysis. There was no statistical difference in the duration of fever, duration of nervous system involvement, duration of hospital stay, blood pressure, and cure rates between the two groups (p>0.05). The heart rate, respiratory rate, white blood cell counts and blood glucose of the steroid pulse therapy group were significantly higher than those of the non-steroid pulse therapy group (p<0.05). High-dose steroid pulse therapy to treat EV71 encephalitis can't shorten the course or improve the prognosis of the disease. In contrast, it has side effects and might aggravate disease condition or interfere with disease diagnosis. Our study suggested that there is no beneficial effect to use high-dose steroid pulse therapy for the treatment of EV71 encephalitis. PMID:27592493

  10. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis. PMID:27168928

  11. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  12. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  13. Identification of Viruses in Cases of Pediatric Acute Encephalitis and Encephalopathy Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Torii, Yuka; Okada, Ryo; Hayano, Satoshi; Ando, Shotaro; Kamiya, Yasuko; Kojima, Seiji; Ito, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome that is occasionally associated with viral infection. Comprehensive virus detection assays are desirable because viral pathogens have not been identified in many cases. We evaluated the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detecting viruses in clinical samples of encephalitis/encephalopathy patients. We first determined the sensitivity and quantitative performance of NGS by comparing the NGS-determined number of sequences of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in clinical serum samples with the HHV-6 load measured using real-time PCR. HHV-6 was measured as it occasionally causes neurologic disorders in children. The sensitivity of NGS for detection of HHV-6 sequences was equivalent to that of real-time PCR, and the number of HHV-6 reads was significantly correlated with HHV-6 load. Next, we investigated the ability of NGS to detect viral sequences in 18 pediatric patients with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy of unknown etiology. A large number of Coxsackievirus A9 and mumps viral sequences were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 2 and 1 patients, respectively. In addition, Torque teno virus and Pepper mild mottle viral sequences were detected in the sera of one patient each. These data indicate that NGS is useful for detection of causative viruses in patients with pediatric encephalitis/encephalopathy. PMID:27625312

  14. Fatal Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis Caused by Acanthamoeba in a Patient With Kidney Transplant: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ahmad; Bello, Nancy; Becker, Jennifer; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) due to Acanthamoeba is almost a uniformly fatal infection in immune-compromised hosts despite multidrug combination therapy. We report a case of GAE in a female who received a deceased donor kidney graft. She was treated with a combination of miltefosine, pentamidine, sulfadiazine, fluconazole, flucytosine, and azithromycin. PMID:26280011

  15. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves seizure control in patients with Rasmussen encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekturk, Pinar; Erdogan, Ezgi Tuna; Kurt, Adnan; Kocagoncu, Ece; Kucuk, Zeynep; Kinay, Demet; Yapici, Zuhal; Aksu, Serkan; Baykan, Betul; Karamursel, Sacit

    2016-03-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis is associated with severe seizures that are unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs, as well as immunosuppressants. Transcranial direct current stimulation (t-DCS) is a non-invasive and safe method tried mostly for focal epilepsies with different aetiologies. To date, there is only one published study with two case reports describing the effect of t-DCS in Rasmussen encephalitis. Our aim was to investigate the effect of t-DCS on seizures in Rasmussen encephalitis and to clarify its safety. Five patients (mean age: 19; three females), diagnosed with Rasmussen encephalitis were included in this study. Patients received first cathodal, then anodal (2 mA for 30 minutes on three consecutive days for non-sham stimulations), and finally sham stimulation with two-month intervals, respectively. Three patients received classic (DC) cathodal t-DCS whereas two patients received cathodal stimulation with amplitude modulation at 12 Hz. Afterwards, all patients received anodal stimulation with amplitude modulation at 12 Hz. In the last part of the trial, sham stimulation (a 60-second stimulation with gradually decreasing amplitude to zero in the last 15 seconds) was applied to three patients. Maximum current density was 571 mA/m2 using 70 mm x 50 mm wet sponge electrodes with 2-mA maximum, current controlled stimulator, and maximum charge density was 1028 C/m2 for a 30-minute stimulation period. After cathodal stimulation, all but one patient had a greater than 50% decrease in seizure frequency. Two patients who received modulated cathodal t-DCS had better results. The longest positive effect lasted for one month. A second trial with modulated anodal stimulation and a third with sham stimulation were not effective. No adverse effect was reported with all types of stimulations. Both classic and modulated cathodal t-DCS may be suitable alternative methods for improving seizure outcome in Rasmussen encephalitis patients. PMID:26842560

