WorldWideScience

Sample records for antibiotic treatment interruption

  1. Antibiotic treatment interruption of suspected lower respiratory tract infections based on a single procalcitonin measurement at hospital admission-a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, K B; Schmeltz Søgaard, Ole; Wejse, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is a safe marker for the discrimination between bacterial and viral infection, and that PCT-guided treatment may lead to substantial reductions in antibiotic use. The present objective was to evaluate the effect of a single PCT measurement on...

  2. Factors associated with treatment interruption for hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira de Rezende Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate risk factors related to Hepatitis C treatment interruption. Methods Retrospective cohort of patients seen at the Hepatology outpatient service at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, from 2001 to 2009. The factors investigated were: age, gender, genotype, degree of liver fibrosis, type of treatment, treatment time in weeks, diabetes mellitus, and systemic hypertension. Survival curves and bivariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in the analyses. Results The risk of treatment interruption is six times greater in patients with more advanced degrees of liver fibrosis (F4 compared to those with less advanced degree (F2 in the period from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment. Genotype was found to be an important factor to explain therapy cessation after 24 weeks of treatment – the risk of stopping treatment was 2.5 times higher in patients with genotype 3 than in those with genotype 1. Conclusion Degree of liver fibrosis and genotype proved to be the main risk factors associated to treatment interruption.

  3. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  4. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  5. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  6. Antibiotics for the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Patidar, Kavish R.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is complex and therapeutic regimens vary according to the acuity of presentation and the goals of therapy. Most treatments for HE rely on manipulating the intestinal milieu and therefore antibiotics that act on the gut form a key treatment strategy. Prominent antibiotics studied in HE are neomycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and rifaximin. For the management of the acute episode, all antibiotics have been tested. However the limited numbers studied,...

  7. Avoidance of treatment interruption: an unrecognized benefit of accelerated radiotherapy in oropharyngeal carcinomas?

    OpenAIRE

    Allal, Abdelkarim Said; De Pree, Christian; Dulguerov, Pavel; Bieri, Sabine; Maire, Daphne Isabel; Kurtz, John

    1999-01-01

    To assess the impact of treatment interruption on the potential gain in locoregional control obtained with accelerated radiotherapy (RT) compared with conventionally fractionated RT in patients with oropharyngeal carcinomas.

  8. Antibiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrendik M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesut OgrendikDivision Physical Therapy and Rheumatology, Nazilli State Hospital, Nazilli, TurkeyAbstract: Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA commenced in the 1930s with the use of sulfasalazine. Later, tetracyclines were successfully used for the treatment of RA. In double-blind and randomized studies, levofloxacin and macrolide antibiotics (including clarithromycin and roxithromycin were also shown to be effective in the treatment of RA. There have been several reports in the literature indicating that periodontal pathogens are a possible cause of RA. Oral bacteria are one possible cause of RA. In this review, we aimed to investigate the effects of different antibiotics in RA treatment.Keywords: oral bacteria, treatment, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, periodontitis

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid signs of neuronal damage after antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Deeks Steven G; Hagberg Lars; Rosengren Lars; Gisslén Magnus; Price Richard W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The neurofilament is a major structural component of myelinated axons. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the light chain of the neurofilament protein (NFL) can serve as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS) injury. To assess whether interrupting antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection might have a deleterious effect on the CNS, we measured NFL levels in HIV-infected subjects interrupting therapy. We identified subjects who had CSF HIV ...

  10. Management of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation and interruptions using model-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samtani MN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh N Samtani,1 John J Sheehan,2 Dong-Jing Fu,2 Bart Remmerie,3 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Larry Alphs21Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Janssen Scientific Affairs, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Janssen Research and Development, Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica, Beerse, BelgiumBackground: Medication nonadherence is a well described and prevalent clinical occurrence in schizophrenia. These pharmacokinetic model-based simulations analyze predicted antipsychotic plasma concentrations in nonadherence and treatment interruption scenarios and with treatment reinitiation.Methods: Starting from steady state, pharmacokinetic model-based simulations of active moiety plasma concentrations of oral, immediate-release risperidone 3 mg/day, risperidone long-acting injection 37.5 mg/14 days, oral paliperidone extended-release 6 mg/day, and paliperidone palmitate 117 mg (75 mg equivalents/28 days were assessed under three treatment discontinuation/interruption scenarios, ie, complete discontinuation, one week of interruption, and four weeks of interruption. In the treatment interruption scenarios, pharmacokinetic simulations were performed using medication-specific reinitiation strategies.Results: Following complete treatment discontinuation, plasma concentrations persisted longest with paliperidone palmitate, followed by risperidone long-acting injection, while oral formulations exhibited the most rapid decrease. One week of oral paliperidone or risperidone interruption resulted in near complete elimination from the systemic circulation within that timeframe, reflecting the rapid elimination rate of the active moiety. After 1 and 4 weeks of interruption, minimum plasma concentrations were higher with paliperidone palmitate than risperidone long-acting injection over the simulated period. Four weeks of treatment interruption followed by reinitiation resulted in plasma levels returning to predicted therapeutic levels within 1 week.Conclusion: Due to

  11. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. L.; Mohamad, M.; Abdullah, R.; Bhavaraju, V. M. K.; Nik Idris, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect.

  12. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  13. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow...

  14. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  15. Fungal treatment for the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in veterinary hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D; Badia-Fabregat, M; Vicent, T; Caminal, G; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Balcázar, J L; Barceló, D

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important public health concerns and has been linked to the widespread use of antibiotics in veterinary and human medicine. The overall elimination of antibiotics in conventional wastewater treatment plants is quite low; therefore, residual amounts of these compounds are continuously discharged to receiving surface waters, which may promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In this study, the ability of a fungal treatment as an alternative wastewater treatment for the elimination of forty-seven antibiotics belonging to seven different groups (β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, metronidazoles, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) was evaluated. 77% of antibiotics were removed after the fungal treatment, which is higher than removal obtained in conventional treatment plants. Moreover, the effect of fungal treatment on the removal of some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was evaluated. The fungal treatment was also efficient in removing ARGs, such as ermB (resistance to macrolides), tetW (resistance to tetracyclines), blaTEM (resistance to β-lactams), sulI (resistance to sulfonamides) and qnrS (reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones). However, it was not possible to establish a clear link between concentrations of antibiotics and corresponding ARGs in wastewater, which leads to the conclusion that there are other factors that should be taken into consideration besides the antibiotic concentrations that reach aquatic ecosystems in order to explain the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26991378

  16. Avoidance of treatment interruption: an unrecognized benefit of accelerated radiotherapy in oropharyngeal carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of treatment interruption on the potential gain in locoregional control obtained with accelerated radiotherapy (RT) compared with conventionally fractionated RT in patients with oropharyngeal carcinomas. Methods and Materials: 152 patients treated with radical RT for oropharyngeal carcinomas between 1979 and 1996 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, there were 6/30/43/73 stages I/II/III/IV. Sixty-one patients were treated with a conventional RT schedule (median dose 70 Gy in 35 fractions), and 91 patients with either of two 5/5.5-week accelerated RT schedules (median dose 69.6-69.9 Gy in 41 fractions). Discounting weekends, RT was interrupted for 2 consecutive days or more in 53 patients (median duration 11 days, range 2-97), including 67% of the patients in the conventional RT group and 13% in the accelerated RT group. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 55 months (range 23-230). The Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analysis of factors influencing locoregional control. Results: In univariate analysis, factors associated with a significant decrease in locoregional control included WHO performance status ≥1, advanced AJCC stages (III and IV), conventional RT fractionation, overall treatment time ≥44 days (median), and RT interruption. In the multivariate analysis, when introduced into the model individually, the three significant therapeutic factors remained significant after adjustment for the forced clinical variables. However, when the three therapeutic factors were introduced together into the model, beside the AJCC stage (P = 0.017), only RT interruption remained a significant independent adverse prognostic factor (P = 0.026). Conclusions: This multivariate analysis highlights the potential negative impact of treatment gaps on locoregional control in oropharyngeal carcinomas. This suggests that treatment interruption may be

  17. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  18. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  19. Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count or initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, ...

  20. Response to planned treatment interruptions in HIV infection varies across childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, immunological and virological consequences of CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) compared with continuous therapy in children with chronic HIV infection in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial...... PTI (56). In PTI, ART was restarted if confirmed CD4% was less than 20% or more than 48 weeks had been spent off ART. The primary outcome was Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C event, death or CD4% less than 15% (and CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/microl for children aged 7...... versus 48% of time was spent off ART in continuous therapy and PTI, respectively. No child died or had a new CDC stage C event; one (2%) continuous therapy versus four (7%) PTI children had a primary outcome based on CD4%/cell count (P = 0.2). Lower nadir CD4% predicted faster CD4% decline after stopping...

  1. The polymethylmethacrylate antibiotic spacer for treatment of joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bondi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint prostheses chronic infection requires surgical removal of the implant, in order to eradicate the infection process. The Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement is a good carrier for the sustained antibiotic release at the site of infection. PMMA cements pre-loaded with antibiotics are utilized for prophylaxis, primary surgical procedure and the treatment of prosthetic joint infections. The mechanical and functional characteristics of the spacers allow a good joint range of motion, weight-bearing in selected cases and a sustained release of antibiotic at the site of infection. These drug delivery systems offer the advantage of local release of high antibiotic concentrations, which considerably exceed those obtained after systemic administration. Nowadays treatment with a preformed antibiotic loaded spacer can be considered a good option for joint prostheses infection maintaining joint function at the intermediate stage in two-stage treatment.

  2. Reappearance of an 11-year-old sequence in an HIV-1 infected patient during treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.V.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    and 2 treatment interruptions were analysed in both pol and env. The wild type virus found in the sample from the second treatment interruption in 2002 had not been present as a dominant population since 1994. Phylogeny showed that the 2002 sample was more closely related to wild type sequences than...... to other sequences sampled in 2002. This indicated that the wild type virus was caused by recruitment from the viral archives rather than reversion of previously circulating resistant strains. A few weeks after re-initiated treatment, virus showed full resistance, indicating that resistant virus was...

  3. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  4. Antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children

    OpenAIRE

    Traa, Beatrix S; Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Munos, Melinda; Black, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam are the antibiotics currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the treatment of dysentery in children; yet there have been no reviews of the clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics in recent years. Methods We reviewed all literature reporting the effect of ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam for the treatment of dysentery in children in the developing countries. We used a standardized abstraction and gr...

  5. Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Gionchetti; Fernando Rizzello; Karen M Lammers; Claudia Morselli; Lucia Sollazzi; Samuel Davies; Rosy Tambasco; Carlo Calabrese; Massimo Campieri

    2006-01-01

    Many experimental and clinical observations suggest that intestinal microflora plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Manipulation of the luminal content using antibiotics or probiotics represents a potentially effective therapeutic option. The available studies do not support the use of antibiotics in ulcerative colitis (UC). Antibiotics are effective in treating septic complications of Crohn's disease (CD) but their use as a primary therapy is more controversial, although this approach is frequently and successfully adopted in clinical practice.There is evidence that probiotic therapy may be effective in the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. In contrast, a lack of successful study data at present precludes the widespread use of probiotics in the treatment of CD.Both antibiotics and probiotics appear to play a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of pouchitis and further trials are warranted to fully quantify their clinical efficacy.

  6. Early Antibiotic Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis: More News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J De Waele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Early antibiotic treatment still remains a therapeutic challenge in the clinical management of acute pancreatitis and several papers have been published in this field [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In particular, the antibiotic of choice in preventing the infection of pancreatic necrosis seems to be imipenem [4, 9, 10, 11, 13]. Subsequently, Manes et al. [15] have reported that meropenem, an antibiotic of the same family as imipenem having considerable stability in the presence of renal dehydropeptidase-I and enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has an efficacy similar to imipenem in terms of the incidence of pancreatic infection and extrapancreatic infections. We have previously emphasized that further studies should be carried out to specifically decide on the optimal doses of meropenem in patients with acute pancreatitis and that there is a need for studies which answer the following questions. What should the timing of early antibiotic treatment be?. What are the resistant strains selected by meropenem?. Which are the nosocomial infections and fungal superinfections resulting from this new treatment? [16, 17]. These questions are still open and the study from Manes et al. is welcome to attempt to answer some of the aforementioned questions [18]. In this study, the authors compared antibiotic prophylaxis with early antibiotic treatment started after the demonstration of pancreatic necrosis. They studied 215 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis who were randomized to either Group A (n=108, who started antibiotic therapy (meropenem 500 mg tid at admission, or Group B (n=107, who received antibiotics after computed tomography showed necrosis. C-reactive protein was determined in all patients within 48 hours from the onset of symptoms and computed tomography was performed in both groups after at least 48 h of hospitalization; the clinical course of disease was also compared

  7. Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genetic determinants during manure storage, treatment, and land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that ca.75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occur...

  8. Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Douwe F.; Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Van Elden, Leontine J R; Thijsen, Steven F T; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Boersma, Wim G.; Compaijen, Clara J.; Van Der Wall, Eva; Prins, Jan M.; Oosterheert, Jan J.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment (al

  9. Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. PMID:26501865

  10. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M Graziani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART, would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion: This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of

  11. Factors influencing antibiotic resistance burden in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, Ana; Manaia, Célia M.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants are recognized reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Three municipal wastewater treatment plants differing on the dimensions and bio-treatment processes were compared for the loads of amoxicillin-, tetracycline-, and ciprofloxacinresistant heterotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, and enterococci in the raw inflow and in the treated effluents. The sewage received by each plant, in average, corresponded to 85,000 inhabitant equ...

  12. Antibody Responses After Analytic Treatment Interruption in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Individuals on Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Bricault, Christine A.; Shields, Jennifer; Bayne, Madeleine; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Seaman, Michael S.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    The examination of antibody responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals in the setting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption can provide insight into the evolution of antibody responses during viral rebound. In this study, we assessed antibody responses in 20 subjects in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5187, wherein subjects were treated with antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV-1 infection, underwent analytic treatment interruption, and subsequently demonstrated viral rebound. Our data suggest that early initiation of ART arrests the maturation of HIV-1-specific antibody responses, preventing epitope diversification of antibody binding and the development of functional neutralizing capacity. Antibody responses do not appear permanently blunted, however, because viral rebound triggered the resumption of antibody maturation in our study. We also found that antibody responses measured by these assays did not predict imminent viral rebound. These data have important implications for the HIV-1 vaccine and eradication fields.

  13. Treatment Utility of Postpartum Antibiotics in Chorioamnionitis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Anthony L; Mehra, Suwan; Gross, Gil; Colvin, Ryan; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2016-07-01

    Objective To determine if postpartum antibiotics are necessary for patients with chorioamnionitis after a cesarean delivery (CD). Study Design Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Laboring patients with singleton gestations and chorioamnionitis who underwent CD were eligible. Patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamicin per standard protocol, then given clindamycin prior to skin incision. Patients were randomized to either postpartum antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment following delivery. The primary outcome was the rate of endometritis. Assuming a 30% risk of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD, 119 patients per arm would be required to detect a 50% decrease in endometritis. Results The trial was stopped for futility following a planned interim analysis after 80 patients were randomized. There was no difference in the rate of the primary outcome between the two groups (9.8 vs. 7.7%, relative risk [RR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30, 5.31). A meta-analysis comparing post-CD antibiotics versus no treatment did not find a statistically significant difference between the groups (16.7 vs. 12.0%, pooled RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.72, 2.84). Conclusion Additional postpartum antibiotics do not decrease the rate of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD. The current preoperative antibiotic regimen including clindamycin should remain the standard of care in these patients. PMID:26890440

  14. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed. PMID:24619620

  15. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H2O2/COD and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H2O2/COD and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H2O2/COD molar ratio 2, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  16. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  17. Trends in antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media and treatment failure in children, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Guidelines to treat acute otitis media (AOM were published in 2004. Initial declines in prescribing were shown, but it's unknown if they were sustained. We examine trends in antibiotic dispensing patterns to treat AOM among a large population of children. We also document trends in antibiotic failure. STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 3 months to 12 years with an AOM diagnosis, enrolled in a commercial claims database between January 1, 2000-December 31, 2011 were included. Pharmacy claims within 7 days of diagnosis were searched for antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotic failure was defined as a dispensing of a different antibiotic class within 2-18 days after the first prescription. We analyzed trends in antibiotic use and failure by class of antibiotic and year. RESULTS: We identified over 4 million children under 13 years with AOM. The proportion of antibiotic dispensing decreased from 66.0% in 2005 to 51.9% in 2007, after which the instances of dispensing rebounded to pre-guideline levels. However, levels began decreasing again in 2010 and the antibiotic use rate in 2011 was 57.6%. Cephalosporin prescriptions increased by 41.5% over eleven years. Antibiotic failure decreased slightly, and macrolides had the lowest proportion of failures, while all other classes had failure rates around 10%. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, antibiotic dispensing to treat AOM remains high. In addition, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is increasing despite having a high rate of treatment failure. Overprescribing of antibiotics and use of non-penicillin therapy for AOM treatment could lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  18. Fate of antibiotic resistant cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhe; Han, Bing; Gu, Ju; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ma, Yanyan; Cao, Jiashun; He, Zhenli

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants of environmental concern. Heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge have an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the fate of cultivable heterotrophic ARB and ARGs in WWPTs process remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria from influent and effluent water of three WWTPs and analysed thirteen ARGs in ARB and in activated sludge from anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic compartments. From each influent or effluent sample of the three plants, 200 isolates were randomly tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. In these samples, between 5% and 64% isolates showed resistance to >9 antibiotics and the proportion of >9-drug-resistant bacteria was lower in isolates from effluent than from influent. Eighteen genera were identified in 188 isolates from influent (n=94) and effluent (n=94) of one WWTP. Six genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium, Providencia, and Staphylococcus) were detected in both influent and effluent samples. Gram-negative and -positive isolates dominated in influent and effluent, respectively. The 13 tetracycline-, sulphonamide-, streptomycin- and β-lactam-resistance genes were detected at a higher frequency in ARB from influent than from effluent, except for sulA and CTX-M, while in general, the abundances of ARGs in activated sludge from two of the three plants were higher in aerobic compartments than in anoxic ones, indicating abundant ARGs exit in the excess sledges and/or in uncultivable bacteria. These findings may be useful for elucidating the effect of WWTP on ARB and ARGs. PMID:25950407

  19. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  20. Novel antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsen, Knut

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment of infections owing to S. aureus have become increasingly challenging as the pathogen has acquired a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In particular, emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) progressed to a global health threat. The glycopeptides antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin have remained as the drugs of last resort for more than 20 years. Fortunately, in addition to the glycopeptides, several novel antibiotics including linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin and ceftobiprole acting against MRSA have been recently introduced into clinical practice broadening therapeutic options. Although the arsenal of antistaphylococcal drugs has filled up in recent years, the rate of MRSA infection continues to be high in most countries. This demands an ongoing search for new antibacterials and lead compounds as well as development of alternative therapies and faster diagnostics to ensure effective anti-staphylococcal therapy in the future. PMID:22112259

  1. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  2. A Study on the Wastewater Treatment from Antibiotic Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jayati Chatterjee; Neena Rai; Santosh K. Sar

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater from cephalosporin antibiotic production with high bio-toxicity is hard to degrade, and could cause great harm to environment and human being. In the present paper, wastewater from cephalosporin production was processed with biochemical treatments as hydrolytic acidification, Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed(UASB), Sequencing Batch Reactor Activated Sludge Process(SBR), biological activated carbon process(BAC). Among them, hydrolytic acidification could efficaciously enhance the biodeg...

  3. Antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thønnings, Sara; Knudsen, Jenny D; Schønheyder, Henrik C;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Invasive Listeria monocytogenes infections carry a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. The rareness of the infection makes it difficult to improve antibiotic treatment through randomised clinical trials. This observational study investigated clinical features and outcome of...... invasive L. monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment, and 30-days mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective...

  4. Low Non-structured Antiretroviral Therapy Interruptions in HIV-Infected Persons Who Inject Drugs Receiving Multidisciplinary Comprehensive HIV Care at an Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Mojal, Sergio; Roquer, Albert; Samos, Pilar; Luque, Sonia; Martinez, Diana; Martires, Paula Karen; Torrens, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Continuous HIV treatment is necessary to ensure successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of patient-initiated non-structured treatment interruptions in HIV-infected persons who inject drugs and who received a multidisciplinary comprehensive program, including medical HIV care, drug-dependence treatment and psychosocial support, at a drug outpatient addiction center. Non-structured treatment interruptions were defined as ≥30 consecutive days off cART without medical indication. During a median follow-up of 53.8 months, 37/132 (28 %) patients experienced the first non-structured treatment interruptions. The cumulative probability of cART interruption at 5 years was 31.2 % (95 % CI 22.4-40.0). Current drug use injection ≥1/day (HR 14.77; 95 % CI 5.90-36.96) and cART naive patients (HR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.93) were predictive factors for non-structured treatment interruptions. HIV care provided at a drug addiction center is a useful strategy to sustain continuous cART, however, drug abstinence is essential for the long-term maintenance of cART. PMID:26427376

  5. Evaluation of removal efficiency of human antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuchai, Donwichai; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic concentration at each stage of treatment and to evaluate the removal efficiency of antibiotics in different types of secondary and advanced treatment, as well as the effects of the location of their discharge points on the occurrence of antibiotics in surface water. Eight target antibiotics and four hospital wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok with different conventional and advanced treatment options were investigated. Antibiotics were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotic with the highest concentration at influent was cefazolin at 13,166 ng/L, while the antibiotic with the highest concentration at effluent was sulfamethoxazole at 1,499 ng/L. The removal efficiency of antibiotics from lowest to highest was sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, and cefalexin. The adopted conventional treatment systems could not completely remove all antibiotics from wastewater. However, using advanced treatments or disinfection units such as chlorination and UV could increase the antibiotic removal efficiency. Chlorination was more effective than UV, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole concentration fluctuated during the treatment process, and sulfamethoxazole was the most difficult to remove. Both these antibiotics should be studied further regarding their contamination in sludge and suitable treatment options for their removal. PMID:26744950

  6. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Lu; Xiaojun Niu; Wei Liu; Jun Zhang; Jie Wang; Jia Yang; Wenqi Wang; Zhiquan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment...

  7. Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Berghash, S R; Davidson, J. N.; Armstrong, J. C.; Dunny, G M

    1983-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major groups of bovine mastitis pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, other streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 different antibiotics against bacterial isolates from dairy cattle. The bacterial strains were obtained from milk samples from each cow in 21 New York state dairy herd surveys. In 12 herd surveys (high antibiotic-use group), all 365 cows...

  8. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  9. An in vitro combined antibiotic/antibody treatment eliminates toxicity from Shiga toxin-producing E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Treating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) gastrointestinal infections is a difficult endeavor. The utility of antibiotics as an STEC treatment is controversial since antibiotic resistance among STEC isolates is widespread and certain antibiotics dramatically increase express...

  10. Antibiotics Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  11. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantit...

  12. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrne, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  13. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    , potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage...

  14. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  15. A new enhanced antibiotic treatment for early and late syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Broccolo, Francesco; Sartoris, Giulia; Stura, Paola; Esposito, Susanna; Rebora, Alfredo; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an enhanced treatment regimen for syphilis with the addition of doxycycline and ceftriaxone to the conventional benzathine penicillin G (BPG) treatment. Sixty-nine syphilis patients were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (38 patients) received standard therapy and group 2 (31 patients) received the enhanced therapy. All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months. Patients underwent physical examination and serology every 6 months as well as echocardiography and neurological examination every year. A three- to four-fold decline in the initial Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titre within 6 months after therapy was considered as serological cure. At 12 months, 68% of patients in group 1 and 100% in group 2 were serologically cured (P=0.002). During follow-up, no patients in group 2 experienced complications related to syphilis. In contrast, one patient in group 1 developed neurosyphilis. In conclusion, the enhanced treatment is more effective than standard treatment and results in a higher and faster cure rate. Moreover, it provides treponemicidal antibiotic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby preventing possible late complications. PMID:27436469

  16. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  17. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tabatabai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective: To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design: This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results: A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147, which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions

  18. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  19. Beneficial effects of a neurotrophic peptidergic mixture persist for a prolonged period following treatment interruption in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Pham, Emiley; Michael, Sarah; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the loss of neurotrophic factors, and experimental therapeutical approaches to AD have investigated the efficacy of replacing or augmenting neurotrophic factor activity. Cerebrolysin, a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, has been shown to improve cognition in patients with AD and to reduce synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, it is unclear how long-lasting the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin are and whether or not behavioral and neuropathological alterations will reappear following treatment interruption. The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of interrupting Cerebrolysin treatment (washout effect) 3 and 6 months after the completion of a 3-month treatment period in APP tg mice. We demonstrate that, in APP tg mice, Cerebrolysin-induced amelioration of memory deficits in the water maze and reduction of neurodegenerative pathology persist for 3 months after treatment interruption; however, these effects dissipate 6 months following treatment termination. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the decrease in neocortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load observed in Cerebrolysin-treated APP tg mice immediately after treatment was no longer apparent at 3 months after treatment interruption, indicating that the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin at this time point were independent of its effect on amyloid-β deposition. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the effects of Cerebrolysin persist for a significant period of time following treatment termination and suggest that this prolonged effect may involve the neurotrophic factor-like activity of Cerebrolysin. PMID:21793038

  20. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy; Interrupciones de tratamiento: estadistica, causa y manejo en un servicio de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Eugui Martinez, R.; Crespo Diaz, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  1. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  2. Parenteral and oral antibiotic duration for treatment of pediatric osteomyelitis: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grimbly, Chelsey; Odenbach, Jeff; Vandermeer, Ben; Forgie, Sarah; Curtis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of bones requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment using parenteral followed by enteral agents. Major complications of pediatric osteomyelitis include transition to chronic osteomyelitis, formation of subperiosteal abscesses, extension of infection into the joint, and permanent bony deformity or limb shortening. Historically, osteomyelitis has been treated with long durations of antibiotics to avoid these complications. However, with ...

  3. Characterization of broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment reactors through metagenomic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ying; 楊穎

    2014-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted great concerns worldwide. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are reservoirs of ARGs while wastewater/sludge treatment processes are considered as important means to control these emerging biological pollutants. However, the full profiles of ARGs in WWTPs or the removal efficiency of ARGs by wastewater/sludge treatment process was not well characterized yet. Thus, the major tasks in this st...

  4. Effective antiprotease-antibiotic treatment of experimental anthrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacAfee Rebecca

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation anthrax is characterized by a systemic spread of the challenge agent, Bacillus anthracis. It causes severe damage, including multiple hemorrhagic lesions, to host tissues and organs. It is widely believed that anthrax lethal toxin secreted by proliferating bacteria is a major cause of death, however, the pathology of intoxication in experimental animals is drastically different from that found during the infectious process. In order to close a gap between our understanding of anthrax molecular pathology and the most prominent clinical features of the infectious process we undertook bioinformatic and experimental analyses of potential proteolytic virulence factors of B. anthracis distinct from lethal toxin. Methods Secreted proteins (other than lethal and edema toxins produced by B. anthracis were tested for tissue-damaging activity and toxicity in mice. Chemical protease inhibitors and rabbit immune sera raised against B. anthracis proteases were used to treat mice challenged with B. anthracis (Sterne spores. Results B. anthracis strain delta Ames (pXO1-, pXO2- producing no lethal and edema toxins secrets a number of metalloprotease virulence factors upon cultivation under aerobic conditions, including those with hemorrhagic, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activities, belonging to M4 and M9 thermolysin and bacterial collagenase families, respectively. These factors are directly toxic to DBA/2 mice upon intratracheal administration at 0.5 mg/kg and higher doses. Chemical protease inhibitors (phosphoramidon and 1, 10-phenanthroline, as well as immune sera against M4 and M9 proteases of B. anthracis, were used to treat mice challenged with B. anthracis (Sterne spores. These substances demonstrate a substantial protective efficacy in combination with ciprofloxacin therapy initiated as late as 48 h post spore challenge, compared to the antibiotic alone. Conclusion Secreted proteolytic enzymes are important pathogenic

  5. Is the interruption of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy an additional major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1?

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, L.; Puliti, D; Chiappini, E; Gabiano, C; Ferraris, G.; F. Mignone; Viganò, A; Giaquinto, C.; O. Genovese; G. Anzidei; Badolato, R.; Buffolano, W.; Maccabruni, A; Salvini, F; M. Cellini

    2009-01-01

    There is currently an experts' agreement discouraging interruption of antiretroviral treatment (ART) during the first trimester of pregnancy in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, this recommendation is poorly supported by data. We evaluated the effects of discontinuing ART during pregnancy on the rate of mother-to-child transmission.Logistic regression models were performed in a prospective cohort of 937 children who were perinatally exposed to HIV-1 to ...

  6. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on Toxin Production by Alexandrium tamarense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-HAI WANG; YI-YUN WANG; YING-YING SUN; XIAN-TANG XIE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Impact of the presence of bacteria associated with a marine dinoflagellate,Alexandrium tamarense CI01, on the growth and toxin production of the algae in batch culture was investigated. Methods Pronounced changes in the activities of the algal culture were observed when the culture was treated with different doses of a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin.Results In the presence of antibiotics at the initial concentration of 100 u/mL in culture medium,both algal growth and toxin yield increased markedly. When the concentration of antibiotics was increased to 500 u/mL, the microalgal growth was inhibited, but resumed in a few days to eventually reach the same level of growth and toxin production as at the lower dose of the antibiotics. When the antibiotics were present at a concentration of 1000 u/mL, the algal growth was inhibited permanently.Conclusions The results indicate that antibiotics can enhance algal growth and toxin production not only through their inhibition of the growth and hence competition for nutrients, but also through their effects on the physiology of the algae.

  7. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations expected in the patient’s body. Strains with reduced susceptibility outcompeted the wild-type whenever antibiotics were present, even in low concentrations that did not affect the growth rates of both strains. Exposure of E. coli to amoxicillin caused moderate resistance to cefotaxime. The combined evidence suggests that initial treatment by amoxicillin has a negative effect on subsequent therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics.

  8. [Oral antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Claus; Småbrekke, Lars; Døllner, Henrik; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2009-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Empiric antibiotic therapy is guided by the clinical presentation, the patient's ability to take oral agents and the local resistance pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most common pathogen. Most children (with both upper and lower UTI) can safely be treated with oral antibiotics. We recommend pivmecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as first-line empiric therapy for upper UTI. Amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer first-line oral agents due to increasing E. coli resistance to both drugs. For lower UTI nitrofurantoin is an excellent first choice. In Norway, lack of paediatric antibiotic syrups is a great challenge and we recommend that such formulations are introduced to the Norwegian market. PMID:19561661

  9. Antibiotic treatment and the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract infections in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Jens; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    patient was positive in both systems, making a total of 22 patients with documented pneumococcal infection. As a positive culture test was dependent on the absence of antibiotic treatment, whereas a positive urine antigen test depended on antibiotic treatment within 48 hours, the two tests were...... complementary in the diagnosis of infection with S. pneumoniae. The third group of patients with probable pneumococcal infection were identified as 26% and 20% of the remaining 137 patients with unknown or known non-pneumococcal etiology, respectively, who received recent antibiotic treatment within 2-4 weeks...... of diagnostic sampling. By comparison, 0% (p < 0.01) with documented pneumococcal infection received antibiotic treatment in weeks 2-4 prior to microbiological sampling. As such a further eight patients should be expected to have infection with S. pneumoniae but would test negative in both culture...

  10. A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender K; Johnson, Natalie; Cizmas, Leslie; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized. PMID:26775188

  11. Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L

    2016-05-01

    The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antibiotic classes that have been used for treatment and strains resistant to multiple antibiotic classes have evolved. In many countries, there is only one antibiotic remaining for empirical N. gonorrhoeae treatment, and antibiotic management to counteract resistance spread is urgently needed. Understanding dynamics and drivers of resistance spread can provide an improved rationale for antibiotic management. In our study, we first used antibiotic resistance surveillance data to estimate the rates at which antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread in two host populations, heterosexual men (HetM) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We found higher rates of spread for MSM (0.86 to 2.38 y-1, mean doubling time: 6 months) compared to HetM (0.24 to 0.86 y-1, mean doubling time: 16 months). We then developed a dynamic transmission model to reproduce the observed dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae transmission in populations of heterosexual men and women (HMW) and MSM. We parameterized the model using sexual behavior data and calibrated it to N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and incidence data. In the model, antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread with a median rate of 0.88 y-1 in HMW and 3.12 y-1 in MSM. These rates correspond to median doubling times of 9 (HMW) and 3 (MSM) months. Assuming no fitness costs, the model shows the difference in the host population's treatment rate rather than the difference in the number of sexual partners explains the differential spread of resistance. As higher treatment rates result in faster spread of antibiotic resistance, treatment recommendations for N. gonorrhoeae should carefully balance prevention of infection and avoidance of resistance spread. PMID:27196299

  12. New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jian-Lin; Jiang, Yi-Wei; Xie, Jun-Qiu; Zhang, Xiao-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen of wound infections. Thus far, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become the major causative agent in wound infections, especially for nosocomial infections. MRSA infections are seldom eradicated by routine antimicrobial therapies. More concerning, some strains have become resistant to the newest antibiotics of last resort. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of a polymyxin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae, by which resistance to the last group of antibiotics will likely spread rapidly. The worst-case scenario, "a return to the pre-antibiotic era", is likely in sight. A perpetual goal for antibiotic research is the discovery of an antibiotic that lacks resistance potential, such as the recent discovery of teixobactin. However, when considering the issue from an ecological and evolutionary standpoint, it is evident that it is insufficient to solve the antibiotic dilemma through the use of antibiotics themselves. In this review, we summarized recent advances in antibiotic-based, antibiotic-free and ethnomedical treatments against MRSA wound infections to identify new clues to solve the antibiotic dilemma. One potential solution is to use ethnomedical drugs topically. Some ethnomedical drugs have been demonstrated to be effective antimicrobials against MRSA. A decline in antibiotic resistance can therefore be expected, as has been demonstrated when antibiotic-free treatments were used to limit the use of antibiotics. It is also anticipated that these drugs will have low resistance potential, although there is only minimal evidence to support this claim to date. More clinical trials and animal tests should be conducted on this topic. PMID:27120596

  13. New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Lin Dou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen of wound infections. Thus far, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has become the major causative agent in wound infections, especially for nosocomial infections. MRSA infections are seldom eradicated by routine antimicrobial therapies. More concerning, some strains have become resistant to the newest antibiotics of last resort. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of a polymyxin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae, by which resistance to the last group of antibiotics will likely spread rapidly. The worst-case scenario, “a return to the pre-antibiotic era”, is likely in sight. A perpetual goal for antibiotic research is the discovery of an antibiotic that lacks resistance potential, such as the recent discovery of teixobactin. However, when considering the issue from an ecological and evolutionary standpoint, it is evident that it is insufficient to solve the antibiotic dilemma through the use of antibiotics themselves. In this review, we summarized recent advances in antibiotic-based, antibiotic-free and ethnomedical treatments against MRSA wound infections to identify new clues to solve the antibiotic dilemma. One potential solution is to use ethnomedical drugs topically. Some ethnomedical drugs have been demonstrated to be effective antimicrobials against MRSA. A decline in antibiotic resistance can therefore be expected, as has been demonstrated when antibiotic-free treatments were used to limit the use of antibiotics. It is also anticipated that these drugs will have low resistance potential, although there is only minimal evidence to support this claim to date. More clinical trials and animal tests should be conducted on this topic.

  14. Antibiotic treatment of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Morten; Scheutz, Flemming; Villumsen, Steen; Mølbak, Kåre; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A consensus has existed on not to treat verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC)-infected individuals with antibiotics because of possible subsequent increased risk of developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this systematic review is to clarify the risk...

  15. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26558152

  16. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori : Is the end coming?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Young; Kim; Duck; Joo; Choi; Jun-Won; Chung

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) has been associated with gastroduodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a groupI carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacil us. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication.

  17. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-11-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26558152

  18. Clostridium difficile Infection: A Rarity in Patients Receiving Chronic Antibiotic Treatment for Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhik; Lichtiger, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged antibiotic use is limited by several adverse effects, one of which is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CDI in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients with CD for which ≥6 months of outpatient antibiotic therapy was prescribed. Data were collected regarding demographics, CD phenotype, treatment history, and CDI. The incidence of CDI in our patient population was calculated and compared with historical controls. Results 100 patients were studied—60% of men, mean age 23.9 years at CD diagnosis. Eighty-two percent had disease involving the ileum, and 33% had disease involving the colon. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 39.6 months (range, 6–217 months). The most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics were fluoroquinolones (84%), penicillins (57%), and cephalosporins (32%). Forty-nine percent of patients were treated with concomitant thiopurines, 45% with budesonide, and 41% with biologics. The overall incidence of CDI was 2%. This incidence of CDI was lower than previously reported for non-CD patients receiving chronic antibiotics for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device infections (12.5%) and orthopedic prosthesis infections (22.2%). Conclusions The incidence of CDI is rare in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for CD, and it seems significantly lower than for non-CD populations reported in the literature. PMID:26650148

  19. Fungi of the murine gut: episodic variation and proliferation during antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dollive

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use in humans has been associated with outgrowth of fungi. Here we used a murine model to investigate the gut microbiome over 76 days of treatment with vancomycin, ampicillin, neomycin, and metronidazole and subsequent recovery. Mouse stool was studied as a surrogate for the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The abundance of fungi and bacteria was measured using quantitative PCR, and the proportional composition of the communities quantified using 454/Roche pyrosequencing of rRNA gene tags. Prior to treatment, bacteria outnumbered fungi by >3 orders of magnitude. Upon antibiotic treatment, bacteria dropped in abundance >3 orders of magnitude, so that the predominant 16S sequences detected became transients derived from food. Upon cessation of treatment, bacterial communities mostly returned to their previous numbers and types after 8 weeks, though communities remained detectably different from untreated controls. Fungal communities varied substantially over time, even in the untreated controls. Separate cages within the same treatment group showed radical differences, but mice within a cage generally behaved similarly. Fungi increased ∼40-fold in abundance upon antibiotic treatment but declined back to their original abundance after cessation of treatment. At the last time point, Candida remained more abundant than prior to treatment. These data show that 1 gut fungal populations change radically during normal mouse husbandry, 2 fungi grow out in the gut upon suppression of bacterial communities with antibiotics, and 3 perturbations due to antibiotics persist long term in both the fungal and bacterial microbiota.

  20. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  1. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  2. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  3. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use-A One Year Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  4. Improving antibiotic adherence in treatment of acute upper respiratory infections: a quality improvement process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittu Hingorani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately 25 million people in the United States visit their primary care physician each year for acute respiratory infections (ARI. They are a common cause of unnecessary prescription of antibiotics; despite well-validated national treatment guidelines, around 73% of adults with ARI are prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Inappropriate use of antibiotics has profound implications. Methods: Our aim was to increase adherence to antibiotic guidelines for treatment of ARI in an internal medicine outpatient practice. We used a package of active and passive interventions to improve physician awareness of treatment guidelines; these included short sessions of didactic teaching, antibiotic guidelines posters in patient examination rooms and staff areas, clinical decision support (CDS tools integrated into the electronic medical record system, guideline adherence report cards for providers, and reiteration of CDS tool use and guideline adherence at monthly group meetings. Process measures were the rate of use of CDS tools for the management of ARI and patient callbacks within 72 h for the same issue. Outcome measures were compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results: Our low-cost interventions led to a significant improvement in ARI treatment guideline adherence. There was improvement in compliance with treatment guidelines for sinusitis (90.90% vs. 57.58%, p<0.001, pharyngitis (64.28% vs. 25.00%, p = 0.003, upper respiratory infection (96.18% vs. 73.68%, p = 0.008, and the aggregated measure of ARI (91.25% vs. 78.6%, p<0.001. Rate of CDS tool usage was 40.5% with a 72-h callback rate of 0.05%. Conclusion: Simple, low-cost interventions can improve appropriate antibiotic use for ARI and change the prescribing habits of providers in an outpatient setting. Provider and patient education is a vital component of antibiotic stewardship. Simple interventions for common outpatient conditions can have a positive impact

  5. SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS AND OXYTOCIN IN THE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRITIS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad, N. Ahmad. M.K. Mansoor and H.A. Samad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of oxytocin with or without intrauterine antibiotics infusion, on conception rates in 150 endometritic mares. Uterine swabs were collected from each mare and processed for antibiotic sensitivity tests. Samples from 135 mares showing bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity were divided into following groups: Control given oxytocin only, Gentamicin or gentamicin + Oxytocin, Chloramphenicol or Chloramphenicol + Oxytocin, Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin or Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin + Oxytocin and Norfloxacin or Norfloxacin + Oxytocin. After treatment for five days one heat was missed and on second heat mares were bred through natural. mating and examined for pregnancy at least 60 days after service. The overall conception rate in mares of groups treated using antibiotics without oxytocin (62.22% was significantly higher (P<0.05 as compared to 40.00% in the control group. However, conception rates in mares of former groups did not differ from one , another. Similarly. overall conception rate in mares treated using antibiotic + oxytocin combination (82.62% was significantly higher (P<0.05 than overall conception rate in mares treated with antibiotics alone (62.22% or control (40.00%. It was concluded that oxytocin alongwith some suitable antibiotic (s may be used for the treatment of endometritis and improvement of conception rates in endometritic mares

  6. Performance of Ozonation Process as Advanced Treatment for Antibiotics Removal in Membrane Permeate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Cao Ngoc Dan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There was an investigation into the removal of 6 types of antibiotics from hospital wastewater through membrane bioreactor (MBR treatment and ozonation processes. Six types of antibiotics, namely, Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ, Norfloxacin (NOR, Ciprofloxacin (CIP, Ofloxacin (OFL, Erythromycin (ERY, and Vancomycin (VAN which had high detection frequencies in collected samples from hospital wastewater treatment plant (HWTPs. After MBR treatment, the removal efficiencies of SMZ, NOR, OFL, and ERY were 45%, 25%, 30%, and 16%, respectively. Among of them, almost no elimination was observed for CIP and VAN since their concentrations increased by 0.24 ± 0.18 (μg·l-1 and 0.83 ± 0.20 (μg·l-1, respectively. Then, residues of the antibiotics were removed from the MBR effluent by the ozonation process. The overall removal efficiencies of SMZ, NOR, CIP, OFL, ERY, and VAN were approximately 66 %, 88 %, 83 %, 80 %, 93 %, and 92 %, respectively. The reason might be depended on different ozone consumption of those antibiotics (ABS in a range of 313 to 1681 μg ABS·gO--1. Consequently, the ozonation process performed better in the antibiotics removal (e.g. CIP and VAN so ozonation could be considered as important support for the MBR treatment to reduce the risk of antibiotic residues.

  7. Antibiotic treatment expands the resistance reservoir and ecological network of the phage metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Sheetal R; Lee, Henry H; Spina, Catherine S; Collins, James J

    2013-07-11

    The mammalian gut ecosystem has considerable influence on host physiology, but the mechanisms that sustain this complex environment in the face of different stresses remain obscure. Perturbations to the gut ecosystem, such as through antibiotic treatment or diet, are at present interpreted at the level of bacterial phylogeny. Less is known about the contributions of the abundant population of phages to this ecological network. Here we explore the phageome as a potential genetic reservoir for bacterial adaptation by sequencing murine faecal phage populations following antibiotic perturbation. We show that antibiotic treatment leads to the enrichment of phage-encoded genes that confer resistance via disparate mechanisms to the administered drug, as well as genes that confer resistance to antibiotics unrelated to the administered drug, and we demonstrate experimentally that phages from treated mice provide aerobically cultured naive microbiota with increased resistance. Systems-wide analyses uncovered post-treatment phage-encoded processes related to host colonization and growth adaptation, indicating that the phageome becomes broadly enriched for functionally beneficial genes under stress-related conditions. We also show that antibiotic treatment expands the interactions between phage and bacterial species, leading to a more highly connected phage-bacterial network for gene exchange. Our work implicates the phageome in the emergence of multidrug resistance, and indicates that the adaptive capacity of the phageome may represent a community-based mechanism for protecting the gut microflora, preserving its functional robustness during antibiotic stress. PMID:23748443

  8. Efficacy of Single and Combined Antibiotic Treatments of Anthrax in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shay; Altboum, Zeev; Glinert, Itai; Schlomovitz, Josef; Sittner, Assa; Bar-David, Elad; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory anthrax is a fatal disease in the absence of early treatment with antibiotics. Rabbits are highly susceptible to infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by intranasal instillation, succumbing within 2 to 4 days postinfection. This study aims to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy to treat systemic anthrax in this relevant animal model. Delaying the initiation of antibiotic administration to more than 24 h postinfection resulted in animals with systemic anthrax in various degrees of bacteremia and toxemia. As the onset of symptoms in humans was reported to start on days 1 to 7 postexposure, delaying the initiation of treatment by 24 to 48 h (time frame for mass distribution of antibiotics) may result in sick populations. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic administration as a function of bacteremia levels at the time of treatment initiation. Here we compare the efficacy of treatment with clarithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin), imipenem, vancomycin, rifampin, and linezolid to the previously reported efficacy of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. We demonstrate that treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem, vancomycin, and linezolid were as effective as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, curing rabbits exhibiting bacteremia levels of up to 10(5) CFU/ml. Clarithromycin and rifampin were shown to be effective only as a postexposure prophylactic treatment but failed to treat the systemic (bacteremic) phase of anthrax. Furthermore, we evaluate the contribution of combined treatment of clindamycin and ciprofloxacin, which demonstrated improvement in efficacy compared to ciprofloxacin alone. PMID:26392505

  9. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  10. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution Systems▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Chuanwu; Zhang, Yongli; Marrs, Carl F.; Ye, Wen; Simon, Carl; Foxman, Betsy; Nriagu, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are pressing public health problems worldwide, and aquatic ecosystems are a recognized reservoir for ARB. We used culture-dependent methods and quantitative molecular techniques to detect and quantify ARB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in source waters, drinking water treatment plants, and tap water from several cities in Michigan and Ohio. We found ARGs and heterotrophic ARB in all finished water and tap water tested, a...

  11. Interrupt Handlers in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan; Schoeberl, Martin; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    An important part of implementing device drivers is to control the interrupt facilities of the hardware platform and to program interrupt handlers. Current methods for handling interrupts in Java use a server thread waiting for the VM to signal an interrupt occurrence. It means that the interrupt...... is handled at a later time, which has some disadvantages. We present constructs that allow interrupts to be handled directly and not at a later point decided by a scheduler. A desirable feature of our approach is that we do not require a native middleware layer but can handle interrupts entirely with Java...... code. We have implemented our approach using an interpreter and a Java processor, and give an example demonstrating its use....

  12. Assays of residual antibiotics after treatment of {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hye; Nam, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Hun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The pollution of antibiotics is a major cause of spreading antibiotics resistant bacteria in the environment. Applications of ozonation, UV, and {gamma}-ray irradiations have been introduced to remove antibiotics in the effluents from wastewater treatment system. In this study, we compared the chemical (HPLC) and biological (antimicrobial susceptibility test, AMS) assays in measuring of the concentrations of residual antibiotics after {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation. Most samples were degraded by {gamma}-ray irradiation (1 {approx} 2 kGy). However, lincomycin and tetracycline were not degraded by UV irradiation. The concentration of residual antibiotics, that was treated with {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation, measuring by bioassay was similar to HPLC. The concentrations of {gamma}-ray irradiated cephradine measured by AMS test were 2 times higher than of HPLC assay, indicating AMS test is more sensitive than HPLC assay. These results indicate that {gamma}-ray irradiation technique is more useful than UV irradiation, and biological assay is more useful to detect the antibiotics and toxic intermediates in antibiotics degradation.

  13. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics in ecological and conventional wastewater treatment processes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huiyu; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Wang, Weidong; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence and removal of 19 antibiotics (including four macrolides, eight sulfonamides, three fluoroquinolones, three tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) were investigated in two ecological (constructed wetland (CW) and stabilization pond (SP)) and two conventional wastewater treatment processes (activated sludge (AS) and micro-power biofilm (MP)) in a county of eastern China. All target antibiotics were detected in the influent and effluent samples with detection frequencies of >90%. Clarithromycin, ofloxacin, roxithromycin and erythromycin-H2O were the dominant antibiotics with maximum concentrations reaching up to 6524, 5411, 964 and 957 ng/L, respectively; while the concentrations of tiamulin, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole and sulfisoxazole were below 10 ng/L. Although the mean effluent concentrations of target antibiotics were obviously lower than the influent ones (except ciprofloxacin), their removals were usually incomplete. Principal component analysis showed that the AS and CW outperformed the MP and SP processes and the AS performed better than the CW process in terms of antibiotics removal. Both the AS and CW processes exhibited higher removal efficiencies in summer than in winter, indicating biological degradation could play an important role in antibiotics removal. Because of the incomplete removal, the total concentration of detected antibiotics increased in the mixing and downstream sections of a local river receiving the effluent from a typical wastewater treatment facility practicing AS process. Nowadays, ecological wastewater treatment processes are being rapidly planned and constructed in rural areas of China; however, the discharge of residual antibiotics to the aquatic environment may highlight a necessity for optimizing or upgrading their design and operation. PMID:27127893

  14. A Biomathematical Model of Pneumococcal Lung Infection and Antibiotic Treatment in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schirm

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is considered to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The outcome depends on both, proper antibiotic treatment and the effectivity of the immune response of the host. However, due to the complexity of the immunologic cascade initiated during infection, the latter cannot be predicted easily. We construct a biomathematical model of the murine immune response during infection with pneumococcus aiming at predicting the outcome of antibiotic treatment. The model consists of a number of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing dynamics of pneumococcal population, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, neutrophils and macrophages fighting the infection and destruction of alveolar tissue due to pneumococcus. Equations were derived by translating known biological mechanisms and assuming certain response kinetics. Antibiotic therapy is modelled by a transient depletion of bacteria. Unknown model parameters were determined by fitting the predictions of the model to data sets derived from mice experiments of pneumococcal lung infection with and without antibiotic treatment. Time series of pneumococcal population, debris, neutrophils, activated epithelial cells, macrophages, monocytes and IL-6 serum concentrations were available for this purpose. The antibiotics Ampicillin and Moxifloxacin were considered. Parameter fittings resulted in a good agreement of model and data for all experimental scenarios. Identifiability of parameters is also estimated. The model can be used to predict the performance of alternative schedules of antibiotic treatment. We conclude that we established a biomathematical model of pneumococcal lung infection in mice allowing predictions regarding the outcome of different schedules of antibiotic treatment. We aim at translating the model to the human situation in the near future.

  15. Retrospective analysis of antibiotic treatments against piscirickettsiosis in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek; Stryhn, Henrik; Sánchez, Javier; Ibarra, Rolando; Tello, Alfredo; St-Hilaire, Sophie

    2016-03-30

    Piscirickettsiosis is the most prevalent salt-water infectious disease in farmed salmonids in Chile. Antimicrobials are used to treat this disease; however, there is growing concern about the poor response to therapeutants on some fish farms. The objective of this study was to assess whether factors such as type of antibiotic used, average fish weight, temperature at the beginning of the treatment, and mortality at the time of treatment administration affect the probability of treatment failure against piscirickettsiosis. Pen-level treatment and production information for the first treatment event from 2014 pens on 118 farms was used in a logistic mixed model to assess treatment failure. We defined a failed treatment as when the average mortality 3 wk after the treatment was above 0.1%. Farm and company were included in the model as random effects. We found that the antibiotic product, mortality level before the treatment, and fish weight at the start of the treatment all had a significant effect on treatment outcome. Our results suggest that antibiotic treatment success is higher if the treatment is administered when mortality associated with piscirickettsiosis is relatively low. We discuss the effect of weight on treatment success and its potential relationships with husbandry practices and drug pharmacokinetics. PMID:27025310

  16. Treatment of osteomyelitis with antibiotic-soaked porous glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanabe, K; Okada, Y; Matsusue, Y; Iida, H; Nakamura, T

    1998-05-01

    We have developed a new drug delivery system using porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (A-W GC) to treat osteomyelitis. A-W GC (porosity, 70% and 20% to 30%), or porous hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks (porosity 35% to 48%) used as controls, were soaked in mixtures of two antibiotics, isepamicin sulphate (ISP) and cefmetazole (CMZ) under high vacuum. We evaluated the release concentrations of the antibiotics from the blocks. The bactericidal concentration of ISP from A-W GC was maintained for more than 42 days, but that from HA decreased to below the detection limit after 28 days. The concentrations of CMZ from both materials were lower than those of ISP. An in vivo study using rabbit femora showed that an osseous concentration of ISP was maintained at eight weeks after implantation. Osteoconduction of the A-W GC block was good. Four patients with infected hip arthroplasties and one with osteomyelitis of the tibia have been treated with the new delivery system with excellent results. PMID:9619951

  17. Cecum lymph node dendritic cells harbor slow-growing bacteria phenotypically tolerant to antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kaiser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo, antibiotics are often much less efficient than ex vivo and relapses can occur. The reasons for poor in vivo activity are still not completely understood. We have studied the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in an animal model for complicated Salmonellosis. High-dose ciprofloxacin treatment efficiently reduced pathogen loads in feces and most organs. However, the cecum draining lymph node (cLN, the gut tissue, and the spleen retained surviving bacteria. In cLN, approximately 10%-20% of the bacteria remained viable. These phenotypically tolerant bacteria lodged mostly within CD103⁺CX₃CR1⁻CD11c⁺ dendritic cells, remained genetically susceptible to ciprofloxacin, were sufficient to reinitiate infection after the end of the therapy, and displayed an extremely slow growth rate, as shown by mathematical analysis of infections with mixed inocula and segregative plasmid experiments. The slow growth was sufficient to explain recalcitrance to antibiotics treatment. Therefore, slow-growing antibiotic-tolerant bacteria lodged within dendritic cells can explain poor in vivo antibiotic activity and relapse. Administration of LPS or CpG, known elicitors of innate immune defense, reduced the loads of tolerant bacteria. Thus, manipulating innate immunity may augment the in vivo activity of antibiotics.

  18. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-01-01

    Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of...

  19. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD90/45

  20. A novel method for imaging the pharmacological effects of antibiotic treatment on Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Bradley T; Bassères, Eugénie; Memariani, Ali; Chang, Long; Alam, M Jahangir; Vickers, Richard J; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Garey, Kevin W

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is a significant cause of nosocomial-acquired infection that results in severe diarrhea and can lead to mortality. Treatment options for C. difficile infection (CDI) are limited, however, new antibiotics are being developed. Current methods for determining efficacy of experimental antibiotics on C. difficile involve antibiotic killing rates and do not give insight into the drug's pharmacologic effects. Considering this, we hypothesized that by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tandem to drug killing curves, we would be able to determine efficacy and visualize the phenotypic response to drug treatment. To test this hypothesis, supraMIC kill curves were conducted using vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, and ridinilazole. Following collection, cells were either plated or imaged using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Consistent with previous reports, we found that the tested antibiotics had significant bactericidal activity at supraMIC concentrations. By SEM imaging and using a semi-automatic pipeline for image analysis, we were able to determine that vancomycin and to a lesser extent fidaxomicin and ridinilazole significantly affected the cell wall, whereas metronidazole, fidaxomicin, and ridinilazole had significant effects on cell length suggesting a metabolic effect. While the phenotypic response to drug treatment has not been documented previously in this manner, the results observed are consistent with the drug's mechanism of action. These techniques demonstrate the versatility and reliability of imaging and measurements that could be applied to other experimental compounds. We believe the strategies laid out here are vital for characterizing new antibiotics in development for treating CDI. PMID:27108094

  1. Impact of probiotic supplements on microbiome diversity following antibiotic treatment of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul, Hannah; Kanda, L Leann; Gondek, David

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in microbial populations of the intestinal tract have been associated with a multitude of nutritional, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The limited diversity following antibiotic treatments creates a window for opportunistic pathogens, diarrhea, and inflammation as the microbiome repopulates. Depending on the antibiotics used, microbial diversity can take weeks to months to recover. To alleviate this loss of diversity in the intestinal microbiota, supplementation with probiotics has become increasingly popular. However, our understanding of the purported health benefits of these probiotic bacteria and their ability to shape the microbiome is significantly lacking. This study examined the impact of probiotics concurrent with antibiotic treatment or during the recovery phase following antibiotic treatment of mice. We found that probiotics did not appear to colonize the intestine themselves or shift the overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota. However, the probiotic supplementation did significantly change the types of bacteria which were present. In particular, during the recovery phase the probiotic caused a suppression of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth (Shigella and Escherichia) while promoting a blooming of Firmicutes, particularly from the Anaerotruncus genus. These results indicate that probiotics have a significant capacity to remodel the microbiome of an individual recovering from antibiotic therapy. PMID:26963277

  2. Drug-resistance mutations number and K70R or T215Y/F substitutions predict treatment resumption during guided treatment interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Laila; Esteve, Anna; Ruiz, Lidia; Paredes, Roger; Bellido, Rocio; Cabrera, Cecilia; Romeu, Joan; Bofill, Margarita; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2008-05-01

    The role of antiretroviral history and genotypic resistance information as predictors of the first treatment interruption (TI) length in a CD4(+) cell count and plasma viremia-guided TI study (GTI) was assessed. Drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) were monitored in chronically HIV-1-infected subjects who underwent GTI. Patients were retrospectively classified into those who received monotherapy or dual therapy prior to HAART (pre-HAART group, n = 44) or directly initiated HAART (HAART group, n = 43). DRMs were assessed by population-based sequencing of proviral DNA at baseline and plasma RNA monthly during TI up to 180 weeks. Univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models were used to determine time off therapy predictors. The emergence of viruses with DRMs during TI was 5.1-fold more likely in pre-HAART than in HAART patients. The presence of DRMs in proviral DNA or plasma RNA was associated with shorter time off therapy. An accumulation of three or more DRMs duplicated the risk of restarting therapy with respect to having one or two mutations. Regardless of the number of DRMs, the presence of K70R or T215F/Y predicted the shortest TI time. Multivariate analyses adjusted by nadir CD4(+) counts supported the presence of DRMs in plasma HIV-1 RNA, and specifically the K70R or T215F/Y, as potent predictors of time off therapy. A history of monotherapy or dual therapy, accumulation of three or more key DRMs in the HIV-1 polymerase, and/or the presence of substitutions K70R or T215F/Y were associated with shorter time off therapy during GTI. A genotypic profile could provide clinicians with a predictive tool for time off therapy when TI is required in patients with suppressed viremia in whom nadir CD4(+) count is not available. PMID:18462084

  3. Levels and treatment options for enteric and antibiotic resistant bacteria in sewage from Sisimiut, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2013-01-01

    enterococci, the wastewater is very strong, suggesting a potential hygienic risk. In addition, a high fraction of antibiotic resistant bacteria and an increased toxicity in the sub-stream from the hospital, suggest that this stream contains toxic compounds, possibly antibiotic of nature that may affect the...... the presence of Total coliforms, Escherichia coli (Ecoli), enterococci, streptococci, antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and toxicity in sewage from two sewer outlets in Sisimiut, West-Greenland, as well as in a sub-stream from the local hospital. According to the content of streptococci and...... local Arctic marine environment negatively. Both peracetic acid treatment and UV-C radiation shows potential for disinfection of the wastewater after removal of solids >60μm. E-coli was most susceptible to peracetic acid treatment, while a maximum possible reduction of enterococci and coliforms of 2...

  4. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Luciana Segura de; Andrade Rafael Luiz Barboza de; Becker Alexssandro Geferson; Baldisserotto Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control). Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with ch...

  5. Factors associated with antibiotic misuse in outpatient treatment for upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Jennifer L; Ruh, Christine A; Sellick, John A; Ott, Michael C; Mattappallil, Arun; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2015-07-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics since 1995 when it initiated the National Campaign for Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community. This study examined upper respiratory tract infections included in the campaign to determine the degree to which antibiotics were appropriately prescribed and subsequent admission rates in a veteran population. This study was a retrospective chart review conducted among outpatients with a diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, or nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection, between January 2009 and December 2011. The study found that 595 (35.8%) patients were treated appropriately, and 1,067 (64.2%) patients received therapy considered inappropriate based on the Get Smart Campaign criteria. Overall the subsequent readmission rate was 1.5%. The majority (77.5%) of patients were prescribed an antibiotic. The most common antibiotics prescribed were azithromycin (39.0%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.2%), and moxifloxacin (7.5%). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant predictors of appropriate treatment, including the presence of tonsillar exudates (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 0.9), fever (OR, 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 0.4; CI, 0.3 to 0.6), while penicillin allergy (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.7 to 4.7) and cough (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.1 to 2.2) were significant predictors for inappropriate treatment. Poor compliance with the Get Smart Campaign was found in outpatients for respiratory infections. Results from this study demonstrate the overprescribing of antibiotics, while providing a focused view of improper prescribing. This article provides evidence that current efforts are insufficient for curtailing inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25870064

  6. [The treatment of digitalis poisoning with antibiotics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, T; Stucki, P; Barandun, S; Scholtysik, G; Riesen, W

    1980-05-01

    Digitalis intoxication occurs frequently and proves fatal in 5-10% of all cases. Treatment is limited to symptomatic measures. Glycoside-specific antibodies offer a new way of treatment of digitalis intoxication. In our experiments with cats, they were found to be highly effective in reversing digoxin-induced arrhythmias. Specific antibodies have previously been employed in a patient with suicidal digoxin intoxication. We report a case of nonsuicidal Lanatosid-C intoxication treated with F(ab')2-fragments of digoxin-specific antibodies from the sheep. The treatment was successful and without side-effects. Serum concentration of free digoxin and total digoxin measured during and after treatment showed a decrease of free and a sharp raise in total digoxin. For clinical use, antibody fragments are superior to intact antibodies. Problems and possible indications concerning the treatment of digitalis intoxication with antibodies are briefly discussed. PMID:7456600

  7. Different recommendations for empiric first-choice antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuiston Haslund, Josephine; Rosborg Dinesen, Marianne; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen;

    2013-01-01

    -20%, sulphamethizole, trimethoprim. or fluoroquinolones were recommended in half of the countries. CONCLUSION: Within the European countries there are considerable differences in recommendations for empiric first-choice antibiotic treatment of uUTI. In order to reduce the increasing antimicrobial resistance in Europe...

  8. Yeast mediates lactic acidosis suppression after antibiotic cocktail treatment in short small bowel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.; Skladal, D.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; Sperl, W.

    2005-01-01

    During acidotic periods in a girl with a short small bowel, very high D-lactic acid concentrations were measured in blood and urine; the patient's characteristic faecal flora contained mainly lactobacilli, and during antibiotic cocktail treatment also many yeasts. In this case report we sought to un

  9. Invited review: Antibiotic treatment of metritis in dairy cows: a systematic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2014-11-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) is an acute systemic illness with fever ≥ 39.5 °C and signs of toxemia due to an infection of the uterus occurring within 21 d after parturition. Because of the infectious nature of APM, antibiotics are considered beneficial for its treatment. Each use of an antimicrobial drug, however, is associated with selective pressure for the emergence of resistant bacteria. Hence, there is a significant need to encourage prudent use of antibiotics and alternative therapies to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review the current literature on treatment of APM. A comprehensive and systematic literature search was conducted utilizing the PubMed and CAB Abstracts databases to identify literature focusing on the antibiotic therapy of puerperal metritis in the cow. After application of specific exclusion criteria, 21 publications comprising 23 trials remained for final evaluation. Data extraction revealed that the majority of the studies (n = 19) were attributable to the highest evidence level. Of 21 studies controlled, 11 had an untreated group and 3 a positive control group. The majority of the studies (n = 17) applied ceftiofur for the treatment of APM. Concerning the efficacy of ceftiofur, 7 studies observed clinical improvement, whereas none found improved reproductive performance. Fewer than half of the studies (n = 10) performed a bacteriological examination and only 4 implemented an antibiotic susceptibility test. Also, 3 studies (13.0%) described a self-cure rate per se. Little attention was given to the issue of bacterial resistance (n = 3), the need for reducing the application of antibiotics (n = 2), or guidelines for prudent use of antibiotics (n = 1). Our findings demonstrate that implementation of bacteriological examinations, sensitivity testing, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations, as well as reporting and discussion of critical issues (e.g., self-cure rates, resistance

  10. Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fasulo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.

  11. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 μg/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 μg/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters. - This work investigates the extent of antibiotic concentrations in receiving waters from discharges of wastewater treatment plants

  12. Maternal Antibiotic Treatment Impacts Development of the Neonatal Intestinal Microbiome and Antiviral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Gabriela; Hicks, Allison L; Tekieli, Tessa M; Radens, Caleb M; Williams, Brent L; Lamousé-Smith, Esi S N

    2016-05-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) begins at birth, is shaped by the maternal microbiota, and is profoundly altered by antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment of mothers during pregnancy influences colonization of the GIT microbiota of their infants. The role of the GIT microbiota in regulating adaptive immune function against systemic viral infections during infancy remains undefined. We used a mouse model of perinatal antibiotic exposure to examine the effect of GIT microbial dysbiosis on infant CD8(+) T cell-mediated antiviral immunity. Maternal antibiotic treatment/treated (MAT) during pregnancy and lactation resulted in profound alterations in the composition of the GIT microbiota in mothers and infants. Streptococcus spp. dominated the GIT microbiota of MAT mothers, whereas Enterococcus faecalis predominated within the MAT infant GIT. MAT infant mice subsequently exhibited increased and accelerated mortality following vaccinia virus infection. Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells were reduced in sublethally infected MAT infant mice. MAT CD8(+) T cells from uninfected infant mice also demonstrated a reduced capacity to sustain IFN-γ production following in vitro activation. We additionally determined that control infant mice became more susceptible to infection if they were born in an animal facility using stricter standards of hygiene. These data indicate that undisturbed colonization and progression of the GIT microbiota during infancy are necessary to promote robust adaptive antiviral immune responses. PMID:27036912

  13. Newer antibiotics for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Leung, Chi Bon; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Li, Philip Kam-Tao; Szeto, Cheuk Chun

    2016-08-01

    Peritonitis is a debilitating infectious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Drug-resistant bacterial peritonitis typically has a lower response rate to antibiotics. In the past 15 years, newer antibiotics with activities against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria have been developed. In most circumstances, peritonitis due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci responds to vancomycin. If vancomycin cannot be used due to allergy and/or non-susceptibility, there is increasing evidence that linezolid and daptomycin are the drugs of choice. It is reasonable to start linezolid orally or intravenously, but subsequent dose reduction may be necessary in case of myelosuppression. Daptomycin can be given intravenously or intraperitoneally and has excellent anti-biofilm activity. Other treatment options for drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial peritonitis include teicoplanin, tigecycline and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Teicoplanin is not available in some countries (e.g. the USA). Tigecycline can only be given intravenously. Quinupristin/dalfopristin is ineffective against Enterococcus faecalis and there is only low-quality evidence to support its efficacy in the treatment of peritonitis. Effective newer antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are lacking. Polymyxins can be considered, but evidence on its efficacy is limited. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of newer antibiotics in the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial peritonitis in PD patients. PMID:27478608

  14. Characteristics of an ideal nebulized antibiotic for the treatment of pneumonia in the intubated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Nicolau, David P; Pugin, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Gram-negative pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher healthcare costs compared with those who do not have the disease. Intravenous antibiotics are currently the standard of care for pneumonia; however, increasing rates of multidrug resistance and limited penetration of some classes of antimicrobials into the lungs reduce the effectiveness of this treatment option, and current clinical cure rates are variable, while recurrence rates remain high. Inhaled antibiotics may have the potential to improve outcomes in this patient population, but their use is currently restricted by a lack of specifically formulated solutions for inhalation and a limited number of devices designed for the nebulization of antibiotics. In this article, we review the challenges clinicians face in the treatment of pneumonia and discuss the characteristics that would constitute an ideal inhaled drug/device combination. We also review inhaled antibiotic options currently in development for the treatment of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated. PMID:27090532

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for bla(TEM) gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  17. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

  18. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of this project is to provide readers of Derrida with a sort of reference guide for his discussions on and deconstructive approach to hospitality.

  19. Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Otivhia Elizabeth; Ojo Modupe T; Sopeju Priscilla O; Sweet Shauna J; Atkinson Nancy L; Rosenberg Goldstein Rachel E; Coker Morenike E; Sapkota Amy R; Ayepola Olayemi O; Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso O; Shireman Laura; Pottinger Paul S; Ojo Kayode K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706) at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities w...