  17. MR of Toxoplasma encephalitis: Signal characteristics on T2-weighted images and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightbill, T.C.; Hensley, G.T.; Ruiz, A. [Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to determine if there are any T2-weighted MR signal characteristics of Toxoplasma encephalitis that might be useful in diagnosis and/or in gauging the effectiveness of medical therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the MR, CT, thallium-201 SPECT brain scans, and medical records of 27 patients with medically proven (26) and biopsy proven (1) Toxoplasma encephalitis, supplemented by autopsy findings in 4 additional patients, 2 of whom had postmortem MR correlation. The neuropathologic literature was also reviewed. Among the 27 patients, we discovered three distinct imaging patterns. Ten (37%) patients had predominantly T2-weighted hyperintense lesions and had been on medical therapy an average of 3 days (excluding one outlier). Ten (37%) patients had T2-weighted isointense lesions and had received medical therapy an average of 61 days. Seven (26%) patients had lesions with mixed signal on T2-weighted images and bad been on treatment an average of 6 days. Analysis of autopsy material from the four additional patients revealed the presence of organizing abscesses in three and necrotizing encephalitis in one, while the patient who had a brain biopsy demonstrated both types of pathologic lesions. In both cases having postmortem MRI, organizing abscesses appeared isointense to hypointense on T2-weighted images. There is a definite variation in the appearance of lesions of Toxoplasma encephalitis on T2-weighted images that precludes a definitive diagnosis based on signal characteristics alone. Pathologically, our data suggest that T2-weighted hyperintensity correlates with necrotizing encephalitis and T2-weighted isointensity with organizing abscesses. Furthermore, in patients on medical therapy the T2-weighted MR appearance may be a transition from hyperintensity to isointensity as a function of a positive response to antibiotic treatment, indicating that the signal change might be used to gauge the effectiveness of medical therapy. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  19. Relationship between imaging and pathological features and clinical factors in surgical cases of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Hideji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Onuma, Teiichi [National Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Arai, Nobutaka; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Maehara, Taketoshi; Yanashita, Akira

    1998-03-01

    The relationships between imaging, pathology and presumed causes in surgical cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was studied. The subject was 62 patients. MRI, PET and SPECT were performed. Hematoxylin and eosin was used for pathological judgement. On MRI, mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was detected in 48 of 52 patients (92%); 32 (62%) had high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images; 31 (60%) had atrophy {l_brace}23 (44%) had high-signal intensity on T2+atrophy{r_brace}; 5 (10%) had calcified lesions; and 2 (4%) had cystic lesions. On PET and SPECT, abnormal cerebral blood flow was noted in 33 of 36 (92%). On pathological findings (61 cases), Ammon`s horn sclerosis (AHS), tumors, gliosis in lateral temporal and meningeal inflammatory finding were detected in 42 (69%), 10 (23%) and 8 (13%) cases, respectively, whereas 2 showed no abnormalities. The 2 patients with normal pathology showed both high-signal intensity and atrophy on MRI. The presumed causes of TLE were encephalitis/meningitis and/or suspected of these diseases in 15 patients (24%), injuries at birth in 5 (8%), and none in 42 (68%). The presumed causes in the 43 patients with AHS were encephalitis/meningitis in 11, injuries at birth in 3, and none in 29. Of the 15 patients in whom encephalitis/meningitis was estimated as the causes of TLE, only 6 (40%) had pathological evidence of meningeal inflammatory finding. Of the 42 patients in whom cause could not be determined, 2 had pathological evidence of meningeal inflammatory finding. (K.H.)

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona . PMID:20476809