  20. Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stricker RB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raphael B Stricker1,3, Allison K DeLong2, Christine L Green1,3, Virginia R Savely1,3, Stanley N Chamallas1,4, Lorraine Johnson1,31International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3California Lyme Disease Association, Marysville, CA, USA; 4QMedRx Inc, Maitland, FL, USABackground: We have shown previously that extended intravenous antibiotic therapy is associated with low morbidity and no mortality in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. In this study, we evaluated the benefit of extended intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients with symptoms of neurologic Lyme disease.Methods: Patients with significant neurologic symptoms and positive testing for Borrelia burgdorferi were treated with intravenous antibiotics, and biweekly evaluation of symptom severity was performed using a six-level ordinal scale. Four symptoms were selected a priori as primary outcome measures in the study, ie, fatigue, cognition, myalgias, and arthralgias. Patients were placed into five groups according to time on treatment (1–4, 5–8, 9–12, 13–24, and 25–52 weeks, and changes in the primary symptoms as a function of time on treatment were analyzed using a mixed-effects proportional odds model.Results: Among 158 patients with more than one follow-up visit who were monitored for up to 1 year, there were on average 6.7 visits per person (median 5, range 2–24. The last follow-up day was on average 96 days after enrollment (median 69, range 7–354 days, corresponding to the length of antibiotic therapy. Each primary symptom was significantly improved at one or more time points during the study. For cognition, fatigue, and myalgias, the greatest improvement occurred in patients on the longest courses of treatment (25–52 weeks with odds ratios (OR for improvement of 1.97 (P = 0.02, 2.22 (P < 0.01, and 2.08 (P = 0.01, respectively. In contrast

  1. Seasonality of antibiotic prescriptions for outpatients and resistance genes in sewers and wastewater treatment plant outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Serena; Karkman, Antti; Cacace, Damiano; Rybicki, Marcus; Timpel, Patrick; Voolaid, Veiko; Gurke, Robert; Virta, Marko; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis of a seasonal relationship of antibiotic prescriptions for outpatients and the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the wastewater, we investigated the distribution of prescriptions and different ARGs in the Dresden sewer system and wastewater treatment plant during a two-year sampling campaign. Based on quantitative PCR (qPCR), our results show a clear seasonal pattern for relative ARGs abundances. The higher ARGs levels in autumn and winter coincide with the higher rates of overall antibiotic prescriptions. While no significant differences of relative abundances were observed before and after the wastewater treatment for most of the relative ARGs, the treatment clearly influenced the microbial community composition and abundance. This indicates that the ARGs are probably not part of the dominant bacterial taxa, which are mainly influenced by the wastewater treatment processes, or that plasmid carrying bacteria remain constant, while plasmid free bacteria decrease. An exception was vancomycin (vanA), showing higher relative abundance in treated wastewater. It is likely that a positive selection or community changes during wastewater treatment lead to an enrichment ofvanA. Our results demonstrate that in a medium-term study the combination of qPCR and next generation sequencing corroborated by drug-related health data is a suitable approach to characterize seasonal changes of ARGs in wastewater and treated wastewater. PMID:27073234

  2. Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of escape pathways from antiangiogenic treatments was reported to be associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and rebound effect was suggested after treatment stop. Aim of the study was to evaluate tumor response simulating different conditions of administration of antiangiogenic treatment (transient or definitive treatment stop) in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Subcutaneous tumors were created by inoculating 5×106 Huh7 cells into the right flank of 14 nude mice. When tumor size reached 5–10 mm, mice were divided in 3 groups: group 1 was treated with placebo, group 2 was treated with sorafenib (62 mg/kg via gavage) but temporarily suspended from day +5 to +9, whereas in group 3 sorafenib was definitively stopped at day +5. At day +13 all mice were sacrificed, collecting masses for Western-Blot analyses. Volume was calculated with B-mode ultrasonography at day 0, +5, +9, +11 and +13. VEGFR2-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound using BR55 (Bracco Imaging) was performed at day +5 and +13 and elastonosography (Esaote) at day +9 and +11 to assess tumor stiffness. Median growth percentage delta at day +13 versus day 0 was 197% (115–329) in group 1, 81% (48–144) in group 2 and 111% (27–167) in group 3. Median growth delta at day +13 with respect to day +5 was 79% (48–127), 37% (−14128) and 81% (15–87) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Quantification of targeted-CEUS at day +13 showed higher values in group 3 (509 Arbitrary Units AI, range 293–652) than group 1 (275 AI, range 191–494) and group 2 (181 AI, range 63–318) (p = 0.033). Western-Blot analysis demonstrated higher VEGFR2 expression in group 3 with respect to group 1 and 2. A transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment does not impede restoration of tumor response, while a definitive interruption tends to stimulate a rebound of angiogenesis to higher level than without treatment

  3. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  4. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  5. Wastewater treatment plants as a hub between clinical and environmental antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kreuzinger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics (AB are among the most important pharmaceuticals applied in both, human and veterinarian medicine. As long as their use, concerns about an increase in resistance (ABR of originally targeted organisms exist. Within the last few years the significance of wastewater treatment plants and the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB or genes (ARG by discharged effluents got into the focus of scientific research. Within a wastewater treatment plant there are two specific conditions that could induce transfer of ARGs and selection of ARBs: • Low concentrations of antibiotics that are far below a therapeutically dose and can act as selection parameter for ABR • Living or dead resistant clinically relevant bacteria that can transfer their ARGs via different means to environmental bacteria that are adapted to usual environmental conditions and therefore can transfer ARGs to the gene pool of the aquatic environment Both aspects can be demonstrated by applying the concept of the “mutant selection window” to wastewater treatment plants that implies that between a miniumum inhibitory concentration (MIC and a higher mutant prevention concentration (MPC there is a concentration range where an antibiotic has an effect on the selection of ARBs. The pathway of resistance back from the environment to the human is not clear now and hardly investigated. As awareness ARBs and ARGs by wastewater treatment plants is there now, engineers are about to adopt existing treatment technologies for decreasing the release and are designing new technologies that even are able to inhibit their release to the aquatic environment.

  6. The agricultural use of water treatment plant sludge: pathogens and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Nadal Rocamora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of water treatment plant sludge to restore degraded soils is customary agricultural practice, but it could be dangerous from the point of view of both health and the environment. A transient increase of either pathogenic or indicator microbial populations, whose persistence in time is variable and attributed to the characteristics of the soil (types of materials in the soil, any amendments (origin and treatments it has undergone or the weather (humidity and temperature mainly, has often been detected in soils treated with this kind of waste. Given their origin, water treatment plant sludges could lead to the transmission of a pathogens and b antibiotic-resistant microorganisms to human beings through the food chain and cause the spreading of antibiotic resistances as a result of their increase and persistence in the soil for variable periods of time. However, Spanish legislation regulating the use of sludges in the farming industry is based on a very restricted microbiological criterion. Thus, we believe better parameters should be established to appropriately inform of the state of health of soils treated with water treatment plant sludge, including aspects which are not presently assessed such as antibiotic resistance.

  7. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. PMID:25867225

  8. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Abdelgawad Edesa

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy.

  9. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Semb, Synne; Olsen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in cirrhosis, associated with a high mortality. Third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as first-line treatment. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of microbiological ascitic fluid findings and antimicrobial...... resistance in Denmark. Material and Methods. All patients with cirrhosis and a positive ascitic fluid culture, at three university hospitals in the Copenhagen area during a 7-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with apparent secondary peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results. One...... of Listeria monocytogenes was identified (0.5%). Overall antibiotic coverage was 57% for cephalosporins, 73% for piperacillin-tazobactam, and 72% for meropenem. Mortality rates in patients with isolates susceptible or resistant to the initial antibiotic treatment at 30 days follow-up were 35% and 55...

  10. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  11. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, L A; Goerres, M S; Arends, A.; Sprengers, D; Torrice, C; Hoentjen, F; Grenther, W B; Sartor, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat establishe...

  12. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  13. Antibiotic Treatment Expands the Resistance Reservoir and Ecological Network of the Phage Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Sheetal R.; Lee, Henry H.; Spina, Catherine S.; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian gut ecosystem has significant influence on host physiology 1–4 , but the mechanisms that sustain this complex environment in the face of different stresses remain obscure. Perturbations to this ecosystem, such as through antibiotic treatment or diet, are currently interpreted at the level of bacterial phylogeny 5–7 . Less is known about the contributions of the abundant population of phage to this ecological network. Here, we explore the phageome as a potential genetic reservoir...

  14. Ozone treatment of conditioned wastewater selects antibiotic resistance genes, opportunistic bacteria, and induce strong population shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Johannes; Knopp, Gregor; Dötsch, Andreas; Wieland, Arne; Schwartz, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    An ozone treatment system was investigated to analyze its impact on clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). A concentration of 0.9±0.1g ozone per 1g DOC was used to treat conventional clarified wastewater. PCR, qPCR analyses, Illumina 16S Amplicon Sequencing, and PCR-DGGE revealed diverse patterns of resistances and susceptibilities of opportunistic bacteria and accumulations of some ARGs after ozone treatment. Molecular marker genes for enterococci indicated a high susceptibility to ozone. Although they were reduced by almost 99%, they were still present in the bacterial population after ozone treatment. In contrast to this, Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed only minor changes in abundance after ozone treatment. This indicated different mechanisms of microorganisms to cope with the bactericidal effects of ozone. The investigated ARGs demonstrated an even more diverse pattern. After ozone treatment, the erythromycin resistance gene (ermB) was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, but simultaneously, the abundance of two other clinically relevant ARGs increased within the surviving wastewater population (vanA, blaVIM). PCR-DGGE analysis and 16S-Amplicon-Sequencing confirmed a selection-like process in combination with a substantial diversity loss within the vital wastewater population after ozone treatment. Especially the PCR-DGGE results demonstrated the survival of GC-rich bacteria after ozone treatment. PMID:27058129

  15. Fate and removal of various antibiotic resistance genes in typical pharmaceutical wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wenchao; Yang, Fengxia; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The high levels of antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) make these plants the hotspots for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study investigated the fate and removal of 11 ARG subtypes for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam, and macrolide resistance in each processing stage of two full-scale PWWTPs in northern China. The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.56 ± 0.13) × 10(1) to (2.36 ± 0.11) × 10(7) copies/ml. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.03-78.1 % of influents of the two PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (2.65 ± 0.43) × 10(5) to (4.27 ± 0.03) × 10(10) copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge plus effluent was 1.01-14.09-fold higher than that in the raw influents, suggesting the proliferation of ARGs occurred in the wastewater treatment. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in biological treatment process, such as aeration tank, anoxic tank, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and bio-contact oxidation, facilitates the proliferation of various ARGs, implying significant replication of certain ARG subtypes may be attributable to microbial growth. Chemical oxidation seems promising to remove ARGs, with removal efficiency ranged from 29.3 to 85.7 %, while the partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between antibiotic concentration and ARG removal. Thus, the high antibiotic residues within the PWWTPs may have an influence on the proliferation, fate, and removal of the associated ARG subtypes. PMID:26961534

  16. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  17. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Free-Ranging Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, K.; Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Whittier, C. A.; Todd, A. F.; Yeoman, C. J.; Nelson, K. E.; Wilson, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Modrý, D.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    (2016). ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Antibiotics * Medical treatment * Gastrointestinal microbiome * Illumina MiSeq * Bacteria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.973, year: 2014

  18. High-throughput quantification of antibiotic resistance genes from an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkman, Antti; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a growing problem worldwide, and wastewater treatment plants have been considered as one of the major contributors to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance to the environment. There is a lack of comprehensive quantitative molecular data on extensive numbers of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in different seasons with a sampling strategy that would cover both incoming and outgoing water together with the excess sludge that is removed from the process. In order to fill that gap we present a highly parallel quantitative analysis of ARGs and horizontal gene transfer potential over four seasons at an urban wastewater treatment plant using a high-throughput qPCR array. All analysed transposases and two-thirds of primer sets targeting ARGs were detected in the wastewater. The relative abundance of most of the genes was highest in influent and lower in effluent water and sludge. The resistance profiles of the samples cluster by sample location with a shift from raw influent through the final effluents and dried sludge to the sediments. Wastewater discharge enriched only a few genes, namely Tn25 type transposase gene and clinical class 1 integrons, in the sediment near the discharge pipe, but those enriched genes may indicate a potential for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26832203

  19. Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daqing; Yu, Shuai; Rysz, Michal; Luo, Yi; Yang, Fengxia; Li, Fengxiang; Hou, Jie; Mu, Quanhua; Alvarez, P J J

    2015-11-15

    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging health concern worldwide. Thus, it is important to understand and mitigate their occurrence in different systems. In this study, 30 ARGs that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones or macrolides were detected in two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. Bacteria harboring ARGs persisted through all treatment units, and survived disinfection by chlorination in greater percentages than total Bacteria (assessed by 16S rRNA genes). Although the absolute abundances of ARGs were reduced from the raw influent to the effluent by 89.0%-99.8%, considerable ARG levels [(1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) to (9.5 ± 1.8) × 10(5) copies/mL)] were found in WWTP effluent samples. ARGs were concentrated in the waste sludge (through settling of bacteria and sludge dewatering) at (1.5 ± 2.3) × 10(9) to (2.2 ± 2.8) × 10(11) copies/g dry weight. Twelve ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetS, tetT, tetX, sul1, sul2, qnrB, ermC) were discharged through the dewatered sludge and plant effluent at higher rates than influent values, indicating overall proliferation of resistant bacteria. Significant antibiotic concentrations (2%-50% of raw influent concentrations) remained throughout all treatment units. This apparently contributed selective pressure for ARG replication since the relative abundance of resistant bacteria (assessed by ARG/16S rRNA gene ratios) was significantly correlated to the corresponding effluent antibiotic concentrations. Similarly, the concentrations of various heavy metals (which induce a similar bacterial resistance mechanism as antibiotics - efflux pumps) were also correlated to the enrichment of some ARGs. Thus, curtailing the release of antibiotics and heavy metals to sewage systems (or enhancing their removal in pre-treatment units) may alleviate their selective pressure and mitigate ARG proliferation in WWTPs. PMID:26372743

  20. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  1. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  2. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced ...

  3. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebonyi, Augustine O; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Okpe, Sylvanus E.; Shwe, David D.; Yiltok, Esther S.; Martha O Ochoga; Stephen Oguche

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 childr...

  4. Treatment with antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibits chloroplast division in the desmid Closterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Charophytes is a green algal group closely related to land plants. We investigated the effects of antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan biosynthesis on chloroplast division in the desmid Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex. To detect cells just after division, we used colchicine, which inhibits Closterium cell elongation after division. Although normal Closterium cells had two chloroplasts before and after cell division, cells treated with ampicillin, D-cycloserine, or fosfomycin had only one chloroplast after cell division, suggesting that the cells divided without chloroplast division. The antibiotics bacitracin and vancomycin showed no obvious effect. Electron microscopic observation showed that irregular-shaped chloroplasts existed in ampicillin-treated Closterium cells. Because antibiotic treatments resulted in the appearance of long cells with irregular chloroplasts and cell death, we counted cell types in the culture. The results suggested that cells with one chloroplast appeared first and then a huge chloroplast was generated that inhibited cell division, causing elongation followed by cell death.

  5. Oritavancin: A New Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic in the Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Karrine D; Rybak, Jeffrey M; Rybak, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Resistance among Gram-positive organisms has been steadily increasing over the last several years; however, the development of new antibiotics to treat infections caused from these organisms has fallen short of the emergent need. Specifically, resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. to essential antibiotics is considered a major problem. Oritavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). While structurally related to vancomycin, oritavancin also possesses unique mechanisms of action that greatly enhance its antimicrobial potency against multi-drug resistant pathogens including both VanA- and VanB-mediated vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Owing to the addition of the highly hydrophobic tail group, oritavancin possesses a prolonged half-life ranging from 200-300 h. Although oritavancin is only currently Food and Drug Administration approved for ABSSSI, this agent may eventually play a role in additional indications where new innovative therapy is needed including bacteremia and deep-seeded, Gram-positive infections such as infective endocarditis or osteomyelitis. This review will focus on oritavancin's spectrum of activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and the completed and ongoing clinical studies evaluating its use. PMID:26831328

  6. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern United States. A Coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected A. americanum. The Coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a Rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the numbers of both bacterial species in laboratory-reared A. americanum by injecting engorged nymphs or engorged, mated females with single doses of an antibiotic (rifampin or tetracycline or buffer alone. Burdens of the bacteria after molting or after oviposition were estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers and probes specific for each bacterial species or, as an internal standard, the host tick. Post-molt adult ticks that had been treated with rifampin or tetracycline had lower numbers of the Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. and generally weighed less than ticks that received buffer alone. Similarly, after oviposition, females treated previously with either antibiotic had lower burdens of both bacterial species in comparison to controls. Treatment of engorged females with either antibiotic was associated with prolonged time to oviposition, lower proportions of ticks that hatched, lower proportions of viable larvae among total larvae, and lower numbers of viable larvae per tick. These fitness estimators were associated with reduced numbers of the Coxiella sp. but not the Rickettsia sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that the Coxiella sp. is a primary endosymbiont, perhaps provisioning the obligately hematophagous parasites with essential nutrients. The results also suggest that antibiotics could be incorporated into an integrated pest management plan for control of these and other

  7. Effect on the human normal microflora of oral antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, C; Nord, C E

    2000-09-01

    Oral administration of antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) can cause ecological disturbances in the normal intestinal microflora. Poorly absorbed drugs can reach the colon in active form, suppress susceptible microorganisms and disturb the ecological balance. Suppression of the normal microflora may lead to reduced colonization resistance with subsequent overgrowth of pre-existing, naturally resistant microorganisms, such as yeasts and Clostridium difficile. New colonization by resistant potential pathogens may also occur and may spread within the body or to other patients and cause severe infections. It is therefore important to learn more about the ecological effects of antibacterial agents on the human microflora. The impact on intestinal microorganisms of oral antibiotics used for the treatment of UTIs is reviewed here. Ampicillin, amoxycillin and co-amoxiclav suppress both the aerobic and anaerobic intestinal microflora with overgrowth of ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pivmecillinam also affects the intestinal microflora, suppressing Escherichia coli, but does not have a major effect on the anaerobic microflora. Several orally administered cephalosporins, such as cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefprozil and ceftibuten, reduce the number of Enterobacteriaceae and increase the number of enterococci. Colonization with C. difficile has also been observed. Fluoroquinolones eliminate or strongly suppress intestinal Enterobacteriaceae, but affect enterococci and anaerobic bacteria only slightly. When antimicrobial agents are prescribed for the treatment of UTIs, not only the antimicrobial spectrum of the agent but also the potential ecological disturbances, including the risk of emergence of resistant strains, should be considered. PMID:11051623

  8. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig E Jakobsson

    Full Text Available Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four-year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP. While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.

  9. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, H.; Jernberg, C.; Andersson, A.F.; Sjolund-Karlsson, M.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2010-01-15

    Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Vacuum Sealing Drainage Treatment Combined with Antibiotic-Impregnated Bone Cement for Treatment of Soft Tissue Defects and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liang, Jiulong; Zhao, Jun; Quan, Liangliang; Jia, Xunyuan; Li, Mingchao; Tao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) and antibiotic-loaded bone cement on soft tissue defects and infection. Material/Methods This prospective non-blinded study recruited 46 patients with soft tissue defects and infection from January 2010 to May 2014 and randomly divided them into experimental and control groups (n=23). Patients in the experimental group were treated with VSD and antibiotic-loaded bone cement, while the patients in the control group were treated with VSD only. Results In the experimental group, the wound was healed in 23 cases at 4 weeks postoperatively, of which direct suture was performed in 12 cases, and additional free flap transplantation or skin grafting was performed in 6 cases and 5 cases, respectively. No infection reoccurred in 1-year follow-up. In the control group, the wound was healed in 15 cases at 6 weeks postoperatively, of which direct suture was performed in 8 cases, and additional free flap transplantation or skin grafting was performed in 3 cases and 4 cases, respectively. In the other 8 cases the wound was healed at 8 weeks postoperatively. Infection reoccurred in 3 cases during the follow-up. The experimental group had significantly fewer VSD dressing renewals, shorter time needed until the wound was ready for surgery, shorter duration of antibiotic administration, faster wound healing, and shorter hospital stay than the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions The combination of VSD and antibiotic bone cement might be a better method for treatment of soft tissue defects and infection. PMID:27281233

  11. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  12. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China. PMID:26890482

  13. Three unsuccessful treatments of Helicobacter pylori infection by a highly virulent strain with quadruple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Yordanov, Daniel; Markovska, Rumyana; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of an adult patient undergoing three unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori treatments, including proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth subcitrate, metronidazole and tetracycline in 2012, PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin in 2013, and PPI, amoxicillin and rifampin in 2014. Following the first treatment, the isolate was metronidazole and ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin resistant. After the second treatment, the isolate was resistant to metronidazole, ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin and rifampin, developing secondary clarithromycin resistance by A2143G mutation and was susceptible only to tetracycline. After the third treatment, the patient still remained H. pylori positive. Patient's strain was highly virulent (cagA (+) , cagE (+) and vacA s1a/m1/i1). The evolution of the patient's disease was from gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2012 to two duodenal ulcers in 2015. Briefly, the infecting strain showed quadruple antibiotic resistance and a transient amoxicillin resistance. Triple clarithromycin-based treatment induced secondary clarithromycin resistance by A2143G mutation, while rifampin resistance caused the third treatment failure. Several options for the next treatment regimens are discussed. PMID:26634607

  14. Natural history of the infant gut microbiome and impact of antibiotic treatment on bacterial strain diversity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassour, Moran; Vatanen, Tommi; Siljander, Heli; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa J; Franzosa, Eric A; Vlamakis, Hera; Huttenhower, Curtis; Gevers, Dirk; Lander, Eric S; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2016-06-15

    The gut microbial community is dynamic during the first 3 years of life, before stabilizing to an adult-like state. However, little is known about the impact of environmental factors on the developing human gut microbiome. We report a longitudinal study of the gut microbiome based on DNA sequence analysis of monthly stool samples and clinical information from 39 children, about half of whom received multiple courses of antibiotics during the first 3 years of life. Whereas the gut microbiome of most children born by vaginal delivery was dominated by Bacteroides species, the four children born by cesarean section and about 20% of vaginally born children lacked Bacteroides in the first 6 to 18 months of life. Longitudinal sampling, coupled with whole-genome shotgun sequencing, allowed detection of strain-level variation as well as the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. The microbiota of antibiotic-treated children was less diverse in terms of both bacterial species and strains, with some species often dominated by single strains. In addition, we observed short-term composition changes between consecutive samples from children treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes carried on microbial chromosomes showed a peak in abundance after antibiotic treatment followed by a sharp decline, whereas some genes carried on mobile elements persisted longer after antibiotic therapy ended. Our results highlight the value of high-density longitudinal sampling studies with high-resolution strain profiling for studying the establishment and response to perturbation of the infant gut microbiome. PMID:27306663

  15. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  16. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome. PMID:26274050

  17. Bacterial biofilm mechanical properties persist upon antibiotic treatment and survive cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteria living on surfaces form heterogeneous three-dimensional consortia known as biofilms, where they exhibit many specific properties one of which is an increased tolerance to antibiotics. Biofilms are maintained by a polymeric network and display physical properties similar to that of complex fluids. In this work, we address the question of the impact of antibiotic treatment on the physical properties of biofilms based on recently developed tools enabling the in situ mapping of biofilm local mechanical properties at the micron scale. This approach takes into account the material heterogeneity and reveals the spatial distribution of all the small changes that may occur in the structure. With an Escherichia coli biofilm, we demonstrate using in situ fluorescent labeling that the two antibiotics ofloxacin and ticarcillin—targeting DNA replication and membrane assembly, respectively—induced no detectable alteration of the biofilm mechanical properties while they killed the vast majority of the cells. In parallel, we show that a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves extracellular proteins into short peptides, but does not alter bacterial viability in the biofilm, clearly affects the mechanical properties of the biofilm structure, inducing a significant increase of the material compliance. We conclude that conventional biofilm control strategy relying on the use of biocides targeting cells is missing a key target since biofilm structural integrity is preserved. This is expected to efficiently promote biofilm resilience, especially in the presence of persister cells. In contrast, the targeting of polymer network cross-links—among which extracellular proteins emerge as major players—offers a promising route for the development of rational multi-target strategies to fight against biofilms. (paper)

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  19. Treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting: is the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone broken beyond repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Welte, Tobias; Wunderink, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics form the backbone of treatment for Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. However, this beta-lactam antibiotic backbone is increasingly under pressure from emerging resistance across all geographical regions, and health-care professionals in many countries are rapidly running out of effective treatment options. Even in regions that currently have only low levels of resistance, the effects of globalization are likely to increase local pressures on the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone in the near future. Therefore, clinicians are increasingly faced with a difficult balancing act: the need to prescribe adequate and appropriate antibiotic therapy while reducing the emergence of resistance and the overuse of antibiotics. In this review, we explore the burden of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting and the pressure that antibiotic resistance places on current empiric therapy regimens (and the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone) in this patient population. New treatment approaches, such as systemic and inhaled antibiotic alternatives, are on the horizon and are likely to help tackle the rising levels of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. In the meantime, it is imperative that the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone of currently available antibiotics be supported through stringent antibiotic stewardship programs. PMID:26821535

  20. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites. PMID:26658782

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna Cihalova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs—ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin—and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs with these ATBs. The results suggest the strong inhibition effect of SeNPs in complexes with conventional ATBs. Using the impedance method, a higher disruption of biofilms was observed after the application of ATB complexes with SeNPs compared to the group exposed to ATBs without SeNPs. The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99% ± 7% for S. aureus and up to 94% ± 4% for MRSA after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79% ± 5% and MRSA up to 16% ± 2% only. The obtained results provide a basis for the use of SeNPs as a tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, which can be complicated because of increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional ATB drugs.

  2. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and secondary symbiont "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  3. A survey of primary care physician practices in antibiotic prescribing for the treatment of uncomplicated male gonoccocal urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchon Thierry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of resistance to antimicrobial therapy by Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes on-going problems for individual case management of gonorrhoea. Surveillance data about N. gonorrhoeae have indicated an increase in the incidence of gonorrhoea in France in 2006. As a consequence of the development of antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, French guidelines excluded fluoroquinolones as a standard treatment for N. gonorrhoeae. Ceftriaxone became the recommended treatment, associated with azithromycin for Clamydia trachomatis infection. Our aim was to describe the practice patterns of general practitioners (GPs in managing the antibiotic treatment of patients with symptoms suggestive of uncomplicated male urethritis. Methods We developed a clinical vignette describing a man with typical gonococcal urethritis symptoms to elicit questions about antibiotic treatment. We mailed the electronic questionnaire to a random sample of 1000 French GPs belonging to the Sentinelles Network. Results By the end of the survey period, 350 vignettes were received, yielding a response rate of 35%. Sixty-six GPs (20.2% prescribed the recommended antibiotics for the simultaneous treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections, while 132 GPs (40.4% prescribed only non-recommended antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin in 69 cases (21.1%. General practitioners with less than 10 years in practice showed better compliance to guidelines than those with more years in practice (p Conclusions The results suggest a mismatch between the guidelines and the antibiotic treatment of male uncomplicated urethritis by French GPs, mostly among the subgroup of physicians who have been in practice longer. Educational approaches based on practice feedback need to be developed to improve these deficits in the quality of care.

  4. The Effects of Interruptions on Oncologists' Patient Assessment and Medication Ordering Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Trbovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions are causal factors in medication errors. Although researchers have assessed the nature and frequency of interruptions during medication administration, there has been little focus on understanding their effects during medication ordering. The goal of this research was to examine the nature, frequency, and impact of interruptions on oncologists' ordering practices. Direct observations were conducted at a Canadian cancer treatment facility to (1 document the nature, frequency, and timing of interruptions during medication ordering, and (2 quantify the use of coping mechanisms by oncologists. On average, oncologists were interrupted 17 % of their time, and were frequently interrupted during safety-critical stages of medication ordering. When confronted with interruptions, oncologists engaged/multitasked more often than resorting to deferring/blocking. While some interruptions are necessary forms of communication, efforts must be made to reduce unnecessary interruptions during safety-critical tasks, and to develop interventions that increase oncologists' resiliency to inevitable interruptions.

  5. Does Sex Influence the Impact That Smoking, Treatment Interruption and Impaired Pulmonary Function Have on Outcomes in Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory MM Videtic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for survival differences between men and women with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC by examining stratified variables that impair treatment efficacy.

  6. Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Pignatari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs, such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas.

  7. Fabrication of an Interlocked Antibiotic/Cement-Coated Carbon Fiber Nail for the Treatment of Long Bone Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauffrey, Cyril; Butler, Nathan; Hake, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Successful management of intramedullary long bone osteomyelitis remains a challenge for both surgeons and patients. Patients are often immune compromised and have endured multiple surgeries. Treatment principles include antibiotic administration (systemically ± locally), surgical debridement of the infection site, and stabilization. Since their description in 2002, antibiotic-coated nails have become part of the armamentarium for the treatment of osteomyelitis allowing both local elution of antibiotics and stabilization of a debrided long bone. Limitations to their utilization have remained, in part from the technical difficulty of fabrication and magnetic resonance imaging artifacts. We describe a new surgical technique of fabrication that has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, with an end product free of magnetic resonance imaging artifacts. PMID:27441930

  8. Dynamics of Mutator and Antibiotic-Resistant Populations in a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macià, María D.; Pérez, José L.; Molin, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm growth, antibiotic resistance, and mutator phenotypes are key components of chronic respiratory infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. We examined the dynamics of mutator and antibiotic-resistant populations in P. aeruginosa flow-cell biofilms, using fluorescently...... monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the numbers of viable cells and resistant mutants (4- and 16-fold MICs) were determined. Despite optimized pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters, CIP treatment did not suppress resistance development in P. aeruginosa biofilms. One.......01 proportion, took over the whole biofilm after only 2 days of CIP treatment outnumbering PAO1 by 3 log at t4. Our results show that mutational mechanisms play a major role in biofilm antibiotic resistance and that theoretically optimized PK/PD parameters fail to suppress resistance development, suggesting...

  9. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexa Dinant,1 Ramiz A Boulos2,3 1AXD Pty Ltd, Semaphore Park, 2School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, 3Boulos & Cooper Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, Port Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50 concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50. The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979, was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU counts. Results: Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control

  10. Dissemination of veterinary antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes from a concentrated swine feedlot along the waste treatment paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are an important pollution source of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. This study investigated the dissemination of two classes of commonly-used veterinary antibiotics, namely, tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs), and their corresponding ARGs along the waste treatment paths from a concentrated swine feedlot located in Beijing, China. The highest total TC and total SA concentrations detected were 166.7mgkg(-1) and 64.5μgkg(-1) in swine manure as well as 388.7 and 7.56μgL(-1) in swine wastewater, respectively. Fourteen tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), efflux proteins (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation proteins, three sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs), and two integrase genes were detected along the waste treatment paths with detection frequencies of 33.3-75.0%. The relative abundances of target ARGs ranged from 2.74×10(-6) to 1.19. The antibiotics and ARGs generally declined along both waste treatment paths, but their degree of reduction was more significant along the manure treatment path. The RPP TRGs dominated in the upstream samples and then decreased continuously along both waste treatment paths, whilst the EFP TRGs and SRGs maintained relatively stable. Strong correlations between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs were observed among both manure and wastewater samples. In addition, seasonal temperature, and integrase genes, moisture content and nutrient level of tested samples could all impact the relative abundances of ARGs along the swine waste treatment paths. This study helps understand the evolution and spread of ARGs from swine feedlots to the environment as well as assess the environmental risk arising from swine waste treatment. PMID:27128716

  11. Surgical treatment of interrupted aortic arch associated with ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus in patients over one year of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiqiang; Li Bin; Fan Xiangming; Su Junwu; Zhang Jing; He Yan; Liu Yinglong

    2014-01-01

    Background Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1.5% of infants with congenital heart disease.Neonatal repair of IAA is required to avoid irreversible pulmonary vascular lesion.However,in China,patients with IAA associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) over one year of age are common.So we investigated the outcome of surgical treatment of IAA with VSD and PDA in patients over one year of age.Methods From January 2009 to December 2012,19 patients with IAA have undergone complete single-stage repair.The patients' mean age was 4.4 years,ranging 1 to 15 years; and their mean weight was 12.8 kg,ranging 4.2 to 36.0 kg.Fifteen IAA were type A,four were type B.Preoperative cardiac catheterization data were available from all patients.Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured.The measurements of postoperative pulmonary artery pressure were taken in the operating room at the end of the case.All patients underwent echocardiographic examinations before discharged from the hospital.In addition,cardiac catheterization and echocardiographic examinations were performed during follow-up.Selective brain perfusion through the innominate artery during aortic arch reconstruction was used in all patients.Mean follow-up was (1.6±0.8) years.Results There were two hospital deaths (2/19,11%).One patient died of pulmonary hypertension crisis,and another died of postoperative low cardiac output.Five cases had other main postoperative complications but no postoperative neurologic complications.Seventeen survivors were followed up,and there were no late deaths or reoperation.Mean cross-clamp duration was (85±22) minutes and selective brain perfusion duration was (34±11) minutes.Two patients required delayed sternal closure at two days postoperatively.Intensive care unit and hospital stays were (9±8) days and (47±24) days,respectively.Pressure gradients across

  12. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Liantong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Xu, Caijia; Dong, Liming; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    Air samples from twelve sampling sites (including seven intra-plant sites, one upwind site and four downwind sites) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing were collected using a Reuter Centrifugal Sampler High Flow (RCS); and their microbial fractions were studied using culturing and high throughput gene sequence. In addition, the viable (fluorescent) bioaerosol concentrations for 7 intra-plant sites were also monitored for 30 min each using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS). Both air and water samples collected from the plant were investigated for possible bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and integrons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the air near sludge thickening basin was detected to have the highest level of culturable bacterial aerosols (up to 1697 CFU/m3) and fungal aerosols (up to 930 CFU/m3). For most sampling sites, fluorescent peaks were observed at around 3-4 μm, except the office building with a peak at 1.5 μm, with a number concentration level up to 1233-6533 Particles/m3. About 300 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, such as Comamonas Testosteroni and Moraxella Osloensis, were detected from the air samples collected over the biological reaction basin. In addition, we have detected the sul2 gene resistant to cotrimoxazole (also known as septra, bactrim and TMP-SMX) and class 1 integrase gene from the air samples collected from the screen room and the biological reaction basin. Overall, the screen room, sludge thickening basin and biological reaction basin imposed significant microbial exposure risks, including those from airborne antibiotic resistance genes.

  13. Factors Associated with Antibiotic Misuse in Outpatient Treatment for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeck, Jennifer L.; Ruh, Christine A.; Sellick, John A.; Ott, Michael C.; Mattappallil, Arun; Mergenhagen, Kari A.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics since 1995 when it initiated the National Campaign for Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community. This study examined upper respiratory tract infections included in the campaign to determine the degree to which antibiotics were appropriately prescribed and subsequent admission rates in a veteran population. This study was a retrospective chart review conducted among outpatients with a diagnosis of...

  14. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of Zolav® as a novel treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27042015

  15. Effects of interruption of irradiation on Harwell Red Perspex (PMMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell Red Perspex PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate) is a dosimeter very much used in the industrial treatments by Radiations ionizing. The purpose of this work is to test the response of this dosimeter for radiation processes having undergone one or more interruptions. This experimental study based on the development of a factorial experimental design on two levels showed that the response of this dosimeter increases for the interrupted treatments. The value of the estimated amount of response increase is all the more significant as the temperature during the interruption is high. Also it made possible to determine a mathematical model binding the value of the amount posted to the factors of influence: Temperature, target amount, a number of interruptions and duration of each interruption.

  16. Population dynamics of antibiotic treatment: a mathematical model and hypotheses for time-kill and continuous-culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Bruce R; Udekwu, Klas I

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a quantitative framework for generating hypotheses for and interpreting the results of time-kill and continuous-culture experiments designed to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and to relate the results of these experiments to MIC data. A mathematical model combining the pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics with the population dynamics of bacteria exposed to these drugs in batch and continuous cultures was developed, and its properties were analyzed numerically (using computer simulations). These models incorporate details of (i) the functional form of the relationship between the concentrations of the antibiotics and rates of kill, (ii) the density of the target population of bacteria, (iii) the growth rate of the bacteria, (iv) byproduct resources generated from dead bacteria, (v) antibiotic-refractory subpopulations, persistence, and wall growth (biofilms), and (vi) density-independent and -dependent decay in antibiotic concentrations. Each of the factors noted above can profoundly affect the efficacy of antibiotics. Consequently, if the traditional (CLSI) MICs represent the sole pharmacodynamic parameter, PK/PD indices can fail to predict the efficacy of antibiotic treatment protocols. More comprehensive pharmacodynamic data obtained with time-kill and continuous-culture experiments would improve the predictive value of these indices. The mathematical model developed here can facilitate the design and interpretation of these experiments. The validity of the assumptions behind the construction of these models and the predictions (hypotheses) generated from the analysis of their properties can be tested experimentally. These hypotheses are presented, suggestions are made about how they can be tested, and the existing statuses of these tests are briefly discussed. PMID:20516272

  17. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, HB; Manniche, C; Sørensen, JS;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...... and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n = 37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: 29 patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow...

  18. Appropriateness of antibiotic treatment in intravenous drug users, a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fluckiger Ursula

    2008-04-01

    -up, 24.6% of the patients died: 6.4% died during hospitalization (1.2% infection-related and 13.6% of patients died after discharge. Conclusion Appropriate antibiotic therapy according to standard guidelines in hospitalized intravenous drug users is generally practicable and successful. In a minority alternative treatments may be indicated, although associated with a higher risk of relapse.

  19. Effect of Early Antibiotic Treatment on the Antibody Response to Cytoplasmic Proteins of Brucella melitensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Raul A.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    1999-01-01

    To test whether antibiotic therapy hampers the antibody response to Brucella antigens, 30 BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella melitensis H38 and randomized for treatment with doxycycline administered intraperitoneally for 42 days starting at 7 or 28 days postinfection (p.i.) (groups DOX7 and DOX28, respectively) or for no treatment (control group). Antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached peak levels (mean optical density [OD] = 2.618) between days...

  20. Bone grafting and one-stage revision of THR - biological reconstruction and effective antimicrobial treatment using antibiotic impregnated allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Infection of a total hip replacement (THR) is considered one of the most serious complications in orthopaedic surgery. Problems derive from the presence of biofilms with inherent resistance to usual antibiotic treatment and bone defects resulting from infection induced osteolysis. Discussions on the choice of treatment mainly focus on the chance of eradicating the infection in either one or more stages. The advantages of only one operation with regard to patients' satisfaction, functional results and economical burden are evident. However, the fear of re-infection usually leads surgeons to multiple stage procedures, mostly using antibiotic loaded spacers in the interval. Spacers have no effect on biofilms and are associated with a high rate of complications such as breakage or dislocation. Cemented revisions show several disadvantages like reduction of biomechanical properties through added antibiotics, inferior long term results, difficulties of removal in case of recurrence etc. Uncemented implants appear more advantageous but are at risk of becoming colonised by remaining biofilm fragments. To overcome this risk higher local concentrations of antibiotics are needed. Allograft bone may be impregnated with high loads of antibiotics using special incubation techniques, resulting in an antibiotic bone compound (ABC). ABC provides local concentrations exceeding those of cement by more than a 100-fold and efficient release is prolonged for several weeks. At the same time it is likely to restore bone stock, which is usually compromised after removal of an infected endoprosthesis. Based on these considerations new protocols for one-stage exchange of infected THR have been established. Bone voids may be filled with ABC, uncemented implants may be fixed in original healthy bone. Recent studies indicate an overall success rate of more than 90% with one operation, without any adverse side effects. Incorporation of allografts appears as after grafting with unimpregnated bone

  1. Host-dependent Induction of Transient Antibiotic Resistance: A Prelude to Treatment Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z. Kubicek-Sutherland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current antibiotic testing does not include the potential influence of host cell environment on microbial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance, hindering appropriate therapeutic intervention. We devised a strategy to identify the presence of host–pathogen interactions that alter antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings revealed a bacterial mechanism that promotes antibiotic resistance in vivo at concentrations of drug that far exceed dosages determined by standardized antimicrobial testing. This mechanism has escaped prior detection because it is reversible and operates within a subset of host tissues and cells. Bacterial pathogens are thereby protected while their survival promotes the emergence of permanent drug resistance. This host-dependent mechanism of transient antibiotic resistance is applicable to multiple pathogens and has implications for the development of more effective antimicrobial therapies.

  2. Photodynamic Treatment versus Antibiotic Treatment on Helicobacter pylori Using RAPD-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batanouny, M. H.; Amin, R. M.; Ibrahium, M. K.; El Gohary, S.; Naga, M. I.; Salama, M. S.

    2009-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infections in humans and is important in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease, such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, Gastric adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. Gastric adenocarcinoma remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photodynamic treatment and medication treatment of Helicobacter pylori using RAPD-PCR. The lethal photosensitization effect was determined by mixing suspensions of H.pylori with Toluidine blue O (TBO) and plating out on blood agar before irradiation with Helium neon (He-Ne) 632.8 nm. The susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to metronidazole and azithromycin were examined by E-test. Nine random primers were used to screen genetic polymorphism in DNA of different H.pylori groups. Six of them produced RAPD products while three failed to generate any product. The resulting data showed that, although the overall genetic differences between control groups and laser treated groups was higher than that between control groups and azithromycin treated groups yet it still law genetic variability. The main cause of cell death of PDT using TBO as a photosensitizer was mainly cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane.

  3. A prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial comparing antibiotic therapy with appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paajanen Hannu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the standard treatment of acute appendicitis (AA consists of an early appendectomy, there has recently been both an interest and an increase in the use of antibiotic therapy as the primary treatment for uncomplicated AA. However, the use of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA is still controversial. Methods/design The APPAC trial is a randomized prospective controlled, open label, non-inferiority multicenter trial designed to compare antibiotic therapy (ertapenem with emergency appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated AA. The primary endpoint of the study is the success of the randomized treatment. In the antibiotic treatment arm successful treatment is defined as being discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention and no recurrent appendicitis during a minimum follow-up of one-year (treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy in the operative treatment arm is defined as successful appendectomy evaluated to be 100%. Secondary endpoints are post-intervention complications, overall morbidity and mortality, the length of hospital stay and sick leave, treatment costs and pain scores (VAS, visual analoque scale. A maximum of 610 adult patients (aged 18–60 years with a CT scan confirmed uncomplicated AA will be enrolled from six hospitals and randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1:1 ratio either to undergo emergency appendectomy or to receive ertapenem (1 g per day for three days continued by oral levofloxacin (500 mg per day plus metronidazole (1.5 g per day for seven days. Follow-up by a telephone interview will be at 1 week, 2 months and 1, 3, 5 and 10 years; the primary and secondary endpoints of the trial will be evaluated at each time point. Discussion The APPAC trial aims to provide level I evidence to support the hypothesis that approximately 75–85% of patients with uncomplicated AA can be treated with effective antibiotic therapy avoiding unnecessary

  4. Admission avoidance using intramuscular antibiotics for the treatment of borderline foot infections in people with diabetes in a tertiary care foot clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Dhatariya, Ketan

    2013-01-01

    Several international guidelines exist to help decision making for the infected ‘diabetic foot’. However, none consider admissions avoidance. We wanted to develop an antibiotic foot formulary for the empirical treatment of diabetes related foot infections presenting to our service and subsequently to asses the costs associated with the introduction of our protocol. We rationalised our antibiotic protocol. The introduction of our formulary changed the average antibiotic prescribing costs for a...

  5. Appendicitis during pregnancy in a Greenlandic Inuit woman; antibiotic treatment as a bridge-to-surgery in a remote area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard Jensen, Trine; Penninga, Luit

    2016-01-01

    Appendicitis during pregnancy causes severe diagnostic problems, and is associated with an increase in perforation rate and morbidity compared to that in the normal population. In addition, it may cause preterm birth and fetal loss. In remote areas, appendicitis during pregnancy, besides presenting diagnostic problems, also creates treatment difficulties. In Northern Greenland, geographical distances are vast, and weather conditions can be extreme. We report a case of a Greenlandic Inuit woman who presented with appendicitis during pregnancy. The nearest hospital with surgical and anaesthetic care was located nearly 1200 km away, and, due to extreme weather conditions, she could not be transferred immediately. She was treated with intravenous antibiotic treatment, and after weather conditions had improved, she was transferred by aeroplane and underwent appendicectomy. She recovered without complications. Our case suggests that appendicitis during pregnancy may be treated with antibiotics in remote areas until surgical treatment is available. PMID:27194672

  6. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Hanne B.; Manniche, Claus; Sørensen, Joan S.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n=166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and...... effect of antibiotic treatment was large in a group of patients with Modic changes suffering from persistent LBP following a disc herniation. These results provide tentative support for a hypothesis that bacterial infection may play a role in LBP with Modic changes and indicate the need for randomised...

  7. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  8. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  9. Tissue Penetration of a Novel Spectinamide Antibiotic for the Treatment of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhura, Dora Babu; Trivedi, Ashit; Liu, Jiuyu; Boyd, Vincent A; Jeffries, Cynthia; Loveless, Vivian; Lee, Richard E; Meibohm, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 1329, a novel spectinamide antibiotic with anti-tubercular activity, were studied during intravenous administration of an tritium-labeled compound for nine consecutive, 12-hourly doses to rats. Serial blood samples were collected after the first and the eighth dose, and major organs and tissues were collected 1 h after the ninth dose. Urinary and fecal excretion was monitored throughout the dosing period. Radioactivity in the collected samples was assessed by scintillation counting. During the course of treatment, 86.6% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in urine, feces, organs, and muscle tissue. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination, with 70% of radioactivity recovered from urine and 12.6% from feces. The time profiles of radioactivity in serum after the first and the eighth dose were identical for the first 2 h post-dose, with similar Cmax (3.39 vs. 3.55 mCi/L) and AUC0-τ (5.08 vs. 5.17 mCi • h/L), indicating no substantial accumulation of 1329 during multiple dosing. Radioactivity in major target organs for pulmonary tuberculosis infection, the lungs and spleen, was 2.79- and 3.06-fold higher than in the blood. Similarly, the intracellular uptake of 1329 into macrophages was sixfold higher than for streptomycin. Overall, these observations suggest biodistribution properties favorable for targeting pulmonary tuberculosis infections. PMID:26984832

  10. Shift in antibiotic resistance gene profiles associated with nanosilver during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanjun; Metch, Jacob W; Yang, Ying; Pruden, Amy; Zhang, Tong

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the response of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to nanosilver (Ag) in lab-scale nitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), compared to Ag(+)-dosed and undosed controls. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting sul1, tet(O), ermB and the class I integron gene intI1 and corresponding RNA expression did not indicate measureable effects of nanoAg or Ag(+) on abundance or expression of these genes. However, high-throughput sequencing based metagenomic analysis provided a much broader profile of gene responses and revealed a greater abundance of aminoglycoside resistance genes (mainly strA) in reactors dosed with nanoAg. In contrast, bacitracin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were more abundant in the SBRs dosed with Ag(+). The distinct ARG profiles associated with nanoAg and Ag(+) were correlated with the taxonomic composition of the microbial communities. This study indicates that nanoAg may interact with bacteria differently from Ag(+) during biological wastewater treatment. Therefore, it cannot necessarily be assumed that nanosilver behaves identically as Ag(+) when conducting a risk assessment for release into the environment. PMID:26850160

  11. Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otivhia Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706 at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities were selected by convenience and the study samples within each university were randomly selected cluster samples. The survey was self-administered and included questions pertaining to menstrual symptoms, analgesic and antibiotic use patterns, and demographics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results The response rate was 95.4%. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 83-88% of participants experienced menstrual symptoms, and 39% (95% CI: 36-43% reported using analgesics to treat them. Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21-27% of participants reported self-medicated use of antibiotics to treat the following menstrual symptoms: cramps, bloating, heavy bleeding, headaches, pimples/acne, moodiness, tender breasts, backache, joint and muscle pain. Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03; non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04; usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: p-value: 0.05 and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06. Ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used to treat the most symptoms. Doctors or nurses (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%, friends (6%, 95% CI: 4-7% and family members (7%, 95% CI: 5-8% were most likely to recommend the use of antibiotics for menstrual symptoms, while these drugs were most often obtained from local chemists or pharmacists (10.2%, 95% CI: 8-12%. Conclusions This is

  12. Occurrence and fate of eleven classes of antibiotics in two typical wastewater treatment plants in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Yang, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2013-05-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as one of the most important sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two sampling campaigns over a period of one year in two wastewater treatment plants (plant A: activated sludge with chlorination, and plant B: oxidation ditch with UV) of Guangdong Province, China were carried out to assess the occurrence and fate of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics. The wastewater samples were extracted by Oasis HLB cartridges (6mL, 500 mg), while the solid samples (sludge and suspended solid matter) were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with solvents (acetonitrile and citric acid buffer), followed by an enrichment and clean-up step with solid-phase extraction using SAX-HLB cartridges in tandem. The results showed the presence of 20 and 17 target compounds in the influents and effluents, respectively, at the concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L. Sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, anhydro erythromycin and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in the WWTPs wastewaters. Twenty-one antibiotics were found in the sewage sludge from the two WWTPs at the concentrations up to 5800ng/g, with tetracycline, oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and ofloxacin being the predominant antibiotics. The total mass loads of antibiotics per capita in the two plants ranged from 494 to 901 μg/d/inhabitant (672±182 μg/d/inhabitant) in the influents, from 130 to 238 μg/d/inhabitant (175±45 μg/d/inhabitant) in the effluents and from 107 to 307 μg/d/inhabitant (191±87.9 μg/d/inhabitant) in the dewatered sludge, respectively. The aqueous removals for sulfonamides, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and chloramphenicol in the WWTPs were mainly attributed to the degradation processes, while those for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones were mainly due to the adsorption onto sludge. PMID:23538107

  13. Chlorine and antibiotic-resistant bacilli isolated from an effluent treatment plant - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.12951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to different concentrations of chlorine and the susceptibility to antibiotics by bacteria isolated from the final effluent of the Pici Campus wastewater treatment plant of the Federal University of Ceará (UFC is evaluated. Twelve strains, morphologically and biochemically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, were selected. The strains were submitted to sodium hypochlorite at different contact times and tested against the antibiotics amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and vancomycin. All strains were resistant to concentration 0.1 ppm chlorine up to 30 minutes, but bacteria resistant to concentrations up to 5,000 ppm for 10 minutes were detected. Bacterial growth was impaired in 10,000 ppm concentration. The strains presented three antibiotic resistance profiles, 50% were sensitive to all antibiotics, 25% were resistant to one antibiotic and 25% were resistant to two antibiotics.  

  14. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  15. Distinction between intact and antibiotic-inactivated bacteria by real-time PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Oethinger, Margret; Tuohy, Marion J; Hall, Gerri S; Bauer, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    One limitation to the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify orthopedic infections has been apparent false-positive results, possibly due to the detection of dead bacteria. We recently showed that the use of DNA-binding agent propidium monoazide (PMA) could distinguish viable from heat-inactivated bacteria, and, in this study, we investigated whether the same technique can be applied to bacteria killed by two antibiotics with distinctly different mechanisms of action, a test of greater clinical relevance than thermal inactivation. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were inactivated by vancomycin and gentamicin and treated with PMA or left untreated before DNA extraction. The threshold cycle difference of antibiotic-treated bacteria with and without PMA pretreatment was investigated with PCR primers for the 16S rDNA and tuf genes. Our results indicated that PMA effectively inhibited detection by PCR of bacteria, which had been inactivated by either vancomycin or gentamicin. The effect was statistically significant at 24 h after treatment (C(t) difference consistently >3; p 4; p cells (C(t) difference 1-2). Vancomycin had a stronger effect on the C(t) value than gentamicin, reflecting the different mechanism of action of each antibiotic. Techniques of this type may help reduce clinically false-positive PCR results caused by the detection of dead bacteria, and may be especially useful in patients who have received antibiotics, such as patients undergoing the second stage of a two-stage revision for infected arthroplasty. PMID:20186836

  16. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area [TBSA]) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma

  17. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area (TBSA)) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma.

  18. Evaluation of the functional state of the small intestine of patients using antibiotics for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Y. M. Vahrushev; N. N. Shulyateva

    2015-01-01

    Processes of hydrolysis and absorbtion in small intestine were assessed with 60 of patients using amoxicillin/ clavulanate for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia. It is established that when carrying out an antibiotikoterapiya band digestion and absorption at the kept parietal digestion is broken. Further analysis of the factors presented will allow to work out practical recommendations on prevention of side effects of antibiotics usage in small intestine.

  19. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded. PMID:22622431

  20. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant – molecular and classical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziembińska-Buczyńska Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a group of substances potentially harmful to the environment. They can play a role in bacterial resistance transfer among pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In this experiment three representatives of medically important chemotherapeutics, confirmed to be present in high concentrations in wastewater treatment plants with HPLC analysis were used: erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Erythromycin concentration in activated sludge was not higher than 20 ng L−1. N-acetylo-sulfamethoxazole concentration was 3349 ± 719 in winter and 2933 ± 429 ng L−1 in summer. Trimethoprim was present in wastewater at concentrations 400 ± 22 and 364 ± 60 ng L−1, respectively in winter and summer. Due to a wide variety of PCR-detectable resistance mechanisms towards these substances, the most common found in literature was chosen. For erythromycin: erm and mef genes, for sulfamethoxazole: sul1, sul2, sul3 genes, in the case of trimethoprim resistance dhfrA1 and dhfr14 were used in this study. The presence of resistance genes were analyzed in pure strains isolated from activated sludge and in the activated sludge sample itself. The research revealed that the value of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC did not correspond with the expected presence of more than one resistance mechanisms. Most of the isolates possessed only one of the genes responsible for a particular chemotherapeutic resistance. It was confirmed that it is possible to monitor the presence of resistance genes directly in activated sludge using PCR. Due to the limited isolates number used in the experiment these results should be regarded as preliminary.

  1. [Antibiotics during pregnancy and breast feeding: consequences for the treatment of respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léophonte, P

    1988-01-01

    Respiratory infections are the second most frequent cause for antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy, after genito-urinary infections. Overall, antibiotics are relatively innocuous. The following should be avoided: the tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, metronidazole and the quinolones. Aminoglycosides should be administered controlling the plasma level. The beta-lactones (principally the penicillins) and the macrolides sold in France, are without any danger. Nevertheless, the rise in distribution volume and the overall physiological changes which accompany the developing pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester lead to a diminution in the serum concentration of these antibiotics and imply an adaptation, often a doubling, of the therapeutic dose administered. From the epidemiological data concerning the organisms involved in the respiratory infections, nearly the totality of extra-hospital infections may be cured by macrolides or penicillins (ampicillin). During more serious infections (nosocomial, or the immuno-depressed) the maternal prognosis should take precedence, adjusting the antibiotic to the organism, before the toxic risk to the child. All the antibiotics are excreted in the mother milk, but in very small quantities; they are generally destroyed in the digestive tract of the child so that the risk of any secondary effect during lactation is minimal. PMID:3041503

  2. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in a primary care setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr

    2011-01-01

    , could greatly improve patient care and limit excessive antibiotic prescriptions. Procalcitonin is a new marker of suspected bacterial infection that has shown promise in guiding antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitals without compromising patient safety. Procalcitonin......-of-care test for procalcitonin with acceptable precision, severely hampering its application in primary care. This article reviews the physiology of procalcitonin, describes the assays available for its measurement, evaluates the present evidence from primary care on its use to identify correctly patients who......Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection...

  3. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Daqing, E-mail: mao@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mu, Quanhua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Yi, E-mail: luoy@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10{sup 3} to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10{sup 6} copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10{sup 7} to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10{sup 10} copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7

  4. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 103 to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 106 copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 107 to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 1010 copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7–308 times higher than that

  5. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  6. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plosz, Benedek Gy., E-mail: benedek.plosz@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Leknes, Henriette [Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  7. Systemic Antibiotics in Periodontal Treatment of Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moura Martins Lobo Santos

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP on periodontal parameters, tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life in diabetes patients.Two independent reviewers screened for controlled clinical trials with at least 6-month follow-up in six electronic databases, registers of clinical trials, meeting abstracts and four major dental journals. After duplicates removal, electronic and hand searches yielded 1,878 records; 18 full-text articles were independently read by two reviewers. To evaluate the additional effect of antibiotic usage, pooled weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed effects model.Five studies met the inclusion criteria, four of which were included in meta-analyses. The meta-analyses showed a significant effect favouring SRP plus antibiotic for reductions in mean probing depth (PD (-0.22 mm [-0.34, -0.11] and mean percentage of bleeding on probing (BoP (4% [-7, -1]. There was no significant effect for clinical attachment level gain and plaque index reduction. No study reported on tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life.Adjunctive systemic antibiotic use in diabetic patients provides a small additional benefit in terms of reductions in mean PD and mean percentage of BoP.CRD42013006389.

  8. Systemic Antibiotics in Periodontal Treatment of Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Caroline Moura Martins Lobo; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Oliveira, Branca Heloisa

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP) on periodontal parameters, tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life in diabetes patients. Materials and Methods Two independent reviewers screened for controlled clinical trials with at least 6-month follow-up in six electronic databases, registers of clinical trials, meeting abstracts and four major dental journals. After duplicates removal, electronic and hand searches yielded 1,878 records; 18 full-text articles were independently read by two reviewers. To evaluate the additional effect of antibiotic usage, pooled weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed effects model. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria, four of which were included in meta-analyses. The meta-analyses showed a significant effect favouring SRP plus antibiotic for reductions in mean probing depth (PD) (-0.22 mm [-0.34, -0.11]) and mean percentage of bleeding on probing (BoP) (4% [-7, -1]). There was no significant effect for clinical attachment level gain and plaque index reduction. No study reported on tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion Adjunctive systemic antibiotic use in diabetic patients provides a small additional benefit in terms of reductions in mean PD and mean percentage of BoP. Registration PROSPERO: CRD42013006389. PMID:26693909

  9. Effect of antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics in treatment for hepatic encephalopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.; Timmerman, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce ammonia production by urease-positive bacteria Solga recently hypothesised (S.F. Solga, Probiotics can treat hepatic encephalopathy, Medical Hypotheses 2003; 61: 307-13), that probiotics are new therapeutics for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and that they may replace antibiotics an

  10. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account for...

  11. Vertebral endplate (modic) changes and the treatment of back pain using antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral end-plate changes/modic changes are the MRI-image of inflammatory vertebral endplate damage, most often related to general disc degeneration. However, in a subgroup of patients disc infection may be the causal factor. In patients with prolonged back pain, the prevalence of modic changes......'. Most commonly, Propionibacterium acnes is involved. Long-term antibiotics may be effective....

  12. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces, water from inside a wastewater treatment plant, and seawater samples collected in the Antarctic Treaty area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Virginia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Jiménez, Sebastián; Quezada, Mario; Domínguez, Mariana; Vergara, Luis; Gómez-Fuentes, Claudio; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy; González-Acuña, Daniel; López, Juana; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a problem of global concern and is frequently associated with human activity. Studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from pristine environments, such as Antarctica, extends our understanding of these fragile ecosystems. Escherichia coli strains, important fecal indicator bacteria, were isolated on the Fildes Peninsula (which has the strongest human influence in Antarctica), from seawater, bird droppings, and water samples from inside a local wastewater treatment plant. The strains were subjected to molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their genetic relationships, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility with disk diffusion tests for several antibiotic families: β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide. The highest E. coli count in seawater samples was 2400 cfu/100 mL. Only strains isolated from seawater and the wastewater treatment plant showed any genetic relatedness between groups. Strains of both these groups were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide.In contrast, strains from bird feces were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. We conclude that naturally occurring antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces is rare and the bacterial antibiotic resistance found in seawater is probably associated with discharged treated wastewater originating from Fildes Peninsula treatment plants.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. PMID:26840514

  15. Pinnacle Scripts: Clearing automated treatment in external radiotherapy after unscheduled interruptions; Scripts en Pinnacle3: Compensacion automatizada ena tratamientos en radioterapia externa tras interrupciones no programadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jover Perez, C. I.; Alaman Sanchez, C.; Osorio Ceballos, J. L.; Real Nunez, R. del; Almansa Lopez, J.

    2013-07-01

    The stops not foreseen during the usual course of radiotherapy treatment affect the quality of the same. The calculation of dosage compensation is the tool that have physicists and radiation therapists in order to mitigate the effect of these disruptions and achieve an effective treatment. (Author)

  16. Should patients with hip joint prosthesis receive antibiotic prophylaxis before dental treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ingar; Snorrason, Finnur; Lingaas, Egil

    2010-01-01

    The safety committee of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) recommended in 2009 that clinicians should consider antibiotic prophylaxis for all patients with total joint replacement before any invasive procedure that may cause bacteremia. This has aroused confusion and anger among dentists asking for the evidence. The present review deals with different aspects of the rationale for this recommendation giving attention to views both in favor of and against it. Keywords: hip joint...

  17. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  18. Effect of Early Antibiotic Treatment on the Antibody Response to Cytoplasmic Proteins of Brucella melitensis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Raul A.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    1999-01-01

    To test whether antibiotic therapy hampers the antibody response to Brucella antigens, 30 BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella melitensis H38 and randomized for treatment with doxycycline administered intraperitoneally for 42 days starting at 7 or 28 days postinfection (p.i.) (groups DOX7 and DOX28, respectively) or for no treatment (control group). Antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached peak levels (mean optical density [OD] = 2.618) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, and similar peak levels (mean OD = 2.486) were observed in the DOX28 group, but significantly lower peak levels (mean OD = 0.821) were observed at 28 days p.i. in the DOX7 group. The antibody response against cytoplasmic proteins depleted of LPS (CPs) reached maximal levels (mean OD = 2.402) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, but no response was detected in the DOX7 group. Anti-CP antibodies were detected in only three animals from the DOX28 group, at levels significantly lower than those in the control group (mean maximal OD = 0.791). The pattern of antibody response to an 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein of Brucella spp. was similar to that against the CP antigen. This study shows that early antibiotic treatment affects the antibody response of mice to cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella and, to a lesser extent, to LPS. PMID:10225853

  19. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall-Lord Marie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of bacterial pathogens in lactational mastitis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare bacterial species in breast milk of women with mastitis and of healthy breast milk donors and to evaluate the use of antibiotic therapy, the symptoms of mastitis, number of health care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess, damaged nipples and recurrent symptoms in relation to bacterial counts. Methods In this descriptive study, breast milk from 192 women with mastitis (referred to as cases and 466 breast milk donors (referred to as controls was examined bacteriologically and compared using analytical statistics. Statistical analyses were also carried out to test for relationships between bacteriological content and clinical symptoms as measured on scales, prescription of antibiotics, the number of care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess and recurring symptoms. Results Five main bacterial species were found in both cases and controls: coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, viridans streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Group B streptococci (GBS and Enterococcus faecalis. More women with mastitis had S. aureus and GBS in their breast milk than those without symptoms, although 31% of healthy women harboured S. aureus and 10% had GBS. There were no significant correlations between bacterial counts and the symptoms of mastitis as measured on scales. There were no differences in bacterial counts between those prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics or those with and without breast abscess. GBS in breast milk was associated with increased health care contacts (p = 0.02. Women with ≥ 107 cfu/L CNS or viridans streptococci in their breast milk had increased odds for damaged nipples (p = 0.003. Conclusion Many healthy breastfeeding women have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their breast milk. Increasing bacterial counts did not affect the clinical manifestation of mastitis; thus bacterial counts in

  20. Mathematical modeling of bacterial kinetics to predict the impact of antibiotic colonic exposure and treatment duration on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted.

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Thuy Nguyen; Jeremie Guedj; Elisabeth Chachaty; Jean de Gunzburg; Antoine Andremont; France Mentré

    2014-01-01

    Fecal excretion of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment are major public health threats associated with extensive farming and modern medical care. Innovative strategies that can reduce the intestinal antibiotic concentrations during treatments are in development. However, the effect of lower exposure on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted has not been quantified, making it difficult to anticipate the impact of these strategies. Here, we introduce a bacterial kinet...

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Bacterial Kinetics to Predict the Impact of Antibiotic Colonic Exposure and Treatment Duration on the Amount of Resistant Enterobacteria Excreted

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Guedj, Jeremie; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine; Mentré, France

    2014-01-01

    Fecal excretion of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment are major public health threats associated with extensive farming and modern medical care. Innovative strategies that can reduce the intestinal antibiotic concentrations during treatments are in development. However, the effect of lower exposure on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted has not been quantified, making it difficult to anticipate the impact of these strategies. Here, we introduce a bacterial kinet...

  2. Long-lasting effects of Early-life Antibiotic Treatment and routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Schokker, D.; Zhang, J.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Heilig, G. H. J.; Smidt, H.; J. M. J. Rebel; Smits, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut func...

  3. Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children - are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Ben-Shimol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted between January 1996 and May 2013 in children up to 18 years old. Search terms included pneumonia, treatment, duration, child, children, days, short, respiratory infection and non-severe (nonsevere. Study selection: Only RCTs of oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction of articles was done by 3 authors using a preformed questionnaire. Data synthesis: Eight articles meeting the selection criteria were identified: 7 from 2 developing countries (India and Pakistan, and 1 from a developed country (The Netherlands. Studies from developing countries used the World Health Organization clinical criteria for diagnosing CAP, which includes mainly tachypnoea. None of those studies included fever, chest radiography or any laboratory test in their case definition. The Dutch study case definition used laboratory tests and chest radiographies (x-rays in addition to clinical criteria. Five articles concluded that 3 days of treatment are sufficient for non-severe childhood CAP, 2 articles found 5 days treatment to be sufficient, and one article found no difference between 3 days of amoxicillin treatment and placebo. Conclusions: The efficacy of short duration oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children has not been established in developed countries. Current RCTs from developing countries used clinical criteria that may have failed to appropriately identify children with true bacterial pneumonia necessitating antibiotic treatment. More RCTs

  4. Admission avoidance using intramuscular antibiotics for the treatment of borderline foot infections in people with diabetes in a tertiary care foot clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatariya, Ketan

    2013-01-01

    Several international guidelines exist to help decision making for the infected 'diabetic foot'. However, none consider admissions avoidance. We wanted to develop an antibiotic foot formulary for the empirical treatment of diabetes related foot infections presenting to our service and subsequently to asses the costs associated with the introduction of our protocol. We rationalised our antibiotic protocol. The introduction of our formulary changed the average antibiotic prescribing costs for a 3 week course of treatment from £17.12 to £16.42. In addition, we adapted the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guideline by introducing a category of 'moderate infection - borderline admission' to our classification. This enabled the administration of outpatient intramuscular antibiotics. Over 22 months of follow up, 26 episodes were eligible for treatment with intramuscular antibiotics. Over the same time period, 121 people were admitted directly from the foot clinic. The costs saved as a result of avoided or delayed admission for those 26 episodes was over £76,000. For 12 people who required subsequent admission, their length of hospital stay was significantly shorter than those admitted directly (9.25 days [range 2-25] vs. 16.11 [2-64] p=0.045). In summary, by modifying the IDSA classification and adopting a protocol to administer outpatient oral and intramuscular antibiotics we have led to substantial cost savings, shorter hospital admissions and also have developed a successful admissions avoidance strategy. PMID:26734186

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  6. Beyond Antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMMI Canada meeting in March 2006 hosted a symposium exploring the potential alternatives to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infection. Four papers summarizing talks from that session are published in this issue of the Journal (1-4. These reviews address the scientific underpinnings for a number of proposed concepts, and summarize the current status of clinical use. The approaches - probiotics, bacteriophage therapy, and manipulation of innate immunity - are all intriguing but are still removed from immediate practical applications.

  7. Prevention of Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Preterm Birth with Presumptive Antibiotic Treatment of Pregnant Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorn, Per; Vanhala, Hanna; Pakarinen, Outi; Ashorn, Ulla; De Costa, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth (PTB) account for a large share of global child mortality, morbidity and developmental loss. Of the numerous risk factors for these conditions, maternal infections have been most consistently identified. Our aim was to study if presumptive antibiotic treatment of pregnant women before any signs of the onset of labor would promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB or low birthweight (LBW). In a systematic literature search, we identified 14 clinical trials of sufficient quality. Eight trials concluded that there was a positive effect on one or both of the conditions, and others found no such association. The trials reporting an effect were typically conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa (6 trials) and with broadest spectrum antibiotics, whereas data from India (2) suggested no intervention effect and trials in the US (5) or Europe (1) yielded both positive and negative findings. We conclude that appropriately chosen presumptive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women, targeting infections in the reproductive tract but also other maternal infections such as malaria, other parasitic diseases, skin infections, and periodontitis, can in selected contexts promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB and LBW. PMID:26111562

  8. Similar decreases in local tumor control are calculated for treatment protraction and for interruptions in the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the larynx in four centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Data on patients with cancer of the larynx are analyzed using statistical models to estimate the effect of gaps in the treatment time on the local control of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Patients from four centers, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester, and Toronto, with carcinoma of the larynx and treated by radiotherapy were followed up and the disease-free period recorded. In all centers the end point was control of the primary tumor after irradiation alone. The local control rates at ≥2 years, Pc, were analyzed by log linear models, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the disease-free period. Results: T stage, nodal involvement, and site of the tumor were important determinants of the disease-free interval, as was the radiation schedule used. Elongation of the treatment time by 1 day, or a gap of 1 day, was associated with a decrease in Pc of 0.68% per day for Pc = 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.28, 1.08)%. An increase of 5 days was associated with a 3.5% reduction in Pc from 0.80 to 0.77. At Pc = 0.60 an increase of 5 days was associated with an 7.9% decrease in Pc. The time factor in the Linear Quadratic model, γ/α, was estimated as 0.89 Gy/day, 95% confidence interval (0.35, 1.43) Gy/day. Conclusions: Any gaps (public holidays are the majority) in the treatment schedule have the same deleterious effect on the disease free period as an increase in the prescribed treatment time. For a schedule, where dose and fraction number are specified, any gap in treatment is potentially damaging

  9. Interruptions during hospital nurses’ medication administration rounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Smeulers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medication administration errors are common, costly and the cause of adverse events in clinical practice. Interruptions during medication administration rounds are thought to be a prominent causative factor of these medication errors. In this observational study, data were collected on the number and duration of several different sources of verbal and non-verbal interruptions using unobtrusive structured observations on 32 medication administration rounds. Interruptions occurred very often (6.9 times per nurse each hour, differed in frequency among the medication administration rounds and were from a variety of sources. The most frequent interruptions were caused by nursing colleagues (43% and non-verbal interruptions from the ward environment (25%, such as noises from pagers, conversations in the vicinity of the nurse, the work of cleaners, or stock management by pharmacy staff. The longest durations of interruptions were from nursing colleagues’ verbal interrup- interruptions. When comparing the medication rounds, more and longer interruptions were observed during the morning rounds than those at noon. A comparison between surgical and non-surgical units showed that interruptions occurred more often and lasted longer in non-surgical units than those in surgical units. But the observed differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, interruptions during medication administration rounds are frequent and originated from different human and environmental sources. Interventions should target not only interruptions by colleagues, but should also consider ways to reduce self-initiated interruptions and those arising from the immediate ward environment.

  10. A multicenter randomized clinical trial investigating the cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies with or without antibiotics for uncomplicated acute diverticulitis (DIABOLO trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fockens Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservative treatment of uncomplicated or mild diverticulitis usually includes antibiotic therapy. It is, however, uncertain whether patients with acute diverticulitis indeed benefit from antibiotics. In most guidelines issued by professional organizations antibiotics are considered mandatory in the treatment of mild diverticulitis. This advice lacks evidence and is merely based on experts' opinion. Adverse effects of the use of antibiotics are well known, including allergic reactions, development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and other side-effects. Methods A randomized multicenter pragmatic clinical trial comparing two treatment strategies for uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. I A conservative strategy with antibiotics: hospital admission, supportive measures and at least 48 hours of intravenous antibiotics which subsequently are switched to oral, if tolerated (for a total duration of antibiotic treatment of 10 days. II A liberal strategy without antibiotics: admission only if needed on clinical grounds, supportive measures only. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they have a diagnosis of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as demonstrated by radiological imaging. Only patients with stages 1a and 1b according to Hinchey's classification or "mild" diverticulitis according to the Ambrosetti criteria are included. The primary endpoint is time-to-full recovery within a 6-month follow-up period. Full recovery is defined as being discharged from the hospital, with a return to pre-illness activities, and VAS score below 4 without the use of daily pain medication. Secondary endpoints are proportion of patients who develop complicated diverticulitis requiring surgery or non-surgical intervention, morbidity, costs, health-related quality of life, readmission rate and acute diverticulitis recurrence rate. In a non-inferiority design 264 patients are needed in each study arm to detect a difference in time

  11. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Frankena, K; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M; de Jong, M C M

    2016-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data collected from 8 herds suffering natural swine brucellosis outbreaks, we assessed the efficacy of four control strategies: (i) oxytetracycline treatment only, as a default scenario, (ii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with skin testing and removal of positive animals, (iii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with serological testing (Rose Bengal test-RBT-and indirect ELISA -iELISA-) and removal of seropositive animals and (iv) oxytetracycline treatment combined with both serological (RBT/iELISA) and skin testing and removal of positive animals. A Susceptible-Infectious-Removal model was used to estimate the reproduction ratio (R) for each strategy. According to this model, the oxytetracycline treatment alone was not effective enough to eradicate the infection. However, this antibiotic treatment combined with diagnostic testing at 4-monthly intervals plus immediate removal of positive animals showed to be effective to eradicate brucellosis independent of the diagnostic test strategy used in an acceptable time interval (1-2 years), depending on the initial number of infected animals. PMID:26899897

  12. Co-occurrence of integrase 1, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Eckert, Ester M; D'Urso, Silvia; Bertoni, Roberto; Gillan, David C; Wattiez, Ruddy; Corno, Gianluca

    2016-05-01

    The impact of human activities on the spread and on the persistence of antibiotic resistances in the environment is still far from being understood. The natural background of resistances is influenced by human activities, and the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are among the main sources of the release of antibiotic resistance into the environment. The various treatments of WWTPs provide a number of different environmental conditions potentially favoring the selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and thereby their well-documented spread in the environment. Although the distribution of different ARGs in WWTPs has been deeply investigated, very little is known on the ecology and on the molecular mechanisms underlying the selection of specific ARGs. This study investigates the fate of diverse ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and of a mobile element (the class I integron) in three WWTPs. Abundances of the different genetic markers were correlated to each other and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, prokaryotic cell abundance and its relative distribution in single cells and aggregates) influencing the microbial communities in the different treatment phases in three WWTPs, were investigated. Water samples were analyzed for the abundance of six ARGs (tetA, sulII, blaTEM, blaCTXM,ermB, and qnrS), two HMRGs (czcA and arsB), and of the class I integron (int1). The measured variables clustered in two well-defined groups, the first including tetA, ermB, qnrS and the different biotic and abiotic factors, and a second group around the genes sulII, czcA, arsB and int1. Moreover, the dynamics of sulII, HMRGs, and int1 correlated strongly. Our results suggest a potentially crucial role of HMRGs in the spread, mediated by mobile elements, of some ARGs, i.e. sulII. The possibility of a relation between heavy metal contamination and the spread of ARGs in WWTPs calls for further research to clarify the mechanisms

  13. Predicting antibiotic prescription after symptomatic treatment for urinary tract infection: development of a model using data from an RCT in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gágyor, Ildikó; Haasenritter, Jörg; Bleidorn, Jutta; McIsaac, Warren; Schmiemann, Guido; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is often treated with antibiotics, resulting in increasing resistance levels. A randomised controlled trial showed that two-thirds of females with UTI treated symptomatically recovered without subsequent antibiotic treatment. Aim To investigate whether there are differences between females with a UTI who were subsequently prescribed antibiotics and those who recovered with symptomatic treatment only, and to develop a model to predict those who can safely and effectively be treated symptomatically. Design and setting This is a subgroup analysis of females assigned to ibuprofen in a UTI trial in general practices. Method Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select variables for a prediction model, The discriminative value of the model was estimated by the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) and the effects of different thresholds were calculated within the model predicting antibiotic prescription and need for follow-up visits. Results Of the 235 females in the ibuprofen group, 79 were subsequently prescribed antibiotics within 28 days of follow-up. The final model included five predictors: urgency/frequency, impaired daily activities, and positive dipstick test results for erythrocytes, leucocytes, and nitrite. The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.80). A reasonable threshold for antibiotic initiation would result in 58% of females presenting with UTI being treated with antibiotics. Of the remaining females, only 6% would return to the practice because of symptomatic treatment failure. Conclusion The present model revealed moderately good accuracy and could be the basis for a decision aid for GPs and females to find the treatment option that fits best. PMID:26965031

  14. Intra- and inter-pandemic variations of antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    Full Text Available The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010 and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011. A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively. Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max=6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively. Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L, respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max=193 ng/L, but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max=292 ng/L and erythromycin (max=448 ng/L yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater

  15. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991-2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Ellen; Scott, Laura A; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; De Voogd, Hanka; Rocha, Monica S; Butler, Chris C; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991-1999 and for LRTIs in 2000-2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%. PMID:27384588

  16. Pre-packing of cost effective antibiotic cement beads for the treatment of traumatic osteomyelitis in the developing world - an in-vitro study based in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, S; Gilson, A; Kennedy, K; Swanson, A; Vanny, V; Mony, K; Chaudhry, T; Gollogly, J

    2016-04-01

    The developing world often lacks the resources to effectively treat the most serious injuries including osteomyelitis following open fractures or surgical fracture treatment. Antibiotic cement beads are a widely accepted method of delivering antibiotics locally to the infected area following trauma. This study is based in Cambodia, a low income country struggling to recover from a recent genocide. The study aims to test the effectiveness of locally made antibiotic beads and analyse their effectiveness after being gas sterilised, packaged and kept in storage Different antibiotic beads were manufactured locally using bone cement and tested against MRSA bacteria grown from a case of osteomyelitis. Each antibiotic was tested before and after a process of gas sterilisation as well as later being tested after storage in packaging up to 42 days. The gentamicin, vancomycin, amikacin and ceftriaxone beads all inhibited growth of the MRSA on the TSB and agar plates, both before and after gas sterilisation. All four antibiotics continued to show similar zones of inhibition after 42 days of storage. The results show significant promise to produce beads with locally obtainable ingredients in an austere environment and improve cost effectiveness by storing them in a sterilised condition. PMID:26899719

  17. Microbial sequencing methods for monitoring of anaerobic treatment of antibiotics to optimize performance and prevent system failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-06-01

    As a result of developments in molecular technologies and the use of sequencing technologies, the analyses of the anaerobic microbial community in biological treatment process has become increasingly prevalent. This review examines the ways in which microbial sequencing methods can be applied to achieve an extensive understanding of the phylogenetic and functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in anaerobic reactor if the substrate is contaminated by antibiotics which is one of the most important toxic compounds. It will discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with microbial sequencing techniques that are more commonly employed and will assess how a combination of the existing methods may be applied to develop a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities and improve the validity and depth of the results for the enhancement of the stability of anaerobic reactors. PMID:27138203

  18. A clinical investigation of pivmecillinam. A novel beta-lactam antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Reeves, D S; Symonds, J M; Wilkinson, P J

    1976-01-01

    Pivmecillinam (FL 1039) is the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of mecillinam (FL 1060) which has considerable in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae. 38 hospital inpatients who had proven urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam four times daily for 5-7 days. The MIC of mecillinam to the infecting organisms was determined as were the serum and urinary concentrations of the antibiotic. The patients were followed up for 4-6 weeks after the end of treatment. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 35 patients who were adequately followed up, 29 (83%) were classified as cured and there were 6 failures. Reported side effects were of a minor nature. PMID:181216

  19. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment. PMID:27553946

  20. Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qining, E-mail: cqmufqn@163.com; Meng, Xiyun, E-mail: 383274177@qq.com; Li, Fenghe, E-mail: lfh-cqmu@gmail.com; Wang, Xuehu, E-mail: 184037696@qq.co; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: cqdcj@163.com; Huang, Wen, E-mail: dhuangwen@hotmail.com; Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei9771@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao, Yu, E-mail: zhaoyu-cqmu@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment.

  1. The effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve on antibiotic-associated diarrhea treatment: randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nogueira Prado de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD is an important side effect of this specific class of drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the use of probiotics in the treatment of AAD. METHODS: A group of hospitalized patients, who contracted diarrhea during or after 7 days of suspension of antimicrobial medication, was blindly randomized to receive a standardized diet associated with the use of the probiotics (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve or its corresponding placebo, three times a day. RESULTS: Seventy patients were studied. For the experimental (n=35 and control (n=35 groups, respectively, the average time of treatment was 5.06±2.18 and 5.49±3.17 days (p=0.95, and the average duration of diarrhea, among those who were healed, was 4.87±2.13 and 4.52±2.55 days (p=0.36. Four (11.4% patients who received probiotics and ten (28.6% who received the placebo were not cured (p=0.13, and relapse rates were similar between both groups. Seven patients from each group, in addition to diarrhea, presented cases of bloating and/or abdominal cramps and/or vomiting (p=1.00. CONCLUSIONS: In this light, it is concluded that L. casei associated with B. breve, in the administered dosage and frequency, has no effect on the antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Similar studies need to be conducted with higher doses of these or other probiotics.

  2. Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment

  3. Case report: Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis from Lao PDR with favourable outcome after short-term antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, localized, progressively destructive, granulomatous infection caused either by fungi (eumycetoma or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma. It is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous mass, multiple sinuses and discharge containing grains. Mycetoma commonly affects young men aged between 20 and 40 years with low socioeconomic status, particularly farmers and herdsmen.A 30 year-old male farmer from an ethnic minority in Phin District, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos developed a painless swelling with multiple draining sinuses of his right foot over a period of approximately 3 years. X-ray of the right foot showed osteolysis of tarsals and metatarsals. Aerobic culture of sinus discharge yielded large numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and a slow growing Gram-positive rod. The organism was subsequently identified as Nocardia aobensis by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The patient received antimicrobial treatment with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole according to consensus treatment guidelines. Although slight improvement was noted the patient left the hospital after 14 days and did not take any more antibiotics. Over the following 22 weeks the swelling of his foot subsequently diminished together with healing of discharging sinuses.This is the first published case of Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis and the second case of Actinomycetoma from Laos. A treatment course of only 14 days with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was apparently sufficient to cure the infection, although long-term treatment up to one year is currently recommended. Treatment trials or prospective descriptions of outcome for actinomycetoma should investigate treatment efficacy for the different members of Actinomycetales, particularly Nocardia spp., with short-term and long-term treatment courses.

  4. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different waste load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laht, Mailis; Karkman, Antti; Voolaid, Veiko;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in...... abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted p<0.01) between the inflow and effluent were...... detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while tetM decreased in the medium-sized plant. Only blashv-34 increased in the effluent from the medium-sized plant. In all other cases the purification process caused no significant change in the...

  5. Assessment of Treatment of Community Acquired Severe Pneumonia by Two Different Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Jalal Ali; Eldouch, Widad; Abdin, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumonia is common presentation in the emergency room and is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The rationale of this study was to test the trend of paediatricians to achieve rapid response facing severe pneumonia, the lack of agreed on plan for the management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the few experiences regarding injectable form of β-lactam antimicrobial. Materials and Methods This is a prospective case control study, purposive randomized sampling, three patients were excluded since their information was incomplete, 132 patients were randomly divided into groups, one group named control group (penicillin according to the guidelines of WHO 2013), 33 patients; second group treated by β-lactam inhibitors (Augmentin IV) 50 patients; and third group treated by 3rd generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) 49 patients. The study was conducted at the main tertiary care and paediatrics teaching hospital in Khartoum capital of Sudan. The study was completed within the duration from 2010 to 2011. Results Both group showed more or less similar results regarding response, as well as the failure rate however, the Augmentin and ceftriaxone groups showed a little bit better survival than the control group. Conclusion Antibiotics decrease the mortality rate among the pneumonia patients provided that it is given early in the disease. PMID:27437318

  6. Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Xiaosong [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Meyer, Michael T. [United States Geological Survey, 4821 Quail Crest Place, Lawrence, Kansas 66049 (United States); Liu Xiaoyun [Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Lanzhou Military Region, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Zhao Qing; Chen Hao; Chen Jian; Qiu Zhiqun; Yang Lan [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cao Jia [Department of Military Toxicology, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Shu Weiqun, E-mail: xm0630@sina.co [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Sewage samples from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water samples of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir were analyzed for macrolide, lincosamide, trimethoprim, fluorouinolone, sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics by online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the concentration of ofloxacin (OFX) in hospital was the highest among all water environments ranged from 1.660 mug/L to 4.240 mug/L and norfloxacin (NOR, 0.136-1.620 mug/L), ciproflaxacin (CIP, ranged from 0.011 mug/L to 0.136 mug/L), trimethoprim (TMP, 0.061-0.174 mug/L) were commonly detected. Removal range of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant was 18-100% and the removal ratio of tylosin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 100%. Relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for tylosin (TYL), oxytetracycline (OXY) and tetracycline (TET)(100%), while lower removal efficiencies were observed for Trimethoprim (TMP, 1%), Epi-iso-chlorotetracycline (EICIC, 18%) and Erythromycin-H{sub 2}O (ERY-H{sub 2}O, 24%). Antibiotics were removed more efficiently in primary treatment compared with those in secondary treatment. - This study give the first insight into the concentration of antibiotics in receiving waters from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir

  7. Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage samples from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water samples of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir were analyzed for macrolide, lincosamide, trimethoprim, fluorouinolone, sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics by online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the concentration of ofloxacin (OFX) in hospital was the highest among all water environments ranged from 1.660 μg/L to 4.240 μg/L and norfloxacin (NOR, 0.136-1.620 μg/L), ciproflaxacin (CIP, ranged from 0.011 μg/L to 0.136 μg/L), trimethoprim (TMP, 0.061-0.174 μg/L) were commonly detected. Removal range of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant was 18-100% and the removal ratio of tylosin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 100%. Relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for tylosin (TYL), oxytetracycline (OXY) and tetracycline (TET)(100%), while lower removal efficiencies were observed for Trimethoprim (TMP, 1%), Epi-iso-chlorotetracycline (EICIC, 18%) and Erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O, 24%). Antibiotics were removed more efficiently in primary treatment compared with those in secondary treatment. - This study give the first insight into the concentration of antibiotics in receiving waters from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir

  8. Treatment failures after antibiotic therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A prescription database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Dessau, Ram B; Hallas, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of sulfamethizole and pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) has been questioned because of an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains. The aim of this study was to describe the risk of treatment failures over the last 10 years. DESIGN: R...

  9. Microbiological Assessment of Bile and Corresponding Antibiotic Treatment: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study of 1401 Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Christian; Bode, Konrad; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Rudolph, Gerda; Bergemann, Janine; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Chahoud, Fadi; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Sauer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria in bile samples and to analyze the clinical relevance of the findings as only limited information about risk factors for elevated frequence of bacterial and fungal strains in routinely collected bile samples has been described so far.A prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center was conducted. Seven hundred forty-four patients underwent 1401 endoscopic retrograde cholangiographies (ERCs) as indicated by liver transplantation (427/1401), primary sclerosing cholangitis (222/1401), choledocholithiasis only (153/1401), obstruction due to malignancy (366/1401), or other conditions (233/1401). Bile samples for microbiological analysis were obtained in all patients.The 71.6% (823/1150) samples had a positive microbiological finding, and 57% (840/1491) of the bacterial isolates were gram-positive. The main species were Enterococcus spp (33%; 494/1491) and Escherichia coli (12%; 179/1491). Of the samples, 53.8% had enteric bacteria and 24.7% had Candida spp; both were associated with clinical and laboratory signs of cholangitis (C-reactive proteins 35.0 ± 50.1 vs 44.8 ± 57.6; 34.5 ± 51.2 vs 52.9 ± 59.7; P < 0.001), age, previous endoscopic intervention, and immunosuppression. Multi-resistant (MR) strains were found in 11.3% of all samples and were associated with clinical and laboratory signs of cholangitis, previous intervention, and immunocompromised status. In subgroup analysis, strain-specific antibiotic therapy based on bile sampling was achieved in 56.3% (89/158) of the patients. In cases with a positive bile culture and available blood culture, blood cultures were positive in 29% of cases (36/124), and 94% (34/36) of blood cultures had microbial species identical to the bile cultures.Bactobilia and fungobilia can usually be detected by routine microbiological sampling, allowing optimized, strain-specific antibiotic treatment. Previous endoscopic

  10. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this reduct

  11. Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stoller, Nicole E.; Gebre, Teshome; Ayele, Berhan; Zerihun, Mulat; Assefa, Yared; Habte, Dereje; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; House, Jenafir I.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Thomas M Lietman; Emerson, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends environmental improvements such as latrine construction in the integrated trachoma control strategy, SAFE. We report a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment with antibiotics.

  12. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic benefits of antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Rooijendijk, J.G.A.; Zadoks, R.N.; Hogeveen, H.

    2005-01-01

    The economic effect of lactational antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical intramammary infections due to Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae was explored by means of partial budgeting. Effects at cow level and herd level were modelled, including prevention of clinical mastitis ep

  13. Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio C Pignatari; Aurelio Sessa; Roman Kozlov; Attila Altiner; Oxford, John S.; John Bell; Duerden, Martin G; Alike van der Velden; Sabiha Y. Essack

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP)—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the ...

  14. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.;

    2003-01-01

    animals received a single dose of either danofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg) or tiamulin (10 mg/kg). To test the discriminative properties of the biomarkers, the dosage regimens were designed with an expected difference in therapeutic efficacy in favour of danofloxacin. Accordingly, the danofloxacin-treated pigs...... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...... increased, whereas plasma zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol decreased. In the danoffoxacin-treated animals, CRP, interleukin-6, zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol reverted significantly towards normalisation within 24h of treatment. In contrast, signs of normalisation were absent (CRP, zinc and...

  15. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously admin...

  16. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  17. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Puiman (Patrycja); B. Stoll; L. Mølbak (Lars); A.C.J.M. de Bruijn (Adrianus); H. Schierbeek (Henk); M. Boye (Mette); G. Boehm (Günther); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); D.G. Burrin (Douglas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenou

  18. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellat, Mathieu F; Raguž, Luka; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human-pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last-resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled "Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow" triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  19. THE ETHIOPATOGENESIS AND THE ANALYSIS OF AN ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OF A SMALL INTESTINE BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. Martynov; A. Kh. Khairdinov

    2015-01-01

    Article is attempt of the critical analysis of modern approaches to treatment of a small intestine bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO now is one of the major problems in gastroenterology. At the same time, the bacterial overgrowth is cause and consequence of many diseases of digestive system and extradigestive manifestations. Many researches testify to prevalence of SIBO in patients with digestive diseases. However, pathogenesis of a disease is studied insufficiently today. Neverthele...

  20. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  1. Polylactide-polyglycolide antibiotic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin; Feschuk, Connie

    2005-08-01

    Surgeons continually struggle to reduce orthopaedic infections, but no current treatment offers minimum side effects with maximum effectiveness. Antibiotics mixed in plaster of paris have been successful in treating large bony defects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis, and have the advantage of being well tolerated and absorbed by the body. Antibiotics impregnated in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have offered local antibiotic delivery with some success. However, the effect of the antibiotic on the bone cement, the inconsistent elution of the antibiotic, and the need to remove the PMMA implant drives the need for a better system of antibiotic delivery. Polymers or copolymers of antibiotic-impregnated polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid or polyparadioxanone may provide an absorbable system for localized antibiotic delivery. Similar biodegradable systems used to treat small bone fractures have been successful with minimal side effects. In vitro studies have shown promising results of antibiotic elution from bioabsorbable microspheres and beads. Animal in vivo tests have shown that antibiotic impregnated polymers can successfully treat induced osteomyelitis in rabbits and dogs. These studies have provided consistent reproducible results, and now it is time to plan human trials to assess the efficacy of antibiotic microspheres implanted in infected bone and to plan in vivo and in vitro animal testing to investigate the feasibility of antibiotic-polymer-coated components. PMID:16056034

  2. Deciphering the bacterial microbiome of citrus plants in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infection and antibiotic treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqing Zhang

    Full Text Available The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp and gentamicin (Gm by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%, Firmicutes (29.0%, Actinobacteria (16.1%, Bacteroidetes (6.2% and Cyanobacteria (2.3%. The OTU62806, representing 'Candidatus Liberibacter', was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1. However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2. The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology.

  3. Treatment of Infections in Young Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Frontline Health Worker Diagnosis and Antibiotic Access

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anne CC; Chandran, Aruna; Herbert, Hadley K; Kozuki, Naoko; Markell, Perry; Shah, Rashed; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Abdullah H Baqui

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inadequate illness recognition and access to antibiotics contribute to high case fatality from infections in young infants (<2 months) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to address three questions regarding access to treatment for young infant infections in LMICs: (1) Can frontline health workers accurately diagnose possible bacterial infection (pBI)?; (2) How available and affordable are antibiotics?; (3) How often are antibiotics procured without a prescrip...

  4. [Analysis of antibiotic usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpataki, R; Balogh, J; Zelkó, R; Vincze, Z

    2001-01-01

    Economic analysis is founded on the assumption that resources are limited and that should be used in a way that maximizes the benefits gained. Pharmacoeconomics extends these assumptions to drug treatment. Therefore, a full pharmacoeconomic analysis must consider two or more alternative treatments and should be founded on measurement of incremental cost, incremental efficacy, and the value of successful outcome. Antibiotic policy based only on administrative restrictions is failed, instead of it disease formularies and infectologist consultation system are needed. Equally important are various programmes that encourage the cost-conscious use of the antibiotics chosen. Some of the methods evaluated in the literature include: streamlining from combination therapy to a single agent, early switching from parenteral to oral therapy, initiating treatment with oral agents, administering parenteral antibiotic at home from outset of therapy, and antibiotic streamlining programmes that are partnered with infectious disease physicians. The solution is the rational and adequate use of antibiotics, based on the modern theory and practice of antibiotic policy and infection control, that cannot be carried out without the activities of experts in this field. PMID:11769090

  5. Antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and vertebral bone edema (Modic type 1 changes): a double-blind randomized clinical controlled trial of efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Sørensen, Joan S.; Berit Schiott, Christensen;

    2013-01-01

    vertebrae adjacent to the previous herniation. Patients were randomized to either 100 days of antibiotic treatment (Bioclavid) or placebo and were blindly evaluated at baseline, end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome, disease-specific disability, lumbar pain. Secondary...... months) and Modic type 1 changes (bone edema). METHODS: The study was a double-blind RCT with 162 patients whose only known illness was chronic LBP of greater than 6 months duration occurring after a previous disc herniation and who also had bone edema demonstrated as Modic type 1 changes in the......PURPOSE: Modic type 1 changes/bone edema in the vertebrae are present in 6 % of the general population and 35-40 % of the low back pain population. It is strongly associated with low back pain. The aim was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain (>6...

  6. THE ETHIOPATOGENESIS AND THE ANALYSIS OF AN ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OF A SMALL INTESTINE BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Martynov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is attempt of the critical analysis of modern approaches to treatment of a small intestine bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO. SIBO now is one of the major problems in gastroenterology. At the same time, the bacterial overgrowth is cause and consequence of many diseases of digestive system and extradigestive manifestations. Many researches testify to prevalence of SIBO in patients with digestive diseases. However, pathogenesis of a disease is studied insufficiently today. Nevertheless, the available data of scientific researches allow to belong to the offered ways of diagnostics and treatment critically.Data on physiology of microbiota of the digestive tract of the healthy person are provided in a review. Mechanisms of antimicrobic resistance of a microbiota of intestines are considered. Interrelations between an antibiotikassociated degeneration of normal flora and bacterial overgrowth are presented. The analysis of an antibiotiktherapi of SIBO indicates low efficiency and also possible ways became chronicle diseaseand frequent recurrence of an illness. The multiple-factors and complexity of pathogenesis of SIBO are leaded authors to a conclusion to use ethiopathogenesis approaches for solution of SIBO.

  7. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Yvonne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a schedule of an oral anti-inflammatory compared with an antibiotic regimen and another group assigned to receive a placebo. Methods and design A total of 420 patients from 15 to 70 years of age with no associated comorbidity, presenting respiratory tract infection of at least one week of evolution, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of purulent expectoration and at least one other symptom of the respiratory tract (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort or pain, with no alternative explanation such as pneumonia, will be included in a prospective, randomised and controlled, clinical trial with placebo. The patients will be randomised to receive one of three treatments: ibuprofen, amoxycillin and clavulanic acid or placebo for 10 days. The main outcome measure is the number of days with frequent cough defined by the symptom diary with a score of 1 or more. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate the number of days with frequent cough with anti-inflammatory treatment compared with antimicrobial treatment and placebo in previously healthy patients with a clinical picture of acute bronchitis and purulent expectoration. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment is more effective than antibiotic treatment to reduce cough, which is the most disturbing symptom for patients with this infection. Trial registration ISRCTN07852892

  8. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development.

  9. Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected orthopedic prostheses with ceftazidime-ciprofloxacin antibiotic combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, P; Rousseau, M C; Stein, A; Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    1995-11-01

    Indwelling device infections are associated with considerable morbidity and extremely high cost. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent gram-negative etiologic agent associated with infections of indwelling catheters and foreign body implants. It is generally agreed that eradication of infection in the presence of a foreign body requires removal of the foreign body. Using a combination of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, we cured nine of nine patients with P. aeruginosa-infected osteosynthetic material and four of five patients with hip and knee prostheses without removing the foreign material. Follow-up was for a mean of 21 months (range, 6 to 60 months). Some patients experienced minor side effects (arthralgia in one patient and rash in another patient). We conclude that this combination is effective and safe and should be useful in the treatment of P. aeruginosa-infected orthopedic implants. PMID:8585720

  10. Removal rates of antibiotics in four sewage treatment plants in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhasankar, Valiparambil Prabhakaranunni; Joshua, Derrick Ian; Balakrishna, Keshava; Siddiqui, Iyanee Faroza; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Akiba, Masato; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence and removal of seven selected pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) in sewage treatment plants (STPs) in South India were investigated. The PCs selected for this study were sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), chloramphenicol (CAP), erythromycin (ERY), naproxen (NPX), bezafibrate (BZF), and ampicillin (AMP). Wastewater samples were collected from inlet and outlet of the STPs during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons to investigate the seasonal influences in occurrence and removal rates. The analytical method was based on simultaneous extraction of all target compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE), using a hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB) sorbent followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The STP that catered exclusively to domestic wastewater had lesser concentrations of PCs compared to the STPs serving the combined hospital and domestic effluents. SMX was the dominant compound in all effluents with the highest concentration at 3.2 μg/L in the outlet of an STP. TMP and ERY were the other PCs present at higher concentrations in STP outlets (1 μg/L and 0-0.13 μg/L, respectively). Removal rates varied from 100 % for BZF to 60-100 % for SMX, CTX, and AMP. PMID:26797959

  11. Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults randomized clinical trial: comparison of 8 versus 15 days of antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Capellier

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optimal treatment duration for ventilator-associated pneumonia is based on one study dealing with late-onset of the condition. Shortening the length of antibiotic treatment remains a major prevention factor for the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that 2 different antibiotic treatment durations (8 versus 15 days are equivalent in terms of clinical cure for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: Randomized, prospective, open, multicenter trial carried out from 1998 to 2002. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was the clinical cure rate at day 21. The mortality rate was evaluated on days 21 and 90. RESULTS: 225 patients were included in 13 centers. 191 (84.9% patients were cured: 92 out of 109 (84.4% in the 15 day cohort and 99 out of 116 (85.3% in the 8 day cohort (difference = 0.9%, odds ratio = 0.929. 95% two-sided confidence intervals for difference and odds ratio were [-8.4% to 10.3%] and [0.448 to 1.928] respectively. Taking into account the limits of equivalence (10% for difference and 2.25 for odds ratio, the objective of demonstrative equivalence between the 2 treatment durations was fulfilled. Although the rate of secondary infection was greater in the 8 day than the 15 day cohort, the number of days of antibiotic treatment remained lower in the 8 day cohort. There was no difference in mortality rate between the 2 groups on days 21 and 90. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an 8-day course of antibiotic therapy is safe for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in intubated patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559753.

  12. Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaotian; Meyer, M.T.; Liu, Xiuying; Zhao, Q.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.-a.; Qiu, Z.; Yang, L.; Cao, J.; Shu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sewage samples from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water samples of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir were analyzed for macrolide, lincosamide, trimethoprim, fluorouinolone, sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics by online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the concentration of ofloxacin (OFX) in hospital was the highest among all water environments ranged from 1.660????g/L to 4.240????g/L and norfloxacin (NOR, 0.136-1.620????g/L), ciproflaxacin (CIP, ranged from 0.011????g/L to 0.136????g/L), trimethoprim (TMP, 0.061-0.174????g/L) were commonly detected. Removal range of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant was 18-100% and the removal ratio of tylosin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 100%. Relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for tylosin (TYL), oxytetracycline (OXY) and tetracycline (TET)(100%), while lower removal efficiencies were observed for Trimethoprim (TMP, 1%), Epi-iso-chlorotetracycline (EICIC, 18%) and Erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O, 24%). Antibiotics were removed more efficiently in primary treatment compared with those in secondary treatment. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sinus Infection (Sinusitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  14. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  15. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  16. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  17. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sore Throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  18. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Symptom Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  19. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - What You Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  20. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibs, Jacob, E-mail: jgibs@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Heckathorn, Heather A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Meyer, Michael T. [U.S. Geological Survey, 4821 Quail Crest Place, Lawrence, KS 66049 (United States); Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, PO Box 413, Trenton, NJ 08625 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H{sub 2}O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin

  1. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin

  2. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Manuel; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Frebourg, Noëlle; Hamel, Hélène; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Caron, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology an...

  3. 污水中抗生素的处理方法研究进展%Research progress in the degradation of antibiotics wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉; 黄斌; 金玉; 张望龙; 展巨宏; 蔡倩; 丁怡然; 赵婷婷; 李强

    2014-01-01

    因为抗生素对许多疾病的治愈有特效,人类和畜禽养殖业对其依赖性较强,所以抗生素的使用量与日俱增。但由于抗生素对环境的污染具有持久性,极大地威胁到生态环境和人类健康,而目前已有的污水处理工艺对此类物质的去除率较低,导致绝大多数抗生素直接进入到环境中,引起世界各国广泛关注。本文全面阐述了人工湿地法、土壤渗滤系统法、超声降解法、加强型活性污泥法和低温等离子技术这几种方法在处理抗生素污水的研究现状,指出目前常用的处理方法和新型处理方法对处理抗生素污水的不足之处,得出建立组合式人工湿地法、超声与其他方法联合使用等组合式工艺将成为以后的研究重点,同时还要进一步研究不同处理工艺的去除机理以及处理过程中所消耗的材料的再生和回收循环利用。%The increasing usage of antibiotics was a result of dependence of human beings, livestock and poultry breeding industries. Antibiotics could be a threat to human health and ecological environment due to their persistence in the environment. Currently , the removal efficiency of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants is low, resulting in antibiotic pollution in water bodies. This study reviewed current researches of constructed wetlands, soil aquifer treatment, ultrasound treatment, enhanced activated sludge treatment and low temperature plasma technology in treating antibiotics wastewater, and pointed out the deficiencies of traditional treatments and new processes. It was found that combined treatments, such as hybrid constructed wetlands and ultrasound combined with other processes were effective and would become a hotspot in future research. The removal mechanisms of different treatment processes and the recycling of materials should be also considered in further study.

  4. Microbial Communities Associated with Healthy and White Syndrome-Affected Echinopora lamellosa in Aquaria and Experimental Treatment with the Antibiotic Ampicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David; Leary, Peter; Craggs, Jamie; Bythell, John; Sweet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic and ciliate communities of healthy and aquarium White Syndrome (WS)-affected coral fragments were screened using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A significant difference (R = 0.907, p < 0.001) in 16S rRNA prokaryotic diversity was found between healthy (H), sloughed tissue (ST), WS-affected (WSU) and antibiotic treated (WST) samples. Although 3 Vibrio spp were found inWS-affected samples, two of these species were eliminated following ampicillin treatment, yet l...

  5. Forgotten antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, Céline; Bush, Karen; Craig, William A;

    2012-01-01

    disease specialists in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. An international expert panel selected systemic antibacterial drugs for their potential to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria or their unique value for specific criteria. Twenty-two of the 33 selected antibiotics were...... available in fewer than 20 of 38 countries. Economic motives were the major cause for discontinuation of marketing of these antibiotics. Fourteen of 33 antibiotics are potentially active against either resistant Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Urgent measures are then needed to ensure better...

  6. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  7. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  8. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    necessity for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and...

  9. Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

  10. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  11. Mathematical modeling of bacterial kinetics to predict the impact of antibiotic colonic exposure and treatment duration on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Thuy Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fecal excretion of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment are major public health threats associated with extensive farming and modern medical care. Innovative strategies that can reduce the intestinal antibiotic concentrations during treatments are in development. However, the effect of lower exposure on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted has not been quantified, making it difficult to anticipate the impact of these strategies. Here, we introduce a bacterial kinetic model to capture the complex relationships between drug exposure, loss of susceptible enterobacteria and growth of resistant strains in the feces of piglets receiving placebo, 1.5 or 15 mg/kg/day ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, for 5 days. The model could well describe the kinetics of drug susceptible and resistant enterobacteria observed during treatment, and up to 22 days after treatment cessation. Next, the model was used to predict the expected amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted over an average piglet's lifetime (150 days when varying drug exposure and treatment duration. For the clinically relevant dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 5 days, the total amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted was predicted to be reduced by 75% and 98% when reducing treatment duration to 3 and 1 day treatment, respectively. Alternatively, for a fixed 5-days treatment, the level of resistance excreted could be reduced by 18%, 33%, 57.5% and 97% if 3, 5, 10 and 30 times lower levels of colonic drug concentrations were achieved, respectively. This characterization on in vivo data of the dynamics of resistance to antibiotics in the colonic flora could provide new insights into the mechanism of dissemination of resistance and can be used to design strategies aiming to reduce it.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  13. Analysis of the Clinical Effect of Non-antibiotic Treatment for Infantile Diarrhea%非抗生素治疗小儿腹泻病的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨非抗生素治疗小儿腹泻病的临床疗效。方法对我院2009年1月~2011年1月的住院120例腹泻患儿应用补液纠正脱水,应用肠粘膜保护剂,微生态制剂及饮食疗法等综合治疗,观察疗效。结果未使用任何抗生素,综合治疗显效50例,有效62例,无效8例,有效率为93.3%。结论小儿腹泻病的治疗应严格掌握抗生素的使用指征,无指征的患儿应给予补液纠正脱水,应用肠粘膜保护剂,微生态制剂及饮食疗法等综合治疗,不宜滥用抗生素。%Objective To investigate the clinical ef ect of non antibiotic treatment for infantile diarrhea. Methods In our hospital from 2009 January to 2011 January 120 cases of hospitalized children with diarrhea dehydration rehydration to correct application, application of intestinal mucosal protective agent, micro ecological preparation and dietary therapy, curative ef ect observation. Results No use of antibiotics, comprehensive treatment of 50 cases, ef ective 62 cases, invalid 8 cases, ef iciency of 93.3%. Conclusion The treatment of infantile diarrhea should strictly control the use of antibiotics indications, no indications of children should be given rehydration correct dehydration, application of intestinal mucosal protective agent, micro ecological preparation and dietary therapy, not the abuse of antibiotics.

  14. Development of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during two decades of antipseudomonal treatment at the Danish CF Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Pedersen, S S;

    1994-01-01

    At the Danish CF Center patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection were treated 3-4 times a year (from 1976) with a 2-week intravenous antipseudomonal course which included preferentially an aminoglycoside and a beta-lactam antibiotic. We investigated the development of antibiotic...... 1991 (100 strains). All the strains were screened and assayed semiquantitatively for beta-lactamase activity by use of nitrocefin. We found a significant (p < 0.005) increase in the MIC values of the P. aeruginosa strains against piperacillin and ceftazidime. However, no significant correlation was...... found between the MIC and the number of antipseudomonal courses of antibiotics. The proportion of resistant in vivo selected P. aeruginosa strains, presumed to be stably derepressed producers of chromosomal beta-lactamase, also increased significantly during the period studied. Our results confirm that...

  15. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in a primary care setting: are we there yet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Jensen, J.U.

    2011-01-01

    , could greatly improve patient care and limit excessive antibiotic prescriptions. Procalcitonin is a new marker of suspected bacterial infection that has shown promise in guiding antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitals without compromising patient safety. Procalcitonin......-of-care test for procalcitonin with acceptable precision, severely hampering its application in primary care. This article reviews the physiology of procalcitonin, describes the assays available for its measurement, evaluates the present evidence from primary care on its use to identify correctly patients who......Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection...

  16. Antibiotics in dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The oral cavity and it surrounding tissue are habitats for many bacteria. Therefore a rationale for the use of antibacterial agents rises. During my time as a dental student, me often meet conditions were antibiotics are pointed out as the treatment of chose, as indicated or not recommended. According to Norwegian drug regulations (Tørisen 2007) dentists have: The right to requisition necessary medical agents in connection with dental treatment and prevention and treatment of diseases in the...

  17. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Løvendahl, Peter; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2015-01-01

    the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However, in general, the changes in milk production, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and interquarter yield ratio showed......Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk...... naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations...

  18. Potential role of non-antibiotics (helper compounds) in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Marta; Dastidar, Sujata G; Fanning, Seamus;

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is now known to be primarily caused by overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude unrelated antibiotics from the periplasm or cytoplasm of the bacterium prior to their reaching their intended target. This review focuses on a variety of agents that h...

  19. [Method for Simultaneous Determination of 11 Veterinary Antibiotics in Piggery Wastewater and Sludge and Its Application in Biological Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jia-li; Liu, Rui; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Wei-juan; Ye, Zhao-xia; Chen, Lu-jun; Zhang, Yong-ming

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine eleven commonly used veterinary antibiotics (including four tetracyclines, two sulfonamides, three quinolones and two macrolides) in piggery wastewater and activated sludge in the Yangtze River Delta region, the conditions of solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were optimized. The recovery rate and relative standard deviations of the method were confirmed as 73% - 105.2%, 3.1% - 10.2% for piggery wastewater (n = 3) and 57.4% - 104.6%, 1.9% - 10.9% (n = 3) respectively for the activated sludge. Removal of antibiotics was then studied in a membrane bioreactor. The results showed that antibiotics of both tetracycline and sulfonamide species took a large portion in the wastewater, while tetracycline species were the dominant in the sludge. Tetracycline species in the wastewater were removed by 85.2%, mainly through biodegradation (51.9%) and secondly by sludge adsorption (33.2%). By comparison, sulfonamide species was removed by 95.8%, almost all through biodegradation while little by sludge adsorption. Flask tests suggested that the accumulated antibiotics in the sludge give no significant influence on the microbial removal of organics and ammonium. PMID:26841632

  20. Impact of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity upon antibiotic treatment during in vitro fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladirat, S.E.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Nauta, A.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotics are considered to have potential to reduce disturbances in the gut microbiota induced by antibiotics. Results in literature are, however, not consistent. The current in vitro study conducted in a fermentation screening platform allowed to unambiguously compare the impact of galacto-oligos

  1. Augmented effect of early antibiotic treatment in mice with experimental lung infections due to sequentially adapted mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, M; Moser, Claus; Christensen, Louise D;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Effects of treatment with tobramycin initiated 1 or 24 h post-infection were investigated in a new version of a pulmonary infection model in mice. The model reflects the differentiated behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid strains isolated from the lungs of one chronically infected...... cystic fibrosis (CF) patient at different time periods during chronic lung infection. Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with alginate-embedded mucoid clinical isolates isolated in 1988, 1997 or 2003. Mice were euthanized on day 1, 2 or 3 post-infection for estimation of quantitative bacteriology......: A significant reduction in the number of bacteria was observed when initiating treatment 1 h post-infection compared with initiating treatment after 24 h, although the latest isolate avoided complete clearance. Early antibiotic treatment directed at the mucoid phenotype in mice also reduced the...

  2. The effectiveness of systemic antibiotic therapy with and without ethanol-locked solution in the treatment of hemodialysis-related catheter infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial overgrowth in the inner layer of the catheter as a biofilm is highly encountered in routine medical care, and it may occur in a few days after inserting a catheter as an access in hemodialysis (HD patients. Catheter-induced bacteremia is often due to the development of biofilms. Locking catheters with antimicrobial agents is an effective way of reducing the risk of catheter-related infection. In a controlled, randomized clinical trial, 64 chronic HD patients (32 men and 32 women with a mean age of 57.5 ± 15.6 years were divided into case and control groups, with 32 patients in each group. The case group received systemic antibiotic and a lock of catheters with 60% ethanol and the control group received only systemic antibiotic. The results were evaluated after three weeks of treatment. The success rate of clearing infection in group A (29 patients and group B (18 patients was 90.6% and 56.2%, respectively (P = 0.002. We conclude that the significant difference in the success rate of clearing catheter infection in HD patients is due to the use of 60% ethanol-lock along with antibiotic therapy, and suggest this for routine use.

  3. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3 wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However

  4. IRF6 Sequencing in Interrupted Clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddapah, Sanmati R; Kominek, Selma; Grant, John H; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2016-05-01

    In a retrospective review of patients seen at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Cleft and Craniofacial Center, four patients with rare interrupted clefting were identified who had undergone genetic testing. Each of these patients had a typical cleft lip, with intact hard palate and cleft of the soft palate. Given this picture of mixed clefting, IRF6 sequencing was done and was negative for mutations in all four patients. As genetic testing for single-gene mutations and exome sequencing become clinically available, it may be possible to identify novel mutations responsible for this previously unreported type of interrupted clefting. PMID:26090788

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  6. Analysis on the treatment process of antibiotics pharmaceutical wastewater%抗生素制药污水处理工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任爱娟; 青格乐

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the sources and characteristics of antibiotics pharmaceutical wastewater,case studies of the practical operation on the treatment process and effect were described and evaluated,and it could provide reference for meeting the discharge standard.%本文介绍了抗生素制药污水的来源和特点,以运行实例对处理工艺和效果进行了简述与评价,为此类污水达标排放提供参考。

  7. The discovery of a novel antibiotic for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections: a story of an effective academic–industrial partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, John; Taylor, Peter W.; Dorgan, Colin R.; Johnson, Peter D.; Wilson, Francis X.; Vickers, Richard; Dale, Aaron G

    2015-01-01

    Academic drug discovery is playing an increasingly important role in the identification of new therapies for a wide range of diseases. There is no one model that guarantees success. We describe here a drug discovery story where chance, the ability to capitalise on chance, and the assembling of a range of expertise, have all played important roles in the discovery and subsequent development of an antibiotic chemotype based on the bis-benzimidazole scaffold, with potency against a number of current therapeutically challenging diseases. One compound in this class, SMT19969, has recently entered Phase 2 human clinical trials for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections. PMID:26949507

  8. Successful treatment with rifampin for fulminant antibiotics-associated colitis in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Nomura; Masafumi Taniwaki; Yosuke Matsumoto; Naohisa Yoshida; Sawako Taji; Naoki Wakabayashi; Shoji Mitsufuji; Shigeo Horiike; Masuji Morita; Takeshi Okanoue

    2004-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of chemotherapy for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).The patient became febrile and experienced diarrhea after chemotherapy. Although ceftazidime and amikacin sulfate were administered as empiric therapy, diarrhea was continued.After several days, stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile (C. difficile) was positive and he was diagnosed as having antibiotics-associated colitis (AAC). Although antibiotics were discontinued and both oral vancomycin and metronidazole were administrated, disease was not improved. To rule out the presence of an additional cause of diarrhea, colon fiberoscopic examination was performed. It revealed multiple deep ulcerative lesions at right side colon, surface erosive and minute erosive lesions in all continuous colon.Pseudomembranes were not seen. These findings are compatible with AAC without pseudomembranes. There are no reports that the rifampin is effective on refractory AAC.However, we administered oral rifampin for the current patient.The reasons are 1) conventional antibiotics were not effective,2) rifampin has excellent in vitro activity against C difficile,and 3) the efficacy of rifampin on relapsing colitis due to C.difficile is established. After administration of rifampin, fever alleviated and diarrhea was improved. Because AAC may result in significant mortality, patients with refractory or fulminant AAC should be treated with oral rifampin from outset.

  9. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Fuko Pharma Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “help to maintain normal defecation during antibiotic treatment” and the target population proposed by the applicant is “healthy outpatient adults and children on oral antibiotic treatment”. Maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the information submitted from five out of seven human intervention studies is insufficient to allow a full scientific evaluation, and that these studies have important methodological limitations. No conclusions could be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The remaining two human intervention studies, from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, did not show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the incidence of diarrhoea resulting from antibiotic treatment. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment.

  11. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kapoor; Ranjan Malhotra; Vishakha Grover; Deepak Grover

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, pr...

  12. Study of the use of probiotic foods as a complement of the conventional antibiotic-therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and its use as a prophylactic therapy in the reinfection by this pathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heliocobacter pylori is a major etiologic factor in the development of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Management of H. pylori infection in children was deeply discussed. Current recommended treatment includes a proton pump inhibitor in combination with antibiotics. Research on the use of probiotic foods as a treatment or as a complement of antibiotic treatment for H. pylori infection, showed promising results. Based on that evidence, the aims of our study were: To evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic children by means of a nuclear technique (13 C-UBT); To assess H. pylori eradication in the studied population by the administration of antibiotic triple therapy and probiotic foods; To evaluate H. pylori reinfection after 3 months of treatment with probiotics; and to evaluate symptoms improvement in the children after the end of the treatment. 137 children who assisted to the gastroenterologic visit were evaluated for H. pylori infection by the 13C-Urea Breath Test. Then 24 positive children were included in this study. The patients were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 received antibiotic treatment and placebo, and Group 2 received antibiotic treatment and probiotic food. The antibiotic treatment consisted of the combination of two antibiotics (amoxycillin and clarithromycin) with a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). After the end of antibiotic treatment both groups continued with the milk or probiotic food intake for three months. Post treatment controls by the 13C-UBT and a clinical evaluation were performed 1 and 3 months after the end of the antibiotic treatment. We found that prevalence of H. pylori infection in our population was 32.12% . Rates of eradication were 55% and 46% in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. No reinfection was found after three months of eradication. No significant difference in H. pylori eradication and symptoms improvement were observed between the children that consumed probiotics and the ones that

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  14. Fatores associados à interrupção de tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, 1999 - 2002 Cofactors of antiretroviral treatment interruption in cases of adults with AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Brito

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de analisar os fatores associados à interrupção do tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS, no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, realizou-se estudo nas unidades locais de referência no atendimento à AIDS. MÉTODOS: Tomou-se como critério de não interrupção o comparecimento a pelo menos 80% das visitas programadas à farmácia para o recebimento das drogas prescritas, por um período de seis meses consecutivos, após a data da prescrição. RESULTADOS: O estudo compreendeu 498 casos, dos quais 52,4% já chegaram a um serviço especializado com alguma condição indicativa de imunodeficiência. O percentual total de não interrupção foi de 64,1%. Não foi encontrada associação com as variáveis sexo, categoria de exposição e contagem de CD4+, nem com o tipo de esquema anti-retroviral. Os resultados da análise multivariada revelaram associações significativas entre interrupção e início do tratamento após internamento hospitalar, uso de drogas, tratamento psiquiátrico, baixo grau de escolaridade e idade de 25 a 34 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a interrupção do tratamento é um problema crítico nos seis primeiros meses seguintes ao início da terapia anti-retroviral em indivíduos virgens de tratamento, e, especialmente, entre os adultos jovens, com história prévia de tratamento psiquiátrico, que usam ou fizeram uso de drogas lícitas ou ilícitas até um ano antes de iniciar o tratamento com anti-retrovirais, que iniciam a terapia após internamento hospitalar e têm baixo nível de escolaridade.BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine factors associated to the interruption of antiretroviral treatment in adults with AIDS in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS: This was a population-based study, using data from the State's sources of vital statistics. Interruption was calculated using data on the number of programmed visits to the pharmacies, taking into

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    normal defecation during antibiotic treatment” and the target population proposed by the applicant is “healthy outpatient adults and children on oral antibiotic treatment”. Maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the...

  16. Antibiotic-loaded, silver core-embedded mesoporous silica nanovehicles as a synergistic antibacterial agent for the treatment of drug-resistant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Ding, Xiali; Chen, Yuan; Guo, Mingquan; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Xiaokui; Gu, Hongchen

    2016-09-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections have become one of the most serious risks in public health as they make the conventional antibiotics less efficient. There is an urgent need for developing new generations of antibacterial agents in this field. In this work, a nanoplatform of LEVO-loaded and silver core-embedded mesoporous silica nanovehicles (Ag@MSNs@LEVO) is demonstrated as a synergistic antibacterial agent for the treatment of drug-resistant infections both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of the inner Ag core and the loaded antibiotic drug in mesopores endows the single-particle nanoplatform with a synergistic effect on killing the drug-resistant bacteria. The nanoplatform of Ag@MSNs@LEVO exhibits superior antibacterial activity to LEVO-loaded MSNs (MSNs@LEVO) and silver core-embedded MSNs (Ag@MSNs) in vitro. In the in vivo acute peritonitis model, the infected drug-resistant Escherichia coli GN102 in peritoneal cavity of the mice is reduced by nearly three orders of magnitude and the aberrant pathological feature of spleen and peritoneum disappears after treatment with Ag@MSNs@LEVO. Importantly, this nanopaltform renders no obvious toxic side effect to the mice during the tested time. There is no doubt that this study strongly indicates a promising potential of Ag@MSNs@LEVO as a synergistic and safety therapy tool for the clinical drug-resistant infections. PMID:27294538

  17. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8×102 MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10-4 arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5×102, 1.6×102, 4.4×102, 1

  18. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial): a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days) antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijper Ed J; Ablij Hans C; Delfos Nathalie M; Wattel-Louis G Hanke; Koster Ted; Leyten Eliane MS; Elzevier Henk W; Assendelft Willem JJ; van't Wout Jan W; van Nieuwkoop Cees; Pander Jan; Blom Jeanet W; Spelt Ida C; van Dissel Jaap T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. Methods/Design A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febri...

  19. Transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria from animals to man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Bager, Flemming

    Antibiotic resistance develops in zoonotic bacteria in response to antibiotics used in food animals. A close association exists between the amounts of antibiotics used and the levels of resistance observed. The classes of antibiotics routinely used for treatment of human infections are also used ...

  20. Critical care 24 × 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN, meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%, followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%. Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1% in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43% and most of this (67.1% was related to "procedures inside CCU". Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals.

  1. Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions. Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

  2. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Resource-constrained devices are becoming ubiquitous. Examples include cell phones, palm pilots, and digital thermostats. It can be difficult to fit required functionality into such a device without sacrificing the simplicity and clarity of the software. Increasingly complex embedded systems...... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming at the...... assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  3. Use of antibiotic cement-impregnated intramedullary nail in treatment of infected non-union of long bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cases with infected non-union, the primary step is eradication of the infection before attempting to achieve union. Release of antibiotics from the bone cement at a high concentration and its penetration to the surrounding tissues, including cortical and cancellous bone, prompted the use of antibiotic cement in the control of bone infection. The aim of this study is to summarize our experience with the use of antibiotic cement-impregnated intramedullary nail (ACIIN for control of infection in cases of infected non-union with bone defect. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 25 cases of infected non-union (23 femora and two tibiae. There were 24 males and one female, with the mean age being 33 years (range, 21-58 years. All patients had high-velocity road traffic accidents except one patient who had farmland injury. There were seven closed fractures, one grade I compound, two grade II compound fractures, five grade IIIA compound fractures, and 10 grade IIIB compound fractures. ACIIN was used in all cases after adequate debridement. Patients were classified according to the amount of bone defect present after debridement: group 1 with bone defect < 4 cm (n=13, group 2 with bone defect ≥4-< 6 cm (n=7, and group 3 with bone defect ≥6 cm (n=5. Infection control was judged on the basis of discharge through the wound and laboratory parameters. All patients were followed-up, with an average follow-up time of 29 months (range, 18-40 months. The mean duration of retention of the intramedullary rod was 8 weeks (range, 6-12 weeks. Results: In group 1, all cases achieved infection control, with three patients achieving bone union without any need of secondary procedure. In group 2, all cases achieved infection control but the time taken was significantly longer than for group 1 (p-value 0.0002. All the cases required a secondary procedure in the form of either interlocking intramedullary nailing with iliac crest bone graft or

  4. Anaphylactoid Reactions to Tolmetin After Interrupted Dosage

    OpenAIRE

    Bretza, Joseph A.; Novey, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients had anaphylactoid reactions after ingesting tolmetin sodium. In each case the reaction followed readministration of the drug after an interrupted period of at least three days and within 90 minutes of taking a single 400-mg capsule. None of the patients had had prior anaphylaxis and none were judged atopic. Skin tests to an extract of the drug (0.02 mg) were uniformly negative, whereas a higher concentration produced a nonspecific irritant reaction. In vitro tests in one patien...

  5. Method of interrupting asphalt solidifying operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To shorten the time required for interrupting operation, by specifying methods of supplying and interrupting liquid wastes, water and asphalts. Method: Electrical power supply for a heat medium heater is disconnected simultaneously with the start for the stopping operation. The temperature for the heat medium is detected by a heat medium thermometer, the flow rate of a waste liquid supply pump is reduced by way of a rotation controller for the liquid waste supply pump and the amount of liquid wastes supplied is gradually decreased along with the reduction in the temperature for the heat medium. Then, when the temperature for the heat medium lowered to about 190 - 2100C, supply of the liquid wastes is interrupted and cleaning water is supplied to a liquid wastes supply tank while closing the liquid wastes supply tank main valve and opening a cleaning water valve to thereby clean the radioactive substances. Then, after stopping the supply of the cleaning water, asphalt is continued to be supplied for several minutes, the radioactive substances deposited in an evaporator and an agitation blade are sufficiently washed out. Then, after stopping the asphalt tank, operations for the driving device and the heat medium pump are stopped. This enables cooling for the heat medium in a short time using no exclusive heat medium cooler, as well as clean the radioactive substances. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  7. Role of phytotherapy associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Frumenzio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract (Cistimev® in association with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIr. Materials and methods: Patients affected by UTIr older than 18 years started a 3-months antibiotic prophylaxis (Prulifloxacin 600 mg, 1 cps/week or Phosphomicyn 1 cachet/week according to antibiogram after urine culture. The patients were divided in 2 groups: Group A: antibiotic prophylaxis plus phytotherapy (1 cps/die for 3 months and Group B: antibiotic prophylaxis alone. Results: 164 consecutive patients were studied: 107 were included in group A (mean age 59 ± 17.3 years and 57 (mean age 61 ± 15.7 in group B. During the treatment period the relapse frequencies between the two groups were not significantly different (p = 0.854: 12/107 (11.21% patients interrupted the treatment for UTIr in group A and 6/57 (10.52% in group B. In the long term follow-up the relapse UTI risk was significant different in the two groups with a relapse risk 2.5 greater in group B than in group A (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that in female patients affected by recurrent UTI, the association between antibiotic prophylaxis and of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract reduced the number of UTI in the 12 months following the end of prophylaxis and obtained a longer relapsing time, greatly improving the quality of life of the patients.

  8. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick I. Mackie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  9. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  10. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Bach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.

  11. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  12. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  13. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Common Cold and Runny Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  14. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  15. ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE RESISTANCE OF RESIDENT MICROBES IN WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of constructed wetlands as a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment is becoming more prevalent. These systems are championed as combining many of the benefits of tertiary treatment while also providing high quality wetland habitat as...

  16. Development of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities during long-term operation of anaerobic reactors in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-10-15

    Biological treatment processes offer the ideal conditions in which a high diversity of microorganisms can grow and develop. The wastewater produced during these processes is contaminated with antibiotics and, as such, they provide the ideal setting for the acquisition and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This research investigated the occurrence and variation in the ARGs found during the one-year operation of the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) used to treat pharmaceutical wastewater that contained combinations of sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline-erythromycin (STE) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST). The existence of eighteen ARGs encoding resistance to sulfamethoxazole (sul1, sul2, sul3), erythromycin (ermA, ermF, ermB, msrA, ereA), tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetM, tetS, tetQ, tetW, tetX) and class Ι integron gene (intΙ 1) in the STE and ST reactors was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Due to the limited availability of primers to detect ARGs, Illumina sequencing was also performed on the sludge and effluent of the STE and ST reactors. Although there was good reactor performance in the SBRs, which corresponds to min 80% COD removal efficiency, tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2 and ermB genes were among those ARGs detected in the effluent from STE and ST reactors. A comparison of the ARGs acquired from the STE and ST reactors revealed that the effluent from the STE reactor had a higher number of ARGs than that from the ST reactor; this could be due to the synergistic effects of erythromycin. According to the expression of genes results, microorganisms achieve tetracycline and erythromycin resistance through a combination of three mechanisms: efflux pumping protein, modification of the antibiotic target and modifying enzymes. There was also a significant association between the presence of the class 1 integron and sulfamethoxazole resistance genes. PMID:26188597

  17. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  18. Study of the use of probiotic foods as a complement of the conventional antibiotic-therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and it's use as a prophylactic therapy in the reinfection by this pathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is very frequent in children in developing countries. Studies on eradication regimens and its complications are not well documented. The European Helicobacter pylori Study Group strongly recommends that treatment should be with proton pump inhibitor based triple therapy, consisting of a proton pump inhibitor and two of the following: clarithromycin, a nitroimidazole (metronidazole or tinidazole) and amoxycillin in various combinations. Recent advances in probiotic research show much promise in a new product development of functional foods based on milk. Among the reported beneficial effects of consuming certain strains of cultures or their metabolites, or both are control of ulcers related to Helicobacter pylori. Kefir seems to be a potential probiotic to control Helicobacter pylori infection. In this study 2 groups of 10 children each which demonstrate to be Helicobacter pylori positive will be treated as follows: Group 1: antibiotic treatment + placebo (fluid milk) and Group 2: antibiotic treatment + kefir. The Triple Therapy consists in the combination of two antibiotics (amoxycillin and clarithromycin) with a proton pump inhibitor (Lansoprazole). In all the cases, the post-treatment control will be performed by the 13C UBT 2 months after the end of the treatment. Once the infection is eradicated, the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with milk (placebo) as well as the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with the probiotic under study will continue with the administration of the milk and/or probiotic food during one year. During this period, the children will be submitted to post-treatment controls performed by the 13C UBT every three months. We expect to find that the group that received the triple therapy in combination with the probiotic food (kefir) would have less recidiva rates for the Helicobacter pylori infection than the group that received the triple therapy with the placebo (fluid milk). (author)

  19. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 years. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. Based on metagenomic and qPCR analysis, we show that antibiotic resis...

  20. Efficiency of oxytetracycline treatment in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains having different in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2003-01-01

    100 mg oxytetracycline/kg fish for 10 days. The three F. psychrophilum strains had different antimicrobial susceptibilities and successful treatment was only obtained in the trial using a strain with a MICOTC of 0.25 mug/ml. No effect of treatment was seen in the group infected with a strain having......The medication effect of oxytetracycline on groups of rainbow trout fry experimentally infected with three strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated. The infection model was based on intraperitoneal injection of the pathogen and treatment was done using medicated feed resulting in...... MICOTC of 8.0 mug/ml and only little effect was seen when the strain MICOTC was 4.0 mug/ml. This shows that it is valid to predict the treatment efficiency of OTC from in vitro data facing an outbreak of rainbow trout fry syndrome. The importance of doing susceptibility testing is emphasized, and as...

  1. Switch to oral antibiotics in the treatment of infective endocarditis is not associated with increased risk of mortality in non-severely ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzabi, A; Kernéis, S; Richaud, C; Podglajen, I; Fernandez-Gerlinger, M-P; Mainardi, J-L

    2016-07-01

    Although many international guidelines exist for the management of infective endocarditis (IE), recommendations are lacking on the opportunity of switching antibiotics from the intravenous (IV) to oral route during treatment. We present a cohort study of 426 cases of IE over a period of 13 years (2000-2012), including 369 cases of definite IE according to the Duke criteria. Predictors of mortality were identified using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 64.5 (7-98) years. One hundred six patients (25%) had healthcare-associated IE. Oral streptococci (n = 99, 23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 81, 19%) were the predominant microorganisms. Ninety-two patients (22%) died during follow-up. After an initial phase of IV antibiotherapy, 214 patients (50%) were switched to oral route a median (range) of 21 (0-70) days after diagnosis of IE. Patients in the oral group had fewer comorbidities, and criteria of severity at inclusion and were less frequently infected by S. aureus. Oral antibiotics were amoxicillin alone in 109 cases or a combination therapy of clindamycin, fluoroquinolone, rifampicin and/or amoxicillin in 46 cases, according to the susceptibility of the microorganisms. In the multivariate analysis, a switch to oral route was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. During follow-up, only two relapses and four reinfections were observed in the oral group (compared to nine and eight in the IV group, respectively). In this study, switching to oral administration was not associated with an increased risk of relapse or reinfection. These promising results need to be confirmed by prospective studies. PMID:27091094

  2. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  3. Can We Predict Oral Antibiotic Treatment Failure in Children with Fast-Breathing Pneumonia Managed at the Community Level? A Prospective Cohort Study in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina King

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa.We prospectively followed a cohort of children (2-59 months, diagnosed by community health workers with fast-breathing pneumonia using World Health Organisation (WHO integrated community case management guidelines. Cases were followed at days 5 and 14 by study data collectors, who assessed a range of pre-determined clinical features for treatment outcome. We built the prognostic model using eight pre-defined parameters, using multivariable logistic regression, validated through bootstrapping.We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted. The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47 and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26 were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56.This study suggests that it may be difficult to create a pragmatic community-level prognostic child pneumonia tool based solely on clinical markers and pulse oximetry in an HIV and malaria endemic setting. Further work is needed to identify more accurate and reliable referral algorithms that remain feasible for use by community health workers.

  4. The availability and cost of antibiotics for treating PID in the Central Region of Ghana and implications for compliance with national treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, W K; Mabey, D

    1998-09-01

    The availability and cost of antibiotics for treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were assessed in 17 drug-dispensing outlets in 5 districts of the Central Region, Ghana. The outlets included the dispensaries of 2 regional and 4 district hospitals, 4 privately-owned pharmacies and 7 chemical seller shops. The most common antibiotics available, including co-trimoxazole, metronidazole, benzylpenicillin, amoxycillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin, were also the lowest-priced drugs. Conversely, the most expensive antibiotics including ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and spectinomycin, were also the least commonly available. Recommended anti-gonococcal antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone) may not be prescribed if they are not available in the districts. PMID:9764942

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157809.html Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections Researchers ... coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, a new review warns. The culprit, according ...

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors.......Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  7. Assessment of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Transfer in the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Schjørring; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed horizontal gene transfer between bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. During the last decades, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and treatment failures of bacterial infections have increased the public awareness of antibiotic usage. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics creates a selective pressure on the bacterial flora, thus increasing the emergence of multiresistant bacteria, which results in a vicious circle of treatments and emergence of new antibiotic res...

  8. Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Nicole E; Gebre, Teshome; Ayele, Berhan; Zerihun, Mulat; Assefa, Yared; Habte, Dereje; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; House, Jenafir I; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends environmental improvements such as latrine construction in the integrated trachoma control strategy, SAFE. We report a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment with antibiotics.Twenty-four communities in Goncha Seso Enesie woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, were enumerated, and a random selection of 60 children aged 0- 9 years in each was monitored for clinical signs of trachoma and ocular chlamydial infection at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All community members were offered treatment with a single dose of oral azithromycin or topical tetracycline. After treatment, 12 subkebeles were randomized to receive intensive latrine promotion. Mean cluster ocular infection in the latrine and the non-latrine arms were reduced from 45.5% (95% CI 34.1-56.8%) and 43.0% (95% CI 31.1-54.8%) respectively at baseline to 14.6% (95% CI 7.4-21.8%) and 14.8% (95% CI 8.9-20.8%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.93). Clinical signs fell from 72.0% (95% CI 58.2-85.5%) and 61.3% (95% CI 44.0-78.5%) at baseline to 45.8% (36.0-55.6%) and 48.5% (34.0-62.9%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.69). At 24 months, estimated household latrine coverage and use were 80.8% and 61.7% respectively where there had been intensive latrine promotion and 30.0% and 25.0% respectively in the single treatment only arm. We were unable to detect a difference in the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in children due to latrine construction. PMID:21785663

  9. Deciphering the bacterial microbiome of citrus plants in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-infection and antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, is vectored by phloem-feeding insects, and the pathogen in the USA is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The bacterial microbiome of citrus after Las-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) was chara...

  10. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K.; Haggard, Warren O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement. PMID:22948866

  11. Uptake of three antibiotics and an anti-epileptic drug by wheat plants spray irrigated with wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    With rising demands on water supplies necessitating water reuse, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is often used to irrigate agricultural lands. Emerging contaminants, like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), are frequently found in effluent due to limited removal during WWT...

  12. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K; Haggard, Warren O.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement.

  13. Development of a tool computer to compensate for interruptions of treatment and radiobiological comparisons Tr in external radiotherapy; Desarrollo de una herramienta informatica para la compensacion de interrupciones de tratamiento y comparaciones radiobiologicas en radioterapia externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Sena Espinel, E.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Delgado Apaaricio, J. M.; Martin Rincon, C.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.

    2013-07-01

    Outages unscheduled in the course of external beam radiation treatments, and the loss of probability of tumour control (TCP), which make it necessary to have a tool that allows the adjustment of the compensation of the absorbed dose required to keep the biological effect on the tumor, controlling the possible impact on the organ at risk. In order to perform this radiobiological quickly setting has been developed a software application that also allows comparison of treatments with different subdivisions from the point of view of radiobiological. (Author)

  14. Interrupted z-pinch in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pinch effect in a low-pressure discharge in air between two cone-shaped copper electrodes was investigated. The paraxial dense part of the z-pinch became interrupted due to the barrel shape of the magnetic and electric fields, and two relatively stable plasma jets, connected with the electrode tips, were formed in the discharge shortly after the breakdown. Later a high-density ellipsoidal structure with a sharp boundary formed. Michelson interferometry and the Schlieren method, respectively, were used in measurements of the plasma density in the discharge channel and in the small inhomogeneity regions. A distinct filamentary structure of the plasma jets was well seen in the Schlieren pictures. The electron temperature was calculated from the intensities of spectral lines and of continuum radiation in the visible region. (J.U.) 1 fig., 3 refs

  15. Understanding receptivity to interruptions in mobile human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Interruptions have a profound impact on our attentional orientation in everyday life. Recent advances in mobile information technology increase the number of potentially disruptive notifications on mobile devices by an increasing availability of services. Understanding the contextual intricacies that make us receptive to these interruptions is paramount to devising technology that supports interruption management. This thesis makes a number of contributions to the methodology of studying ...

  16. Comparative study of the effect of pharmaceutical additives on the elimination of antibiotic activity during the treatment of oxacillin in water by the photo-Fenton, TiO2-photocatalysis and electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo, Ana L; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pharmaceutical effluents loaded with the β-lactam antibiotic oxacillin were treated using advanced oxidation processes (the photo-Fenton system and TiO2 photocatalysis) and chloride mediated electrochemical oxidation (with Ti/IrO2 anodes). Combinations of the antibiotic with excipients (mannitol or tartaric acid), an active ingredient (calcium carbonate, i.e. bicarbonate ions due to the pH) and a cleaning agent (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) were considered. Additionally, urban wastewater that had undergone biological treatment was doped with oxacillin and treated with the tested systems. The evolution of antimicrobial activity was monitored as a parameter of processes efficiency. Although the two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) differ only in the way they produce OH, marked differences were observed between them. There were also differences between the AOPs and the electrochemical system. Interestingly, each additive had a different effect on each treatment. For water loaded with mannitol, electrochemical treatment was the most suitable option because the additive did not significantly affect the efficiency of the system. Due to the formation of a complex with Fe(3+), tartaric acid accelerated the elimination of antibiotic activity during the photo-Fenton process. For TiO2 photocatalysis, the presence of bicarbonate ions contributed to antibiotic activity elimination through the possible formation of carbonate and bicarbonate radicals. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate negatively affected all of the processes. However, due to the higher selectivity of HOCl compared with OH, electrochemical oxidation showed the least inhibited efficiency. For the urban wastewater doped with oxacillin, TiO2 photocatalysis was the most efficient process. These results will help select the most suitable technology for the treatment of water polluted with β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:26479916

  17. The intelligibility of interrupted speech depends upon its uninterrupted intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoint, Marine; Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Recognition of sentences containing periodic, 5-Hz, silent interruptions of differing duty cycles was assessed for three types of processed speech. Processing conditions employed different combinations of spectral resolution and the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information, chosen to yield similar, below-ceiling performance for uninterrupted speech. Performance declined with decreasing duty cycle similarly for each processing condition, suggesting that, at least for certain forms of speech processing and interruption rates, performance with interrupted speech may reflect that obtained with uninterrupted speech. This highlights the difficulty in interpreting differences in interrupted speech performance across conditions for which uninterrupted performance is at ceiling. PMID:25324110

  18. Antibiotic treatment following a dog bite in an immunocompromized patient in order to prevent Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hloch, Ondrej; Mokra, Dana; Masopust, Jan; Hasa, Jan; Charvat, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a commensal bacterium found in the saliva of dogs and cats. Clinically significant infections in humans after a bite are often associated with the presence of immune deficiency. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial for patient survival. In addition, patients with immune deficiency are susceptible to serious life-threatening nosocomial infections, which may also influence the prognosis of patients with Capnocytophaga canimorsus infecti...

  19. Response to "Antibiotic Use and Resistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Feja, Christina; Lallana, María Jesús; Aguilar, Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned, antibiotic consumption in heavy users, especially in children, is really striking. Certainly, our results revealed an antibiotic use in this age group higher than published in previous studies, and in line with different reports repeatedly presenting the high antibiotic consumption...... existing in Spain compared with other European countries (1). Determinants involved in antibiotic prescribing are numerous and varied. It is true that therapeutic failures lead to repeated courses of antibiotic treatment. However, it is not probably the only reason. Frequent and high consumption of...... antibiotics, as observed in heavy users, could also be due to factors related to the GP, patient and parents' expectations or the influence exerted by the pharmaceutical industry (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Age-targeted HIV treatment and primary prevention as a ‘ring fence’ to efficiently interrupt the age patterns of transmission in generalized epidemic settings in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteyn, Anna; Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized HIV epidemics propagate to future generations according to the age patterns of transmission. We hypothesized that future generations could be protected from infection using age-targeted prevention, analogous to the ring-fencing strategies used to control the spread of smallpox. Methods We modeled age-targeted or cohort-targeted outreach with HIV treatment and/or prevention using EMOD-HIV v0·8, an individual-based network model of HIV transmission in South Africa. Results Targeting ages 20 to 30 with intensified outreach, linkage, and eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) averted 45% as many infections as universal outreach for approximately one-fifth the cost beyond existing HIV services. Though cost-effective, targeting failed to eliminate all infections to those under 20 due to vertical and inter-generational transmission. Cost-effectiveness of optimal prevention strategies included US$6238 per infection averted targeting ages 10–30, US$5031 targeting 20–30, US$4279 targeting 22–27, and US$3967 targeting 25–27, compared to US$10 812 for full-population test-and-treat. Minimizing burden (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) rather than infections resulted in older target age ranges because older adults were more likely to receive a direct health benefit from treatment. Conclusions Age-targeted treatment for HIV prevention is unlikely to eliminate HIV epidemics, but is an efficient strategy for reducing new infections in generalized epidemics settings. PMID:27008897

  1. Project example of treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from antibiotics production%抗生素类制药废水处理工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜丹丹

    2015-01-01

    A pharmaceutical enterprise mainly produces antibiotics, penicillin, erythromycin and other drugs with wastewater quantity of 10 000 t/d. In view of the characteristics of the said pharmaceutical wastewater such as high organic matter and ammonia nitrogen concentration, and complicated component, a combined pro-cess of hydrolytic acidification-CASS-one stage BAF-Fenton-two stage BAF was adopted for its treatment. The engineering practice showed that, through the treatment, the effluent water quality met the requirement of level A grade 1 in GB18918-2002 Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. The process design and commissioning and operation of the project were introduced, besides, the design parameters of the main structures were pointed out.%某医药企业主要生产抗生素、青霉素、红霉素等药物,废水量为10000 t/d,针对其有机物浓度高、氨氮浓度高、成分复杂的特点,采用水解酸化-CASS-一级BAF-芬顿-二级BAF工艺进行处理。工程实践表明,经该组合工艺处理后,出水水质达到GB 18918-2002《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》中一级A标准的要求。介绍了工艺流程设计和调试运行,给出了主要构筑物设计参数。

  2. Project example of treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from antibiotics production%抗生素类制药废水处理工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜丹丹

    2015-01-01

    某医药企业主要生产抗生素、青霉素、红霉素等药物,废水量为10000 t/d,针对其有机物浓度高、氨氮浓度高、成分复杂的特点,采用水解酸化-CASS-一级BAF-芬顿-二级BAF工艺进行处理。工程实践表明,经该组合工艺处理后,出水水质达到GB 18918-2002《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》中一级A标准的要求。介绍了工艺流程设计和调试运行,给出了主要构筑物设计参数。%A pharmaceutical enterprise mainly produces antibiotics, penicillin, erythromycin and other drugs with wastewater quantity of 10 000 t/d. In view of the characteristics of the said pharmaceutical wastewater such as high organic matter and ammonia nitrogen concentration, and complicated component, a combined pro-cess of hydrolytic acidification-CASS-one stage BAF-Fenton-two stage BAF was adopted for its treatment. The engineering practice showed that, through the treatment, the effluent water quality met the requirement of level A grade 1 in GB18918-2002 Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. The process design and commissioning and operation of the project were introduced, besides, the design parameters of the main structures were pointed out.

  3. Treatment of dairy cows with PGF2α or NSAID, in combination with antibiotics, in cases of postpartum uterine inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremejeva Julia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to test the effect of two treatments in cases of acute puerperal metritis (APM and clinical metritis (CM. Methods Cows with APM and CM (n = 40 were matched according to plasma fibrinogen levels (Fb into three groups. Two negative control groups D (n = 11 and E (n = 17 were composed of healthy cows. The proportion of animals with APM and CM was similar within the groups. Treatment was started on the 3rd day postpartum (PP. In group A (n = 15, intramuscular (i.m. administration of ceftiofur was used for five days in combination with flunixin for three days. Group B (n = 15 received i.m. administration of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2α, with an interval of 8 h, on the 8th day PP. Group C (n = 10 served as a control group with no treatment. The general health status, body temperature (BT and vaginal discharge were evaluated daily. Endometrial biopsies for bacteriology were taken once a week for seven weeks PP. Blood samples for the analysis of acute phase proteins were collected once a week for six weeks PP. Samples for progesterone analysis were taken twice a week for seven weeks PP. Fertility performance data were recorded. Results The area under the curve of BT was higher in group B than in group D cows (P  Conclusions Regardless of more severe uterine inflammation found in animals from group B, these cows showed the same fertility parameters as healthy animals.

  4. 污水厂不同生物处理工艺对抗生素的去除效果%Removal of Antibiotics by Different Biological Processes in Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷小伟; 强志民; 贲伟伟; 潘寻

    2012-01-01

    由于抗生素的广泛使用,目前在地表水、地下水、饮用水、污泥及土壤等环境介质中都检测到了抗生素的残留.抗生素在环境中的持续暴露可能诱导耐药菌株的产生,对生态环境和人类健康具有潜在的巨大危害性,因此抗生素的污染问题越来越受到公众关注.近年来,考察抗生素在城市污水厂生物处理工艺中的去除效果已成为研究热点.在分析城市污水处理厂中抗生素主要来源的基础上,探讨了传统活性污泥法、序批式活性污泥法、膜生物反应器等生物处理工艺对抗生素的去除效果,分析了污泥停留时间、温度、吸附作用和水力停留时间等因素对抗生素去除效果的影响.%Antibiotics are frequently detected in various environmental media such as surface water, underground water, drinking water, sludge and soils due to their wide usage around the world. The durative exposure of antibiotics in the environment may cause generation of drug-resistant strain, thus posing a great risk to ecosystems and human health. As a result, antibiotics pollution is attracting more and more public attention. In recent years, the removal of antibiotics in biological treatment processes in municipal sewage treatment plants has become a research focus. The major sources of antibiotics in municipal sewage treatment plants were analyzed, and the removal efficiencies of antibiotics in several biological treatment processes were discussed, including the conventional activated sludge process, sequencing batch reactor and membrane bioreactor. Besides, several influencing factors on the removal efficiencies of antibiotics were analyzed, including sludge residence time, temperature, adsorption and hydraulic retention time.

  5. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta V; Yadav A; Joshi R

    2002-01-01

    Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urina...

  6. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Igere

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL, 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL, and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL, for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, ofloxacin (100%, clindamycin (90%, erythromycin (90% and nitrofurantoin (80%; whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%, rifampin (90%, sulphamethoxazole (90% and the cephems (70%. MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes.

  7. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Siddiqi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isolation from sputum during acute exacerbation in many instances reflects a cause-effect relationship. Placebo-controlled antibiotic trials in exacerbations of COPD demonstrate significant clinical benefits of antibiotic treatment in moderate and severe episodes. However, in the multitude of antibiotic comparison trials, the choice of antibiotics does not appear to affect the clinical outcome, which can be explained by several methodological limitations of these trials. Recently, comparison trials with nontraditional end-points have shown differences among antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbations of COPD. Observational studies that have examined clinical outcome of exacerbations have repeatedly demonstrated certain clinical characteristics to be associated with treatment failure or early relapse. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients, reserving the broader spectrum drugs for the high risk patients. Though improved outcomes in exacerbations with antibiotic choice based on such risk stratification has not yet been demonstrated in prospective controlled trials, this approach takes into account concerns of disease heterogeneity, antibiotic resistance and judicious antibiotic use in exacerbations.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, bronchitis, antibiotics

  8. Antibiotics in otorhinolaryngology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study investigated utilization of antibacterial agents at the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman and at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period February - March 2001. Material and methods All antibacterial agents were classified as group J, regarding Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification. Data on drug utilization were presented in Defined Daily Doses (DDD. Patients who were under observation were all treated with antibiotics. Results In regard to prescribed treatment in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, most outpatients were treated with macrolide antibiotics - in 26.21%; combination of penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors in 20.83% and pyranosides in 16.12%. At the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, macrolides and lincosamines were most frequently used - in 20.46%; cephalosporins in 19.87% and penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase in 18.85%. It is extremely positive and in agreement with current pharmacotherapeutic principles that in both institutions peroral ampicillins have not been prescribed. Aminoglycosides have been prescribed in less than 1% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, whereas they were much more frequently prescribed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad - in 11.25%. Although there is a positive postantibiotic effect in regard to these antibiotics and it is recommended to use them once a day, in both examined institutions aminoglycosides were given twice a day. In regard to bacterial identification it was done in 80.76% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, while in the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center

  9. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    . Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years....... Additionally, culture-independent functional characterization of the resistance genes from the microbiome has demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship between resistance genes in the microbiome and in pathogens. Application of these techniques and novel cultivation methods are expected to significantly...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  10. FISHBURN’S METHOD: A METHOD OF DRUGS CLINICAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ANTIBIOTICS, APPLIED FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND RECIDIVOUS OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a structure of a therapy with antibiotics which is applied for patients with acute and recidivous obstructive bronchitis. We have determined a clinical efficiency of each antibiotic used. We have presented a methodology of weight coefficients calculation efficiency by the Fishburn’s method. We have also presented a method for antibiotics distribution by the levels of clinical efficiency – high, medium, and low.

  11. Effects of interrupted photoperiods on the induction of ovulation in anestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Johnson, A L; Scanes, C G

    1985-10-01

    The ability of interrupted photoperiods to induce early estrus and ovulation was examined. Horse mares were exposed to long (16 h light) or short (10 h light), noninterrupted photoperiods, ambient light, or various interrupted photoperiod treatments from December 1 to April 15 (135 d). Follicular development was assessed by rectal palpation and estrous behavior was determined by teasing with a stallion. Serum concentrations of progesterone were used as an indicator of corpus luteum function. Differences among the light treatment groups were compared for the following behavioral and ovarian characteristics: days to first detectable 3-cm follicle, days to first estrous behavior, days to first ovulation, the number of mares ovulating within the treatment period, and the number of ovulations within the treatment period per mare. Compared with the ambient and 10L:14D (L = h of light and D = h of darkness) photoperiod treatments, ovulation was advanced to the greatest extent by a photoperiod of 16L:8D and the interrupted photoperiod 10L:8D:2L:4D. These two stimulatory photoperiod treatments were characterized by the presence of light 8 to 10 h after dusk. Therefore, the present data are consistent with an external coincidence model for the induction of seasonal breeding in horses, with the photoinducible phase occurring within the period 8 to 10 h after dusk. PMID:4066545

  12. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  13. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.;

    2015-01-01

    closer to, or even better than, human judgment. However, existing approaches to assess interruptibility have been designed to rely on external sensors. In this paper, we present Approximator, a system that estimates the interruptibility of a user based exclusively on the sensing ability of commodity...

  14. The use of antibiotic-impregnated cement beads in the management of sternal osteomyelitis after treatment for malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the majority of patients who develop Hodgkin's disease can be cured with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. A long follow up of cured patients has shown that the cumulative toxicity from treatment related complication rivals the mortality from Hodgkin's disease. We present a 38-year old male with Hodgkin's disease, treated with radiation and chemotherapy, who developed cardiac infarction and severe mediastinal fibrosis. After median sternotomy for cardiac bypass operation, he suffered from sternal osteitis and superior mediastinitis. A radical debridement must be avoided to protect the bypassed conduit embedded in the extended severe mediastinal fibrosis. Then after appropriate debridement and management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap transfer and use of vancomycin-impregnated cement beads achieved infection control. In this study we present our experience with bibliographical discussion. With the concept presented in this study, however, a consistent cure and prevention from subsequent infection-related morbidity and mortality were achieved even in the subset of the most severe, recalcitrant cases of sternal osteitis, and with an unacceptable rate of complications. This justifies the invasive nature of the procedure and suggests its application not only as a salvage operation for failures after previous interventions, but also as a primary approach for severe sternal osteomyelitis. (author)

  15. Evaluation of antibiotic use in a Lebanese hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global health problem. Misuse of antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance which presents clinicians with treatment challenges and increases the complexity of the decision making process related to the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic resistant organisms can often lead to nosocomial infections (NIs) and undoubtedly causes patient harm and increases healthcare costs. According to the National Insti...

  16. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob; Alamili, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...

  17. The use of interruptible power in west Texas waterflood operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interruptible power purchased from electric utilities has been used by chemical and process industries for many years, but is not generally used in oil producing operations. Interruptible power represents an established option to reduce electric power costs, which are often the oil producer's single largest operating expense. The recent use of interruptible power in Amoco Production Company's West Texas waterflood operations has significantly reduced operating expenses. Interruptible power rates are offered by many electric utility companies; however, the impact on producing operations is generally not known. This paper addresses the initial areas of concern and offers over two years of case history data showing how interruptible power affects operating costs. production equipment, producing rates and safety/environmental operations

  18. 3C236 Radio Source, Interrupted?

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Sparks, W B; Martel, A R; Allen, M G; Macchetto, F D; Miley, G K; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, Andre R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-01-01

    We present new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V and R band images which reveal the presence of four star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order 1E7 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order 1E8 - 1E9 yr which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for 1E7 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same eve...

  19. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  20. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single - binary and binary - binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be "interrupted" by an interloping star or binary may be 20-40% (or higher) in the core,...

  1. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J S; Nasser, S

    2005-06-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30-50%). There is a low risk of cross reactions between penicillins and other non-beta-lactam classes of antibiotics in penicillin skin prick positive patients. Carbapenems should only be used with extreme caution in patients with positive skin prick tests to penicillin. However, aztreonam can be used safely in patients who are penicillin allergic with positive skin prick reactions. The aminoglycosides are a relatively uncommon cause of allergic reactions, but patients who react to one member of the family may cross react with other aminoglycosides. Desensitisation relies on the incremental introduction of small quantities of the allergen and has been used for penicillins, ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and must be repeated before each course. Personalized cards should be regularly updated for patients who develop allergic reactions. Written instructions on the emergency treatment of allergic reactions should be provided to patients self-administering intravenous antibiotics at home. Further research is required to identify risk factors and predictors for antibiotic allergy. PMID:15923254

  2. Combination of Silver Nanoparticles and Drosera binata Extract as a Possible Alternative for Antibiotic Treatment of Burn Wound Infections Caused by Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Krychowiak, Marta; Grinholc, Mariusz; Banasiuk, Rafal; Krauze-Baranowska, Miroslawa; Głód, Daniel; Kawiak, Anna; Królicka, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common infectious agent involved in the development of skin infections that are associated with antibiotic resistance, such as burn wounds. As drug resistance is a growing problem it is essential to establish novel antimicrobials. Currently, antibiotic resistance in bacteria is successfully controlled by multi-drug therapies. Here we demonstrate that secondary metabolites present in the extract obtained from Drosera binata in vitro cultures are effective anti...

  3. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1α-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1α-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1α-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1α-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research highlights: → A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. → IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression

  4. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  5. Antibiotics Cure Anthrax in Animal Models▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Pass, Avi; Ophir, Yakir; Rothschild, Nili; Tal, Arnon; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline, ofloxacin, imipenem, and gentamicin conferred protection. However, upon termination of treatment, the animals died from respiratory anthrax. Combi...

  6. Strengthening Control of Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EthelLu

    2005-01-01

    IT is a well-known fact that buy-ng guns is much easier than purchasing antibiotics in the United States. In China, however, the situation is different. According to a recent WHO survey,about 80 percent of Chinese inpatients take antibiotic medicines, and 58 percent of them are prescribed multifunctional antibiotics,

  7. Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-15

    This podcast provides a brief background about antibiotics and quick tips to help prevent antibiotic resistance.  Created: 4/15/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Fuko Pharma Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health cla...

  9. Procalcitonin guidance on antibiotic therapy in the treatment of AECOPD patients%血清降钙素原对AECOPD抗生素使用的指导价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金龙; 谭亚萍; 敬鸿博; 侯雪飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the guidance value of procalcitonin on antibiotic use in the treatment of AECOPD patients. Methods 63 patients with AECOPD were randomly divided into the PCT group (n=32) and the control group (n=31). The serum concentration of procalcitonin (PCT) were measured in all patients. On the base of similar routine treatment, the control group received antibiotics based on the physician 's decision, and the PCT group were treated with antibiotics according to serum PCT levels. The antibiotic treatment was applied when the level of PCT was higher than 0. 25ng/mL and stopped when the level of PCT was lower than 0. 25ng/mL. The duration of antibiotics use and hospital stay was observed. Results The duration of antibiotics use was shorter in the PCT group [7(5~11)d] than in the control group [13(7~16)d] (P=0. 03), and the cost of antibiotics in the PCT group was lower than that in the control group (P=0. 001). There was no significant difference in clinical efficacy and du-ration of hospital stay in the two groups (P>0. 05). Conclusion PCT guidance can reduce antibiotic duration and antibiotic cost in the treatment of AECOPD patients.%目的:研究血清降钙素原( PCT)检测在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期( AECOPD)对使用抗生素的指导价值。方法选取收治的AECOPD患者63例,随机分配成两组:PCT指导治疗组32例(简称 PCT组)和常规治疗组31例(简称对照组),检测血清PCT水平。在常规治疗的基础上,对照组按照临床抗生素使用指南决定抗生素疗程,PCT组按照血清PCT水平决定抗生素的使用,当血清PCT≥0.25ng/mL时,进行抗生素治疗,当PCT<0.25 ng/mL时,则停止使用抗生素。并观察两组患者抗生素的使用疗程,抗生素所用费用及住院时间。结果 PCT组抗生素疗程[7(5~11)d]短于对照组[13(7~16)d](P=0.03);PCT组抗生素费用低于对照组(P=0.001),两组的住院时间及预后无明显差异。结论 AECOPD患者根据PCT水

  10. Microbial communities associated with healthy and White syndrome-affected Echinopora lamellosa in aquaria and experimental treatment with the antibiotic ampicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic and ciliate communities of healthy and aquarium White Syndrome (WS-affected coral fragments were screened using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. A significant difference (R = 0.907, p < 0.001 in 16S rRNA prokaryotic diversity was found between healthy (H, sloughed tissue (ST, WS-affected (WSU and antibiotic treated (WST samples. Although 3 Vibrio spp were found in WS-affected samples, two of these species were eliminated following ampicillin treatment, yet lesions continued to advance, suggesting they play a minor or secondary role in the pathogenesis. The third Vibrio sp increased slightly in relative abundance in diseased samples and was abundant in non-diseased samples. Interestingly, a Tenacibaculum sp showed the greatest increase in relative abundance between healthy and WS-affected samples, demonstrating consistently high abundance across all WS-affected and treated samples, suggesting Tenacibaculum sp could be a more likely candidate for pathogenesis in this instance. In contrast to previous studies bacterial abundance did not vary significantly (ANOVA, F2, 6 = 1.000, p = 0.422 between H, ST, WSU or WST. Antimicrobial activity (assessed on Vibrio harveyi cultures was limited in both H and WSU samples (8.1% ±8.2 and 8.0% ±2.5, respectively and did not differ significantly (Kruskal-Wallis, χ2 (2 = 3.842, p = 0.146. A Philaster sp, a Cohnilembus sp and a Pseudokeronopsis sp. were present in all WS-affected samples, but not in healthy samples. The exact role of ciliates in WS is yet to be determined, but it is proposed that they are at least responsible for the neat lesion boundary observed in the disease.

  11. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  12. Pardon the Interruption: Goal Proximity, Perceived Spare Time, and Impatience

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hoon Jhang; John G. Lynch Jr.

    2015-01-01

    There is no worse time to be interrupted than right now. Being close to attaining a goal to complete a focal task increases the attractiveness of that task compared to an interrupting task (study 1), makes people less willing to take on some otherwise attractive interruption than if they were farther away from completion (studies 2, 3, and 4), and causes them to perceive that in that moment they have little spare time (studies 3 and 4). Consumers immersed in goal pursuit are affected by local...

  13. The 'liaisons dangereuses' between iron and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezraty, Benjamin; Barras, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    The decline in the rate of new antibiotic discovery is of growing concern, and new antibacterial strategies must now be explored. This review brings together research in two fields (metals in biology and antibiotics) in the hope that collaboration between scientists working in these two areas will lead to major advances in understanding and the development of new approaches to tackling microbial pathogens. Metals have been used as antiseptics for centuries. In this review, we focus on iron, an essential trace element that can nevertheless be toxic to bacteria. We review the many situations in which iron and antibiotics have combinatorial effects when used together. Understanding the molecular relationships between iron and antibiotics, from pure chemistry to gene reprogramming via biochemical competition, is important not only to increase basic knowledge, but also for the development of treatments against pathogens, with a view to optimizing antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26945776

  14. 针挑法结合维A酸类以及抗生素治疗痤疮疗效观察%Effect Observation of Needle Combined with Vitamin A Acid and Antibiotics in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察针挑痤疮内容物后应用维A酸类以及抗生素治疗痤疮的疗效和安全性。方法:治疗组70例,针挑痤疮内容物后,口服异维A酸胶丸或者维胺酯胶囊、单用或联合应用抗生素治疗;对照组67例,口服安体舒通片和单用或联合应用抗生素治疗;两组均外用治疗痤疮类乳膏。两组疗程均为6周。结果:治疗结束时两组有效率差异非常显著性(χ2=6.63,P<0.01)。结论:针挑法结合维A酸类以及抗生素治疗痤疮疗效好。%Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of needle combined with vitamin A acid and antibiotics in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Methods:70 cases in the treatment group had oral vitamin A acid capsule or oral isotretinoin soft capsules, single or combined with antibiotic therapy with Viaminate capsules; 67 cases in the control group had oral administration of spironolactone and single or combined use of antibiotics; The two groups both had topical acne cream. The two groups were both treated for 6 weeks. Results:There was significant effective rate difference between the two groups(χ2= 6.63,P<0.01). Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of needle pricking method combined with vitamin A acid and antibiotics has good effect on the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  15. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E-3, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  16. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:22029522

  17. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  18. Impact of antibiotic treatments on the expression of the R plasmid tra genes and on the host innate immune activity during pRAS1 bearing Aeromonas hydrophila infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantas Leon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transfer of R plasmids between bacteria has been well studied under laboratory conditions and the transfer frequency has been found to vary between plasmids and under various physical conditions. For the first time, we here study the expression of the selected plasmid mobility genes traD, virB11 and virD4 in the 45 kb IncU plasmid, pRAS1, conferring resistance to tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamide, using an in vivo zebrafish infection- treatment model. Results Three days after oral infection of adult zebrafish with Aeromonas hydrophila harboring pRAS1, elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF α, IL-1β and IL-8 and complement C3 genes in the intestine coincided with disease symptoms. Tetracycline, trimethoprim and an ineffective concentration of flumequine given 48 h prior to sampling, strongly increased expression of plasmid mobility genes, whereas an effective dosage of flumequine resulted in lower levels of mRNA copies of these genes relative to placebo treatment. Following effective treatment with flumequine, and ineffective treatments with a low concentration of flumequine, with trimethoprim or with sulphonamide, the intestinal expression of immune genes was strongly induced compared to placebo treated control fish. Conclusions Treatment of zebrafish infected with an antibiotic resistant (TcR, TmR, SuR A. hydrophila with ineffective concentrations of flumequine or the ineffective antimicrobials tetracycline and trimethoprim strongly induced expression of genes mediating conjugative transfer of the R-plasmid pRAS1. Simultaneously, there was a strong induction of selected inflammatory and immune response genes, which was again evident in fish subjected to ineffective treatment protocols. Our findings point to the essential role of therapeutic practices in escalation or control of antibiotic resistance transfer, and suggest that antibiotic substances, even in sub-inhibitory concentrations, may

  19. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Raghunath

    2008-11-01

    The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed the profile of infectious diseases and human demography. The burgeoning classes and numbers promised much and elimination of this major cause of human (and animal) morbidity appeared possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance which was observed soon after antibiotic introduction has been studied extensively. Diverse mechanisms have been demonstrated and the genetic basis elucidated. The resilience of the prokaryote ecosystems to antibiotic stress has been realized. The paper presents these subjects briefly to afford an overview. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is dealt with and community practices in different countries are described. The role of high antibiotic usage environments is indicated. The implication of the wide use of antibiotics in animals has been pointed out. Steadily increasing antibiotic resistance and decreasing numbers of newer antibiotics appear to point to a post-antibiotic period during which treatment of infections would become increasingly difficult. This article attempts to review the global antimicrobial resistance scene and juxtaposes it to the Indian experience. The prevalence in India of antibiotic resistance among major groups of pathogens is described. The factors that determine the prevalent high antibiotic resistance rates have been highlighted. The future research activity to ensure continued utility of antibiotics in the control of infections has been indicated.

  20. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  1. [Modification of antibiotic resistance in microbial symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznabaeva, L M; Usviatsov, B Ia; Bukharin, O V

    2010-01-01

    In antibiotic therapy it is necessary to use drugs active against the pathogen in its association with the host normal microflora. The aim of the study was to investigate modification of antibiotic resistance under conditions of the pathogen association with the representatives of the host normal microflora and to develop the microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibacterials. Modification of microbial antibiotic resistance was investigated in 408 associations. Various changes in the antibiotic resistance of the strains were revealed: synergism, antagonism and indifference. On the basis of the results it was concluded that in the choice of the antibiotic active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes the preference should be given to oxacillin, gentamicin and levomycetin, since the resistance of the pathogens to these antibiotics under the association conditions did not increase, which could contribute to their destruction, whereas the resistance of the normoflora increased or did not change, which was important for its retention in the biocenosis. The data on changeability of the antibiotic resistance of the microbial strains under the association conditions made it possible to develop microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of microbial etiology (RF Patent No. 2231554). PMID:21033469

  2. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  3. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  4. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  5. Interrupting Anticoagulation in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    No agents are approved to reverse the effects of newer anticoagulants used to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. This review focuses on ways to monitor, interrupt, and reverse such anticoagulation.

  6. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization. PMID:27595258

  7. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-14

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition muproblem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic muT(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, Lus to the same conclusion from a somewhat more extended view valid also for the transient out-of-equilibrium case of mu>2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition. PMID:19045381

  8. Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S H; Jasper, Anitha; Mani, Sunithi Elizabeth; Joseph, Elizabeth; Mathai, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a few cases of Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery, an uncommon developmental anomaly associated with congenital heart disease. The cases had varied clinical presentations. Chest radiograph showed a hypoplastic lung with an ipsilateral small hilum on the side of the interruption and hyperinflation of the contralateral lung. Contrast CT confirmed the diagnosis, demonstrating non-visualization of the left or right pulmonary artery, and other related findings. PMID:26816968

  9. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Frank; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when the......-Aware-systems-inspired approach “Egocentric Interaction” aimed at supporting the design of envisioned Wearable Personal Assistants intended to, among other things, help human perception and cognition with the management of interruptions....

  10. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  11. Minocycline: far beyond an antibiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Mesa, N; Zarzuelo, A; Gálvez, J

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation, semi-synthetic tetracycline that has been in therapeutic use for over 30 years because of its antibiotic properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is mainly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and some sexually transmitted diseases. Recently, it has been reported that tetracyclines can exert a variety of biological actions that are independent of their anti-microbial activity, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic acti...

  12. Combination of silver nanoparticles and Drosera binata extract as a possible alternative for antibiotic treatment of burn wound infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Krychowiak

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common infectious agent involved in the development of skin infections that are associated with antibiotic resistance, such as burn wounds. As drug resistance is a growing problem it is essential to establish novel antimicrobials. Currently, antibiotic resistance in bacteria is successfully controlled by multi-drug therapies. Here we demonstrate that secondary metabolites present in the extract obtained from Drosera binata in vitro cultures are effective antibacterial agents against S. aureus grown in planktonic culture and in biofilm. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating the synergistic interaction between the D. binata extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, which results in the spectacular enhancement of the observed bactericidal activity, while having no cytotoxic effects on human keratinocytes. Simultaneous use of these two agents in significantly reduced quantities produces the same effect, i.e. by killing 99.9% of bacteria in inoculum or eradicating the staphylococcal biofilm, as higher amounts of the agents used individually. Our data indicates that combining AgNPs with either the D. binata extract or with its pure compound (3-chloroplumbagin may provide a safe and highly effective alternative to commonly used antibiotics, which are ineffective towards the antibiotic-resistant S. aureus.

  13. Combination of silver nanoparticles and Drosera binata extract as a possible alternative for antibiotic treatment of burn wound infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychowiak, Marta; Grinholc, Mariusz; Banasiuk, Rafal; Krauze-Baranowska, Miroslawa; Głód, Daniel; Kawiak, Anna; Królicka, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common infectious agent involved in the development of skin infections that are associated with antibiotic resistance, such as burn wounds. As drug resistance is a growing problem it is essential to establish novel antimicrobials. Currently, antibiotic resistance in bacteria is successfully controlled by multi-drug therapies. Here we demonstrate that secondary metabolites present in the extract obtained from Drosera binata in vitro cultures are effective antibacterial agents against S. aureus grown in planktonic culture and in biofilm. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating the synergistic interaction between the D. binata extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which results in the spectacular enhancement of the observed bactericidal activity, while having no cytotoxic effects on human keratinocytes. Simultaneous use of these two agents in significantly reduced quantities produces the same effect, i.e. by killing 99.9% of bacteria in inoculum or eradicating the staphylococcal biofilm, as higher amounts of the agents used individually. Our data indicates that combining AgNPs with either the D. binata extract or with its pure compound (3-chloroplumbagin) may provide a safe and highly effective alternative to commonly used antibiotics, which are ineffective towards the antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:25551660

  14. Frontline antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan, Alasdair; Albur, Maha

    2013-06-01

    The need to use front-line antibiotics wisely has never been greater. Antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistant infection, driven by antibiotic use, remain major public health and professional concerns. To overcome these infection problems, use of older antibiotics active against multi drug-resistant pathogens is increasing - for example, colistin, fosfomycin, pivmecillinam, pristinamycin, temocillin and oral tetracyclines. The number of new antibacterials reaching clinical practice has reduced significantly in the last 20 years, most being focused on therapy of Gram-positive infection - eg linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline. Recent guidance on antibiotic stewardship in NHS trusts in England is likely to provide a backdrop to antibiotic use in hospitals in the next 5 years. PMID:23760700

  15. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    a high proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial...... individuals with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received...... risk of the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, and interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics should therefore primarily be targeted children and elderly people....

  16. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, Mahdi; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...... was to give an overview of studies on acute perforated appendicitis with postoperative oral antibiotics. Five studies were found in a database search covering the 1966-2009 period. There is no evidence to support a conversion of the postoperative antibiotic regimen from intravenous to oral...... administration in patients with acute perforated appendicitis....

  17. Understanding Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart-Touma, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance arises have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing antibiotics (Andersson DI et al.2011) and antibiotic cycling (Andersson DI et al. 2005, Bergstrom CT et al. 2004). Part of the problem may be that those effor...

  18. Antibiotics: Miracle Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    The overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance among bacteria, making antibiotics ineffective in treating certain conditions. This podcast discusses the importance of talking to your healthcare professional about whether or not antibiotics will be beneficial if you’ve been diagnosed with an infectious disease.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  19. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author)

  20. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya; Hande Arslan

    2011-01-01

    Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. T...

  1. Cooperative Electrostatic Polymer-Antibiotic Nanoplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Vadala, Timothy Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria can enter phagocytic cells and replicate in them, and these intracellular bacteria are difficult to treat because the recommended antibiotics do not transport into the cells efficiently. Examples include food-borne bacteria such as Salmonella and Listeria as well as more toxic bacteria such as Brucella and the Mycobacteria that lead to tuberculosis. Current treatments utilize aminoglycoside antibiotics that are polar and positively charged and such drugs do not ente...

  2. Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses N. Katabarwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG, treatment coverage of ≥90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda.

  3. The future of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on 'push' incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  4. Immunomodulatory actions of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrob drugs and immune system interaction has been studied since the pioneer works of Metchnikoff. After the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice this area has attracted little attention of investigators, because of the lack of standards. This is the reason that the studying of the influence of antibiotics on immune system is still at its beginning. Aim: To point out the immunomodulatory action of some antibiotics on certain components of immune system. Methods and results. The literaure findings show that antibiotics exspress immunomodulatory action on some components of immune system such as fagocytes (polymorphonucleary, macrophages, monocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulines, and on cellular immunity. The principles of antibiotics action on phagocyte are the inhibition of chemotaxis and oxidants production. Macrolides applied for a short time enchance the phagocytic functions while their long use leads to immunosupression. Some cephalosporines and rifampicin in therapeutic doses inhibit the oxydative metabolism of macrophages. Tetracyclines, clindamycines, chloramphenicol and tobramycin inhibit the synthesis of superoxyd anione. The action of some antibiotics on cytokine and specific antibodies is also important. Cellular immunity can be affected as well. After administration of certain antibiotics it takes 1-2 weeks to reestablish normal cellular immunity, and for other even more. Conclusion. There is still no clear standing on real effects of antibiotics on the immune system. Clinicians should search for more information from this new-old field of investigation in order to give more adequate therapy to patients.

  5. Predictors of treatment with antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids for acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ani, Salwan Tariq; Spigt, Marcus; Laue, Johanna; Melbye, Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic and oral corticosteroid prescribing rate in patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma in general practice are only sparsely described. Our aim was to identify predictors for such prescribing when results from CRP testing, spirometry, and pulse oximetry are available. Methods: Patients aged 40 years or more diagnosed with asthma, COPD or both, the previous five years from seven general practice offices in Norway...

  6. Antibiotic stewardship programmes in intensive care units: Why, how, and where are they leading us

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Zhi; Singh, Suveer

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage and increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mount significant challenges to patient safety and management of the critically ill on intensive care units (ICU). Antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs) aim to optimise appropriate antibiotic treatment whilst minimising antibiotic resistance. Different models of ASP in intensive care setting, include “standard” control of antibiotic prescribing such as “de-escalation strategies”through to interventional approaches utilising bio...

  7. Effects of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Providers on Antibiotic Selection, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Guillermo V.; Roberts, Rebecca M.; Albert, Alison P.; Johnson, Darcia D.; Hicks, Lauri A.

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate selection of antibiotic drugs is critical to optimize treatment of infections and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. To better inform public health efforts to improve prescribing of antibiotic drugs, we conducted in-depth interviews with 36 primary care providers in the United States (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to explore knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices regarding antibiotic drug resistance and antibiotic drug selection for ...

  8. Arc Behaviours in Vacuum Interrupters with Axial Magnetic Field Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongyi; ZHENG Yuesheng; LIU Zhiyuan; CHENG Shaoyong

    2008-01-01

    To improve the limiting current interruption capability and minimizing vacuum interrupter with axial magnetic field (AMF) electrodes,it is significant to investigate the vacuum arc behaviours between the contacts.AMF distributions of the slot type electrodes were studied by both numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore,the behaviours of vacuum arcs for different parameters of the slot type AMF electrodes were investigated by using high-speed CCD camera.The influences of gap distance,contact diameter and phase shift time between AMF and arc current on the vacuum arc were investigated.The results provide a reference for research and development of vacuum interrupters with slot type or other types of AMF electrode.

  9. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend......Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions...... longer responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with...

  10. ADJUNCTIVE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Barça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases with a mixed microbial aetiology and marked inflammatory response leading to destruction of underlying tissue. Periodontal therapy aims to eliminate pathogens associated with the disease and attain periodontal health. Periodontitis is generally treated by nonsurgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface; however, mechanical debridement alone may not be helpful in all cases. In such cases, adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy remains the treatment of choice. It can reach microorganisms at the base of the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas via serum, and also affects organisms residing within gingival epithelium and connective tissue. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues regarding when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy. The points discussed are the mode of antibiotic action, susceptible periodontal pathogens, antibiotic dosage, antibiotic use in treatment of periodontal disease, and mechanism of bacterial resistance to each antibiotic.

  11. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......-day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation to......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of...

  12. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  13. Use of antibiotic agents in a large teaching hospital. The impact of Antibiotic Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K; Stewart, R; Hemming, M; Moulds, R

    1983-09-01

    Three surveys of antibiotic use have been conducted at The Royal Melbourne Hospital. The first was conducted in 1978, before the introduction of the booklet, Antibiotic Guidelines; the second was conducted eight months after, and the most recent, four years after, its distribution. In 1978, 30% of 563 patients surveyed were receiving antibiotic therapy; this proportion declined to 28% of 967 patients studied in 1982. At the beginning of 1978, 52% of all treatments audited were judged appropriate when compared with those recommended in the Guidelines; this proportion rose to 72% in the second survey and was maintained at 70% in 1982. Certain inappropriate prescribing patterns persisted, such as the use of amoxycillin for the treatment of primary pneumonia, surgical antibiotic prophylaxis which was started too late, and the failure to simplify therapy when the results of microbiological investigations became available. Antibiotic guidelines facilitate the auditing of antibiotic usage and aid rational prescribing. Nevertheless, additional measures appear necessary if specific patterns of misuse of antibiotic agents are to be corrected. PMID:6678384

  14. Intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A.

    2001-05-01

    patients, except the most critically ill or those unable to absorb oral medications, as candidates for treatment for most or all of their antibiotic treatment with oral antibiotics. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12768219

  15. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  16. Analysis of efficacy and adverse reactions of two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of neonatal pneumonia%两种抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效及不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁众; 张雷; 冯战超

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察对比青霉素 G 与头孢噻肟钠两种抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效及不良反应。方法选取我院70例新生儿肺炎患者为研究对象,随机均分为两组,一组采用青霉素 G 治疗,另一组接受头孢噻肟钠治疗,比较两组的治疗效果,分析其对肠道菌群微生态的影响,并观察记录不良反应发生情况。结果青霉素 G 组与头孢噻肟钠组的治疗效果无显著性差异;两组抗生素的治疗均影响了肠道菌群平衡,其中青霉素 G 对乳酸杆菌无显著性影响,头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌的抗菌活性较高;青霉素 G 主要引发皮疹,头孢噻肟钠主要不良反应为消化道症状,总不良反应无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论使用头孢菌素抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效与应用青霉素类抗生素的疗效差异无统计学意义,虽然头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌作用强,但二者总不良反应发生率无显著性区别,根据抗生素使用原则及考虑经济原因,青霉素仍值得推广应用。%objective to observe and compare the therapeutic effect and adverse reaction of cefotaxime sodium penicillin G and two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of neonatal pneumonia. Methods in our hospital 70 cases of neonatal pneumonia as the research object, randomly divided into two groups, one group treated with penicillin G, another group received cefotaximesodium in the treatment, the efficacy was compared between two groups, analyzes its influence on the gut microflora, and observe the occurrence of adverse reactions. Results there were no significant differences of penicillin G group and cefotaxime sodium group treatment; treatment group two antibiotics affect the balance of intestinal flora, including penicillin G had no significant effect on lactobacillus, higher antibacterial activity of cefotaxime sodium for enterobacteriaceae; penicillin G rashes, majoradverse reactions of cefotaxime sodium for

  17. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  18. Clinical observation of medroxyprogesterone acetate combined with two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis%甲孕酮联合二联抗生素治疗子宫内膜炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建春

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨甲孕酮联合二联抗生素治疗子宫内膜炎的临床效果。方法:2013年4月-2014年3月收治子宫内膜炎患者72例,将患者随机分成观察组和对照组,各36例。观察组给予甲孕酮联合二联抗生素进行治疗,对照组单纯使用二联抗生素进行治疗。结果:观察组临床治疗的有效率97.2%,对照组临床治疗的有效率86.1%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:甲孕酮联合二联抗生素治疗子宫内膜炎临床疗效显著,值得临床推广。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate combined with two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis.Methods:72 cases with endometriosis were selected from April 2013 to March 2014.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 36 cases in each.The observation group were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate combined with two kinds of antibiotics.The control group were treated with two kinds of antibiotics. Results:In the observation group,the effective rate was 97.2%.In the control group,the effective rate was 86.1%.The difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate combined with two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis is significant.It is worthy of promotion.

  19. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  20. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must mail or deliver, before the end of the 10th day... and engine and aircraft on which it was installed. Propeller featherings for training,...

  1. Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap is analysed based on longitudinal data covering the years 1980-1995. The estimated model controls for unobserved time-constant heterogeneity. The results show that when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the negative...

  2. Realistically Rendering SoC Traffic Patterns with Interrupt Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angiolini, Frederico; Mahadevan, Sharkar; Madsen, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of applications using interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology to split such applications in execution subflows and to adjust the overall execution stream based upon hardware events; a reactive simulation device capable of...

  3. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ≤ 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  4. Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel M; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Diverticulitis is an inflammatory complication to the very common condition diverticulosis. Uncomplicated diverticulitis has traditionally been treated with antibiotics with reference to the microbiology, extrapolation from trials on complicated intra-abdominal infections and clinical experience....

  5. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies. PMID:26198413

  6. Antibiotic induced meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with antibiotic induced meningitis, one following penicillin with seven episodes, are reported on--the first well documented description of penicillin induced meningitis. In this patient episodes of headache and nuchal rigidity appeared with and without CSF pleocytosis. Two patients had a total of five episodes of antibiotic induced meningitis after trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) administration. The features common to all three patients were myalgia, confusion ...

  7. From antiseptics to antibiotics – and back?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadian, Ojan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no straight line to trace the trajectory of antiseptics; rather, this has been manifested more as a fluctuating line, a backwards and forwards movement, seen in the wake of major discoveries but of colossal mistakes too. While today no one would allow their prophylactic policies to be guided by miasma or contagia, there continues to be some uncertainly about how to manage anti-infectives effectively even today. When in 1941 the first human being was successfully treated with penicillin, interest in antiseptics gradually waned. From that time onwards, everything was treated with antibiotics, unleashing a race for the discovery of novel antibiotics, as witnessed decades earlier in the case of antiseptics. The significance of antiseptics declined to such an extent that among physicians they were associated merely with cleaning agents or sanitary disinfection. Today, at the beginning of the 21st century we know that the euphoria generated by antibiotics was just another station along the pathway of discoveries. Bacterial infections and new, hitherto unknown infectious diseases continue to play a major role. Several viral infections continue to be refractory to successful treatment and bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a problem worldwide. The most effective countermeasures no longer entail only the development of new antibiotics but above all responsible management of antibiotics and strict observance of infection control measures in the hospital setting. Set against that background, interest in antiseptics has been rekindled. In that spirit we can look eagerly forward over the coming years to further developments in antisepsis.

  8. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  9. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  10. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  11. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. (Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy))

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  12. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation

  13. The Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance Administer Antibiotics with Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The empiric antibiotic therapy can result in antibiotic overuse, development of bacterial resistance and increasing costs in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of procalcitonin (PCT guide treatment on antibiotic use and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS.  A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups, cases that underwent antibiotic treatment based on serum level of PCT as PCT group (n=30 and patients who undergoing antibiotic empiric therapy as control group (n=30. Our primary endpoint was the use of antibiotic treatment. Additional endpoints were changed in clinical status and early mortality. Antibiotics use was lower in PCT group compared to control group (P=0.03. Current data showed that difference in SOFA score from the first day to the second day after admitting patients in ICU did not significantly differ (P=0.88. Patients in PCT group had a significantly shorter median ICU stay, four days versus six days (P=0.01. However, hospital stay was not statistically significant different between two groups, 20 days versus 22 days (P=0.23.  Early mortality was similar between two groups. PCT guidance administers antibiotics reduce antibiotics exposure and length of ICU stay, and we found no differences in clinical outcomes and early mortality rates between the two studied groups.

  14. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  15. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the...... significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity......, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate....

  16. Causes of interruption of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now curable with early diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. In the past several decades, few studies have investigated why some patients fail to complete the recommended full course of radiotherapy. A total of 3273 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated at the Radiation Oncology Department of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a span of 18 years from 1979 to 1996. Among these patients, 276 did not complete the full course of treatment of radiation therapy. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the factors contributing to treatment interruption. Of the 276 patients whose treatment was interrupted, 120 (43.5%) were unable to endure the acute side effects of radiation therapy and were afraid of the possible complications resulting from the treatment; 57 (20.7%) had doubts about the diagnosis or had the subjective perception that the treatment offered would be ineffective in view of the severity of their disease; 50 (18.1%) resorted to folk prescriptions; 17 (6.2%) were faced with socioeconomic problems; 15 (5.4%) sought treatment at another hospital owing to transport considerations; 10 (3.6%) stopped radiation therapy and switched to chemotherapy for palliative management; seven (2.5%) resorted to praying, god worshipping and taking incense powder and magic elixirs because their families were against any established therapy. The acute side effects and complications caused by radiation therapy were the major factors influencing patients' decisions to discontinue treatment. This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to providing care with regard to the acute side effects of radiotherapy and to reinforcing pretreatment education. (author)

  17. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role. PMID:26608763

  18. Ecological antibiotic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiby, N

    2000-09-01

    Development of resistance to antibiotics is a major problem worldwide. The normal oropharyngeal flora, the intestinal flora and the skin flora play important roles in this development. Within a few days after the onset of antibiotic therapy, resistant Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be detected in the normal flora of volunteers or patients. Horizontal spread of the resistance genes to other species, e.g. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, occurs by conjugation or transformation. An ecologically sound antibiotic policy favours the use of antibiotics with little or no impact on the normal flora. Prodrug antibiotics which are not active against the bacteria in the mouth and the intestine (before absorption) and which are not excreted to a significant degree via the intestine, saliva or skin are therefore preferred. Prodrugs such as pivampicillin, bacampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefuroxime axetil are favourable from an ecological point of view. Experience from Scandinavia supports this, since resistance to mecillinam after 20 years of use is low (about 5%) and stable. PMID:11051626

  19. Relationships between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene levels in municipal solid waste leachates in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhiting; Yang, Kai; Graham, David; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have quantified antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) levels in soils, surface waters, and waste treatment plants (WTPs). However, similar work on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachates is limited, which is concerning because antibiotics disposal is often in the MSW stream. Here we quantified 20 sulfonamide (SA), quinolone (FQ), tetracycline (TC), macrolide (ML), and chloramphenicol (CP) antibiotics, and six ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetQ, tetM, ermB, and mefA) in MSW leachates from two Shanghai transfer stations (TS; sites Hulin (HL) and Xupu (XP)) and one landfill reservoir (LR) in April and July 2014. Antibiotic levels were higher in TS than LR leachates (985 ± 1965 ng/L vs 345 ± 932 ng/L, n = 40), which was because of very high levels in the HL leachates (averaging at 1676 ± 5175 ng/L, n = 40). The mean MLs (3561 ± 8377 ng/L, n = 12), FQs (975 ± 1608 ng/L, n = 24), and SAs (402 ± 704 ng/L, n = 42) classes of antibiotics were highest across all samples. ARGs were detected in all leachate samples with normalized sul2 and ermB levels being especially elevated (-1.37 ± 1.2 and -1.76 ± 1.6 log (copies/16S-rDNA), respectively). However, ARG abundances did not correlate with detected antibiotic levels, except for tetW and tetQ with TC levels (r = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). In contrast, most measured ARGs did significantly correlate with heavy metal levels (p < 0.05), especially with Cd and Cr. This study shows high levels of ARGs and antibiotics can prevail in MSW leachates and landfills may be an underappreciated as a source of antibiotics and ARGs to the environment. PMID:25760223

  20. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  1. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  2. Interrupted thermal desorption of TiH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural changes of commercial TiH2 were studied using interrupted temperature desorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques to understand the mechanism of its degradation under non-equilibrium conditions. Rapid cooling on different stages of temperature-programmed heating allowed to study the intermediate phase compositions that evolve upon cooling from the high-temperature phase βTi(H). The phase transformation sequence is described as a number of consecutive reactions corresponding to the observed desorption peaks. Phases δTiH2-x, γTiH, and the solid solution αTi(H) were found to be intermediates in the εTiH2 → αTi transformation when the latter is interrupted. Additional evidence for the thermodynamic stability of γTiH is given.

  3. Business interruption exposures in the context of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper Alpha and the Phillips Petroleum loss in Pasadena have highlighted the value of business interruption insurance, as an integral part of the exposures that should be seriously considered for protection by the risk manager of a company actively involved in the production of oil and gas. Lower oil prices which appear to be the most likely scenario over the next few years, make it imperative that exposures to loss are carefully managed. Business interruption insurance has traditionally been one area which the major oil companies have tended to ignore, on the basis that the loss of a single platform would not be expected to have a serious impact on the balance sheet of the parent and the share price. (Author)

  4. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati eSengupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic-resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic-resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in subinhibitory concentrations acting as signalling molecules supporting quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host-parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell and so on. The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and genes that confer resistance to antibiotics in

  5. Interrupted searches in the BBMCSFilter context for MINLP problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Florbela P.; Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The BBMCSFilter method was developed to solve mixed integer nonlinear programming problems. This kind of problems have integer and continuous variables and they appear very frequently in process engineering problems. The objective of this work is to analyze the performance of the method when the coordinate searches are interrupted in the context of the multistart strategy. From the numerical experiments, we observed a reduction on the number of function evaluations and on the CPU time.

  6. The Interrupted Power Law and The Size of Shadow Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Fiaschi; Imre Kondor; Matteo Marsili; Valerio Volpati

    2013-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is ``interrupted'' by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechani...

  7. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. PMID:24118384

  8. Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in emergency department observation unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, J P; Wu, G; Bucci, V; Fischer, A; Keang, L; Boyer, E W; Hibberd, P L

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhoea is an urgent threat to patients, but little is known about the role of antibiotic administration that starts in emergency department observation units (EDOUs). We studied risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and C. difficile infection (CDI) in EDOU patients. This prospective cohort study enrolled adult patients discharged after EDOU antibiotic treatment between January 2013 and 2014. We obtained medical histories, EDOU treatment and occurrence of AAD and CDI over 28 days after discharge. We enrolled and followed 275 patients treated with antibiotics in the EDOU. We found that 52 (18·6%) developed AAD and four (1·5%) had CDI. Patients treated with vancomycin [relative risk (RR) 0·52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·3-0·9] were less likely to develop AAD. History of developing diarrhoea with antibiotics (RR 3·11, 95% CI 1·92-5·03) and currently failing antibiotics (RR 1·90, 95% CI 1·14-3·16) were also predictors of AAD. Patients with CDI were likely to be treated with clindamycin. In conclusion, AAD occurred in almost 20% of EDOU patients with risk factors including a previous history of diarrhoea with antibiotics and prior antibiotic therapy, while the risk of AAD was lower in patients receiving treatment regimens utilizing intravenous vancomycin. PMID:27324463

  9. Hand Sewn single layer serosubmucoasal interrupted vs. continuous intestinal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : To compare the effectiveness of single layer serosubmucosal (extramucosal) continuous / interrupted intestinal anastomosis. Design: Prospective comparative study. Setting: Department of surgery Nawabshah Medical College Hospital Nawabshah and GMMC Hospital sukkur. Study Period: From January 2007 to January 2012. For period of 6 year. Subject: Total of 174 patients undergoing construction of intestinal anastomoses. Evaluation: For anastomotic leakage. Results: Overall 13 (7.47%) patients developed anastomotic leakage, 3 (1.72%) patients had+sub-clinical and 10 (5.74%) clinical (obviously) anastomoitc leakage. 7 (8.04%) patients and 6 (6.89%) developed anastomotic leakage, in group ''A'' and ''8'' respectively. Conclusion: Anastomotic failure is a reflection of operating skills, decision making of surgeon and postoperative care. There is no significant difference in anastomotic dehiscence between continuous and interrupted single layer serosubmucosal technique if patients selection is proper, however interrupted method is comparatively easy to construct in less accessible site. (author)

  10. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  11. Preoperative Antibiotics and Mortality in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.; Trudeau, Martha E.; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xuemei; Lorch, Scott A.; Kelz, Rachel Rapaport; Mosher, Rachel E.; Even-Shoshan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    Objective and Background: It is generally thought that the use of preoperative antibiotics reduces the risk of postoperative infection, yet few studies have described the association between preoperative antibiotics and the risk of dying. The objective of this study was to determine whether preoperative antibiotics are associated with a reduced risk of death. Methods: We performed a multivariate matched, population-based, case-control study of death following surgery on 1362 Pennsylvania Medicare patients between 65 and 85 years of age undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. Cases (681 deaths within 60 days from hospital admission) were randomly selected throughout Pennsylvania using claims from 1995 and 1996. Models were developed to scan Medicare claims, looking for controls who did not die and who were the closest matches to the previously selected cases based on preoperative characteristics. Cases and their controls were identified, and charts were abstracted to define antibiotic use and obtain baseline severity adjustment data. Results: For general surgery, the odds of dying within 60 days were less than half in those treated with preoperative antibiotics within 2 hours of incision as compared with those without such treatment: (odds ratio = 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.32–0.60), P < 0.0001). For orthopedic surgery, no significant mortality reduction was observed (OR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.32; P < 0.464). Interpretation: Preoperative antibiotics are associated with a substantially lower 60-day mortality rate in elderly patients undergoing general surgery. In patients who appear to be comparable, the risk of death was half as large among those who received preoperative antibiotics. PMID:15973108

  12. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  13. Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

  14. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S. International... certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of infringement of... general exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe certain claims...

  15. Tolevamer for Treatment of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea%用于抗生素相关腹泻的药物——Tolevamer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大柠

    2008-01-01

    抗生素相关腹泻(antibiotic-assoiated diarrhea,也称Clostridium difficile—associated disease,CDAD)是指由于使用抗生素造成病人肠内正常菌群的失调、梭状芽胞杆菌生长过度而导致的腹泻。几乎所有的抗生素都有导致CDAD的可能,而且在治疗上较为困难。目前该病波及的人群较为庞大,有关的医学调查表明,仅在美国,该病每年的发病人数就达到30万人次。而在我国,由于在抗生素的使用和管理上存在的某些问题,这种病例更为常见。

  16. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (> or =7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.9%. The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16 in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0-0.05%. Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0-0.01%. The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus.

  17. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  18. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2011-12-01

    The resolution of antibiotic-ribosomal subunit complexes and antibacterial-protein complexes at the atomic level has provided new insights into modifications of clinically relevant antimicrobials and provided new classes that target the protein cellular apparatus. New chemistry platforms that use fragment-based drug design or allow novel modifications in known structural classes are being used to design new antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms and extend spectrum and potency by circumventing ubiquitous efflux pumps. This review provides details on seven antibiotics in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and/or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: solithromycin, cethromycin, omadacycline, CEM-102, GSK1322322, radezolid, and tedizolid. Two antibiotics of the oxazolidinone class, PF-02341272 and AZD5847, are being developed as antituberculosis agents. Only three antibiotics that target the protein cellular machinery, TP-434, GSK2251052, and plazomicin, have a spectrum that encompasses multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. These compounds provide hope for treating key pathogens that cause serious disease in both the community and the hospital. PMID:22191530

  19. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. PMID:26113371

  20. Antibiotics as a selective driver for conjugation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, Allison J; Huang, Shuqiang; Smith, Robert P; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Sysoeva, Tatyana A; Bewick, Sharon; Karig, David K; You, Lingchong

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that antibiotics can promote horizontal gene transfer. However, because of a variety of confounding factors that complicate the interpretation of previous studies, the mechanisms by which antibiotics modulate horizontal gene transfer remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether antibiotics directly regulate the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer, serve as a selection force to modulate population dynamics after such gene transfer has occurred, or both. Here, we address this question by quantifying conjugation dynamics in the presence and absence of antibiotic-mediated selection. Surprisingly, we find that sublethal concentrations of antibiotics from the most widely used classes do not significantly increase the conjugation efficiency. Instead, our modelling and experimental results demonstrate that conjugation dynamics are dictated by antibiotic-mediated selection, which can both promote and suppress conjugation dynamics. Our findings suggest that the contribution of antibiotics to the promotion of horizontal gene transfer may have been overestimated. These findings have implications for designing effective antibiotic treatment protocols and for assessing the risks of antibiotic use. PMID:27572835

  1. Prevalence and predictors of selfmedication with antibiotics among Adi-haqi Campus students of Mekelle University, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadele Eticha; Haylay Araya; Adissu Alemayehu; Gebremedhin Solomon; Dagim Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-medication with antibiotics is one form of antibiotic misuse which enhances the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem which leads to treatment failures causing deaths and an increase in health care costs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of antibiotic self-medication among students of Adi-haqi Campus of Mekelle University (ACMU) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Materials and methods: ...

  2. [Antibiotical prophylaxy in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhumenský, J; Menzlová, E; Zmrhal, J; Kučera, E

    2013-08-01

    Gynecological surgery is considered to be clear with possible contamination by gram-positive cocci from the skin, gram-negatives from the perineum or groins or polymicrobial biocenosis from vagina, depending on the surgical approach. Antibiotical prophylaxy enforces the natural mechanisms of immunity and helps to exclude present infection. There were presented many studies comparing useful effect of prophylaxis in gynecological surgery. The benefits of antibiotical prophylaxy before IUD insertion, before the cervical surgery and before hysteroscopies were not verified. On the other hand the prophylaxy of vaginal surgery including vaginal hysterectomy decreases the number of postoperative febrile complications. The positive influence of prophylaxis before the simple laparoscopy and laparoscopy without bowel injury or the opening of the vagina was not evidently verified. In abdominal hysterectomy the antibiotical prophylaxy decreases the incidence of postoperative complications significantly. The administration of 2 g of cefazolin can be recommended. In procedures taking more than 3 hours the repeated administration of cefazolin is suitable. New urogynecological procedures, using mesh implants, were not sufficiently evaluated as for postoperative infections and the posible antibiotical effect. The presence of implant in possibly non sterile area should be considered as high risc of postoperative complications. PMID:24040985

  3. Antibiotics in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range and number of interventional procedures is rapidly increasing each year. A major complication associated with many procedures is infection, which can result in serious adverse outcomes for the patient. Consequently, antibiotics are amongst the most common pharmaceuticals used by the interventionist, particularly for non-vascular procedures, yet almost no randomized controlled trial data exist to inform our decision when formulating appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of antibiotics for common interventional radiology procedures, focusing on timing and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. - Highlights: • Prophylaxis when necessary should be given immediately prior to the procedure for optimum effect. • Where possible single agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be used. • Account should be taken of the clinical circumstances of the patient, including surgical history. • Continuous review of agents is necessary, ideally with input from the local microbiology department. • The importance of maximum sterile precautions cannot be overstated

  4. U.S. Officials Confirm Superbug Resistant to All Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E. coli was genetically resistant to the drug colistin. Colistin, an older antibiotic, fell out of favor in ... if carbapenem-resistant bacteria also gain resistance to colistin, it could leave doctors with no treatment options ...

  5. The effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the risk of therapeutic antibiotic treatment in Danish farrow-to-finish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Larsen, P.B.; Andreasen, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using, a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On...

  6. Efficacy of topical and systemic antibiotic treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a murine superficial skin wound infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingsbo Lundberg, Carina; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rapidly spreading pathogen associated predominantly with skin infections. The lack of clinical evidence indicating the best treatment strategy to combat MRSA skin infections prompted us to investigate the efficacy of available treatment options...

  7. A qualitative study of hospital pharmacists and antibiotic governance: negotiating interprofessional responsibilities, expertise and resource constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Broom, Alex; Plage, Stefanie; Broom, Jennifer; Kirby, Emma; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment options for common infections are diminishing due to the proliferation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) programs seeking to preserve viable antibiotic drugs by governing their use in hospitals has hitherto been limited. Pharmacists have been delegated a critical role in antibiotic governance in AMS teams within hospitals but the experience of pharmacists in influencing antibiotic use has received limited attention...

  8. An update on the antibiotic-based root canal irrigation solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotics are a valuable addition to health practitioners for the management of bacterial infections. During endodontic treatment and when managing trauma to the teeth, antibiotics may be applied systemically or locally. Due to the potential risk of adverse effects of systemic applications, and the ineffectiveness of systemic prescribed antibiotics in necrotic or pulpless teeth and the periradicular tissues, the local application of antibiotics may be a more effective mode for delivering an...

  9. The Use of Machine Learning Methodologies to Analyse Antibiotic and Biocide Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Joana Rosado; Carriço, João André; Knight, Daniel; Martínez, Jose-Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial is...

  10. Bases farmacomicrobiológicas del tratamiento antibiótico de las enfermedades periodontales y periimplatarias Farmacobiological concepts in the antibiotic treatment of the periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liñares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal debe considerarse un proceso infeccioso bacteriano crónico. En su etiología, no hay una única especie bacteriana implicada, sino que podríamos considerarla como una infección polimicrobiana en la que estarían implicados diversos microorganismos. Las bacterias que se han asociado más directamente con la enfermedad periodontal son Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Los parámetros farmacodinámicos de los antibióticos son muy útiles a la hora de seleccionar pautas posológicas. El aumento de resistencias producido en muchos periodontopatógenos en los últimos años ha relegado a algunos antibióticos a un segundo plano. Entre la gran variedad de antibióticos utilizados, se han obtenido buenas respuestas terapéuticas con amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico, metronidazol, clindamicina, doxiciclina y las combinaciones de metronidazol más amoxicilina y metronidazol más amoxicili-na/ácido clavulánico.Periodontal disease must be considered a chronic bacterial infection. It does not appear to one single bacterial species that is uniquely involved. Rather, periodontal disease seems to be a polymicrobial infection involving several organisms. The bacteria most often associated with periodontal disease are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Pharmacodynamics parameters are very useful to select dosing regimens. The increase in prevalence of resistance occurred in some periodontopathogens in the last years has pushed some antibiotics into the background. Positive responses have been reported with amoxicillin/clavulanate, metronidazole, clindamycin, doxycycline and the combination therapy metronidazole plus amoxicillin and metronidazole plus amoxicillin/clavulanate.

  11. Overview on the Current Antibiotic Containing Agents Used in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramta Bansal; Aditya Jain

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are systemically and locally used extensively in endodontics. However, local antibiotic application mode is considered more effective than systemic administration. The local mode enables the dentist to target bacteria in every nook and corner of root canal system, which is otherwise beyond reach if targeted by instrumentation or conventional root canal treatment protocols. Therefore, they are an important adjunct to conventional treatment of root canal. The present study reviews t...

  12. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  13. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  14. The Voltage Distribution Characteristics of a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High Current Interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid circuit breaker (HCB) technology based on a vacuum interrupter and a SF6 interrupter in series has become a new research direction because of the low-carbon requirements for high voltage switches. The vacuum interrupter has an excellent ability to deal with the steep rising part of the transient recovery voltage (TRV), while the SF6 interrupter can withstand the peak part of the voltage easily. An HCB can take advantage of the interrupters in the current interruption process. In this study, an HCB model based on the vacuum ion diffusion equations, ion density equation, and modified Cassie-Mayr arc equation is explored. A simulation platform is constructed by using a set of software called the alternative transient program (ATP). An HCB prototype is also designed, and the short circuit current is interrupted by the HCB under different action sequences of contacts. The voltage distribution of the HCB is analyzed through simulations and tests. The results demonstrate that if the vacuum interrupter withstands the initial TRV and interrupts the post-arc current first, then the recovery speed of the dielectric strength of the SF6 interrupter will be fast. The voltage distribution between two interrupters is determined by their post-arc resistance, which happens after current-zero, and subsequently, it is determined by the capacitive impedance after the post-arc current decays to zero. (plasma technology)

  15. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  16. Managing voluntary interruption of pregnancy using data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Andreia; Pereira, Eliana; Portela, Filipe; Santos, Manuel Filipe; Abelha, António; Machado, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    When a woman aims to terminate an unplanned pregnancy, she must go to a specialized healthcare unit, such as Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital. In this unit, the procedures of voluntary interruption of pregnancy are done by two kinds of drug administration: the first one is always done by a nursing team, the second one can be performed at home or by a nursing team, depending on patient features. It is important to give the best option to the pregnant. In this paper, it is proposed to...

  17. Development of an Interrupted Pulse Expanding Ring Test

    OpenAIRE

    Imbert, J; Worswick, M.

    2016-01-01

    An interrupted pulse electromagnetic (EM) expanding ring test is being developed at the University of Waterloo to study the high rate behaviour of sheet metals. In a classic EM expanding ring test, a ring is expanded radially using the forces induced on the ring by a high frequency high intensity current flowing in a nearby coil. If the driving force and the acceleration of the ring are known, then the stress-strain history of the ring can be determined. Coil currents are typic...

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedi Abdolkarim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.

  19. New antibiotic agents for bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-11-01

    Infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens have shown a dramatic worldwide increase in prevalence. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. Research in the field led to the introduction of several novel antibiotic agents in the fight against bacterial pathogens. New antibiotics used against Gram-positive bacteria, mainly meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, include daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and semisynthetic lipoglycopeptides. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as well as highly resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates are of particular concern. Doripenem is a recently approved carbapenem. Polymyxins are reconsidered as valuable therapeutic options for Gram-negative infections. Tigecycline, a glycylcycline, and ceftobiprole, a novel cephalosporin under investigation, have activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In addition to the above agents, alternative treatment approaches that require further investigation have also been introduced into clinical practice. These include antibiotic lock therapy and continuous intravenous administration of antibiotics. In this article, we review the above treatment options for BSIs based on current clinical evidence. Comparative trials specifically focusing on patients with bacteraemia were generally not performed; however, a proportion of patients from the reported studies did have bacteraemia. PMID:18723329

  20. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To control colonization and to prevent burn wound infection topical antimicrobial dressings are used. The criteria used for the diagnosis of sepsis and wound infections are different in burn victims. Surface swabs from burn wounds must be cultured for the early assestment of infection. Although histopathological examination and quantitative culture of wound tissue biopsy has been known as the gold standard for the verification of invasive burn wound infection, many burn centers cannot do histopathological examination. When the traditional treatment modalities such as debridement of necrotic tissue, cleaning of wound and topical antimicrobial dressing application fails in the management of burn patient, cultures must be taken from possible foci of infection for the early diagnosis. After specimen collection, empirical bactericidal systemic antibiotic treatment should be started promptly. Inappropriate utilization of antibiotics may cause selection of resistant bacteria in the flora of the patient and of the burn unit which facilitates an infection or an outbreak at the end. Infection control in the burn unit includes surveillance cultures, cohort patient care staff, standard isolation precautions, strict hand hygiene compliance and appropariate antibiotic utilization. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 55-61